Differential (mathematics)

Differential (mathematics)

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In mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

, the term differential has several meanings.

Basic notions

  • In calculus
    Calculus
    Calculus is a branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus, which are related by the fundamental theorem...

    , the differential
    Differential of a function
    In calculus, the differential represents the principal part of the change in a function y = ƒ with respect to changes in the independent variable. The differential dy is defined bydy = f'\,dx,...

     represents a change in the linearization
    Linearization
    In mathematics and its applications, linearization refers to finding the linear approximation to a function at a given point. In the study of dynamical systems, linearization is a method for assessing the local stability of an equilibrium point of a system of nonlinear differential equations or...

     of a function
    Function (mathematics)
    In mathematics, a function associates one quantity, the argument of the function, also known as the input, with another quantity, the value of the function, also known as the output. A function assigns exactly one output to each input. The argument and the value may be real numbers, but they can...

    .
  • In traditional approaches to calculus, the differentials (e.g. dx, dy, dt etc...) are interpreted as infinitesimal
    Infinitesimal
    Infinitesimals have been used to express the idea of objects so small that there is no way to see them or to measure them. The word infinitesimal comes from a 17th century Modern Latin coinage infinitesimus, which originally referred to the "infinite-th" item in a series.In common speech, an...

    s. Although infinitesimals are difficult to give a precise definition, there are several ways to make sense of them rigorously.
  • The differential
    Total derivative
    In the mathematical field of differential calculus, the term total derivative has a number of closely related meanings.The total derivative of a function f, of several variables, e.g., t, x, y, etc., with respect to one of its input variables, e.g., t, is different from the partial derivative...

     is another name for the Jacobian matrix of partial derivative
    Partial derivative
    In mathematics, a partial derivative of a function of several variables is its derivative with respect to one of those variables, with the others held constant...

    s of a function from Rn to Rm (especially when this matrix
    Matrix (mathematics)
    In mathematics, a matrix is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions. The individual items in a matrix are called its elements or entries. An example of a matrix with six elements isMatrices of the same size can be added or subtracted element by element...

     is viewed as a linear map).
  • More generally, the differential or pushforward refers to the derivative of a map between smooth manifolds and the pushforward operations it defines. The differential is also used to define the dual concept of pullback.
  • Stochastic calculus
    Stochastic calculus
    Stochastic calculus is a branch of mathematics that operates on stochastic processes. It allows a consistent theory of integration to be defined for integrals of stochastic processes with respect to stochastic processes...

     provides a notion of stochastic differential and an associated calculus for stochastic process
    Stochastic process
    In probability theory, a stochastic process , or sometimes random process, is the counterpart to a deterministic process...

    es.
  • The integrator
    Integrator
    An integrator is a device to perform the mathematical operation known as integration, a fundamental operation in calculus.The integration function is often part of engineering, physics, mechanical, chemical and scientific calculations....

     in a Stieltjes integral is represented as the differential of a function. Formally, the differential appearing under the integral behaves exactly as a differential: thus, the integration by substitution
    Integration by substitution
    In calculus, integration by substitution is a method for finding antiderivatives and integrals. Using the fundamental theorem of calculus often requires finding an antiderivative. For this and other reasons, integration by substitution is an important tool for mathematicians...

     and integration by parts
    Integration by parts
    In calculus, and more generally in mathematical analysis, integration by parts is a rule that transforms the integral of products of functions into other integrals...

     formulae for Stieltjes integral correspond, respectively, to the chain rule
    Chain rule
    In calculus, the chain rule is a formula for computing the derivative of the composition of two or more functions. That is, if f is a function and g is a function, then the chain rule expresses the derivative of the composite function in terms of the derivatives of f and g.In integration, the...

     and product rule
    Product rule
    In calculus, the product rule is a formula used to find the derivatives of products of two or more functions. It may be stated thus:'=f'\cdot g+f\cdot g' \,\! or in the Leibniz notation thus:...

     for the differential.

Differential geometry


The notion of a differential motivates several concepts in differential geometry (and differential topology
Differential topology
In mathematics, differential topology is the field dealing with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds. It is closely related to differential geometry and together they make up the geometric theory of differentiable manifolds.- Description :...

).
  • Differential form
    Differential form
    In the mathematical fields of differential geometry and tensor calculus, differential forms are an approach to multivariable calculus that is independent of coordinates. Differential forms provide a better definition for integrands in calculus...

    s provide a framework which accommodates multiplication and differentiation of differentials.
  • The exterior derivative
    Exterior derivative
    In differential geometry, the exterior derivative extends the concept of the differential of a function, which is a 1-form, to differential forms of higher degree. Its current form was invented by Élie Cartan....

     is a notion of differentiation of differential forms which generalizes the differential
    Total derivative
    In the mathematical field of differential calculus, the term total derivative has a number of closely related meanings.The total derivative of a function f, of several variables, e.g., t, x, y, etc., with respect to one of its input variables, e.g., t, is different from the partial derivative...

     of a function (which is a differential 1-form).
  • Pullback is, in particular, a geometric name for the chain rule
    Chain rule
    In calculus, the chain rule is a formula for computing the derivative of the composition of two or more functions. That is, if f is a function and g is a function, then the chain rule expresses the derivative of the composite function in terms of the derivatives of f and g.In integration, the...

     for composing a map between manifolds with a differential form on the target manifold.
  • Covariant derivatives or differentials
    Covariant derivative
    In mathematics, the covariant derivative is a way of specifying a derivative along tangent vectors of a manifold. Alternatively, the covariant derivative is a way of introducing and working with a connection on a manifold by means of a differential operator, to be contrasted with the approach given...

     provide a general notion for differentiating of vector field
    Vector field
    In vector calculus, a vector field is an assignmentof a vector to each point in a subset of Euclidean space. A vector field in the plane for instance can be visualized as an arrow, with a given magnitude and direction, attached to each point in the plane...

    s and tensor field
    Tensor field
    In mathematics, physics and engineering, a tensor field assigns a tensor to each point of a mathematical space . Tensor fields are used in differential geometry, algebraic geometry, general relativity, in the analysis of stress and strain in materials, and in numerous applications in the physical...

    s on a manifold, or, more generally, sections of a vector bundle
    Vector bundle
    In mathematics, a vector bundle is a topological construction that makes precise the idea of a family of vector spaces parameterized by another space X : to every point x of the space X we associate a vector space V in such a way that these vector spaces fit together...

    : see Connection (vector bundle)
    Connection (vector bundle)
    In mathematics, a connection on a fiber bundle is a device that defines a notion of parallel transport on the bundle; that is, a way to "connect" or identify fibers over nearby points. If the fiber bundle is a vector bundle, then the notion of parallel transport is required to be linear...

    . This ultimately leads to the general concept of a connection
    Connection (mathematics)
    In geometry, the notion of a connection makes precise the idea of transporting data along a curve or family of curves in a parallel and consistent manner. There are a variety of kinds of connections in modern geometry, depending on what sort of data one wants to transport...

    .

Algebraic geometry


Differentials are also important in algebraic geometry
Algebraic geometry
Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics which combines techniques of abstract algebra, especially commutative algebra, with the language and the problems of geometry. It occupies a central place in modern mathematics and has multiple conceptual connections with such diverse fields as complex...

, and there are several important notions.
  • Abelian differentials usually refer to differential one-forms on an algebraic curve
    Algebraic curve
    In algebraic geometry, an algebraic curve is an algebraic variety of dimension one. The theory of these curves in general was quite fully developed in the nineteenth century, after many particular examples had been considered, starting with circles and other conic sections.- Plane algebraic curves...

     or Riemann surface
    Riemann surface
    In mathematics, particularly in complex analysis, a Riemann surface, first studied by and named after Bernhard Riemann, is a one-dimensional complex manifold. Riemann surfaces can be thought of as "deformed versions" of the complex plane: locally near every point they look like patches of the...

    .
  • Quadratic differential
    Quadratic differential
    In mathematics, a quadratic differential on a Riemann surface is a section of the symmetric square of the holomorphic cotangent bundle.If the section is holomorphic, then the quadratic differentialis said to be holomorphic...

    s (which behave like "squares" of abelian differentials) are also important in the theory of Riemann surfaces.
  • Kahler differential
    Kähler differential
    In mathematics, Kähler differentials provide an adaptation of differential forms to arbitrary commutative rings or schemes.-Presentation:The idea was introduced by Erich Kähler in the 1930s...

    s provide a general notion of differential in algebraic geometry

Other meanings


The term differential has also been adopted in homological algebra and algebraic topology, because of the role the exterior derivative plays in de Rham cohomology: in a cochain complex , the maps (or coboundary operators) di are often called differentials. Dually, the boundary operators in a chain complex are sometimes called codifferentials.

The properties of the differential also motivate the algebraic notions of a derivation
Derivation (abstract algebra)
In abstract algebra, a derivation is a function on an algebra which generalizes certain features of the derivative operator. Specifically, given an algebra A over a ring or a field K, a K-derivation is a K-linear map D: A → A that satisfies Leibniz's law: D = b + a.More...

and a differential algebra
Differential algebra
In mathematics, differential rings, differential fields, and differential algebras are rings, fields, and algebras equipped with a derivation, which is a unary function that is linear and satisfies the Leibniz product law...

.