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Port of Rijeka

Port of Rijeka

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The Port of Rijeka is a seaport in Rijeka
Rijeka
Rijeka is the principal seaport and the third largest city in Croatia . It is located on Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea and has a population of 128,735 inhabitants...

, Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

, located on the shore of the Kvarner Gulf
Kvarner Gulf
The Kvarner Gulf ); sometimes also Kvarner Bay, in Italian Quarnaro or Carnaro) is a bay in the northern Adriatic Sea, located between the Istrian peninsula and the northern Croatian seacoast....

 in the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges...

. The first records of the port date to 1281. It was the main port of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia refers to three political entities that existed successively on the western part of the Balkans during most of the 20th century....

 between World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 and 1991, and of Croatia after its independence. Today, it is the largest port in Croatia with a cargo throughput of 10.2 million tonnes (2010), mostly oil, general cargo and bulk cargo
Bulk cargo
Bulk cargo is commodity cargo that is transported unpackaged in large quantities. This cargo is usually dropped or poured, with a spout or shovel bucket, as a liquid or as a mass of relatively small solids , into a bulk carrier ship's hold, railroad car, or tanker truck/trailer/semi-trailer body...

, and 137,048 Twenty-foot equivalent unit
Twenty-foot equivalent unit
The twenty-foot equivalent unit is an inexact unit of cargo capacity often used to describe the capacity of container ships and container terminals...

s (TEUs). In 2008, the Port of Rijeka recorded 4,376 ship arrivals. It is managed by the Port of Rijeka Authority.

In 2011, Luka Rijeka
Luka Rijeka
Luka Rijeka is a Croatian port operating company which operates port facilities at the largest Croatian Port of Rijeka. In 2010, Luka Rijeka d.d., a concessionaire of the Port of Rijeka reported net profit of 32,000 kuna , a sharp decline from 3.5 million kuna net profit of 2009...

 d.d., a concessionaire of the Port of Rijeka signed a contract of strategic partnership with International Container Terminal Services Inc.
International Container Terminal Services Inc.
International Container Terminal Services, Inc. is a port management company in the Philippines. It was incorporated on December 24, 1987 and has been cited by the Asian Development Bank as one of the top five major maritime terminal operators in the world.-History:ICTSI was established by...

 (ICTSI) and Jadranska vrata
Jadranska vrata
Jadranska vrata is a Croatian port operating company which operates port facilities at the largest Croatian Port of Rijeka. Jadranska vrata d.d. company was founded as a Luka Rijeka d.d. subsidiary, and tasked with operating the container cargo terminal located in Brajdica part of the city of Rijeka...

 d.d., the second concessionaire of the Port of Rijeka, to operate the container terminal. The partnership aims to expand the terminal's capacity to 600,000 TEUs. The development master plan, devised by Rotterdam Maritime Group, calls for further expansion of the port facilities by 2030, including construction of a large container terminal in Omišalj
Omišalj
Omišalj is a small coastal town in the north-west of the island of Krk in Croatia. The population of the town itself is 1,790 , while the Omišalj municipality also includes the nearby Njivice, bringing the total up to 2,998 people...

 on Krk
Krk
Krk is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, located near Rijeka in the Bay of Kvarner and part of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar county....

 Island. The third concessionaire is Jadranski naftovod
Jadranski naftovod
Jadranski naftovod is a crude oil transportation company in Croatia. It operates the JANAF oil transport system, a part of the Adria oil pipeline.Jadranski naftovod operates oil terminal of the Port of Rijeka in Omišalj on the Krk Island...

 (JANAF), which operates an oil terminal in Omišalj.

History


The first record of a port in Rijeka
Rijeka
Rijeka is the principal seaport and the third largest city in Croatia . It is located on Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea and has a population of 128,735 inhabitants...

 dates back to 1281, when the Great Council
Great Council of Venice
The Great Council of Venice , originally the Consilium Sapientis was a political organ of the Republic of Venice between 1172 and 1797 and met in a special large hall of the Palazzo Ducale....

 of the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic was a state originating from the city of Venice in Northeastern Italy. It existed for over a millennium, from the late 7th century until 1797. It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice and is often referred to as La Serenissima, in...

 reported a conflict of Venetian merchants and ship owners from Zadar
Zadar
Zadar is a city in Croatia on the Adriatic Sea. It is the centre of Zadar county and the wider northern Dalmatian region. Population of the city is 75,082 citizens...

 and Rab
Rab
Rab is an island in Croatia and a town of the same name located just off the northern Croatian coast in the Adriatic Sea.The island is long, has an area of and 9,480 inhabitants . The highest peak is Kamenjak at 408 meters...

. In 1719, the Port of Rijeka was granted a charter as a free port
Free port
A free port or free zone , sometimes also called a bonded area is a port, port area or other area with relaxed jurisdiction with respect to the country of location...

 by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VI was the penultimate Habsburg sovereign of the Habsburg Empire. He succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia , Hungary and Croatia , Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711...

, and the first road connecting the port to the hinterland, the Caroline road, was completed in 1728. The inland connections were gradually improved by the construction of the Josephina
Josephina (road)
The Josephina is a historic road in Croatia that connects Senj and thus the Adriatic coast and Karlovac and the Pannonian plain...

 and Louisiana roads in 1779 and 1810 respectively.

In 1776, Rijeka became a corpus separatum
Corpus separatum (Fiume)
The Corpus separatum of Fiume was the name of the legal and political status of the city of Fiume , instituted by Empress Maria Theresa in 1776, determining the semi-autonomous status of Fiume within the Habsburg Empire until the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918 - the longest-lasting...

within the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

, known under its Hungarian/Italian name of Fiume, and was transferred to the Kingdom of Hungary in order to foster trade. Following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Rijeka gained greater importance as the sole Hungarian seaport, and in the second half of the 19th century a new artificial harbor was completed, as well as railway lines to Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

 via Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

 and to Pivka
Pivka
Pivka is a small town and a municipality in Slovenia in the Pivka Basin in the Kras region. It was first mentioned in 1300 as Sancti Petri super Piucha . Until 1952 it was called Šentpeter na Krasu...

 in present-day Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

, where the railway joined the Austrian Southern Railway
Austrian Southern Railway
The Austrian Southern Railway was an Austrian railway company established in 1841...

 connecting Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 and Trieste
Trieste
Trieste is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of land lying between the Adriatic Sea and Italy's border with Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south and east of the city...

. The development in this period boosted the Port of Rijeka to rank tenth in transport volume among European ports as it reached a peak in 1913. In the second half of the 19th century, a large breakwater
Breakwater (structure)
Breakwaters are structures constructed on coasts as part of coastal defence or to protect an anchorage from the effects of weather and longshore drift.-Purposes of breakwaters:...

 was built along with wharf
Wharf
A wharf or quay is a structure on the shore of a harbor where ships may dock to load and unload cargo or passengers.Such a structure includes one or more berths , and may also include piers, warehouses, or other facilities necessary for handling the ships.A wharf commonly comprises a fixed...

s in the city of Rijeka itself, moving the shoreline between 100 metres (328.1 ft) and 200 metres (656.2 ft). In the period, railway infrastructure was also built to the north of the port, along with storage facilities, administrative buildings and other necessary structures. The railway facilities were designed by Jozsef Bainville, while the port itself was designed by Hilarion Pascal, who had previously designed the Port of Marseille
Marseille
Marseille , known in antiquity as Massalia , is the second largest city in France, after Paris, with a population of 852,395 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Marseille extends beyond the city limits with a population of over 1,420,000 on an area of...

, and Antal Hajnal. The design was presented as a model port at the Weltausstellung
Weltausstellung 1873 Wien
]The Weltausstellung 1873 Wien was the large World exposition was held in 1873 in the Austria–Hungarian capital of Vienna. Its motto was Kultur und Erziehung ....

 in Vienna in 1873 and at the Exposition Universelle
Exposition Universelle (1878)
The third Paris World's Fair, called an Exposition Universelle in French, was held from 1 May through to 10 November 1878. It celebrated the recovery of France after the 1870 Franco-Prussian War.-Construction:...

 in Paris in 1878.

After the defeat of Austria-Hungary in World War I and the Treaty of Rapallo of 1920, Rijeka became an independent city-state known as the Free State of Fiume
Free State of Fiume
The Free State of Fiume was an independent free state which existed between 1920 and 1924. Its territory of comprised the city of Fiume and rural areas to its north, with a corridor to its west connecting it to Italy.-History:Fiume gained autonomy for the first time in 1719 when it was proclaimed...

. That marked the beginning of the port's decline, as it lost a large portion of its major market, Hungary. Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 annexed Rijeka in 1924 by the Treaty of Rome, and the port became peripherally located, with no modern railway or road links to the rest of the country, further adding to the already obvious economic decline.

During World War II, Rijeka was targeted by around 30 Allied bombing raids, and in 1945 the retreating Germans
Wehrmacht
The Wehrmacht – from , to defend and , the might/power) were the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer , the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe .-Origin and use of the term:...

 damaged approximately 90% of the port facilities. Among the ships sunk in the port was the German auxiliary cruiser Kiebitz, which would later be raised and repaired to become the Yugoslav Navy Yacht Galeb
Yugoslav Navy Yacht Galeb
Yugoslav Navy Yacht Galeb, also known as The Peace Ship Galeb , was used by the late President of the Yugoslav Republic Marshal Josip Broz Tito on his numerous foreign trips and to entertain heads of state, as well as other persons of worldwide renown...

. The city of Rijeka purchased the ship, which was subsequently moored in the port and eventually opened as a museum in 2011.

Following World War II and the Paris Peace Treaties
Paris Peace Treaties, 1947
The Paris Peace Conference resulted in the Paris Peace Treaties signed on February 10, 1947. The victorious wartime Allied powers negotiated the details of treaties with Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland .The...

, Rijeka became a part of Croatia and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia refers to three political entities that existed successively on the western part of the Balkans during most of the 20th century....

. This provided the Port of Rijeka with a new market and sparked further development. A bulk cargo
Bulk cargo
Bulk cargo is commodity cargo that is transported unpackaged in large quantities. This cargo is usually dropped or poured, with a spout or shovel bucket, as a liquid or as a mass of relatively small solids , into a bulk carrier ship's hold, railroad car, or tanker truck/trailer/semi-trailer body...

 terminal was completed in 1967, followed by warehouses in Škrljevo
Škrljevo
Škrljevo is a village in Croatia....

 in 1978. In 1979, a container terminal
Container terminal
A container terminal is a facility where cargo containers are transshipped between different transport vehicles, for onward transportation. The transshipment may be between container ships and land vehicles, for example trains or trucks, in which case the terminal is described as a maritime...

 in Sušak, a phosphate
Phosphate
A phosphate, an inorganic chemical, is a salt of phosphoric acid. In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or organophosphate, is an ester of phosphoric acid. Organic phosphates are important in biochemistry and biogeochemistry or ecology. Inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in...

 terminal in Rijeka and a timber terminal in Bršica
Bršica
Bršica is a port village in Croatia. It is connected by the D421 state road and by ferry. In the area there is a Port of Rijeka terminal which handles livestock, timber and general cargo....

 were added. Joining them were a livestock terminal in Bršica and a general cargo terminal with a roll-on/roll-off ramp in the Bakar
Bakar
Bakar ) is a town in the Primorje-Gorski Kotar County in western Croatia. The population of the town is 1,566 , while the population of the municipality is 7,773. 90% declare themselves Croats . The old part of Bakar is situated on a hill overlooking the Bay of Bakar...

 area in 1982 and 1983 respectively. The greatest volume of cargo was recorded in 1980, when 20.2 million tonnes, including 13.1 million tonnes of liquid cargo, were transported. The port suffered another period of stagnation in the 1990s due to the Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
The Croatian War of Independence was fought from 1991 to 1995 between forces loyal to the government of Croatia—which had declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia —and the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People's Army and local Serb forces, with the JNA ending its combat...

, when a portion of the port's shipping switched to Trieste
Port of Trieste
The Free Port of Trieste, is an Italian port on North Adriatic Sea in Trieste, Italy.It is subdivided into 5 different Free Areas, 3 of which have been allotted to commercial activities:*the Old Free Area...

 and Koper
Port of Koper
Port of Koper is a public limited company, which provides port and logistics services in the only Slovenian port, in Koper. It is situated in the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, connecting mainly markets of Central and Southeast Europe with the Mediterranean Sea...

. Since 1996, the volume of operations of the Port of Rijeka has again been gradually growing.

Port of Rijeka Authority



The Port of Rijeka Authority was founded in 1996 by the Republic of Croatia as the first port authority
Port authority
In Canada and the United States a port authority is a governmental or quasi-governmental public authority for a special-purpose district usually formed by a legislative body to operate ports and other transportation infrastructure.Port authorities are usually governed by boards or...

 in the country. It is tasked with planning and strategic development, including the issuing of concessions
Concession (contract)
A concession is a business operated under a contract or license associated with a degree of exclusivity in business within a certain geographical area. For example, sports arenas or public parks may have concession stands. Many department stores contain numerous concessions operated by other...

 and permits, supervision, safety of navigation in the port area, security and fire protection, as well as waste management. Business operations are managed by the port concessionaires: Luka Rijeka
Luka Rijeka
Luka Rijeka is a Croatian port operating company which operates port facilities at the largest Croatian Port of Rijeka. In 2010, Luka Rijeka d.d., a concessionaire of the Port of Rijeka reported net profit of 32,000 kuna , a sharp decline from 3.5 million kuna net profit of 2009...

 d.d., Jadranski naftovod
Jadranski naftovod
Jadranski naftovod is a crude oil transportation company in Croatia. It operates the JANAF oil transport system, a part of the Adria oil pipeline.Jadranski naftovod operates oil terminal of the Port of Rijeka in Omišalj on the Krk Island...

 (JANAF) and Jadranska vrata
Jadranska vrata
Jadranska vrata is a Croatian port operating company which operates port facilities at the largest Croatian Port of Rijeka. Jadranska vrata d.d. company was founded as a Luka Rijeka d.d. subsidiary, and tasked with operating the container cargo terminal located in Brajdica part of the city of Rijeka...

 d.d. and their subcontractors.

In March 2010, the port authorities of Trieste
Port of Trieste
The Free Port of Trieste, is an Italian port on North Adriatic Sea in Trieste, Italy.It is subdivided into 5 different Free Areas, 3 of which have been allotted to commercial activities:*the Old Free Area...

, Ravenna
Port of Ravenna
The Port of Ravenna, is an Italian seaport on the North Adriatic Sea in Ravenna, ItalyThe coordinates for this canal port are 44° 29’ N and 12° 17’ Efor Marina di Ravenna sideWP2 44° 29’,58 N 12° 17’,48 EWP3 44° 29’,42 N 12° 17’,43 E...

, Venice
Venice
Venice is a city in northern Italy which is renowned for the beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks. It is the capital of the Veneto region...

 and Koper
Port of Koper
Port of Koper is a public limited company, which provides port and logistics services in the only Slovenian port, in Koper. It is situated in the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, connecting mainly markets of Central and Southeast Europe with the Mediterranean Sea...

 established the North Adriatic Ports Association
North Adriatic Ports Association
The North Adriatic Ports Association is an association of five North Adriatic seaports: Port of Koper, Port of Ravenna, Port of Rijeka, Port of Trieste and Port of Venice...

 (NAPA) in Trieste with the aim of enhancing the position of the ports in the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 and its transport patterns. The Port of Rijeka joined the NAPA in November 2010. The NAPA aims to harmonize information systems and organizational setup of the member ports in order to attract shipping. The project is scheduled to be completed by 2013. Besides the NAPA, the Port of Rijeka is also a member of the EcoPorts network of the European Sea Ports Organisation, the International Harbour Masters' Association, Association Internationale Villes et Ports, the Croatian Association of Port Authorities and the International Association of Ports and Harbors.

The Port of Rijeka Authority operates a traffic control centre, located in the new passenger terminal. The traffic control system comprises an Electronic Chart Display and Information System
Electronic Chart Display and Information System
An Electronic Chart Display and Information System is a computer-based navigation information system that complies with International Maritime Organization regulations and can be used as an alternative to paper nautical charts...

 using radar
Radar
Radar is an object-detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio...

 sensors and an Automatic Identification System
Automatic Identification System
The Automatic Identification System is an automatic tracking system used on ships and by Vessel traffic services for identifying and locating vessels by electronically exchanging data with other nearby ships and AIS Base stations...

, as well as additional systems such as a VHF
Very high frequency
Very high frequency is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted High frequency , and the next higher frequencies are known as Ultra high frequency...

 system, hydrometeorological data
Hydrometeorology
Hydrometeorology is a branch of meteorology and hydrology that studies the transfer of water and energy between the land surface and the lower atmosphere....

, Closed-circuit television
Closed-circuit television
Closed-circuit television is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors....

 monitoring of the port and data processing
Data processing
Computer data processing is any process that a computer program does to enter data and summarise, analyse or otherwise convert data into usable information. The process may be automated and run on a computer. It involves recording, analysing, sorting, summarising, calculating, disseminating and...

 systems. In 2011, the port authority was commended as one of top four port authorities of the year globally.

Transport facilities


The Port of Rijeka is located on the Kvarner Gulf
Kvarner Gulf
The Kvarner Gulf ); sometimes also Kvarner Bay, in Italian Quarnaro or Carnaro) is a bay in the northern Adriatic Sea, located between the Istrian peninsula and the northern Croatian seacoast....

 in the northern Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges...

, centered on the city of Rijeka. The facilities include terminals and other structures in the city and in the area reaching from the Bay of Bakar
Bay of Bakar
Bay of Bakar is located on the Croatian Adriatic coast, within the Gulf of Kvarner. There are two towns centered on bay of Bakar: Bakar and Kraljevica. While Bakar and Kraljevica are port towns, in outback of bay of Bakar there are the industry zones and free zones of Kukuljanovo. The bay itself...

, where the bulk cargo terminal is located, approximately 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) east of Rijeka, to Bršica to the west of Rijeka, where there is a multi-purpose terminal. The Port of Rijeka is at the southern terminus of the Pan-European transport network Corridor Vb
Pan-European corridors
The ten Pan-European transport corridors were defined at the second Pan-European transport Conference in Crete, March 1994, as routes in Central and Eastern Europe that required major investment over the next ten to fifteen years. Additions were made at the third conference in Helsinki in 1997...

, representing a maritime extension of the rail and road routes leading to and from Rijeka. They include modern roads such as the A6 motorway
A6 (Croatia)
The A6 motorway is a motorway in Croatia spanning . It connects the nation's capital, Zagreb, via the A1, to the seaport of Rijeka. The motorway forms a major north–south transportation corridor in Croatia and is a part of European route E65...

, forming a part of the European route E65
European route E65
European route E 65 is a north-south Class-A European route that begins in Malmö, Sweden and ends in Chaniá, Greece. The road is about in length.-Itinerary:* Sweden** E 65: Malmö – Ystad* Baltic sea, ferry Ystad-Świnoujście* Poland...

 and connecting Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

, Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

 and Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

, and the A7 motorway
A7 (Croatia)
The A7 motorway is a long motorway in Croatia. It connects the nation's largest port in Rijeka, to the Croatian motorway network, as well as to the Rupa and Pasjak border crossings to Slovenia. The motorway forms part of a longitudinal transportation corridor in Croatia, and it is a part of...

, a part of the European route E61
European route E61
European route E 61 is a part of the inter-European road system. This Class A intermediate north-south route is long and it connects the central part of the continent with the Adriatic Sea.-Itinerary:...

 and the E65. Rail links comprise single-track railway lines to Zagreb and to Pivka, Slovenia. There are plans to upgrade to a high-performance, double-track railway.

The port comprises several terminals:
  • Bulk Cargo Terminal – handles coal, iron ore and bulk cargo; 4 million tonnes annual capacity; accommodates Capesize
    Capesize
    Capesize ships are cargo ships originally too large to transit the Suez Canal . To travel between oceans, such vessels used to have to pass either the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn. In effect Capesize reads as "unlimited"...

     ships; located in the Bay of Bakar, 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) east of Rijeka
  • Cereal Terminal – handles and storage of cereals and oilseeds; 1 million tonnes annual capacity; western part of the Port of Rijeka
  • Container and Ro-Ro Terminal – handles intermodal container
    Intermodal container
    An intermodal container is a standardized reusable steel box used for the safe, efficient and secure storage and movement of materials and products within a global containerized intermodal freight transport system...

    s; contains a roll-on/roll-off ramp; accommodates Panamax
    Panamax
    Panamax and New Panamax are popular terms for the size limits for ships traveling through the Panama Canal. Formally, the limits and requirements are published by the Panama Canal Authority titled "Vessel Requirements"...

     ships, located in the eastern part of the port; operated by Jadranska vrata d.d.
  • General Cargo Terminal – handles general cargo, salt and cement; 2 million tonnes annual capacity; western part of the port
  • Timber Terminal – handles, stores and processes timber; 500,000 tonnes annual capacity; eastern part of the port
  • Škrljevo Terminal – cargo storage, processing and packaging facilities; occupies 41.7 hectares (103 acre) 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Rijeka, providing motorway and rail access
  • Frigo Terminal – handles and stores refrigerated and frozen food; 100,000 tonnes annual capacity; western part of the port
  • Bršica Terminal – handles livestock, timber and general cargo; 60,000 tonnes of annual capacity; located 60 kilometres (37.3 mi) to the west from Rijeka
  • Passenger Terminal – 11 piers; serving 200,000 passengers per year, largely traveling by lines serving nearby islands and other ports along the Adriatic coast.
  • Liquid Cargo Terminal – two Capesize berths
    Berth (moorings)
    A berth is a location in a port or harbour used specifically for mooring vessels while not at sea.-Locations in a port:Berth is the term used in ports and harbors to define a specific location where a vessel may be berthed, usually for the purposes of loading and unloading.Most berths will be...

     (30 metres (98.4 ft) draft
    Draft (hull)
    The draft of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull , with the thickness of the hull included; in the case of not being included the draft outline would be obtained...

    ); located in Omišalj Bay (operated by JANAF) and Sepen Bay (operated by DIOKI d.d.), both on Krk
    Krk
    Krk is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, located near Rijeka in the Bay of Kvarner and part of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar county....

     Island; annual capacity of 24 million tonnes of oil; 130,000 tonnes storage capacity; the terminal is linked to a pipeline operated by JANAF and the DINA petrochemical plant in Omišalj


The port has 58 berths and two additional berths in the Liquid Cargo Terminal, 150 hectares (370.7 acre) total port area, and 335000 square metres (400,656.7 sq yd) of enclosed warehouses.

Business operations



The port of Rijeka is the largest port in Croatia, handling the largest portion of the country's imports and exports. In 2008, 2418 ships docked at Rijeka itself, 872 at Bršica, 818 at Bakar, and 268 at Omišalj—a total of 4376. In 2010, the Port of Rijeka transported 10.2 million tonnes of cargo, a 9% drop from 2009. However the figure represents a 69% increase of dry cargo transport volume compared to 2002. The 2010 figure includes 5.6 million tonnes of liquid cargo, 2.3 million tonnes of general cargo, 2.0 million tonnes of bulk cargo and 254,000 tonnes of timber. The container terminal
Container terminal
A container terminal is a facility where cargo containers are transshipped between different transport vehicles, for onward transportation. The transshipment may be between container ships and land vehicles, for example trains or trucks, in which case the terminal is described as a maritime...

 recorded a substantial growth of business in past years. 137,048 TEUs
Twenty-foot equivalent unit
The twenty-foot equivalent unit is an inexact unit of cargo capacity often used to describe the capacity of container ships and container terminals...

 were transported through the port in 2010, marking a 5% rise in turnover compared to 2009 and a ninefold increase over 2002. The Port of Rijeka also serves passenger and ferry lines operated by Jadrolinija
Jadrolinija
Jadrolinija is a Croatian sea shipping company. It is a state-owned company and its main mission is connecting Croatian islands to the mainland by operating regular passenger and cargo transport services...

 to the nearby islands of Cres
Cres
Cres is an Adriatic island in Croatia. It is one of the northern island in the Kvarner Gulf and can be reached via ferry from the island Krk or from the Istrian peninsula ....

, Mali Lošinj
Mali Lošinj
-Mayors:*Hrvoje Lesic - *Mario Hofmann - *Dragan Balija - Alliance of Primorje-Gorski Kotar *Gari Capelli - Croatian Democratic Union -References:...

, Susak
Susak
Susak is a small island on the northern Adriatic coast of Croatia. The name Sansego comes from the Greek word Sansegus meaning oregano which grows in abundance on the island. A small percentage of natives still reside on the island which has increasingly become a popular tourist...

, Ilovik
Ilovik
The islands of Ilovik and Sveti Petar are located in Croatia south of the island Lošinj , separated by the strait of Ilovik .-Geography:...

, Unije
Unije
Unije is an island in Croatia. It is part of the Cres-Lošinj archipelago, which is situated at the northern portion of the Adriatic Sea. Unije is the third largest island of the archipelago. It is in size, with numerous bays and beaches...

, Rab
Rab
Rab is an island in Croatia and a town of the same name located just off the northern Croatian coast in the Adriatic Sea.The island is long, has an area of and 9,480 inhabitants . The highest peak is Kamenjak at 408 meters...

 and Pag
Pag (island)
Pag is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea. It is the fifth-largest island of the Croatian coast, and the one with the longest coastline....

, as well as to Adriatic ports further south, such as Split
Split (city)
Split is a Mediterranean city on the eastern shores of the Adriatic Sea, centered around the ancient Roman Palace of the Emperor Diocletian and its wide port bay. With a population of 178,192 citizens, and a metropolitan area numbering up to 467,899, Split is by far the largest Dalmatian city and...

 and Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea coast, positioned at the terminal end of the Isthmus of Dubrovnik. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations on the Adriatic, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva county. Its total population is 42,641...

. The line to Split and Dubrovnik also serves the islands of Hvar
Hvar
- Climate :The climate of Hvar is characterized by mild winters and warm summers. The yearly average air temperature is , 686 mm of precipitation fall on the town of Hvar on average every year and the town has a total of 2800 sunshine hours per year. For comparison Hvar has an average of 7.7...

, Korčula
Korcula
Korčula is an island in the Adriatic Sea, in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County of Croatia. The island has an area of ; long and on average wide — and lies just off the Dalmatian coast. Its 16,182 inhabitants make it the second most populous Adriatic island after Krk...

 and Mljet
Mljet
Mljet is the most southerly and easterly of the larger Adriatic islands of the Dalmatia region of Croatia. The National Park includes the western part of the island, Veliko jezero, Malo jezero, Soline Bay and a sea belt 500 m wide from the most prominent cape of Mljet covering an area of...

. The passenger terminal serves approximately 200,000 passengers each year. As of August 2011, there are three concessionaires operating in the Port of Rijeka: Luka Rijeka d.d., Jadranska vrata d.d. and JANAF.

Luka Rijeka



In 2010, Luka Rijeka d.d. reported a net profit of 32,000 kuna
Croatian kuna
The kuna is the currency of Croatia since 1994 . It is subdivided into 100 lipa. The kuna is issued by the Croatian National Bank and the coins are minted by the Croatian Monetary Institute....

 (4,300 euro), a sharp decline from 3.5 million kuna (0.47 million euro) the previous year. Total income in 2010 reached 210.4 million kuna (28.4 million euro), down from 228.9 million kuna (30.9 million euro) in 2009. In 2010, the company had 935 employees. It is listed at the Zagreb Stock Exchange
Zagreb Stock Exchange
The Zagreb Stock Exchange or ZSE is a stock exchange located in Zagreb, Croatia. It is Croatia's only stock exchange. The exchange trades shares of Croatian companies, as well as bonds and commercial bills....

, with a share capital of 598 million kuna (80.8 million euro). Luka Rijeka d.d. is owned by the state
Government of Croatia
The Government of the Republic of Croatia , commonly abbreviated to Croatian Government , is the main element of the executive branch of government in Croatia. It is led by the President of the Government , commonly abbreviated to premier...

 (72.7%), Croatian Healthcare Fund (8.1%) and other stockholders, none of which owns more than 5% of the stock.

Denis Vukorepa has been the chairman of the board of the company since 2002. The appointment is limited to a five-year term, but in May 2011, Vukorepa's term was extended for the second time.

Luka Rijeka's concession in the Port of Rijeka is valid until 2012, and a request to renew the concession for another 30 years has been filed. Luka Rijeka uses 117 hectares (289.1 acre) of land operated by the Port of Rijeka Authority.

Jadranska vrata


The Jadranska vrata d.d. company was founded as a Luka Rijeka d.d. subsidiary, and was tasked with operating the container cargo terminal located in the Brajdica district of Rijeka. As of August 2011, International Container Terminal Services Inc.
International Container Terminal Services Inc.
International Container Terminal Services, Inc. is a port management company in the Philippines. It was incorporated on December 24, 1987 and has been cited by the Asian Development Bank as one of the top five major maritime terminal operators in the world.-History:ICTSI was established by...

 (ICTSI) acquired a 51% share in the company, becoming a strategic partner. The company has also become prominent under its English name—Adriatic Gate Container Terminal. Jadranska vrata d.d. has acquired a separate concession to operate the container terminal in the Port of Rijeka until 2041. Antonio P. Passaro was appointed as chief executive officer of Jadranska vrata d.d. by ICTSI in 2011.

Jadranski naftovod



Jadranski naftovod (JANAF) operates an oil terminal at Omišalj, Krk Island. In 2010, the JANAF transported 6.4 million tonnes of oil, a 7% drop from 6.9 million tonnes in 2009. In 2010, JANAF recorded annual revenue of 464.9 million kuna (62.8 million euro), down less than 1% from 2009, and annual net profit of 118.5 million kuna (16 million euro), up 11% from the previous year. However, JANAF operations include other facilities and services besides the oil terminal concession in the Port of Rijeka. JANAF is a joint stock company owned by the Croatian Pension Insurance Institute (50.5%), INA (16%), the Republic of Croatia (14.5%) and other shareholders owning less than 10% of stock each. JANAF's chairman of the board is Ante Markov. As of March 31, 2011, JANAF had 383 employees working in the Omišalj terminal and other JANAF facilities in Croatia.

Future expansion



In 2011, Luka Rijeka d.d., operator of the Port of Rijeka, signed a contract of strategic partnership with the ICTSI and Jadranska vrata d.d.. The partnership aims to expand the capacity of the container terminal to 600,000 TEUs. The contract also stipulates that the concession regarding operation of the terminal is to last for 30 years with an investment of 54 million euro. It is estimated that ICTSI and Luka Rijeka d.d. will invest up to one billion kuna (135 million euro) in the Port of Rijeka. Upgrades of other port terminals are also planned, with investments through the World Bank
World Bank
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes.The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty...

 and through build-operate-transfer
Build-Operate-Transfer
Build-own-operate-transfer or build-operate-transfer is a form of project financing, wherein a private entity receives a concession from the private or public sector to finance, design, construct, and operate a facility stated in the concession contract...

 and public–private partnership schemes. They include cargo terminals in the city of Rijeka and the new passenger terminal opened in October 2009.

The Port of Rijeka development master plan, devised by Rotterdam Maritime Group, specifies further expansion of port facilities by 2030, including the construction of a large container terminal in Omišalj
Omišalj
Omišalj is a small coastal town in the north-west of the island of Krk in Croatia. The population of the town itself is 1,790 , while the Omišalj municipality also includes the nearby Njivice, bringing the total up to 2,998 people...

 on Krk Island, near the JANAF Omišalj oil terminal. The container terminal would increase the annual capacity of the port by 2.5 million TEUs. The plan requires construction of a high performance railway to Zagreb and a rail link planned by Croatian Railways
Croatian Railways
Croatian Railways is the national railway company of Croatia. It was formed after the dissolution of Yugoslavia and Yugoslav Railways.Croatia is a member of the International Union of Railways . The UIC Country Code for Croatia is 78.-Railway network:...

 to the proposed island terminal. The new line entails building a new bridge to Krk Island in addition to the existing Krk Bridge
Krk Bridge
Krk Bridge is a 1430 m long reinforced concrete arch bridge connecting the Croatian island of Krk to the mainland and carrying over a million vehicles per year. The longer of the bridge's two arches is the second longest concrete arch in the world and among the longest arches of any construction...

. The plan also includes expansion of the existing terminals, and is estimated to require an additional US$150 million. Likewise, an expansion of the Liquid Cargo Terminal is planned, as well as an expansion of the Bakar Bay facility, where a car terminal is planned. The expansion of the port, improvement of transportation links and the strategic partnership are aimed at establishing Rijeka as the largest container port on the Adriatic Sea.

External links


  • Port of Rijeka Authority webcam
  • NOAA
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , pronounced , like "noah", is a scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere...

    maps
  • Kvarner and Adjacent Waters #54180
  • Rijeka including Uvala Martinscica #54181