South Australia

South Australia

Overview

South Australia is a state
States and territories of Australia
The Commonwealth of Australia is a union of six states and various territories. The Australian mainland is made up of five states and three territories, with the sixth state of Tasmania being made up of islands. In addition there are six island territories, known as external territories, and a...

 of Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 in the southern central part of the country. It covers some of the most arid parts of the continent; with a total land area of 983482 square kilometres (379,725 sq mi), it is the fourth largest of Australia's six states and two territories.

South Australia shares borders with all of the mainland states and the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
The Northern Territory is a federal territory of Australia, occupying much of the centre of the mainland continent, as well as the central northern regions...

. It is bordered to the west by :Western Australia, to the north by the Northern Territory, to the north-east by Queensland
Queensland
Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern section of the mainland continent. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean...

, to the east by New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...

, to the south-east by Victoria
Victoria (Australia)
Victoria is the second most populous state in Australia. Geographically the smallest mainland state, Victoria is bordered by New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania on Boundary Islet to the north, west and south respectively....

, and to the south by the Great Australian Bight
Great Australian Bight
The Great Australian Bight is a large bight, or open bay, off the central and western portions of the southern coastline of mainland Australia.-Extent:...

 and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded on the north by the Indian Subcontinent and Arabian Peninsula ; on the west by eastern Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, and...

.
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Timeline

1836   South Australia and Adelaide are founded.

1901   The British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia federate as the Commonwealth of Australia; Edmund Barton is appointed the first Prime Minister.

1911   Northern Territory is separated from South Australia and transferred to Commonwealth control.

1942   World War II: General Douglas MacArthur, at Terowie, South Australia, makes his famous speech regarding the fall of the Philippines, in which he says: "I came out of Bataan and I shall return".

1953   British nuclear test ''Totem 1'' detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

1953   British nuclear test ''Totem 2'' is carried out at Emu Field, South Australia.

1965   Premier Tom Playford of South Australia loses power after 27 years in office.

1966   The Beaumont Children go missing from Glenelg Beach near Adelaide, South Australia.

1983   The Ash Wednesday bushfires in Victoria and South Australia kill 75.

2006   Mike Rann secures the first Labor majority government in South Australia since 1985 by winning the state election.

 
Encyclopedia

South Australia is a state
States and territories of Australia
The Commonwealth of Australia is a union of six states and various territories. The Australian mainland is made up of five states and three territories, with the sixth state of Tasmania being made up of islands. In addition there are six island territories, known as external territories, and a...

 of Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 in the southern central part of the country. It covers some of the most arid parts of the continent; with a total land area of 983482 square kilometres (379,725 sq mi), it is the fourth largest of Australia's six states and two territories.

South Australia shares borders with all of the mainland states and the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
The Northern Territory is a federal territory of Australia, occupying much of the centre of the mainland continent, as well as the central northern regions...

. It is bordered to the west by :Western Australia, to the north by the Northern Territory, to the north-east by Queensland
Queensland
Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern section of the mainland continent. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean...

, to the east by New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...

, to the south-east by Victoria
Victoria (Australia)
Victoria is the second most populous state in Australia. Geographically the smallest mainland state, Victoria is bordered by New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania on Boundary Islet to the north, west and south respectively....

, and to the south by the Great Australian Bight
Great Australian Bight
The Great Australian Bight is a large bight, or open bay, off the central and western portions of the southern coastline of mainland Australia.-Extent:...

 and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded on the north by the Indian Subcontinent and Arabian Peninsula ; on the west by eastern Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, and...

. With over 1.6 million people, the state comprises less than 8% of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the states and territories. The majority of its people reside in the state capital, Adelaide
Adelaide
Adelaide is the capital city of South Australia and the fifth-largest city in Australia. Adelaide has an estimated population of more than 1.2 million...

, with most of the remainder settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern coast and River Murray
Murray River
The Murray River is Australia's longest river. At in length, the Murray rises in the Australian Alps, draining the western side of Australia's highest mountains and, for most of its length, meanders across Australia's inland plains, forming the border between New South Wales and Victoria as it...

. The state's origins are unique in Australia as a freely settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict
Convictism in Australia
During the late 18th and 19th centuries, large numbers of convicts were transported to the various Australian penal colonies by the British government. One of the primary reasons for the British settlement of Australia was the establishment of a penal colony to alleviate pressure on their...

 settlement. Official settlement began on 28 December 1836, when the colony was proclaimed at The Old Gum Tree
The Old Gum Tree
The Old Gum Tree is an historic site in Glenelg North, Australia. On 28 December 1836, the British governor John Hindmarsh delivered the proclamation creating the colony of South Australia. A ceremony is held on each year on Proclamation Day, with the current Governor reading out Hindmarsh's...

 by Governor John Hindmarsh
John Hindmarsh
Rear-Admiral Sir John Hindmarsh KH RN was a naval officer and the first Governor of South Australia, from 28 December 1836 to 16 July 1838.-Early life:...

.

The first settlement to be established was Kingscote
Kingscote, South Australia
- Facilities :Kingscote has a school offering years 1 to 12, a hospital, supermarket, post office and Government offices. It is the administrative centre for the Kangaroo Island Council, whose offices have recently undergone a significant upgrade....

, Kangaroo Island
Kangaroo Island
Kangaroo Island is Australia's third-largest island after Tasmania and Melville Island. It is southwest of Adelaide at the entrance of Gulf St Vincent. Its closest point to the mainland is off Cape Jervis, on the tip of the Fleurieu Peninsula in the state of South Australia. The island is long...

, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield
Edward Gibbon Wakefield
Edward Gibbon Wakefield was a British politician, the driving force behind much of the early colonisation of South Australia, and later New Zealand....

 that was later employed by the New Zealand Company
New Zealand Company
The New Zealand Company originated in London in 1837 as the New Zealand Association with the aim of promoting the "systematic" colonisation of New Zealand. The association, and later the company, intended to follow the colonising principles of Edward Gibbon Wakefield, who envisaged the creation of...

. The aim was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, the state is known as a state of festivals and of fine wine. The state's economy centres on the agricultural, manufacturing and mining industries and has an increasingly significant finance sector as well.

History



Evidence for human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years ago with flint
Flint
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones. Inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white, or brown in colour, and...

 mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave
Koonalda Cave
Koonalda Cave is an important archeological site in Nullarbor Plain, in South Australia.Thousands of square metres in the cave are covered in parallel finger-marked geometric lines and patterns, Indigenous Australian artwork which has been dated as 20,000 years old , making it older than any known...

 on the Nullarbor Plain
Nullarbor Plain
The Nullarbor Plain is part of the area of flat, almost treeless, arid or semi-arid country of southern Australia, located on the Great Australian Bight coast with the Great Victoria Desert to its north. It is the world's largest single piece of limestone, and occupies an area of about...

. In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat
Peat
Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter or histosol. Peat forms in wetland bogs, moors, muskegs, pocosins, mires, and peat swamp forests. Peat is harvested as an important source of fuel in certain parts of the world...

 bog
Bog
A bog, quagmire or mire is a wetland that accumulates acidic peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses or, in Arctic climates, lichens....

 in the South East. Kangaroo Island
Kangaroo Island
Kangaroo Island is Australia's third-largest island after Tasmania and Melville Island. It is southwest of Adelaide at the entrance of Gulf St Vincent. Its closest point to the mainland is off Cape Jervis, on the tip of the Fleurieu Peninsula in the state of South Australia. The island is long...

 was inhabited long before the island was cut off by rising sea levels.

The first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by Francois Thijssen
François Thijssen
François Thijssen or Frans Thijsz was a Dutch explorer who explored the southern coast of Australia.He was the captain of the ship t Gulden Zeepaerdt when sailing from Cape of Good Hope to Batavia...

, examined the coastline. Thijssen named his discovery "Pieter Nuyts Land", after the highest ranking individual on board.

The coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders
Matthew Flinders
Captain Matthew Flinders RN was one of the most successful navigators and cartographers of his age. In a career that spanned just over twenty years, he sailed with Captain William Bligh, circumnavigated Australia and encouraged the use of that name for the continent, which had previously been...

 and Nicolas Baudin
Nicolas Baudin
Nicolas-Thomas Baudin was a French explorer, cartographer, naturalist and hydrographer.Baudin was born a commoner in Saint-Martin-de-Ré on the Île de Ré. At the age of fifteen he joined the merchant navy, and at twenty joined the French East India Company...

 in 1802.

The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included almost two thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west. It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. In 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834
South Australia Act 1834
The South Australia Colonisation Act 1834 is the short title of an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom with the long title...

 (Foundation Act), which enabled the province of South Australia to be established. The act stated that 802511 square kilometres (309,851 sq mi) would be allotted to the colony and it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius
Terra nullius
Terra nullius is a Latin expression deriving from Roman law meaning "land belonging to no one" , which is used in international law to describe territory which has never been subject to the sovereignty of any state, or over which any prior sovereign has expressly or implicitly relinquished...

did not apply to the new province. The Letters of Patent
Letters patent
Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch or president, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation...

 attached to the Act acknowledged Aboriginal ownership and stated that no actions could be undertaken that would affect the rights of any Aboriginal natives of the said province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own persons or in the persons of their descendants of any land therein now actually occupied or enjoyed by such natives. Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters.

Settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until the official site of the colony was selected where Adelaide is currently located. The first immigrants
Immigration to Australia
Immigration to Australia is estimated to have begun around 51,000 years ago when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea. Europeans first landed in the 17th and 18th Centuries, but colonisation only started in 1788. The...

 arrived at Holdfast Bay
Holdfast Bay
Holdfast Bay is a small bay in Gulf St Vincent, next to Adelaide, South Australia. Along its shores lie the City of Holdfast Bay and the popular beach-side suburb of Glenelg.-European settlement:...

 (near the present day Glenelg
Glenelg, South Australia
Glenelg is a popular beach-side suburb of the South Australian capital of Adelaide. Located on the shore of Holdfast Bay in Gulf St Vincent, it has become a popular tourist destination due to its beach and many attractions, home to several hotels and dozens of restaurants.Established in 1836, it is...

) in November 1836, and the colony was proclaimed on 28 December 1836, now known as Proclamation Day
Proclamation Day
Proclamation Day is the name of a number of official or unofficial holidays or other anniversaries which commemorate or mark an important proclamation. In some cases it may be the day of, or the anniversary of, the proclamation of a monarch's accession to the throne...

. South Australia is the only Australian state to be settled entirely by free settlers.

The plan for the colony was that it would be the ideal embodiment of the best qualities of British society, that is, no religious discrimination or unemployment and, as it was believed that this would also result in very little crime, no provision was made for a gaol. In early 1838 the colonists became concerned after it was reported that convicts who had escaped from the eastern states may make their way to South Australia. The South Australia Police
South Australia Police
The South Australia Police is the police force of the Australian state of South Australia. It is an agency of the Government of South Australia within the South Australian Department of Justice.-History:...

 was formed later that year to protect the community and enforce government regulations and the first gaol, a two roomed hut, was opened on 1 January 1839.

The current flag of South Australia
Flag of South Australia
The current state flag of South Australia, was officially adopted by the government of South Australia in 1904.The flag is based on the defaced British Blue Ensign with the state badge located in the fly. The badge is a gold disc featuring a Piping Shrike with its wings outstretched...

 was adopted on 13 January 1904, and is a British blue ensign defaced with the state badge. The badge is described as a Piping Shrike
Piping Shrike
The Piping Shrike is the emblematic bird that appears on South Australia's flag, State Badge and Coat of Arms. The bird appears "displayed proper" with its wings outstretched and curved upwards...

 with wings outstretched on a yellow disc. The state badge is believed to have been designed by Robert Craig of Adelaide's School of Design.

South Australia granted restricted women's suffrage
Suffrage
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply the franchise, distinct from mere voting rights, is the civil right to vote gained through the democratic process...

 in 1861, and in 1895 became the second place in the world to grant universal suffrage (after New Zealand), and the first where women had the dual rights to vote and to stand for election.

Geography


The terrain consists largely of arid and semi-arid rangelands, with several low mountain range
Mountain range
A mountain range is a single, large mass consisting of a succession of mountains or narrowly spaced mountain ridges, with or without peaks, closely related in position, direction, formation, and age; a component part of a mountain system or of a mountain chain...

s. The most important (but not tallest) is the Mount Lofty
Mount Lofty Ranges
The Mount Lofty Ranges are the range of mountains just to the east of Adelaide in South Australia.-Location and description:The Mount Lofty Ranges stretch from the southernmost point of the Fleurieu Peninsula at Cape Jervis northwards for over before petering out north of Peterborough...

-Flinders Ranges
Flinders Ranges
Flinders Ranges is the largest mountain range in South Australia, which starts approximately north west of Adelaide. The discontinuous ranges stretch for over from Port Pirie to Lake Callabonna...

 system, which extends north about 800 kilometres (497 mi) from Cape Jervis
Cape Jervis, South Australia
Cape Jervis is a town at the southwestern tip of Fleurieu Peninsula in South Australia, approximately 108 km south of Adelaide. The population is approximately 300 people and growing rapidly, with a new estate situated behind the main town...

 to the northern end of Lake Torrens
Lake Torrens
Lake Torrens is a salt lake in central South Australia. It is located in the Lake Torrens National Park....

. The highest point in the state is not in those ranges; Mount Woodroffe
Mount Woodroffe
Mount Woodroffe is South Australia's highest peak, at 1,435 metres.- Cultural Significance :The mountain is known to the Pitjantjatjara Indigenous Australians as Ngarutjaranya....

 (1435 metres (4,708 ft)) is in the Musgrave Ranges
Musgrave Ranges
Musgrave Ranges is a mountain range in Central Australia, straddling the boundary of South Australia and the Northern Territory , extending into Western Australia. It is between the Great Victoria Desert to the south and the Gibson Desert to the north...

 in the extreme northwest of the state. The south-western portion of the state consists of the sparsely inhabited Nullarbor Plain
Nullarbor Plain
The Nullarbor Plain is part of the area of flat, almost treeless, arid or semi-arid country of southern Australia, located on the Great Australian Bight coast with the Great Victoria Desert to its north. It is the world's largest single piece of limestone, and occupies an area of about...

, fronted by the cliffs of the Great Australian Bight
Great Australian Bight
The Great Australian Bight is a large bight, or open bay, off the central and western portions of the southern coastline of mainland Australia.-Extent:...

. Features of the coast include Spencer Gulf
Spencer Gulf
The Spencer Gulf is the westernmost of two large inlets on the southern coast of Australia, in the state of South Australia, facing the Great Australian Bight. The Gulf is 322 km long and 129 km wide at its mouth. The western shore of the Gulf is the Eyre Peninsula, while the eastern side is the...

 and the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas
Eyre Yorke Block
The Eyre Yorke Block is an Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia region and a World Wildlife Fund ecoregion covering the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas around the Spencer Gulf on the coast of South Australia. -Location and description:...

 that surround it.

The principal industries and exports of South Australia are wheat, wine and wool. More than half of Australia's wines are produced in the South Australian wine regions which principally include: Barossa Valley
Barossa Valley (wine)
The Barossa Valley is one of Australia's oldest wine regions. Located in South Australia, the Barossa Valley is about 56km northeast of the city of Adelaide...

, Clare Valley
Clare Valley
The Clare Valley is one of Australia's oldest wine regions, best known for Riesling wines. It lies in the Mid North of South Australia, approximately 120 km north of Adelaide. The valley runs north-south, with Main North Road as the main thoroughfare....

, McLaren Vale
McLaren Vale
McLaren Vale is a wine region approximately 35 km south of Adelaide in South Australia. It has a population of about 2,000 and is internationally renowned for the wines it produces. The region was named after either David McLaren, the Colonial Manager of the South Australia Company or John...

, Coonawarra
Coonawarra
Coonawarra is a wine region, on the Limestone Coast of South Australia, that is known for the Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced on its "terra rossa" soil. Coonawarra is an Aboriginal word meaning "Honeysuckle". It is about 380 km southeast of Adelaide, close to the border with...

, the Riverland and the Adelaide Hills
Adelaide Hills
The Adelaide Hills are part of the Mount Lofty Ranges, east of the city of Adelaide in the state of South Australia. It is unofficially centred on the largest town in the area, Mount Barker, which has a population of around 29,000 and is also one of Australia's fastest growing towns.- History :The...

. See South Australian wine
South Australian wine
The South Australian wine industry is responsible for more than half the production of all Australian wine. The state of South Australia has a vast diversity in geography and climate which allows the state to be able to successfully produce a wide range of grape varieties-from the cool climate...

.


South Australia has boundaries with every other Australian state and territory except the Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory
The Australian Capital Territory, often abbreviated ACT, is the capital territory of the Commonwealth of Australia and is the smallest self-governing internal territory...

 and Tasmania
Tasmania
Tasmania is an Australian island and state. It is south of the continent, separated by Bass Strait. The state includes the island of Tasmania—the 26th largest island in the world—and the surrounding islands. The state has a population of 507,626 , of whom almost half reside in the greater Hobart...

. The area now known as the Northern Territory was annexed to South Australia in 1863, however it was handed over to the federal government in 1911 and became a separate territory.

According to Australian maps, South Australia's south coast is flanked by the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
The Southern Ocean comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60°S latitude and encircling Antarctica. It is usually regarded as the fourth-largest of the five principal oceanic divisions...

, but official international consensus defines the Southern Ocean as extending north from the pole only to 60°S or 55°S, at least 17 degrees of latitude further south than the most southern point of South Australia. Thus the south coast is officially adjacent to the south-most portion of the Indian Ocean. See Southern Ocean: Existence and definitions

Climate


The southern part of the state has a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

. South Australia's main temperature range is 29 °C (84 °F) in January and 15 °C (59 °F) in July. Daily temperatures in parts of the state in January and February can be up to 48 °C (118 °F).

The highest maximum temperature was recorded as 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) at Oodnadatta
Oodnadatta, South Australia
Oodnadatta, South Australia, is a small town surrounded by an area of with cattle stations in arid pastoral rangelands close to the Simpson Desert, north of Adelaide and 112 m above sea level. It can be reached by an unsealed road from Coober Pedy or via the unsealed Oodnadatta Track from...

 on 2 January 1960, which is also the highest official temperature recorded in Australia. The lowest minimum temperature was -8.0 C at Yongala
Yongala, South Australia
Yongala is a small town located in the state of South Australia, Australia. It has a population of approximately 80 people and is situated on the Clare-Peterborough Road . The town was proclaimed on 23 May 1876 and within 5 years had a population of 353 as developers anticipated the connection of...

 on 20 July 1976.

Economy


South Australia's average annual employment for 2009–10 was 800,600 persons, 18% higher than for 2000–01. For the corresponding period, national average annual employment rose by 22%.

South Australia's largest employment sector is health care and social assistance, surpassing manufacturing in SA as the largest employer since 2006–07. In 2009–10, manufacturing in SA had average annual employment of 83,700 persons compared with 103,300 for health care and social assistance. Health care and social assistance represented nearly 13% of the state average annual employment.

The retail trade is the second largest employer in SA (2009–10), with 91,900 jobs, and 12 per cent of the state workforce.

The manufacturing industry plays an important role in South Australia's economy, generating 11.7% of the state's Gross State Product
Gross state product
Gross state product is a measurement of the economic output of a state or province...

 (GSP) and playing a large part in exports. The manufacturing industry consists of automotive (44% of total Australian production, 2006) and component manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, defence technology (2.1% of GSP, 2002–03) and electronic systems (3.0% of GSP in 2006). South Australia's economy relies on exports more than any other state in Australia.

State export earnings stand at A$10 billion worth per year and grew by 8.8% from 2002 to 2003. Production of South Australian food and drink (including agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, fisheries and manufacturing) is a $10 billion industry.

South Australia's economic growth has lagged behind the rest of Australia for some time (2.1% from 2002 to 2003), but performance seems to be improving. South Australia's credit rating
Credit rating
A credit rating evaluates the credit worthiness of an issuer of specific types of debt, specifically, debt issued by a business enterprise such as a corporation or a government. It is an evaluation made by a credit rating agency of the debt issuers likelihood of default. Credit ratings are...

 was upgraded to AAA+, having lost it in the State Bank
State Bank of South Australia
The State Bank of South Australia was a bank owned by the Government of South Australia. Its collapse in 1991 was a major political event in South Australia...

 collapse. South Australia's Gross State Product was A$48.9 billion starting 2004, making it A$32,996 per capita. Exports for 2006 were valued at $9.0bn with imports at $6.2bn. Private Residential Building Approvals experienced 80% growth over the year of 2006.

South Australia's economy includes the following major industries: meat and meat preparations, wheat, wine, wool and sheepskins, machinery, metal and metal manufactures, fish and crustaceans, road vehicles and parts, and petroleum products. Other industries, such as education and defence technology, are of growing importance.

South Australia receives the least amount of federal funding for its local road network of all states on a per capita and a per kilometre basis.

Olympic Dam


South Australia possesses the world's single largest known deposit of uranium
Uranium
Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons...

, at the Olympic Dam
Olympic Dam, South Australia
Olympic Dam is a mining centre in South Australia located some 550 km NNW of Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is the site of an extremely large iron oxide copper gold deposit producing copper, uranium, gold and silver. The site hosts an underground mine as well as an...

 mine. Olympic Dam contains 40% of the world's known uranium reserves. The Olympic Dam mine is also the world's fourth-largest remaining copper deposit, and the world's fifth largest gold deposit.

Government


Composition of the Parliament of South Australia
Political
Party
House of
Assembly
Legislative
Council
ALP
Australian Labor Party
The Australian Labor Party is an Australian political party. It has been the governing party of the Commonwealth of Australia since the 2007 federal election. Julia Gillard is the party's federal parliamentary leader and Prime Minister of Australia...

26 8
Liberal
Liberal Party of Australia
The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party.Founded a year after the 1943 federal election to replace the United Australia Party, the centre-right Liberal Party typically competes with the centre-left Australian Labor Party for political office...

18 7
Family First
Family First Party
The Family First Party is a socially conservative minor political party in Australia. It has two members in the South Australian Legislative Council...

0 2
No Pokies
No Pokies
No Pokies is an independent South Australian Legislative Council ticket that contested the 1997, 2002, and 2006 statewide legislative council elections...

0 2
Greens SA
Greens South Australia
Greens South Australia is a Green Party located in South Australia, a member of the federation of the Australian Greens party.The party has four members currently elected to parliament, Mark Parnell and Tammy Franks in the South Australian Legislative Council and Sarah Hanson-Young and Penny Wright...

0 2
D4D 0 1
Independent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

3 0
Source: Electoral Commission SA


South Australia is a constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified or blended constitution...

 with the Queen of Australia
Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
Elizabeth II is the constitutional monarch of 16 sovereign states known as the Commonwealth realms: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize,...

 as Sovereign, and the Governor of South Australia as her representative. It is a state of the Commonwealth of Australia. Its bicameral parliament consists of a House of Assembly
South Australian House of Assembly
The House of Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of South Australia. The other is the Legislative Council. It sits in Parliament House in the state capital, Adelaide.- Overview :...

 (lower house) and a Legislative Council
South Australian Legislative Council
The Legislative Council, or upper house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of South Australia. Its central purpose is to act as a house of review for legislation passed through the lower house, the House of Assembly...

 (upper house), with legislative elections
South Australian legislative elections
This is a list of state elections in South Australia for the Parliament of South Australia.-See also:* South Australian House of Assembly* Non-party premiers 1857–1890* List of South Australian state by-elections...

 held every four years. The current Premier of South Australia is Jay Weatherill
Jay Weatherill
Jay Wilson Weatherill is an Australian politician and current Premier of South Australia. He has represented the electoral district of Cheltenham in the South Australian House of Assembly as a member of the Australian Labor Party since the 2002 election.-Early life:Born in the western suburbs of...

, a member of the Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
The Australian Labor Party is an Australian political party. It has been the governing party of the Commonwealth of Australia since the 2007 federal election. Julia Gillard is the party's federal parliamentary leader and Prime Minister of Australia...

.

Initially, the Governor of South Australia held almost total power, derived from the Letters Patent of the Imperial Government to create the colony. He was only accountable to the British Colonial Office
Colonial Office
Colonial Office is the government agency which serves to oversee and supervise their colony* Colonial Office - The British Government department* Office of Insular Affairs - the American government agency* Reichskolonialamt - the German Colonial Office...

, and thus democracy did not exist in the colony. A new body was created to advise the governor on the administration of South Australia in 1843 called the Legislative Council. It consisted of three representatives of the British Government and four colonists appointed by the governor. The governor retained total executive power.

In 1851, the Imperial Parliament enacted the Australian Colonies Government Act
Australian Colonies Government Act
Formally known as the Act for the Better Government of Her Majesty's Australian Colonies , the Australian Colonies Government Act, was legislation enacted by the British House of Commons separating the southeastern Australian district of Port Phillip from New South Wales and establishing it as the...

 which allowed for the election of representatives to each of the colonial legislatures and the drafting of a Constitution to properly create representative and responsible Government in South Australia. Later that year, wealthy male colonists were allowed to vote for 16 members on a new 24 seat Legislative Council. Eight members continued to be appointed by the governor.

The main responsibility of this body was to draft a Constitution for South Australia. The body drafted the most democratic constitution ever seen in the British Empire and provided for manhood suffrage
Suffrage
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply the franchise, distinct from mere voting rights, is the civil right to vote gained through the democratic process...

. It created the bicameral Parliament of South Australia
Parliament of South Australia
The Parliament of South Australia is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of South Australia. It consists of the Legislative Council and the House of Assembly. It follows a Westminster system of parliamentary government....

. For the first time in the colony, the executive was elected by the people and the colony used the Westminster system
Westminster System
The Westminster system is a democratic parliamentary system of government modelled after the politics of the United Kingdom. This term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom....

, where the government is the party or coalition that exerts a majority in the House of Assembly. In 1894, South Australia was the first Australian colony to allow women to vote and it had the first Parliament in the world to allow women to be elected as members. Catherine Helen Spence
Catherine Helen Spence
Catherine Helen Spence was a Scottish-born Australian author, teacher, journalist, politician and leading suffragette. In 1897 she became Australia's first female political candidate after standing for the Federal Convention held in Adelaide...

 was the first woman in Australia to be a candidate for political office when she nominated to be one of South Australia's delegates to the constitutional conventions that drafted the Constitution. South Australia became an original state of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901.

Population



A majority of the state's population lives within Adelaide's metropolitan area which had an estimated population of 1,158,259 in 2007 (70.3% of the state). Other significant population centres include Mount Barker
Mount Barker, South Australia
Mount Barker is an expanding city, home to 10 258 residents that is 33 kilometres up the South Eastern Freeway, east of Adelaide, in South Australia. It is the seat of the District Council of Mount Barker, is the largest town in the Adelaide Hills, and is one of the fastest growing areas in the...

 (approx. 29 149), Mount Gambier
Mount Gambier, South Australia
Mount Gambier is the largest regional city in South Australia located approximately 450 kilometres south of the capital Adelaide and just 17 kilometres from the Victorian border....

 (approx. 23,494), Whyalla (21,122), Murray Bridge
Murray Bridge, South Australia
Murray Bridge is the fourth most populous city in South Australia after Adelaide, Mount Gambier and Whyalla. It is located east-southeast of Adelaide and north of Meningie....

 (18,364), Port Augusta
Port Augusta, South Australia
-Electricity generation:Electricity is generated at the Playford B and Northern power stations from brown coal mined at Leigh Creek, 250 km to the north...

 (13,257), Port Pirie (13,206), Port Lincoln (13,044), and Victor Harbor
Victor Harbor, South Australia
Victor Harbor is a city located on the coast of the Fleurieu Peninsula, about 80 km south of Adelaide, South Australia. The city is the largest population centre on the peninsula, with an economy based upon agriculture, fisheries and various industries...

 (10,380).

Education



Primary and secondary


On 1 January 2009, the school leaving age was raised to 17 (having previously been 15 and then 16). Education is compulsory for all children until age 17, unless they are working or undergoing other training. The majority of students stay on to complete their South Australian Certificate of Education
South Australian Certificate of Education
The South Australian Certificate of Education is awarded to students who have successfully completed their senior secondary schooling in the state of South Australia....

 (SACE). School education is the responsibility of the South Australian government, but the public and private education systems are funded jointly by it and the Commonwealth Government
Government of Australia
The Commonwealth of Australia is a federal constitutional monarchy under a parliamentary democracy. The Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901 as a result of an agreement among six self-governing British colonies, which became the six states...

.

The South Australian Government provides, to schools on a per student basis, 89 percent of the total Government funding while the Commonwealth contributes 11 percent. Since the early 1970s it has been an ongoing controversy that 68 percent of Commonwealth funding (increasing to 75% by 2008) goes to private schools that are attended by 32% of the states students. Private schools often refute this by saying that they receive less State Government funding than public schools and in 2004 the main private school funding came from the Australian government, not the state government.

Tertiary


There are three public and three private universities in South Australia. The three public universities are The University of Adelaide
University of Adelaide
The University of Adelaide is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third oldest university in Australia...

 (established 1874), The Flinders University of South Australia (est. 1966), and The University of South Australia
University of South Australia
The University of South Australia is a public university in the Australian state of South Australia. It was formed in 1991 with the merger of the South Australian Institute of Technology and Colleges of Advanced Education. It is the largest university in South Australia, with more than 36,000...

 (est. 1991). The three private universities are Carnegie Mellon University - Australia (est. 2006), University College London
University College London
University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

's School of Energy and Resources (Australia), and Cranfield University
Cranfield University
Cranfield University is a British postgraduate university based on two campuses, with a research-oriented focus. The main campus is at Cranfield, Bedfordshire and the second is the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom based at Shrivenham, Oxfordshire. The main campus is unique in the United...

. All six have their main campus in the Adelaide metropolitan area: Adelaide and UniSA on North Terrace in the city
Adelaide city centre
The Adelaide city centre is the innermost locality of Greater Adelaide, known by locals simply as "The City" or "Town". The locality is split into two key geographical distinctions: the city "square mile", bordered by North, East, South and West Terraces; and that part of the Adelaide Parklands...

; CMU, UCL and Cranfield are co-located on Victoria Square
Victoria Square, Adelaide
Victoria Square is a public square in the South Australian capital of Adelaide. The square is in the centre of the city's grid of one square mile, and was named by the Street Naming Committee on 23 May 1837 after Princess Victoria, heir presumptive of the British throne. Less than a month later the...

 in the city, and Flinders at Bedford Park
Bedford Park, South Australia
Bedford Park is a southern suburb of Adelaide in South Australia.The Hancock family established a homestead and farm at the foot of the Adelaide Hills in the mid 19th century. A family name from an earlier generation lent its name to the property of Bedford which was later changed to Bedford Park...

.

Public universities


The public universities also have other campuses in the metropolitan area, around the state, inter-state, and overseas.

Metropolitan campuses include:
Adelaide: The Waite at Urrbrae
Urrbrae, South Australia
Urrbrae is a suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the City of Mitcham.Located at the foot of the Adelaide Hills, it is bordered on the east by the South Eastern Freeway, and the Old Toll House, which marked the traditional entrance to the city of Adelaide in the 19th...

; Research Park at Thebarton; and The National Wine Centre in the Adelaide Park Lands
Adelaide Park Lands
The Adelaide Park Lands are the parks that surround the centre of the South Australian capital city of Adelaide. They measure approximately 7.6 square kilometres in a green belt encircling the city centre....

.
UniSA: Magill Campus (Magill
Magill, South Australia
Magill is a suburb of Adelaide in the City of Burnside and the City of Campbelltown.-History:Magill is a suburb located approximately 7 km from the Adelaide CBD in the eastern suburbs. Magill was first established as the Makgill Estate, owned by two Scots, Robert Cock and William Ferguson,...

); Mawson Lakes Campus (Mawson Lakes
Mawson Lakes, South Australia
Mawson Lakes is a suburb and new residential development in the City of Salisbury, Adelaide, with the first land being released in 1998. It has a census area population of 5,246 people. The suburb is located in the northern suburbs of Adelaide around 12 km north of the Central business...

); and Parafield (Parafield
Parafield, South Australia
Parafield is a non-residential suburb of Adelaide approximately 18 km north of the CBD. It is completely occupied by Parafield Airport.It is bordered by Main North Road to the east, Kings Road to the north and the Gawler railway line to the west, where it is served by Parafield station...

).


Rural and regional campuses include:
Flinders: The Flinders University Rural Clinical Schools at Mount Gambier
Mount Gambier, South Australia
Mount Gambier is the largest regional city in South Australia located approximately 450 kilometres south of the capital Adelaide and just 17 kilometres from the Victorian border....

, Goolwa and Renmark
Renmark, South Australia
Renmark is a town in South Australia's rural Riverland area, and is located 254 km northeast of Adelaide, on the banks of the River Murray. The Sturt Highway between Adelaide and Sydney runs through the town; Renmark is the last major town encountered in South Australia when driving this route. It...

; and The Lincoln Marine Science Centre at Port Lincoln
Port Lincoln, South Australia
- Transport :Port Lincoln is the port for the isolated narrow gauge Eyre Peninsular Railway.There is also a subsidiary port at Proper Bay which may be restored to use for iron ore traffic. The export of iron ore through Port Lincoln has been approved by the South Australian Government. Port...

.
Adelaide: Roseworthy Campus
Roseworthy College
Roseworthy Agricultural College was an agricultural college in Australia. It is north of Adelaide and west of Roseworthy town. It was the first agricultural college in Australia, established in 1883. It is now part of the University of Adelaide....

 near Roseworthy
Roseworthy, South Australia
Roseworthy is a small town in South Australia, about 10 km north of Gawler. At the 2006 census, Roseworthy had a population of 668.Roseworthy has a large grain storage facility consisting of both storage silos and bunkers for grain grown in the surrounding areas, and grain is collected by rail to...

.
UniSA: Campuses at Mount Gambier
Mount Gambier, South Australia
Mount Gambier is the largest regional city in South Australia located approximately 450 kilometres south of the capital Adelaide and just 17 kilometres from the Victorian border....

 and Whyalla
Whyalla, South Australia
-Demographics:According to the 2006 Census the population of the Whyalla census area was 21,122 people, making it the second largest urban area in the state outside of Adelaide...

.


Interstate campuses include:
Flinders: The university maintains a number of external teaching south-west Victoria and the Northern Territory.


Overseas campuses include:
Adelaide: Singapore Campus.

Private universities


Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States....

's Heinz College Australia and ETC-Australia (Entertainment Technology Center – Australia Global Initiative) (sic – American spelling) both have campuses in Adelaide. The Heinz College, in Victoria Square
Victoria Square, Adelaide
Victoria Square is a public square in the South Australian capital of Adelaide. The square is in the centre of the city's grid of one square mile, and was named by the Street Naming Committee on 23 May 1837 after Princess Victoria, heir presumptive of the British throne. Less than a month later the...

, was established in 2006, and is the first American university to open a campus in Australia. ETC-Australia is located on Light Square
Light Square, Adelaide
Light Square is one of five squares in the City of Adelaide. Located in the centre of the north-western quarter of the Adelaide city centre, the Square is named after the city's planner, Colonel William Light....

.

CMU-Australia is co-located with the University College London
University College London
University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

's School of Energy and Resources (Australia), and world-class research and policy institutes, including Cranfield University
Cranfield University
Cranfield University is a British postgraduate university based on two campuses, with a research-oriented focus. The main campus is at Cranfield, Bedfordshire and the second is the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom based at Shrivenham, Oxfordshire. The main campus is unique in the United...

 (UK), partner the Torrens Resilience Institute and The Australian Centre for Social Innovation.

TAFE



Tertiary vocational education is provided by TAFE South Australia
TAFE South Australia
TAFE South Australia provides vocational education and training in South Australia. The acronym TAFE stands for Technical and Further Education and is used and recognised nationally throughout Australia....

 colleges throughout the state.

Australian rules football


Australian rules football
Australian rules football
Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, also called football, Aussie rules or footy is a sport played between two teams of 22 players on either...

 is the most popular spectator sport in South Australia, with South Australians having the highest attendance rate in Australia. The state also has the highest participation rate of people taking part in Australian rules football, with over 2.2% of the population aged 18 years participating in the sport.

South Australia fields two teams in the Australian Football League
Australian Football League
The Australian Football League is both the governing body and the major professional competition in the sport of Australian rules football...

 national competition: the Adelaide Crows
Adelaide Crows
The Adelaide Football Club, nicknamed The Crows, is a professional Australian rules football club based in Adelaide, South Australia, playing in the Australian Football League ....

 and Port Adelaide Power
Port Adelaide Football Club
The Port Adelaide Football Club is an Australian rules football club based in Alberton, South Australia, which plays in the Australian Football League and the South Australian National Football League...

. In 2006, The Adelaide Crows
Adelaide Crows
The Adelaide Football Club, nicknamed The Crows, is a professional Australian rules football club based in Adelaide, South Australia, playing in the Australian Football League ....

 had a membership base of 50,000, higher than any of the other 15 teams in the competition.

The South Australian National Football League
South Australian National Football League
The South Australian National Football League is an Australian rules football league based in the Australian state of South Australia. It is also the governing body for the sport of Australian rules football in South Australia....

, which owns the dedicated Australian Football stadium AAMI Stadium
AAMI Stadium
Football Park is an Australian rules football stadium located in West Lakes, a western suburb of Adelaide, South Australia...

, is a popular local league comprising nine teams.

The South Australian Amateur Football League
South Australian Amateur Football League
The South Australian Amateur Football League is an Australian rules football competition based in Adelaide, South Australia. Comprising sixty-seven member clubs playing over one hundred and ten matches per week, the SAAFL is one of Australia's largest and strongest Australian rules football...

 comprises sixty-eight member clubs playing over one hundred and ten matches per week across ten Senior divisions and three Junior Divisions. The SAAFL is one of Australia's largest and strongest Australian rules football associations.

Cricket


Cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

 is the most popular summer sport in South Australia and attracts big crowds. South Australia has a cricket team, the Southern Redbacks
Southern Redbacks
The South Australia cricket team, nicknamed the Southern Redbacks and known as the West End Redbacks due to their sponsorship agreement with local brewers West End, are an Australian first class cricket team based in Adelaide, South Australia, and represent the state of South Australia...

, who play at Adelaide Oval
Adelaide Oval
The Adelaide Oval is a sports ground in Adelaide, South Australia, located in the parklands between the Central Business District and North Adelaide...

 in the Adelaide Park Lands
Adelaide Park Lands
The Adelaide Park Lands are the parks that surround the centre of the South Australian capital city of Adelaide. They measure approximately 7.6 square kilometres in a green belt encircling the city centre....

 during the summer; they won their first title since 1996 in the summer of 2011
2010–11 KFC Twenty20 Big Bash
-Round 2:---------Round 3:-----Round 4:---------Round 5:-------------Round 6:---------Preliminary final:-Final:-Highest team totals:The following table lists the six highest team scores during this season....

. The Redbacks currently have three players who hold a contract with Cricket Australia
Cricket Australia
Cricket Australia, formerly known as the Australian Cricket Board, is the governing body for professional and amateur cricket in Australia. It was originally formed in 1905 as the Australian Board of Control for International Cricket...

. Many international matches have been played at the Adelaide Oval
Adelaide Oval
The Adelaide Oval is a sports ground in Adelaide, South Australia, located in the parklands between the Central Business District and North Adelaide...

. It was one of the host cities of 1992 Cricket World Cup
1992 Cricket World Cup
-New Zealand:-Round Robin Stage:Co-hosts New Zealand proved the surprise packet of the tournament, winning their first seven games to finish on top of the table after the round robin. The other hosts, Australia, were one of the pre-tournament favourites but lost their first two matches. They...

.

Association football


South Australia's Association Football (soccer) team in the A-League
A-League
The A-League is the top Australasian professional football league. Run by Australian governing body Football Federation Australia , it was founded in 2004 following the folding of the National Soccer League and staged its inaugural season in 2005–06. It is sponsored by Hyundai Motor Company...

 is Adelaide United F.C. The club's home ground is Hindmarsh Stadium
Hindmarsh Stadium
Hindmarsh Stadium is a rectangular stadium located in Adelaide, South Australia. It is the home of the Australian A-League team, Adelaide United....

.

The club was founded in 2003 and was premier in the inaugural 2005–06 A-League season, finishing 7 points clear of the rest of the competition, before finishing 3rd in the finals. Adelaide United was also a Grand Finalist in the 2006–07 and 2008–09 seasons. Adelaide has the best winning record of all clubs in the A-League; Adelaide is the only A-League club to be present at the Asian Champions League more than once, making it the most successful Australian club in Asia.

Basketball


Basketball also has a big following in South Australia, with the Adelaide 36ers
Adelaide 36ers
The Adelaide 36ers are Adelaide's men's professional basketball team, established as the Adelaide City Eagles when they joined the National Basketball League in 1982. The Adelaide 36ers tally of four championships is equal with the Melbourne Tigers and second behind the Perth Wildcats as the most...

 playing out of an 8,070 seat stadium in Findon
Findon, South Australia
Findon is a western suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the City of Charles Sturt.-History:In 1839, George Cortis was granted the land now constituting Findon, which he subdivided in 1848...

. The 36ers have won four championships in the last 20 years in the National Basketball League (Australia)
National Basketball League (Australia)
The National Basketball League, also known as the iiNet NBL Championship for sponsorship reasons, is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in Australasia....

.
Mount Gambier also has only one national sporting side which is the Mount Gambier Pioneers. The Pioneers play at the Icehouse (Mount Gambier Basketball Stadium) which seats over 1,000 people and is also home to the Mount Gambier Basketball Association. The Pioneers have had one championship side which was rated second in the top 5 sides to have ever played in the league. In 2011 the club will enter its 24th season, with a roster of 9 senior players and 7 development squad players.

Motor sport


Australia’s premier motor sport series, the V8 Supercar Championship Series, has visited South Australia each year since its inception in 1999. South Australia’s V8 Supercar event, the Clipsal 500 Adelaide, is staged on the Adelaide Street Circuit
Adelaide Street Circuit
The Adelaide Street Circuit is a temporary street circuit in the East Parklands adjacent to the central business district of the city of Adelaide in South Australia....

, a temporary track laid out through the streets and parklands to the east of the Adelaide CBD. Attendance for the 2010 event totalled 277,800. An earlier version of the Adelaide Street Circuit
Adelaide Street Circuit
The Adelaide Street Circuit is a temporary street circuit in the East Parklands adjacent to the central business district of the city of Adelaide in South Australia....

 played host to the Australian Grand Prix
Australian Grand Prix
The Australian Grand Prix is a motor race held annually and is held to be the pinnacle of motor racing in Australia. The Grand Prix is the oldest surviving motor racing competition held in Australia having been held 76 times since it was first run at Phillip Island in 1928. Since 1985 the race has...

, a round of the FIA Formula One World Championship, each year from 1985 to 1995.

Mallala Motor Sport Park, a permanent circuit located near the town of Mallala
Mallala, South Australia
Mallala is a small town about 58 kilometres north of Adelaide in South Australia. The name Mallala is thought to be derived from the local Aboriginal word 'madlola' which supposedly meant 'place of the ground frog'. At the 2006 census, Mallala had a population of 737.In 1939 the Royal Australian...

, 58 km north of Adelaide, caters for both state and national level motor sport throughout the year.

Other sports


Fifty-nine percent of South Australian children take part in organised sports. For boys, soccer has the highest participation rate (22%), followed by swimming (16%). For girls netball
Netball
Netball is a ball sport played between two teams of seven players. Its development, derived from early versions of basketball, began in England in the 1890s. By 1960 international playing rules had been standardised for the game, and the International Federation of Netball and Women's Basketball ...

 is most popular (18%), also followed by swimming (16%).

Places



Regions:
  • Adelaide Hills
    Adelaide Hills
    The Adelaide Hills are part of the Mount Lofty Ranges, east of the city of Adelaide in the state of South Australia. It is unofficially centred on the largest town in the area, Mount Barker, which has a population of around 29,000 and is also one of Australia's fastest growing towns.- History :The...

  • Barossa Valley
    Barossa Valley
    The Barossa Valley is a major wine-producing region and tourist destination of South Australia, located 60 km northeast of Adelaide. It is the valley formed by the North Para River, and the Barossa Valley Way is the main road through the valley, connecting the main towns on the valley floor of...

  • Clare Valley
    Clare Valley
    The Clare Valley is one of Australia's oldest wine regions, best known for Riesling wines. It lies in the Mid North of South Australia, approximately 120 km north of Adelaide. The valley runs north-south, with Main North Road as the main thoroughfare....

  • Eyre Peninsula
    Eyre Peninsula
    Eyre Peninsula is a triangular peninsula in South Australia. It is bounded on the east by Spencer Gulf, the west by the Great Australian Bight, and the north by the Gawler Ranges. It is named after explorer Edward John Eyre who explored some of it in 1839-1841. The coastline was first explored by...

  • Fleurieu Peninsula
    Fleurieu Peninsula
    The Fleurieu Peninsula is a peninsula located south of Adelaide in South Australia, Australia. It was named after the French explorer and hydrographer Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu by the French explorer Nicolas Baudin as he mapped the south coast of Australia in 1802.Towns of interest in the...

  • Flinders Ranges
    Flinders Ranges
    Flinders Ranges is the largest mountain range in South Australia, which starts approximately north west of Adelaide. The discontinuous ranges stretch for over from Port Pirie to Lake Callabonna...

  • Kangaroo Island
    Kangaroo Island
    Kangaroo Island is Australia's third-largest island after Tasmania and Melville Island. It is southwest of Adelaide at the entrance of Gulf St Vincent. Its closest point to the mainland is off Cape Jervis, on the tip of the Fleurieu Peninsula in the state of South Australia. The island is long...

  • Limestone Coast
    Limestone Coast
    The Limestone Coast is a name used since the early twentyfirst century for the geographical region and tourist region of the southeast coast of South Australia from the Victoria border to the towards the city of Adelaide.-Location and description:...

  • Nullarbor Plain
    Nullarbor Plain
    The Nullarbor Plain is part of the area of flat, almost treeless, arid or semi-arid country of southern Australia, located on the Great Australian Bight coast with the Great Victoria Desert to its north. It is the world's largest single piece of limestone, and occupies an area of about...

  • Riverland
    Riverland
    The Riverland, is a region of South Australia. It covers the area near the Murray River from where it flows into South Australia downstream to Blanchetown.The major town centres are Renmark, Berri, Loxton, Waikerie and Barmera...

  • Yorke Peninsula
    Yorke Peninsula
    The Yorke Peninsula is a peninsula located north-west and west of Adelaide in South Australia, Australia, between Spencer Gulf on the west and Gulf St Vincent on the east. It has geographic coordinates of...



Rivers:
  • Cooper Creek
    Cooper Creek
    Cooper Creek is one of the most famous and yet least visited rivers in Australia. It is sometimes known as the Barcoo River from one of its tributaries and is one of three major Queensland river systems that flow into the Lake Eyre Basin...

  • Marne River
  • Murray River
    Murray River
    The Murray River is Australia's longest river. At in length, the Murray rises in the Australian Alps, draining the western side of Australia's highest mountains and, for most of its length, meanders across Australia's inland plains, forming the border between New South Wales and Victoria as it...

  • Onkaparinga River
    Onkaparinga River
    The Onkaparinga River runs from its source between Mount Torrens and Charleston in the Mount Lofty Ranges, and flows south westerly to an estuary at Port Noarlunga. The catchment is over 500 km² in area, and is in part located in the Onkaparinga River National Park.The Onkaparinga River is the...

  • Port River
    Port River
    The Port River is the western branch of the largest tidal estuary on the eastern side of Gulf St Vincent. It extends inland through the historic Inner Harbour of Port Adelaide, to the constructed salt-water West Lakes in the north-western suburbs of Adelaide, the capital of South Australia...

  • River Torrens
    River Torrens
    The River Torrens is the most significant river of the Adelaide Plains and was one of the reasons for the siting of the city of Adelaide, capital of South Australia. It flows from its source in the Adelaide Hills near Mount Pleasant, across the Adelaide Plains, past the city centre and empties...


Lakes:
  • Lake Albert
  • Lake Alexandrina
  • Lake Eyre
    Lake Eyre
    Lake Eyre is the lowest point in Australia, at approximately below sea level, and, on the rare occasions that it fills, it is the largest lake in Australia and 18th largest in the world...

  • Lake Frome
    Lake Frome
    Lake Frome is a large endorheic lake in South Australia, east of the Northern Flinders Ranges. It is a large, shallow, unvegetated salt pan, 100 km long and 40 km wide, lying mostly below sea level and having a total surface area of 259,615 hectares...

  • Lake Gairdner
    Lake Gairdner
    Lake Gairdner is a large endorheic lake in central South Australia, and is considered the fourth largest salt lake in Australia when it is flooded....

  • Lake Torrens
    Lake Torrens
    Lake Torrens is a salt lake in central South Australia. It is located in the Lake Torrens National Park....

  • Blue Lake
    Blue Lake (South Australia)
    The Blue Lake in Mount Gambier, South Australia is a large monomictic lake located in an extinct volcanic maar associated with the Mount Gambier maar complex. It is one of four crater lakes on Mount Gambier...



Islands:
  • Flinders Island
  • Granite Island
    Granite Island (Australia)
    Granite Island is a small island next to Victor Harbor, South Australia, not far from South Australia's capital city, Adelaide.It is unpopulated, however there are buildings and shelters on the island, including a cafe...

  • Hindmarsh Island
    Hindmarsh Island
    Hindmarsh Island is an island in the lower Murray River near the town of Goolwa, South Australia. Located on the Fleurieu Peninsula, it is a popular tourist destination, which has increased in popularity since the Hindmarsh Island bridge was opened in 2001...

  • Kangaroo Island
    Kangaroo Island
    Kangaroo Island is Australia's third-largest island after Tasmania and Melville Island. It is southwest of Adelaide at the entrance of Gulf St Vincent. Its closest point to the mainland is off Cape Jervis, on the tip of the Fleurieu Peninsula in the state of South Australia. The island is long...

  • Neptune Island
    Neptune Island
    The South Neptune Islands sit on the Southern aspect of the Australasian Continental shelf, at a distance of 70 kilometres South by South~East of Port Lincoln, in South Australia. The depth of water on the Eastern side of the islands is 40 metres. Water depth increases to 95 metres on the southern...

  • Nuyts Archipelago
    Nuyts Archipelago
    The Nuyts Archipelago, including the Isles of St Francis, comprises a group of mainly small and mostly granitic islands lying off Ceduna, South Australia, at the eastern end of the Great Australian Bight and the north-western coast of the Eyre Peninsula...

  • Pearson Isles
  • Torrens Island
    Torrens Island
    Torrens Island is located in the Port River Estuary between the Lefevre Peninsula and Barker Inlet, about 15 km northwest of the Adelaide city centre in South Australia...

  • Troubridge Island
    Troubridge Island
    Troubridge Island is a small sandy island lying about 7 km east of Sultana Point on the Yorke Peninsula at the south-western end of Gulf St Vincent, South Australia. It is important as a seabird colony site.-Description:...


Main highways:
  • Barrier Highway
    Barrier Highway
    The Barrier Highway is a highway in New South Wales and South Australia signposted as in South Australia and in New South Wales, Australia.The Barrier Highway starts at Nyngan where it joins the Mitchell Highway. It heads west past Hermidale and Boppy Mountain to Cobar, a mining town. It then...

  • Barossa Valley Highway
    Barossa Valley Highway
    The Barossa Valley Highway is the main road linking most of the major towns of the Barossa Valley in South Australia. It is designated as highway B19...

  • Dukes Highway
    Dukes Highway
    The Dukes Highway is an important 189 kilometre highway corridor in South Australia which links the Australian cities of Adelaide and Melbourne. It is part of the National Highway system spanning Australia, and is signed as National Highway A8....

  • Eyre Highway
    Eyre Highway
    The Eyre Highway is a highway linking Western Australia and South Australia via the Nullarbor Plain. Signed as National Highway 1/A1, it forms part of Highway 1 and the Australian National Highway network linking Perth and Adelaide. It was named after explorer Edward John Eyre, who was the first to...

  • Flinders Highway
    Flinders Highway, South Australia
    Flinders Highway connects the South Australian towns of Ceduna and Port Lincoln, a distance of 410 kilometres. The highway was formerly designated as National Route Alternate 1 and currently signed as B100...

  • Lincoln Highway
    Lincoln Highway (Australia)
    Lincoln Highway links Port Augusta and Port Lincoln, both located in South Australia, a distance of 327 kilometres. It was formerly designated as National Route Alternate 1 and is currently B100....

  • Main North Road
    Main North Road
    Main North Road is the major north-south arterial route north of the city of Adelaide, South Australia.From the Adelaide city centre, it passes through the Adelaide Parklands and the suburbs of Thorngate, Medindie, Medindie Gardens, Nailsworth, Prospect, Sefton Park, Blair Athol and Enfield before...

  • Mallee Highway
    Mallee Highway
    The Mallee Highway runs east from Tailem Bend in South Australia through cereal-growing farmland at the southern end of the Murray Mallee to Pinnaroo near the border with Victoria, where it crosses route...

  • Northern Expressway
    Northern Expressway
    The Northern Expressway is a 23 kilometre long controlled-access highway in Adelaide, South Australia. It travels from Gawler to Port Wakefield Road...

  • Princes Highway
    Princes Highway
    The Princes Highway extends from Sydney to Port Augusta via the coast through the states of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia, a distance of 1941 km or 1898 km via the former alignments of the highway ....

  • Riddoch Highway
    Riddoch Highway
    The Riddoch Highway in south-eastern South Australia branches from the Dukes Highway at Keith and travels south through Padthaway, Naracoorte, Penola, Nangwarry, Tarpeena, and Mount Gambier to Port MacDonnell and nearby Cape Northumberland....

  • Stuart Highway
    Stuart Highway
    The Stuart Highway is one of Australia's major highways. It is a segment of Australia's Highway 1 extending from Darwin, Northern Territory, in the north, via Tennant Creek and Alice Springs, to Port Augusta, South Australia, in the south—a distance of...

  • Sturt Highway
    Sturt Highway
    The Sturt Highway is an Australian highway in New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. It is part of the Auslink National network and is part of the main highway route between Sydney and Adelaide.-Route:...

  • South Eastern Freeway
    South Eastern Freeway
    The South Eastern Freeway is a 66 kilometre four-lane divided carriageway road in South Australia linking the Adelaide-Crafers Highway to the Princes Highway at the Swanport Bridge, a one kilometre long bridge over the River Murray, near Murray Bridge...

  • Southern Expressway
    Southern Expressway
    The Southern Expressway is the world's longest reversible one way freeway. Originally proposed as 'Noarlunga Freeway', it was built as a corridor to relieve heavy traffic from the major arterial, Main South Road, in Adelaide's south. The expressway was built in two stages — the first...



See also


  • Adelaide
    Adelaide
    Adelaide is the capital city of South Australia and the fifth-largest city in Australia. Adelaide has an estimated population of more than 1.2 million...

  • Country Fire Service
    Country Fire Service
    The SA Country Fire Service is a volunteer based fire service in the state of South Australia in Australia. Many parts of Australia are sparsely populated whilst at the same time they are under significant risk of bushfire. Due to economics, it is prohibitively expensive for each Australian town...

  • Proclamation Day
    Proclamation Day
    Proclamation Day is the name of a number of official or unofficial holidays or other anniversaries which commemorate or mark an important proclamation. In some cases it may be the day of, or the anniversary of, the proclamation of a monarch's accession to the throne...

    : 28 December 1836
  • South Australian Ambulance Service
    South Australian Ambulance Service
    SA Ambulance Service is a Government agency under SA Health, that is the sole provider of emergency ambulance transport, clinical care and patient transport services to over 1.5 million people, distributed across an area of 1,043,514 square kilometres in South Australia, Australia.The service...

  • South Australian English
    South Australian English
    South Australian English is the collective name given to the varieties of English spoken in the Australian state of South Australia. As with the other regional varieties within Australian English, these have distinctive vocabularies...



Food and drink:
  • Farmers Union Iced Coffee
  • Pie floater
    Pie floater
    A pie floater is a meal available in Australia, particularly South Australia which consists of the traditional Australian style meat pie sitting, usually inverted, in a plate of thick green pea soup. It is typically covered with tomato sauce and, although subject to the taste of the individual...

  • South Australian food and drink
  • South Australian wine
    South Australian wine
    The South Australian wine industry is responsible for more than half the production of all Australian wine. The state of South Australia has a vast diversity in geography and climate which allows the state to be able to successfully produce a wide range of grape varieties-from the cool climate...



Lists:
Visitor attractions in South Australia

External links