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Malaya Command

Malaya Command

Encyclopedia
The Malaya Command was a command
Command (military formation)
A command in military terminology is an organisational unit that the individual in Military command has responsibility for. A Commander will normally be specifically appointed into the role in order to provide a legal framework for the authority bestowed...

 of British Commonwealth
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 forces formed in the 1920s for the coordination of the defences of Malaya
British Malaya
British Malaya loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries...

 and Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

.

History


This command
Command (military formation)
A command in military terminology is an organisational unit that the individual in Military command has responsibility for. A Commander will normally be specifically appointed into the role in order to provide a legal framework for the authority bestowed...

 of British Commonwealth
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 forces was formed in the 1920s for the coordination of the defences of Malaya
British Malaya
British Malaya loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries...

 and Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

. It consisted mainly of small garrison
Garrison
Garrison is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base....

 forces in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

, Penang
Penang
Penang is a state in Malaysia and the name of its constituent island, located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia by the Strait of Malacca. It is bordered by Kedah in the north and east, and Perak in the south. Penang is the second smallest Malaysian state in area after Perlis, and the...

, Taiping
Taiping, Perak
Taiping is a town located in northern Perak, Malaysia. With a population of 191,104 , it is the second largest town in Perak after Ipoh, the state capital. Taiping took over Kuala Kangsar's role as the state capital from 1876 to 1937, but was then replaced by Ipoh...

, Seremban
Seremban
Seremban is the capital of the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan, located within the district of Seremban, one of the seven districts of Negeri Sembilan. The town's administration is run by the Seremban Municipal Council or Majlis Perbandaran Seremban...

 and Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

.

With the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, the command reinforced its strength in anticipation. With the bulk of British
British Armed Forces
The British Armed Forces are the armed forces of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.Also known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown, the British Armed Forces encompasses three professional uniformed services, the Royal Navy, the...

 forces being tied down in the war in Europe
European Theatre of World War II
The European Theatre of World War II was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe from Germany's invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939 until the end of the war with the German unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945...

, the command was mainly augmented by units from India
British Indian Army
The British Indian Army, officially simply the Indian Army, was the principal army of the British Raj in India before the partition of India in 1947...

.

On 18 November 1940, the command was placed under the command of the British Far East Command
British Far East Command
The Far East Command was a British military command which had 2 distinct periods. These were firstly, 18 November 1940 – 7 January 1942 succeeded by the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command , and secondly, 1963 – 1971 succeeded by Australia, New Zealand, and United Kingdom Force...

 and later on 7 January 1942 under the short-lived South West Pacific Command or ABDACOM which was tasked to maintain control of the "Malay Barrier" (or "East Indies Barrier"), a notional line running down the Malayan Peninsula, through Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 and the southernmost islands of Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
The Dutch East Indies was a Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia following World War II. It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company, which came under the administration of the Netherlands government in 1800....

.

The command was disbanded on 15 February 1942 with the surrender of all Commonwealth forces in the conclusion of the Battle of Singapore
Battle of Singapore
The Battle of Singapore was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of the Second World War when the Empire of Japan invaded the Allied stronghold of Singapore. Singapore was the major British military base in Southeast Asia and nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the East"...

.

With the Surrender of Japan
Surrender of Japan
The surrender of Japan in 1945 brought hostilities of World War II to a close. By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy was incapable of conducting operations and an Allied invasion of Japan was imminent...

, the command was re-formed from the 14th Army with its HQ based in Singapore on 1 November 1945. The command was divided and downgraded to two separate military district
Military district
Military districts are formations of a state's armed forces which are responsible for a certain area of territory. They are often more responsible for administrative than operational matters, and in countries with conscript forces, often handle parts of the conscription cycle.Navies have also used...

s; the Malaya District and Singapore District in August 1947 but was upgraded again into a full command in August 1950 due to the Malayan Emergency
Malayan Emergency
The Malayan Emergency was a guerrilla war fought between Commonwealth armed forces and the Malayan National Liberation Army , the military arm of the Malayan Communist Party, from 1948 to 1960....

.

With the independence
Hari Merdeka
Hari Merdeka is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule in 1957, celebrated on August 31 each year. It is not to be confused with the formation of Malaysia...

 of Malaya on 31 August 1957 the command was disbanded and succeeded by Overseas Commonwealth Land Forces (Malaya).

Formation and Structure


In November 1940, the total strength of Malaya Command was at 17 battalions. The Indian Army
British Indian Army
The British Indian Army, officially simply the Indian Army, was the principal army of the British Raj in India before the partition of India in 1947...

 contingent was mainly organised as III Corps
Indian III Corps
The III Corps was a formation of the Indian Army during World War I formed in Mesopotamia. Prior to the reorganization of the British and Indian forces in Mesopotamia, it was designated as the Tigris Corps....

 with their HQ based in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

.

When Japanese forces invaded Malaya
Battle of Malaya
The Malayan Campaign was a campaign fought by Allied and Japanese forces in Malaya, from 8 December 1941 – 31 January 1942 during the Second World War. The campaign was dominated by land battles between British Commonwealth army units, and the Imperial Japanese Army...

 on 8 December 1941, Lieutenant-General Arthur Percival
Arthur Ernest Percival
Lieutenant-General Arthur Ernest Percival, CB, DSO & Bar, OBE, MC, OStJ, DL was a British Army officer and World War I veteran...

, the General Officer Commanding (GOC) Malaya in charge of Malaya Command, with a force of 88,600 faced the 70,000 strong Twenty Fifth Army of the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
-Foundation:During the Meiji Restoration, the military forces loyal to the Emperor were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū...

 under the command of General
General
A general officer is an officer of high military rank, usually in the army, and in some nations, the air force. The term is widely used by many nations of the world, and when a country uses a different term, there is an equivalent title given....

 Tomoyuki Yamashita
Tomoyuki Yamashita
General was a general of the Japanese Imperial Army during World War II. He was most famous for conquering the British colonies of Malaya and Singapore, earning the nickname "The Tiger of Malaya".- Biography :...

.

Indian III Corps

  • As of 7 December 1941

Commanding Officer Indian III Corps
Indian III Corps
The III Corps was a formation of the Indian Army during World War I formed in Mesopotamia. Prior to the reorganization of the British and Indian forces in Mesopotamia, it was designated as the Tigris Corps....

  - Lt Gen Lewis Heath
Lewis Heath
Lieutenant-General Sir Lewis Macclesfield Heath, KBE, CB, CIE, DSO, MC was an officer in the British Army and the Indian Army during the pre-World War I years, World War I, the interwar years, and World War II...

  • Indian 9th Infantry Division
    Indian 9th Infantry Division
    The 9th Indian Infantry Division was an Indian division which formed part of Indian III Corps in the Malaya Command of the Indian Army during World War II during the Battle of Malaya. It was commanded by Major-General Barstow.-History:...

Maj-Gen Arthur Edward Barstow
Arthur Edward Barstow
Major-General Arthur Edward "Bustling Bill" Barstow CIE MC was an officer in the Indian Army and commanded the Indian 9th Infantry Division during the Battle of Malaya. He was killed by the Japanese on 28 January 1942 while trying to cross a demolished railway bridge near Layang Layang village...

 ' onMouseout='HidePop("91295")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Bota">Bota
Bota
Bota is a small town near the Perak River in Perak, Malaysia. It is under the administration of the Perak Tengah district. It comprises two geographical areas: Bota Kiri and Bota Kanan as it is divided by the Perak River. There is a river terrapin breeding centre at Bota Kanan. Bota is also...

)
HQ : Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

  • 8th Indian Infantry Brigade
    8th Indian Infantry Brigade
    The 8th Indian Infantry Brigade was an Infantry formation of the Indian Army during World War II. It was formed in September 1939, in India. In November 1940, the brigade was assigned to the 11th Indian Infantry Division. The brigade was attached to the 9th Indian Infantry Division from March 1941...

Brig Berthold Wells Key
Berthold Wells Key
Major-General Berthold Wells 'Billy' Key CB, DSO, MC, ADC was a British Indian Army officer.- History :...

HQ : Kota Bahru
  • 2nd Battalion, 10th Baluch Regiment
    10th Baluch Regiment
    The 10th Baluch or Baluch Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947. After the Partition of India, it was transferred to the Pakistan Army. In 1956, it was amalgamated with the 8th Punjab and Bahawalpur Regiments...

     - Lt.Col James Frith
  • 3rd Battalion, 17th Dogra Regiment
    17th Dogra Regiment
    The 17th Dogra Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was formed in 1922, after the Indian government decided to reform the army moving away from single battalion regiments to multi battalion regiments...

     - Lt.Col G.A.Preston
  • 1st Battalion, 13th Frontier Force Rifles
    13th Frontier Force Rifles
    The 13th Frontier Force Rifles was part of the British Indian Army, and after 1947, Pakistan Army. It was formed in 1922 by amalgamation of five existing regiments and consisted of five regular battalions.-History:...

     - Lt.Col C.Gilbert
  • 2nd Battalion, 12th Frontier Force Regiment
    12th Frontier Force Regiment
    The 12th Frontier Force Regiment was part of the British Indian Army. It was formed in 1922. It consisted of five regular battalions; numbered 1 to 5 and the 10th Battalion. During the Second World War a further ten battalions were raised. In 1945 the prenomial "12th" was dropped when the British...

     - Lt.Col Arthur Edward Cumming
    Arthur Edward Cumming
    Brigadier Arthur Edward Cumming VC OBE MC was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces....

  • 21st Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery - Major J.B.Soper

  • 22nd Indian Infantry Brigade
    22nd Indian Infantry Brigade
    The 22nd Indian Infantry Brigade was an Infantry formation of the Indian Army during World War II. It was formed in September 1940, at Baleli in India using assets from the 8th Indian Infantry Brigade and assigned to the 9th Indian Infantry Division. The brigade was sent to Malaya and fought in...

Brig G.W.A.Painter
HQ : Kuantan
Kuantan
Kuantan is the state capital of Pahang, the 3rd largest state in Malaysia. It is situated near the mouth of the Kuantan River and faces the South China Sea. If one measures the distance along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, it is located roughly halfway between Singapore and Kota Bharu...

  • 5th Battalion, 11th Sikh Regiment
    11th Sikh Regiment
    The 11th Sikh Regiment were an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. They could trace their origins to 1922, when after World War I the Indian government reformed the army moving from single battalion regiments to multi battalion regiments....

     - Lt.Col John H.D.Parkin
  • 2nd Battalion, 18th Royal Garhwal Rifles
    18th Royal Garhwal Rifles
    The 18th Royal Garhwal Rifles was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was formed in 1922, after the Indian government decided to reform the army moving away from single battalion regiments to multi battalion regiments. They were they only Indian Infantry regiment to remain intact...

     - Lt.Col.G.E.R.S.Hartigan
  • 5th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
    Royal Artillery
    The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery , is the artillery arm of the British Army. Despite its name, it comprises a number of regiments.-History:...

     - Lt.Col.Edward W.F.Jephson

  • Command Troops
  • 88th (2nd West Lancashire) Field Regiment RA - Lt.Col Sylvain Claude D'Aubuz
  • 42nd Field Park Company (Royal Bombay Sappers and Miners)

  • Indian 11th Infantry Division
Maj-Gen David Murray-Lyon
David Murray-Lyon
Major-General David Murrey Murray-Lyon, DSO & Bar, MC, was an officer in the Indian Army. His final appointment was as the commanding officer of Indian 11th Infantry Division in Malaya until sacked by General Percival...

 / Brig Archibald Paris
Archibald Paris
Brigadier Archibald Charles Melvill Paris DSO MC was a British Army officer.He was the son of Major-General Archibald Paris, KCB a Royal Marine officer who commanded the 63rd Division during the First World War, and of Lady Paris...

 / Maj-Gen Berthold Wells Key
Berthold Wells Key
Major-General Berthold Wells 'Billy' Key CB, DSO, MC, ADC was a British Indian Army officer.- History :...

HQ : Sungai Petani
Sungai Petani
Sungai Petani is a town in the state of Kedah, in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Sungai Petani is the second largest town in Kedah after Alor Star.-Etmylogy:...

  • 6th Indian Infantry Brigade
    6th Indian Infantry Brigade
    The 6th Indian Infantry Brigade was an Infantry formation of the Indian Army during World War II. The brigade was formed in India in September 1939. In November 1940, the brigade arrived in Singapore and come under the command of the 11th Indian Infantry Division...

Brig William Oswald Lay / Lt Col Henry Sloane Larkin
HQ : Jitra
Jitra
Jitra is a town in Kedah, Malaysia. It is located in the Kubang Pasu district.It is the fourth largest town in Kedah after Alor Setar, Sungai Petani and Kulim....

  • 2nd Battalion, East Surrey Regiment
    East Surrey Regiment
    The East Surrey Regiment was a regiment in the British Army formed in 1881 from the amalgamation of the 31st Regiment of Foot and the 70th Regiment of Foot...

     - Lt Col George Edward Swinton
  • 1st Battalion, 8th Punjab Regiment
    8th Punjab Regiment
    The 8th Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947. It was transferred to Pakistan Army on Partition of India in 1947 and merged with the Baluch Regiment in 1956.-Madras Infantry:...

     - Lt Col Ronald Charles Sidney Bates
  • 2nd Battalion, 16th Punjab Regiment
    16th Punjab Regiment
    The 16th Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947. It was transferred to Pakistan Army on Partition of India in 1947, and amalgamated with the 1st, 14th and 15th Punjab Regiments in 1956 to form the Punjab Regiment....

     - Lt.Col. Henry Sloane Larkin (Died as a POW
    Prisoner of war
    A prisoner of war or enemy prisoner of war is a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict...

     on 1 January 1944)
  • 22nd Mountain Artillery Regiment, Royal Artillery
    Royal Artillery
    The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery , is the artillery arm of the British Army. Despite its name, it comprises a number of regiments.-History:...

     - Lt.Col G.L.Hughes

  • 15th Indian Infantry Brigade
    15th Indian Infantry Brigade
    The 15th Indian Infantry Brigade was an Infantry formation of the Indian Army during World War II. It was formed in September 1940, at Secunderabad in India and assigned to the 9th Indian Infantry Division. Between February and March 1941, it was attached to the 10th Indian Infantry Division,...

     (III Corps Reserve)
Brig Kenneth Alfred Garrett/Brig.W.St.John Carpendale
HQ : Jitra
Jitra
Jitra is a town in Kedah, Malaysia. It is located in the Kubang Pasu district.It is the fourth largest town in Kedah after Alor Setar, Sungai Petani and Kulim....

  • 1st Battalion, Leicestershire Regiment
    Royal Leicestershire Regiment
    The Royal Leicestershire Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army, with a history going back to 1688. It saw service for three centuries, before being amalgamated into The Royal Anglian Regiment in 1964.-1688 - 1881:...

     - Lt Col C. Esmond Morrison
  • 2nd Battalion, 9th Jat Regiment
    9th Jat Regiment
    The 9th Jat Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was formed in 1922, after the Indian government reformed the army, moving from single battalion regiments to multi battalion regiments.-World War II:...

     - Lt Col C.K. Tester
  • 1st Battalion, 14th Punjab Regiment
    14th Punjab Regiment
    The 14th Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947. It was transferred to the Pakistan Army on Partition of India in 1947, and amalgamated with the 1st, 15th and 16th Punjab Regiments in 1956, to form the Punjab Regiment....

     - Lt Col James Fitzpatrick

  • 28th (Gurkha) Infantry Brigade
Brig W. St J. Carpendale / Lt Col W.R. Selby
HQ : Ipoh
Ipoh
Ipoh is the capital city of Perak state, Malaysia. It is approximately 200 km north of Kuala Lumpur on the North-South Expressway....

  • 2nd Battalion, 1st Gurkha Rifles - Lt.Col John Oswald "Jack" Fulton ' onMouseout='HidePop("35282")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Battle_of_Slim_River">Slim River
    Battle of Slim River
    The Battle of Slim River occurred during the Malayan campaign in January 1942 between the Imperial Japanese Army and the British Indian Army on the west coast of Malaya.-Background:...

    )
  • 2nd Battalion, 2nd Gurkha Rifles - Lt.Col G.H.D. Woollcombe (Died Indian Ocean, 28 Feb. 1942)
  • 2nd Battalion, 9th Gurkha Rifles - Lt.Col W.R. Selby

  • 11th Division Command Troops
  • 3rd Cavalry
    3rd Cavalry
    The 3rd Cavalry was a regular cavalry Regiment in the British Indian Army formed from the 5th and 8th Cavalry regiments in 1922.The which served on the North West Frontier and during World War I and World War II.-Early history:...

     (IA
    Indian Army
    The Indian Army is the land based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces. With about 1,100,000 soldiers in active service and about 1,150,000 reserve troops, the Indian Army is the world's largest standing volunteer army...

    ) - Lt.Col C.P.G.De Winton
  • 100th Light Tank Squadron - Major Jack Alford ( 12 Feb 1942)
  • 137th (2nd West Lancashire) Field Regiment RA - Lt Col Charles Holmes ( at Slim River
    Battle of Slim River
    The Battle of Slim River occurred during the Malayan campaign in January 1942 between the Imperial Japanese Army and the British Indian Army on the west coast of Malaya.-Background:...

    )
  • 155th (Lanarkshire Yeomanry
    Lanarkshire Yeomanry
    The Lanarkshire Yeomanry was a yeomanry regiment of the British Army, first raised in 1819, which served as a dismounted infantry regiment in the First World War and provided two field artillery regiments in the Second World War, before being amalgamated into The Queen's Own Lowland Yeomanry in...

    ) Field Regiment RA - Lt Col Augustus Murdoch ( at Slim River)
  • 80th Anti-Tank Regiment RA - Lt.Col. William E.S. Napier
  • 85th Anti-Tank Regiment RA - Lt.Col A.J. Lardner-Clarke
  • 1st Independent Company - Major Sheppard Percy Fearon
  • 23rd Field Company (Royal Bombay Sappers and Miners)
  • 43rd Field Park Company RE

  • Krohcol
    Operation Krohcol
    Operation Krohcol, or the Battle for The Ledge, was a British operation in December 1941 to move into southern Thailand following the Japanese invasion of Malaya and of Thailand during World War II...

Lt Col H.D. Moorhead
  • 3rd Battalion, 16th Punjab Regiment
    16th Punjab Regiment
    The 16th Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947. It was transferred to Pakistan Army on Partition of India in 1947, and amalgamated with the 1st, 14th and 15th Punjab Regiments in 1956 to form the Punjab Regiment....

     - Lt Col Henry Dawson Moorehead ( at Battle of Muar
    Battle of Muar
    The Battle of Muar was the last major battle of the Malayan campaign. It took place from 14–22 January 1942 around Gemensah Bridge and on the Muar River...

    )
  • 5th Battalion, 14th Punjab Regiment
    14th Punjab Regiment
    The 14th Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947. It was transferred to the Pakistan Army on Partition of India in 1947, and amalgamated with the 1st, 15th and 16th Punjab Regiments in 1956, to form the Punjab Regiment....

     - Lt Col Cyril Stokes ' onMouseout='HidePop("25049")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Battle_of_Slim_River">Slim River
    Battle of Slim River
    The Battle of Slim River occurred during the Malayan campaign in January 1942 between the Imperial Japanese Army and the British Indian Army on the west coast of Malaya.-Background:...

    )
  • 2/3 Australian Motor Company

  • Line of Communications Brigade
Brig R.G. Moir
  • 1st Battalion, Federated Malay States Volunteer Forces (Perak)
  • 2nd Battalion, Federated Malay States Volunteer Forces (Selangor)
  • 3rd Battalion, Federated Malay States Volunteer Forces (Negeri Sembilan) - Lt.Col C.F.H.Riches
  • 4th Battalion, Federated Malay States Volunteer Forces (Pahang) - Lt.Col.James Oliphant Mackellar (d.12 March 1945)
  • 1st (Light) Field Regiment, Federated Malay States Volunteer Forces
  • Armoured Car Squadron, Federated Malay States Volunteer Forces - Major C.E.Collinge
  • Signals Battalion, Federated Malay States Volunteer Forces

  • Fortress Penang
Brig C.A. Lyon
HQ : Penang
Penang
Penang is a state in Malaysia and the name of its constituent island, located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia by the Strait of Malacca. It is bordered by Kedah in the north and east, and Perak in the south. Penang is the second smallest Malaysian state in area after Perlis, and the...

  • 5th Battalion, 14th Punjab Regiment
    14th Punjab Regiment
    The 14th Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947. It was transferred to the Pakistan Army on Partition of India in 1947, and amalgamated with the 1st, 15th and 16th Punjab Regiments in 1956, to form the Punjab Regiment....

     (assigned to Krohcol)
  • 11th Coastal Regiment, Hong Kong and Singapore Royal Artillery
  • 3rd Battalion, Straits Settlements Volunteer Force
    Straits Settlements Volunteer Force
    The Straits Settlements Volunteer Force was a military reserve force in the Straits Settlements, while they were under British rule. While the majority of the personnel were from Singapore, some lived in other parts of the Settlements, including Penang, Province Wellesley, Malacca and...

     (Penang and Province Wellesley Volunteer Corps)
  • 2nd Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Indian Artillery
    Royal Indian Artillery
    The Royal Regiment of Indian Artillery, generally known as the Royal Indian Artillery , was an administrative corps of the British Indian Army...


  • Support Units
  • 3rd Battalion, 16th Punjab Regiment
    16th Punjab Regiment
    The 16th Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947. It was transferred to Pakistan Army on Partition of India in 1947, and amalgamated with the 1st, 14th and 15th Punjab Regiments in 1956 to form the Punjab Regiment....

     (assigned to Krohcol) - Lt.Col.Henry Moorhead ( at Battle of Muar)
  • 5th Battalion, 14th Punjab Regiment
    14th Punjab Regiment
    The 14th Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947. It was transferred to the Pakistan Army on Partition of India in 1947, and amalgamated with the 1st, 15th and 16th Punjab Regiments in 1956, to form the Punjab Regiment....

     (assigned to Krohcol)
  • 1st Battalion Mysore Infantry (Indian States Forces) - Lt.Col K.H. Preston
  • 1st Battalion Bahawalpur Infantry (Indian States Forces) - Lt.Col H.E.Tyrell
  • 1st Battalion, Hyderabad Regiment (Indian States Forces) - Lt Col Charles Albert Hendricks
  • 11th Indian Division Signal Regiment

Australia Imperial Force


Commanding Officer Australia Imperial Force
Second Australian Imperial Force
The Second Australian Imperial Force was the name given to the volunteer personnel of the Australian Army in World War II. Under the Defence Act , neither the part-time Militia nor the full-time Permanent Military Force could serve outside Australia or its territories unless they volunteered to...

 - Maj Gen Gordon Bennett
HQ : Kluang
Kluang
Kluang is a town and district located roughly in the middle of the state of Johor in Malaysia. Kluang lies about 110 km north of Johor Bahru, east-southeast of Batu Pahat, west of Mersing and south of Segamat...


  • Australian 8th Division
    Australian 8th Division
    The 8th Division of the Australian Army was formed to serve in World War II, as part of the Second Australian Imperial Force, who were in turn, part of the Allies of World War II. The 8th Division was raised from regular army units and new, all-volunteer infantry brigades, from July 1940 onwards...

Maj Gen Gordon Bennett
HQ : Kluang
Kluang
Kluang is a town and district located roughly in the middle of the state of Johor in Malaysia. Kluang lies about 110 km north of Johor Bahru, east-southeast of Batu Pahat, west of Mersing and south of Segamat...


  • Australian 22nd Brigade
Brig Harold Burfield Taylor
HQ : Mersing
Mersing
Mersing is a town in Mersing District in the northeast corner of the state of Johor, Malaysia.Mersing town is a lively tourist town visited by Malaysians and foreign tourists....

 - Endau
Endau
Endau is a small town in Malaysia. It lies on the northern tip of east Johor and the southern tip of Pahang. It is famous as one of the largest fishing ports on the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.Located north of Mersing...

  • 2/18th Australian Infantry Battalion
    2/18th Australian Infantry Battalion
    The 2/18th Battalion was part of the Australian 22nd Brigade, Australian 8th Division during World War II. It was sent to Singapore to strengthen the defences of that British colony should it be attacked. The 2/18th Battalion saw action against Japanese forces in the Malayan campaign in January...

     - Lt.Col. Arthur Leslie Varley (Died as POW
    Prisoner of war
    A prisoner of war or enemy prisoner of war is a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict...

     13 September 1944)
  • 2/19th Australian Infantry Battalion - Lt.Col. Charles Anderson
    Charles Groves Wright Anderson
    Charles Groves Wright Anderson VC, MC was a South African-born, Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, a member of the Australian House of Representatives, and a farmer.-Early life:...

  • 2/20th Australian Infantry Battalion - Lt.Col. Charles Frederick Assheton (12 Feb. 1942)

  • Australian 27th Brigade
Brig Duncan Struan Maxwell
HQ : Kluang
Kluang
Kluang is a town and district located roughly in the middle of the state of Johor in Malaysia. Kluang lies about 110 km north of Johor Bahru, east-southeast of Batu Pahat, west of Mersing and south of Segamat...

  • 2/26th Australian Infantry Battalion - Lt.Col. Arthur Harold Boyes (12 Feb. 1942)/Richard Oakes
  • 2/29th Australian Infantry Battalion - Lt.Col. James Robertson (18 Jan. 1942 during Battle of Muar
    Battle of Muar
    The Battle of Muar was the last major battle of the Malayan campaign. It took place from 14–22 January 1942 around Gemensah Bridge and on the Muar River...

    )/ Lt.Col. Pond
  • 2/30th Australian Infantry Battalion - Lt.Col. Frederick Gallagher "Jack" Galleghan

  • 2/4th Machine Gun Battalion - Lt.Col. M.J.Anketell
  • 2/4th Anti-Tank Regiment - Lt.Col. Cranston Albury McEachern

Fortress Singapore


Commanding Officer - Maj Gen F. Keith Simmons
HQ : Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...


  • Fortress Singapore Division
Maj Gen F. K. Simmons

  • 1st Malaya Brigade
Brig G. C. R. Williams
  • 2nd Battalion Loyal Regiment (North Lancashire)
    Loyal Regiment (North Lancashire)
    The Loyal Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army from 1881 to 1970...

     - Lt.Col.Mordaunt Elrington
  • 1st Battalion Malay Regiment - Lt.Col.J.P.G.Andre
  • 2nd Battalion Malay Regiment - Lt.Col.F.W.Young

  • 2nd Malaya Brigade
Brig F. H. Fraser
  • 1st Battalion Manchester Regiment - Lt.Col.Edward Barclay Holmes
  • 2nd Battalion Gordon Highlanders - Lt.Col.J.H.Stitt / Richard Gilbert Lees
  • 2nd Battalion 17th Dogra Regiment
    17th Dogra Regiment
    The 17th Dogra Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was formed in 1922, after the Indian government decided to reform the army moving away from single battalion regiments to multi battalion regiments...

     - Lt.Col.Sidney Clermont Scott

  • Straits Settlements Volunteer Force Brigade
Col R G Grimwood
  • 1st Battalion, Straits Settlements Volunteer Force
    Straits Settlements Volunteer Force
    The Straits Settlements Volunteer Force was a military reserve force in the Straits Settlements, while they were under British rule. While the majority of the personnel were from Singapore, some lived in other parts of the Settlements, including Penang, Province Wellesley, Malacca and...

     (Singapore Volunteer Corps
    Singapore Volunteer Corps
    The Singapore Volunteer Corps was a militia unit established in 1854 as the Singapore Volunteer Rifle Corps. The Corps underwent several reorganisations and was known by various names through its history...

    ) - Lt.Col. Thomas Henry Newey
  • 2nd Battalion, Straits Settlements Volunteer Force
    Straits Settlements Volunteer Force
    The Straits Settlements Volunteer Force was a military reserve force in the Straits Settlements, while they were under British rule. While the majority of the personnel were from Singapore, some lived in other parts of the Settlements, including Penang, Province Wellesley, Malacca and...

     (Singapore Volunteer Corps
    Singapore Volunteer Corps
    The Singapore Volunteer Corps was a militia unit established in 1854 as the Singapore Volunteer Rifle Corps. The Corps underwent several reorganisations and was known by various names through its history...

    )
  • 4th Battalion, Straits Settlements Volunteer Force
    Straits Settlements Volunteer Force
    The Straits Settlements Volunteer Force was a military reserve force in the Straits Settlements, while they were under British rule. While the majority of the personnel were from Singapore, some lived in other parts of the Settlements, including Penang, Province Wellesley, Malacca and...

     (Malacca Volunteer Corps) - Lt.Col Charles Alexander Scott
  • Singapore Armoured Car Company, Straits Settlements Volunteer Force
    Straits Settlements Volunteer Force
    The Straits Settlements Volunteer Force was a military reserve force in the Straits Settlements, while they were under British rule. While the majority of the personnel were from Singapore, some lived in other parts of the Settlements, including Penang, Province Wellesley, Malacca and...


  • Royal Engineers Brigade
Brig I. Simson
  • 30th Fortress Company, Royal Engineers
    Royal Engineers
    The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers , and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army....

  • 34th Fortress Company, Royal Engineers
    Royal Engineers
    The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers , and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army....

  • 35th Fortress Company, Royal Engineers
    Royal Engineers
    The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers , and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army....

  • 41st Fortress Company, Royal Engineers
    Royal Engineers
    The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers , and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army....


  • Artillery Brigade
Brig Alec Warren Greenlaw Wildey
  • 1st (Heavy) Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Indian Artillery
  • 1st Anti-Aircraft Battery, Hong Kong and Singapore Royal Artillery
  • 2nd Anti-Aircraft Battery, Hong Kong and Singapore Royal Artillery - Lt.Col.R.M.M.More
  • 3rd (Light) Anti-Aircraft Battery, Hong Kong and Singapore Royal Artillery
  • 3rd (Heavy) Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery
    Royal Artillery
    The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery , is the artillery arm of the British Army. Despite its name, it comprises a number of regiments.-History:...

  • 35th (Light) Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery
    Royal Artillery
    The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery , is the artillery arm of the British Army. Despite its name, it comprises a number of regiments.-History:...

     - Lt.Col.John Bassett
  • 7th Coastal Regiment, Royal Artillery
    Royal Artillery
    The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery , is the artillery arm of the British Army. Despite its name, it comprises a number of regiments.-History:...

     - Lt.Col H.D.St.G.Cardew
  • 9th Coastal Regiment, Royal Artillery
    Royal Artillery
    The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery , is the artillery arm of the British Army. Despite its name, it comprises a number of regiments.-History:...

     - Lt.Col C.P.Heath
  • 16th Defence Regiment, Royal Artillery
    Royal Artillery
    The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery , is the artillery arm of the British Army. Despite its name, it comprises a number of regiments.-History:...


  • Support Units
  • Half Strength Jind Infantry Battalion (Indian States Forces) (½ Strength)
  • Half Strength Kapurthala Infantry Battalion (Indian States Forces) (½ Strength)
  • Dalforce
    Dalforce
    Dalforce, or the Singapore Overseas Chinese Anti-Japanese Volunteer Army was an irregular forces/guerrilla unit within the British Straits Settlements Volunteer Force during World War II. Its members were recruited among the ethnic Chinese people of Singapore...

     - Lt.Col.John Dalley

Malaya Command Reserve


Commanding Officer : Brig.A.C.M.Paris
Archibald Paris
Brigadier Archibald Charles Melvill Paris DSO MC was a British Army officer.He was the son of Major-General Archibald Paris, KCB a Royal Marine officer who commanded the 63rd Division during the First World War, and of Lady Paris...

 / Lt.Col.I. M. Stewart
Ian MacAlister Stewart
-Early life:Stewart was born in 1895, part of the Stewart family of Appin in Argyllshire. Stewart was born in Surore, Poone , India where his father, Lt.Col Alexander Kenneth Stewart, 12th of Achnacone, was a medical officer in the Poona Horse before his parents returned to Scotland. Stewart...


HQ : Port Dickson
Port Dickson
Port Dickson or PD to locals is a beach and holiday destination situated about 32 km from Seremban and 90 km from Kuala Lumpur. It is located in the state of Negeri Sembilan in Peninsular Malaysia...

  • 12th Indian Infantry Brigade - Brig.A.C.M.Paris
    Archibald Paris
    Brigadier Archibald Charles Melvill Paris DSO MC was a British Army officer.He was the son of Major-General Archibald Paris, KCB a Royal Marine officer who commanded the 63rd Division during the First World War, and of Lady Paris...

     / Lt.Col.I.M.Stewart
    Ian MacAlister Stewart
    -Early life:Stewart was born in 1895, part of the Stewart family of Appin in Argyllshire. Stewart was born in Surore, Poone , India where his father, Lt.Col Alexander Kenneth Stewart, 12th of Achnacone, was a medical officer in the Poona Horse before his parents returned to Scotland. Stewart...

HQ : Port Dickson
Port Dickson
Port Dickson or PD to locals is a beach and holiday destination situated about 32 km from Seremban and 90 km from Kuala Lumpur. It is located in the state of Negeri Sembilan in Peninsular Malaysia...

  • 5th Battalion, 2nd Punjab Regiment
    2nd Punjab Regiment
    The 2nd Punjab Regiment was a British Indian Army regiment from 1922 to the partition of India in 1947.The regiment was formed by the amalgamation of other regiments:*1st Battalion, from the 67th Punjabis, formerly the 7th Regiment of Madras Native Infantry...

     - Lt.Col.Cecil Deakin
  • 4th Battalion, 19th Hyderabad Regiment
    19th Hyderabad Regiment
    The 19th Hyderabad Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was formed following the post World War I reforms of the Indian Army when they moved from single battalion regiments to multi battalion regiments...

     - Lt.Col.Eric Lawrence Wilson-Haffenden / Lt.Col.Herbert Lawrence Hill
  • 2nd Battalion
    2nd Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders
    The 2nd Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders were formed in 1881 when the 91st Regiment of Foot was amalgamated with the 93rd Regiment of Foot to form the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders.-Early history:...

    , Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders
    Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders
    The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, 5th Battalion The Royal Regiment of Scotland is an infantry battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland....

     - Lt Col I.M.Stewart
    Ian MacAlister Stewart
    -Early life:Stewart was born in 1895, part of the Stewart family of Appin in Argyllshire. Stewart was born in Surore, Poone , India where his father, Lt.Col Alexander Kenneth Stewart, 12th of Achnacone, was a medical officer in the Poona Horse before his parents returned to Scotland. Stewart...

    / Lt.Col.Lindsay Robertson ( 20 January 1942)

  • 122nd (West Riding) Field Regiment, RA
    Royal Artillery
    The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery , is the artillery arm of the British Army. Despite its name, it comprises a number of regiments.-History:...

     - Lt.Col.George St.John Armitage Dyson ( 22 November 1942)

Sarawak Force (SARFOR)


Commanding Officer : Maj C. M. Lane
HQ : Kuching
Kuching
Kuching , officially the City of Kuching, and formerly the City of Sarawak, is the capital and most populous city of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is the largest city on the island of Borneo, and the fourth largest city in Malaysia....

  • SARFOR
Maj C. M. Lane
HQ : Kuching
Kuching
Kuching , officially the City of Kuching, and formerly the City of Sarawak, is the capital and most populous city of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is the largest city on the island of Borneo, and the fourth largest city in Malaysia....

  • 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment
    15th Punjab Regiment
    The 15th Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947. It was transferred to Pakistan Army on Partition of India in 1947, and amalgamated with the 1st, 14th and 16th Punjab Regiments in 1956 to form the Punjab Regiment....

     - (this battalion took part in the Battle of Borneo where it surrendered).
  • Sarawak Coastal Marine Service
  • Sarawak Volunteer Corps
  • Sarawak Rangers
    The Sarawak Rangers
    The Sarawak Rangers were a para-military force founded in 1862 by the second Rajah of Sarawak, Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke. They evolved from the fortmen which were raised to defend Kuching in 1846...

  • Sarawak Armed Police
  • 35th Fortress Company, Royal Engineers
    Royal Engineers
    The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers , and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army....

  • 6" Guns Battery, Hong Kong and Singapore Royal Artillery

Christmas Island


Commanding Officer : Capt J. Williams
HQ : Christmas Island
Christmas Island
The Territory of Christmas Island is a territory of Australia in the Indian Ocean. It is located northwest of the Western Australian city of Perth, south of the Indonesian capital, Jakarta, and ENE of the Cocos Islands....

  • 6" Gun, Hong Kong and Singapore Royal Artillery

Arrived January - February 1942

  • Line of Communication Troops
  • 44th Indian Infantry Brigade
    44th Indian Infantry Brigade
    The 44th Indian Infantry Brigade was an Infantry formation of the Indian Army during World War II. The brigade was formed in June 1941, at Poona in India and assigned to the 17th Indian Infantry Division. It was transferred to Malaya Command in January 1942, and fought in the Battle of Malaya...

     Brigadier George Cecil Ballentine
  • 6th Battalion 1st Punjab Regiment
    1st Punjab Regiment
    The 1st Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947. It was transferred to the Pakistan Army on Partition of India in 1947, and amalgamated with the 14th, 15th and 16th Punjab Regiments in 1956, to form the Punjab Regiment....

     - Lt.Col.James Dow Sainter MC
  • 6th Battalion 14th Punjab Regiment
    14th Punjab Regiment
    The 14th Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947. It was transferred to the Pakistan Army on Partition of India in 1947, and amalgamated with the 1st, 15th and 16th Punjab Regiments in 1956, to form the Punjab Regiment....

     - Lt.Col.Jack Gronow Davis
  • 7th Battalion 8th Punjab Regiment
    8th Punjab Regiment
    The 8th Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947. It was transferred to Pakistan Army on Partition of India in 1947 and merged with the Baluch Regiment in 1956.-Madras Infantry:...

     - Lt.Col.Willis Southern

  • 45th Indian Infantry Brigade
    45th Indian Infantry Brigade
    The 45th Indian Infantry Brigade was an Infantry formation of the Indian Army during World War II. The brigade was formed in June 1941, at Ahmednagar in India and assigned to the 17th Indian Infantry Division. It was transferred to Malaya Command in January 1942 where it was virtually destroyed in...

     Brigadier Herbert Cecil Duncan
    Herbert Cecil Duncan
    Brigadier General Herbert Cecil Duncan OBE commanded the 45th Indian Infantry Brigade during the Battle of Malaya. Duncan was killed whilst mounting a counter-attack on the Japanese during the retreat from the Muar River . Brig. Gen...

     ( at Battle of Muar
    Battle of Muar
    The Battle of Muar was the last major battle of the Malayan campaign. It took place from 14–22 January 1942 around Gemensah Bridge and on the Muar River...

    )
  • 5th Battalion 18th Royal Garhwal Rifles
    18th Royal Garhwal Rifles
    The 18th Royal Garhwal Rifles was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was formed in 1922, after the Indian government decided to reform the army moving away from single battalion regiments to multi battalion regiments. They were they only Indian Infantry regiment to remain intact...

     - Lt.Col. James H.C.Woolridge ( at Battle of Muar)
  • 7th Battalion 6th Rajputana Rifles
    6th Rajputana Rifles
    The 6th Rajputana Rifles were an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. They were formed in 1922, after the Indian government reformed the army. They moved away from single battalion regiments to multi battalion regiments...

    - Lt.Col. James Albert Lewis ( at Battle of Muar)
  • 4th Battalion 9th Jat Regiment
    9th Jat Regiment
    The 9th Jat Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was formed in 1922, after the Indian government reformed the army, moving from single battalion regiments to multi battalion regiments.-World War II:...

     - Lt.Col. John Whittaker Williams ( at Battle of Muar)
  • 13th Indian Auxiliary Pioneer Battalion

  • 18th (East Anglian) Infantry Division
    British 18th Infantry Division
    For the First World War unit, see 18th Division.The 18th Infantry Division was a Division of the British Army in the Second World War, a duplicate of the 54th Division using mostly units with connections to East Anglia ....

    Major-General Merton Beckwith-Smith
    Merton Beckwith-Smith
    Major-General Merton Beckwith-Smith DSO MC MA was a British Army officer during the First and Second World Wars .- Early career :...

  • 53rd Infantry Brigade
    British 53rd Infantry Brigade
    The 53rd Infantry Brigade was a British Army brigade active in the Second World War.- Unit history :The brigade was part of the British 18th Infantry Division that was sent to Singapore at the beginning of 1942. It was converted from the British 163rd Infantry Brigade on September 18, 1939...

    - Brig.C.L.B. Duke
  • 5th Battalion Royal Norfolk Regiment
    Royal Norfolk Regiment
    The Royal Norfolk Regiment, originally formed as the Norfolk Regiment, was an infantry regiment of the British Army. The Norfolk Regiment was created on 1 July 1881 as the county regiment of Norfolk...

     - Lt.Col.E.C. Prattley
  • 6th Battalion Royal Norfolk Regiment - Lt.Col.Ian C.G. Lywood ( at Alexandra Hospital Massacre)
  • 2nd Battalion The Cambridgeshire Regiment - Lt.Col. Gordon Calthrop Thorne (Died, Indian Ocean while attempting to escape)

  • 54th Infantry Brigade
    British 54th Infantry Brigade
    The 54th Infantry Brigade was a British Army infantry brigade.It was originally part of the 18th Division active on the Western Front during World War I....

     - Brig.E.K.W. Backhouse
  • 4th Battalion Royal Norfolk Regiment - Lt.Col.A.E.Knights
  • 4th Battalion Suffolk Regiment
    Suffolk Regiment
    The Suffolk Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army with a history dating back to 1685. It saw service for three centuries, before being amalgamated with the Royal Norfolk Regiment as the 1st East Anglian Regiment in 1959...

     - Lt.Col.A.A.Johnson
  • 5th Battalion Suffolk Regiment - Lt.Col. Lionel John Baker

  • 55th Infantry Brigade
    British 55th Infantry Brigade
    The British 55th Infantry Brigade was a British Army brigade, part of the British 18th Infantry Division during the Second World War.- History :The brigade was sent to Singapore in 1942 where it was surrendered to the Japanese army.- Organisation :...

     - Brig.Tristram Hugh "Tim" Massy-Beresford
  • 5th Battalion Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment
    Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment
    The Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment was the final title of an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army originally formed in 1688...

     - Lt.Col. D.Rhys Thomas
  • 1/5th Battalion Sherwood Foresters - Lt.Col.H.H.Lilly
  • 1st Battalion The Cambridgeshire Regiment - Lt.Col.Gerald Goodwin Carpenter

  • Divisional Troops
  • 9th Battalion Royal Northumberland Fusiliers
    Royal Northumberland Fusiliers
    The Royal Northumberland Fusiliers was an infantry regiment of the British Army. Originally raised in 1674, the regiment was amalgamated with three other fusilier regiments in 1968 to form the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers.-Origins:...

     (Machine gun battalion) - Lt.Col.Lechmere.C.Thomas
  • 18th Division Recce Corps (5th Bn Loyal Regiment) - Lt.Col.Henry Arnold Fitt

  • Royal Artillery
    Royal Artillery
    The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery , is the artillery arm of the British Army. Despite its name, it comprises a number of regiments.-History:...

  • 88th (2nd West Lancashire) Field Regiment, RA (TA) - Lt.Col.S.C.D'Aubuz
  • 118th (8th London) Field Regiment, RA (TA) - Lt.Col.C.E.Mackellar
  • 135th (Hertfordshire Yeomanry
    Hertfordshire Yeomanry
    The Hertfordshire Yeomanry is a British Army unit specializing in artillery and yeomanry that can trace its formation to the late 18th century. First seeing service in the Boer War, it subsequently served in both World Wars....

    )Field Regiment, RA - Lt.Col.Philip John Denton Toosey
  • 148th (Bedfordshire Yeomanry
    Bedfordshire Yeomanry
    Bedfordshire Yeomanry, a unit of the British Army originally raised in 1797 as a body of independent troops, the Bedfordshire Yeomanry Cavalry was disbanded after the Napoleonic Wars and briefly reformed from 1817 to 1827....

    ) Field Regiment, RA - Lt.Col.S.W.Harris
  • 85th Anti-Tank Regiment, RA - Lt.Col.A.J.Lardner-Clarke
  • 125th (Northumbrian) Anti-Tank Regiment, RA - Lt.Col.J.Dean

  • Royal Engineers
    Royal Engineers
    The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers , and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army....

  • 287th Field Company
  • 288th Field Company
  • 560th Field Company
  • 251st Field Park Company

Allied Air Force units in Malaya December 1941


There were 161 front line aircraft, including 3 Royal Netherlands Air Force
Royal Netherlands Air Force
The Royal Netherlands Air Force , Dutch Koninklijke Luchtmacht , is the military aviation branch of the Netherlands Armed Forces. Its ancestor, the Luchtvaartafdeling of the Dutch Army was founded on 1 July 1913, with four pilots...

 Catalina flying boats, based in Malaya and on Singapore Island on 8 December 1941. These units came under the control of Far East Air Force (Royal Air Force) under the command of Air Vice Marshal C.W.H.Pulford until February 1942 when Air Vice Marshal P.C.Maltby took command.

Based on Singapore Island


  • RAF Selatar
    Seletar Airport
    "RAF Seletar" & "Seletar Airbase/Airfield" redirects here.Seletar Airport is a civilian airport located at Seletar, in the northeastern region of Singapore, and is managed by the Changi Airport Group...

    ;
  • No. 36 Squadron RAF
    No. 36 Squadron RAF
    No. 36 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps was formed at Cramlington on February 1, 1916 and was disbanded for the last time in 1975.-First World War:No...

     - 6x Vickers Vildebeest
    Vickers Vildebeest
    The Vickers Vildebeest and the similar Vickers Vincent were two very large two- to three-seat single-engined British biplanes designed and built by Vickers and used as a light bomber, torpedo bomber and in the army cooperation roles...

  • No. 100 Squadron RAF
    No. 100 Squadron RAF
    No. 100 Squadron of the Royal Air Force is based at RAF Leeming in North Yorkshire, UK, and operates the Hawker-Siddeley Hawk.-World War I:No. 100 was established on 23 February 1917 at Hingham in Norfolk as the Royal Flying Corps' first squadron formed specifically as a night bombing unit and...

     - 12x Vickers Vildebeest
  • No. 205 Squadron RAF
    No. 205 Squadron RAF
    No. 205 Squadron was a Royal Air Force unit formed on 1 April 1918. Prior to this it had existed as No. 5 Squadron of the Royal Naval Air Service. In 1929, it became the first RAF squadron to be permanently based in Singapore, taking as its motto Pertama di Malaya . No...

     - 3x PBY Catalina
    PBY Catalina
    The Consolidated PBY Catalina was an American flying boat of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft. It was one of the most widely used multi-role aircraft of World War II. PBYs served with every branch of the United States Armed Forces and in the air forces and navies of many other...


  • RAF Tengah;
  • No. 34 Squadron RAF
    No. 34 Squadron RAF
    No. 34 Squadron RAF was a squadron of the Royal Air Force. During the First World War it operated as a reconnaissance and bomber squadron, and in the 1930s operated light bombers...

     - 16x Bristol Blenheim IV

  • RAF Sembawang;
  • No. 453 Squadron RAAF
    No. 453 Squadron RAAF
    No. 453 Squadron is a Royal Australian Air Force air traffic control unit. It was first was formed at Bankstown in New South Wales on 23 May 1941 during World War II and was disbanded in March 1942 after suffering heavy losses in combat during the Battle of Malaya...

     - 16x Brewster Buffalo
    Brewster Buffalo
    The Brewster F2A Buffalo was an American fighter aircraft which saw limited service early in World War II. Though the Buffalo won a competition against the Grumman F4F Wildcat in 1939 to become the US Navy's first monoplane fighter aircraft, it turned out to be a big disappointment...


  • RAF Kallang;
  • No. 243 Squadron RAF
    No. 243 Squadron RAF
    RAF 243 Squadron was a RAF squadron in World War II which was based at Kallang Airport in Singapore, and fought during the Battle of Singapore in 1941-42 with the inadequate Brewster Buffalo fighter....

     - 14x Brewster Buffalo
  • No. 488 Squadron RNZAF
    No. 488 Squadron RNZAF
    488 Squadron was the name given to two distinct Royal New Zealand Air Force squadrons during the Second World War. Both were formed under Article XV of the Empire Air Training Scheme and served under the operational command of the Royal Air Force....

     - 16x Brewster Buffalo

Based in Northern Malaya

  • Sungei Patani;
  • No. 21 Squadron RAAF
    No. 21 Squadron RAAF
    No. 21 Squadron is a Royal Australian Air Force general reserve squadron. It saw action as a fighter, dive bomber and heavy bomber unit during World War II.-History:...

     - 12x Brewster Buffalo
  • No. 27 Squadron RAF
    No. 27 Squadron RAF
    No. 27 Squadron of the Royal Air Force operates the Boeing Chinook HC2 from RAF Odiham.-The Great War:27 Squadron formed at Hounslow Heath Aerodrome on 5 November 1915, soon being equipped with Martinsyde Elephant fighter aircraft, hence the use of an elephant for the squadron badge...

     - 12x Bristol Blenheim I

  • RAF Kota Bharu
    RAF Kota Bharu
    RAF Kota Bharu was a former Royal Air Force WWII airfield at Kota Bharu, Malaysia. The airfield was occupied by the Imperial Japanese in December 1941 during World War II. It is now Sultan Ismail Petra Airport....

    ;
  • No. 1 Squadron RAAF
    No. 1 Squadron RAAF
    No. 1 Squadron is a Royal Australian Air Force squadron based at RAAF Amberley. The squadron is currently being re-equipped with F/A-18F Super Hornet multi-role fighters.-World War I:...

     - 12x Lockheed Hudson
    Lockheed Hudson
    The Lockheed Hudson was an American-built light bomber and coastal reconnaissance aircraft built initially for the Royal Air Force shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War and primarily operated by the RAF thereafter...

  • Detachment from No. 243 Squadron RAF - 2x Brewster Buffalo

  • Gong Kedak;
  • Detachment from No. 36 Squadron RAF - 6x Vickers Videbeest

  • RAF Kuantan;
  • No. 8 Squadron RAAF
    No. 8 Squadron RAAF
    No. 8 Squadron was a Royal Australian Air Force flying training squadron of World War I and medium bomber squadron of World War II. The Squadron was first formed in October 1917 and was disbanded in January 1946 after seeing action during the Pacific War....

     - 12x Lockheed Hudsons
  • No. 60 Squadron RAF
    No. 60 Squadron RAF
    No. 60 Squadron of the Royal Air Force was formed in 1916 at Gosport. It is currently part of the Defence Helicopter Flying School based at RAF Shawbury in Shropshire....

     - 8x Bristol Blenheims

  • Alor Star;
  • No. 62 Squadron RAF
    No. 62 Squadron RAF
    -World War I:No. 62 Squadron RAF was formed on 8 August 1916, at Filton from No. 7 Training Squadron. In May 1917 it equipped with the Bristol F2B, before being posted to France in January 1918. The squadron operated as fighter-reconnaissance unit until disbanding on 31 July 1919. Its wartime...

     - 11x Bristol Blenheims

Commanders-in-Chief


Commanders-in-Chief have included:


GOC Troops in the Straits Settlements
  • 1903 - 1905 Major-General Arthur Dorward
    Arthur Dorward (British Army officer)
    Major-General Sir Arthur Robert Ford Dorward KCB DSO was a British Army officer who commanded the Troops in the Straits Settlements.-Military career:...

  • 1905 - 1907 Major-General Inigo Jones
    Inigo Jones (British Army officer)
    Major-General Inigo Richmund Jones CB CVO was a British Army officer who commanded the Troops in the Straits Settlements.-Military career:...

  • 1907 - 1910 Major-General Thomas Perrott
    Thomas Perrott
    Major-General Sir Thomas Perrott KCB was a British Army officer who commanded the Troops in the Straits Settlements.-Military career:Perrott was commissioned into the Royal Artillery in 1870...

  • 1910 - 1914 Major-General Theodore Stephenson
    Theodore Stephenson
    Major-General Theodore Edward Stephenson CB was a British Army officer who commanded 2nd Division.-Military career:Educated at Marlborough College, Stephenson was commissioned into the 56th Regiment of Foot in 1874. He served in the Second Boer War in which he commanded a column which took part in...

  • 1914 - 1915 Major-General Raymond Reade
    Raymond Northland Revell Reade
    Major General Raymond Northland Revell Reade CB, CMG was a soldier and Commandant of the Royal Military College of Canada.-Family:He was the grandson of Thomas Knox, the second Earl of Ranfurly...

  • 1915 - 1921 Major-General Sir Dudley Ridout
    Dudley Howard Ridout
    Major-General Sir Dudley Howard Ridout KBE, CB, CMG was a British soldier of the Royal Engineers.-Background:He was born in 1866. His father, Major Joseph B. Ridout was a British soldier who served on the Bhutan expedition with the 80th Regiment 1864-5...

  • 1921 - 1924 Major-General Sir Neill Malcolm
    Neill Malcolm
    Major-General Sir Neill Malcolm KCB DSO was a British Army officer who commanded the Troops in the Straits Settlements.-Military career:...


GOC Malaya Command
  • 1924 - 1927 Major-General Sir Theodore Fraser
    Theodore Fraser
    Major-General Sir Theodore Fraser KCB, CSI, CMG , was a British soldier of the Royal Engineers, serving for most of his career with the Indian Army. He was born on 15 June 1865 in Inverness, Scotland to parents Rev. Donald Fraser D.D...

  • 1927 - 1929 Major-General Sir Casimir van Straubenzee
    Casimir Cartwright van Straubenzee
    Major-General Sir Casimir Cartwright van Straubenzee KBE CB CMG , was a British soldier of the Royal Engineers.-Education and career:...

  • 1929 - 1931 Major-General Harry Pritchard
    Harry Pritchard
    Major-General Harry Lionel Pritchard CB CMG DSO was General Officer Commanding Malaya Command.-Military career:Educated at Charterhouse School, Pritchard was commissioned into the Royal Engineers in 1891...

  • 1931 - 1934 Major-General Sir Louis Oldfield
    Louis Oldfield
    Major-General Sir Leopold Charles Louis Oldfield KBE CB CMG DSO was General Officer Commanding Malaya Command.-Military career:Educated at Clifton College, Oldfield was commissioned into the Royal Artillery in 1892...

  • 1934 - 1935 Major-General Ernest Lewin
    Ernest Lewin
    Major-General Ernest Ord Lewin CB CMG DSO was General Officer Commanding Malaya Command.-Military career:Ernest Lewin was educated at Winchester College, for whom he played cricket, and King's College, Cambridge. Lewin was commissioned into the Royal Artillery in 1900...

  • 1935 - 1939 Major-General Sir William Dobbie
    William Dobbie
    Lieutenant-General Sir William George Shedden Dobbie GCMG, KCB, DSO was a British Army veteran of the Second Boer War, and First and Second World Wars.-Early life:...

  • 1939 - 1941 Lieutenant-General Sir Lionel Bond
  • 1941 - 1942 Lieutenant-General Arthur Percival
Note from 1943 to 1945 Malaya was under Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

ese control
  • Nov - Dec 1945 Lieutenant-General Sir Miles Dempsey
    Miles Dempsey
    General Sir Miles Christopher Dempsey, GBE, KCB, DSO, MC was commander of the British Second Army during the D-Day landings in the Second World War...

  • 1945 - 1946 Lieutenant-General Sir Frank Messervy
    Frank Messervy
    General Sir Frank Walter Messervy, KCSI, KBE, CB, DSO & Bar, , was a British Indian Army officer in both the First and Second World Wars...

  • 1946 - 1947 Lieutenant-General Sir Alexander Galloway
    Alexander Galloway
    Lieutenant-General Sir Alexander Galloway KBE, CB, DSO, MC was an officer in the British Army during World War I and World War II...


GOC Malaya District
  • 1947 - 1948 Major-General Ashton Wade
    Ashton Wade
    Major-General Ashton Wade CB OBE MC was a British Army officer who led Malaya District after World War II.-Military career:...

  • 1948 - 1950 Major-General Sir Charles Boucher
    Charles Hamilton Boucher
    Major-General Sir Charles Boucher KBE CB DSO and bar was an officer in the British Indian Army during World War II.-Military career:Boucher was commissioned into the 2nd King Edward VII's Own Gurkha Rifles in 1916....


GOC Malaya
  • 1950 - 1952 Major-General Roy Urquhart
    Roy Urquhart
    Major General Robert "Roy" Elliott Urquhart, CB, DSO was a British military officer. He became prominent for his role commanding the British 1st Airborne Division during Operation Market Garden.-Early career:...

  • 1952 - 1954 Major-General Sir Hugh Stockwell
    Hugh Stockwell
    General Sir Hugh Charles Stockwell GCB, KBE, DSO & Bar was a British soldier, most remembered for commanding the Anglo-French ground forces during the Suez Crisis and his service as Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe of NATO from 1960 to 1964.-Early life:Stockwell was born in Jersey, but spent...

  • 1954 - 1956 Lieutenant-General Sir Geoffrey Bourne
    Geoffrey Bourne, Baron Bourne
    General Geoffrey Kemp Bourne, Baron Bourne GCB, KBE, CMG was a British soldier.-Military career:Commissioned into the Royal Artillery in 1923, Bourne served in Hong Kong from 1930 to 1932, in Gibraltar from 1933 and 1934, in the Staff College, Camberley in 1935 and 1936, and in Colchester in 1937...

  • 1956 - 1957 Lieutenant-General Sir Roger Bower

Further reading