Henry Baker Tristram
The Reverend Henry Baker Tristram FRS (11 May 1822 – 8 March 1906) was an English
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 clergyman, Biblical scholar, traveller and ornithologist.

Tristram was born at Eglingham
Eglingham is a village in Northumberland, England, situated about north-west of Alnwick and from Wooler. It lies in the sheltered valley of the Eglingham Burn, a tributary of the River Aln, about above sea level, in a rural conservation area set amongst rolling countryside, within of the...

 vicarage, near Alnwick
Alnwick is a small market town in north Northumberland, England. The town's population was just over 8000 at the time of the 2001 census and Alnwick's district population was 31,029....

, Northumberland
Northumberland is the northernmost ceremonial county and a unitary district in North East England. For Eurostat purposes Northumberland is a NUTS 3 region and is one of three boroughs or unitary districts that comprise the "Northumberland and Tyne and Wear" NUTS 2 region...

, and studied at Durham School
Durham School
Durham School, headmaster Martin George , is an independent British day and boarding school for boys and girls in Durham....

 and Lincoln College, Oxford
Lincoln College, Oxford
Lincoln College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. It is situated on Turl Street in central Oxford, backing onto Brasenose College and adjacent to Exeter College...

. In 1846 he was ordained a priest, but he suffered from tuberculosis
Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body...

 and was forced to live abroad for his health. He was secretary to the governor of Bermuda
Bermuda is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. Located off the east coast of the United States, its nearest landmass is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, about to the west-northwest. It is about south of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and northeast of Miami, Florida...

 from 1847 to 1849. He explored the Sahara
The Sahara is the world's second largest desert, after Antarctica. At over , it covers most of Northern Africa, making it almost as large as Europe or the United States. The Sahara stretches from the Red Sea, including parts of the Mediterranean coasts, to the outskirts of the Atlantic Ocean...

 desert, and in 1858 visited Palestine
Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

, returning there in 1863 and 1872, and dividing his time between natural history observations and identifying Scripture localities. In 1873 he became canon of Durham Cathedral
Durham Cathedral
The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham is a cathedral in the city of Durham, England, the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Durham. The Bishopric dates from 995, with the present cathedral being founded in AD 1093...

. In 1881 he travelled again to Palestine, the Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran.Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the...

, and Armenia
Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

. He also made a voyage to Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 to visit his daughter, Katherine Alice Salvin Tristram (1858–1948), who was a missionary
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism or ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin...

 & teacher in Osaka
is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

, Japan, where the famous Church Missionary Society (CMS) School for Girls was opened in 1879, and developed under her guidance between 1888 and 1925.

Edward Bartlett
Edward Bartlett
Edward Bartlett was an English ornithologist. He was the son of Abraham Dee Bartlett.Bartlett accompanied Henry Baker Tristram to Palestine in 1863-64, and collected in the Amazon basin and Peru in 1865-69...

 (1836–1908) who was an English ornithologist, (the son of Abraham Dee Bartlett
Abraham Dee Bartlett
Abraham Dee Bartlett was a British zoologist.Bartlett had a small natural history shop near to the British Museum where he sold the products of his taxidermy business....

, had accompanied Henry Baker Tristram to Palestine in 1863–1864.

Tristram was a founder and original member of the British Ornithologists' Union
British Ornithologists' Union
The British Ornithologists' Union aims to encourage the study of birds in Britain, Europe and elsewhere, in order to understand their biology and to aid their conservation....

, and appointed a fellow of the Royal Society
Royal Society
The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, known simply as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science, and is possibly the oldest such society in existence. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a Royal Charter by King Charles II as the "Royal Society of London"...

 in 1868. His travels and contacts enabled him to accumulate an extensive collection of bird skins, which he sold to the World Museum Liverpool
World Museum Liverpool
World Museum is a large museum in Liverpool, England which has extensive collections covering archaeology, ethnology and the natural and physical sciences. Special attractions include the Natural History Centre and a free Planetarium. Entry to the museum itself is also free...


Tristram's publications included The Great Sahara (1860), The Land of Israel, a Journal of Travels with Reference to Its Physical History (1865), The Natural History of the Bible (1867), The Daughters of Syria (1872), Land of Moab (1874), Pathways of Palestine (1882), The Fauna and Flora of Palestine (1884), Eastern Customs in Bible Lands (1894) and Rambles in Japan (1895).

A number of birds were named after him, including Tristram's Starling (also Tristram's Grackle), Tristram's Warbler
Tristram's Warbler
The Tristram's Warbler is a species of Old World warbler in the Sylviidae family.It is found in Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, and Western Sahara.Its natural habitat is subtropical dry shrubland.-References:...

, Tristram's Woodpecker
Tristram's Woodpecker
The Tristram's Woodpecker is a rare Korean subspecies of the White-bellied Woodpecker. It was discovered and described by English scholar and ornithologist Henry Baker Tristram in 1879....

, Tristram's Serin
Syrian Serin
The Syrian Serin is a brightly coloured small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.- Description :The Syrian Serin is prettily coloured with bright yellow and pale grey feathers. The eyes are large and are surrounded by a bright yellow ring. The beak is grey and the legs are pale...

 and Tristram's Storm-petrel
Tristram's Storm-petrel
The Tristram's Storm Petrel is a species of seabird in the storm-petrel family Hydrobatidae. The species' common and scientific name is derived from the English clergyman Henry Baker Tristram, although the species is also known as the Sooty Storm-petrel...

. He also lent his name to the gerbil Meriones tristrami.

External links

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