Dachau concentration camp

Dachau concentration camp

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Dachau concentration camp was the first Nazi concentration camp opened in Germany, located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory near the medieval town of Dachau
Dachau
Dachau is a town in Upper Bavaria, in the southern part of Germany. It is a major district town—a Große Kreisstadt—of the administrative region of Upper Bavaria, about 20 km north-west of Munich. It is now a popular residential area for people working in Munich with roughly 40,000 inhabitants...

, about 16 km (9.9 mi) northwest of Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

 in the state of Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

, which is located in southern Germany. Opened 22 March 1933 (51 days after Hitler took power), it was the first regular concentration camp established by the coalition government of the National Socialist Party (Nazi Party) and the German Nationalist People's Party (dissolved on 6 July 1933). Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler was Reichsführer of the SS, a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party. As Chief of the German Police and the Minister of the Interior from 1943, Himmler oversaw all internal and external police and security forces, including the Gestapo...

, then Chief of Police
Chief of police
A Chief of Police is the title typically given to the top official in the chain of command of a police department, particularly in North America. Alternate titles for this position include Commissioner, Superintendent, and Chief constable...

 of Munich, officially described the camp as "the first concentration camp for political prisoners."

General overview


Dachau served as a prototype and model for the other Nazi concentration camps that followed. Almost every community in Germany had members taken away to these camps. Newspapers continually reported of "the removal of the enemies of the Reich to concentration camps", and as early as 1935 there were jingles warning: "Dear God, make me dumb, that I may not to Dachau come" ("Lieber Gott, mach mich dumm, damit ich nicht nach Dachau kumm").

The camp's basic organization: layout as well as building plans, were developed by Kommandant
Commandant
Commandant is a senior title often given to the officer in charge of a large training establishment or academy. This usage is common in anglophone nations...

 Theodor Eicke
Theodor Eicke
Theodor Eicke was a SS Obergruppenführer , commander of the SS-Division Totenkopf of the Waffen-SS and one of the key figures in the establishment of concentration camps in Nazi Germany. His Nazi Party number was 114,901 and his SS number was 2,921...

 and were applied to all later camps. He had a separate secure camp near the command center, which consisted of living quarters, administration, and army camps. Eicke himself became the chief inspector for all concentration camps, responsible for molding the others according to his model.

The entrance gate to this concentration camp carries the words "Arbeit macht frei
Arbeit macht frei
"'" is a German phrase, literally "work makes free," meaning "work sets you free" or "work liberates". The slogan is known for having been placed over the entrances to a number of Nazi concentration camps during the Holocaust, including most infamously Auschwitz I, where it was made by prisoners...

", meaning "work will liberate".

The camp was in use from 1933 to 1960, the first twelve years as an internment center of the Third Reich. From 1933 to 1938 the prisoners were mainly German nationals detained for political reasons. Subsequently the camp was used for prisoners of all sorts from every nation occupied by the forces of the Third Reich. From 1945 through 1948 the camp was used as a prison for SS officers awaiting trial. After 1948 the German population expelled from Czechoslovakia were housed there and it was also a base of the United States. It was closed in 1960 and thereafter, at the insistence of ex-prisoners, various memorials began to be constructed there.

Estimates of the demographic statistics vary but they are in the same general range. History may never know how many people were interned there or died there, due to periods of disruption. One source gives a general estimate of over 200,000 prisoners from more than 30 countries for the Third Reich's years, of whom two-thirds were political prisoners and nearly one-third were Jews. 25,613 prisoners are believed to have died in the camp and almost another 10,000 in its subcamps, primarily from disease, malnutrition and suicide. In early 1945, there was a typhus epidemic in the camp due to influx from other camps causing overcrowding, followed by an evacuation, in which large numbers of the weaker prisoners died. Toward the end of the war death marches to and from the camp caused the expiration of large but unknown numbers of prisoners. Even after liberation, prisoners weakened beyond recovery continued to die.

Over its twelve years as a concentration camp, the Dachau administration recorded the intake of 206,206 prisoners and 31,951 deaths. Crematoria were constructed to dispose of the deceased. These numbers do not tell the entire story, however. Although there is no evidence of mass murder within the camp — by methods other than poor sanitation, deprivation of medical care, withholding of nutrients, medical experiments, or beatings and shootings for infractions of the rules or at random — beginning in 1942 more than 3166 prisoners in weakened condition were transported to Hartheim Castle near Linz
Linz
Linz is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria . It is located in the north centre of Austria, approximately south of the Czech border, on both sides of the river Danube. The population of the city is , and that of the Greater Linz conurbation is about...

 and there were executed by poison gas for reason of their unfitness. In 1941 and 1942 an unknown number of prisoners of war from the Soviet Union were executed by shooting at the camp's surrounding firing ranges, some for target practice and for sport.

Together with the much larger Auschwitz
Auschwitz concentration camp
Concentration camp Auschwitz was a network of Nazi concentration and extermination camps built and operated by the Third Reich in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II...

, Dachau has come to symbolize the Nazi concentration camps to many people. Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau holds a significant place in public memory because it was the second camp to be liberated by British or American forces. Therefore, it was one of the first places where these previously unknown Nazi
Nazism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

 practices were exposed to the Western world through firsthand journalist accounts and through newsreels.

Purpose


Once the Nazis came to power they quickly moved to ruthlessly suppress all real or potential opposition. For example, between 1933 and 1945, the Sondergerichte
Sondergerichte
A Sondergericht was a Nazi "special court." After taking power in 1933, the Nazis quickly moved to remove internal opposition to the Nazi regime in Germany. The legal system became one of many tools for this aim and the Nazis gradually supplanted the normal justice system with political courts...

 which were "special courts" set up by the Nazi regime killed 12,000 Germans. Especially during the first years of their existence these courts "had a strong deterrent effect" against opposition to the Nazis, the German public was intimidated through "arbitrary psychological terror".

Use of the word concentration comes from the idea of concentrating a group of people who are in some way undesirable in one place, where they can be watched by those who incarcerated them. Concentration camps had in the past been used by the U.S. against native Americans, the British in the Boer Wars, and others. The term originated in the "reconcentration camps" set up in Cuba by General Valeriano Weyler in 1897.

Dachau was opened in March 1933, The press statement given at the opening stated:
"On Wednesday the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau with an accommodation for 5000 people. 'All Communists and—where necessary—Reichsbanner and Social Democratic functionaries who endanger state security are to be concentrated here, as in the long run it is not possible to keep individual functionaries in the state prisons without overburdening these prisons, and on the other hand these people cannot be released because attempts have shown that they persist in their efforts to agitate and organise as soon as they are released.'



Dachau was the first regular concentration camp established by the coalition government of National Socialist Party (Nazi Party) and the German Nationalist People's Party (dissolved on 6 July 1933). Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler was Reichsführer of the SS, a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party. As Chief of the German Police and the Minister of the Interior from 1943, Himmler oversaw all internal and external police and security forces, including the Gestapo...

, Chief of Police
Chief of police
A Chief of Police is the title typically given to the top official in the chain of command of a police department, particularly in North America. Alternate titles for this position include Commissioner, Superintendent, and Chief constable...

 of Munich, officially described the camp as "the first concentration camp for political prisoners."

Between the years 1933 and 1945 more than 3.5 million Germans would be forced to spend time in these concentration camps or prison for political reasons, and approximately 77,000 Germans were killed for one or another form of resistance by Special Courts
Sondergerichte
A Sondergericht was a Nazi "special court." After taking power in 1933, the Nazis quickly moved to remove internal opposition to the Nazi regime in Germany. The legal system became one of many tools for this aim and the Nazis gradually supplanted the normal justice system with political courts...

, courts martial, and the civil justice system. Many of these Germans had served in government, the military, or in civil positions, which enabled them to engage in subversion
Subversion
Apache Subversion is a software versioning and a revision control system distributed under a free license. Developers use Subversion to maintain current and historical versions of files such as source code, web pages, and documentation...

 and conspiracy against the Nazis.

Following the Holocaust, the term "concentration camp" carries many of the connotations of "extermination camp" and is sometimes used synonymously. Because of these negative connotations, the term "concentration camp", originally itself a euphemism, has been replaced by newer euphemisms such as internment camp, resettlement camp, detention facility, etc., regardless of the actual circumstances of the camp, which can vary a great deal.

Organization



The camp was divided into two sections: the camp area and the crematorium. The camp area consisted of 69 barracks, including one for clergy imprisoned for opposing the Nazi regime and one reserved for medical experiments. The courtyard between the prison and the central kitchen was used for the summary execution of prisoners. The camp was surrounded by an electrified barbed-wire gate, a ditch, and a wall with seven guard towers.

In early 1937, the SS
Schutzstaffel
The Schutzstaffel |Sig runes]]) was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Built upon the Nazi ideology, the SS under Heinrich Himmler's command was responsible for many of the crimes against humanity during World War II...

, using prisoner labor, initiated construction of a large complex of buildings on the grounds of the original camp. The construction was officially completed in mid-August 1938 and the camp remained essentially unchanged and in operation until 1945. Dachau thus was the longest running concentration camp of the Third Reich. The area in Dachau included other SS facilities beside the concentration camp—a leader school of the economic and civil service, the medical school of the SS, etc. The KZ at that time was called a "protective custody camp," and occupied less than half of the area of the entire complex.

Demographics



The camp was originally designed for holding German political prisoners and Jews, but in 1935 it also began to hold ordinary criminals. During the war it came to also include other nationalities such as French, in 1940 Poles, 1941 people from the Balkans, and in 1942 Russians.

Before the war the biggest groups of inmates were Germans, Austrians, and Jews. During the War the biggest groups were, in order of size; Poles, Russians, French, Yugoslavs, Jews, and Czechs.

Inside the camp there was a sharp division between the two groups of prisoners; those who were there for political reasons and therefore wore a red tag, and the criminals, who wore a green tag.

The average number of Germans in the camp during the war was 3000. Just before the liberation many German prisoners were evacuated, but 2000 of these Germans died during the evacuation transport. Evacuated prisoners included famous political and religious hostages held in Dachau, such as Martin Niemöller
Martin Niemöller
Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemöller was a German anti-Nazi theologian and Lutheran pastor. He is best known as the author of the poem "First they came…"....

, Kurt von Schuschnigg, Édouard Daladier
Édouard Daladier
Édouard Daladier was a French Radical politician and the Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War.-Career:Daladier was born in Carpentras, Vaucluse. Later, he would become known to many as "the bull of Vaucluse" because of his thick neck and large shoulders and determined...

, Léon Blum
Léon Blum
André Léon Blum was a French politician, usually identified with the moderate left, and three times the Prime Minister of France.-First political experiences:...

, Franz Halder
Franz Halder
Franz Halder was a German General and the head of the Army General Staff from 1938 until September, 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler.-Early life:...

 and Hjalmar Schacht
Hjalmar Schacht
Dr. Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht was a German economist, banker, liberal politician, and co-founder of the German Democratic Party. He served as the Currency Commissioner and President of the Reichsbank under the Weimar Republic...

.

At the time of liberation the death rate had peaked at 200 per day, after the liberation by U.S. forces this was eventually reduced to between 50 and 80 deaths per day. The cause of these deaths was, besides the murderous SS policies, typhus
Typhus
Epidemic typhus is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters...

 epidemics and starvation which claimed thousands of lives. The number of inmates had peaked in 1944 with transports from evacuated camps in the east (such as Auschwitz) and the resulting overcrowding led to an increase in the death rate.

Dachau also served as the central camp for Christian religious prisoners. At least 3,000 Catholic priests, deacons, and bishops were imprisoned there.

In August 1944 a women's camp opened inside Dachau. In the last months of the war, the conditions at Dachau became even worse. As Allied forces advanced toward Germany, the Germans began to move prisoners in concentration camps near the front to more centrally located camps. They hoped to prevent the liberation of large numbers of prisoners. Transports from the evacuated camps arrived continuously at Dachau. After days of travel with little or no food or water, the prisoners arrived weak and exhausted, often near death. Typhus epidemics became a serious problem as a result of overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions, insufficient provisions, and the weakened state of the prisoners.

Owing to continual new transportations from the front, the camp was constantly overcrowded and the hygiene conditions were beneath human dignity. Starting from the end of 1944 up to the day of liberation, 15,000 people died, about half of all victims in KZ Dachau. Five hundred Soviet POWs were executed by firing squad. Its first shipment of women came from Auschwitz Birkenau. Only 19 women guards
Female guards in Nazi concentration camps
Of the 55,000 guards who served in Nazi concentration camps, about 3,700 were women. In 1942, the first female guards arrived at Auschwitz and Majdanek from Ravensbrück...

 served at Dachau, most of them until liberation. Sources show the names of sixteen of the nineteen women guarding the camp; Fanny Baur, Leopoldine Bittermann, Ernestine Brenner, Anna Buck, Rosa Dolaschko, Maria Eder, Rosa Grassmann, Betty Hanneschaleger, Ruth Elfriede Hildner
Ruth Elfriede Hildner
Ruth Elfriede Hildner was a guard at several Nazi concentration camps during World War II.Hildner was conscripted into camp service in July 1944, arriving at Ravensbrück concentration camp to be trained as a camp matron. Hildner, just 26 years old, entered the Dachau concentration camp in...

, Josefa Keller, Berta Kimplinger, Lieselotte Klaudat, Theresia Kopp, Rosalie Leimboeck
Rosalie Leimboeck
Rosalie Leimboeck was a female Nazi guard at three concentration camps from August 1944 until April 1945.Leimboeck began her camp service in Ravensbrück concentration camp where she trained under Dorothea Binz. In September 1944 she was in a transport of women headed for the Augsburg Michelwerke...

, and Thea Miesl. Women guards were also staffed at the Augsburg Michelwerke, Burgau, Kaufering
Kaufering concentration camp
Kaufering concentration camps were a network of subsidiary camps of the Dachau concentration camp.With the intensification of the Allied air war against German industrial and military enterprises after 1943, the German Armaments Ministry and the Schutzstaffel agreed to accelerate construction of...

, Mühldorf, and Munich Agfa Camera Werke subcamps. In mid-April 1945 many female subcamps at Kaufering, Augsburg and Munich closed, and the SS women stationed at Dachau. It is reported that female SS guards gave prisoners guns before liberation to save them from postwar prosecution.

Satellite camps and sub-camps


By 1944, Dachau had many satellite camps separate from the main camp, mostly to produce armaments. A website has been created at kaufering.com about the eleven "Kaufering" camps, but states there were as many as 200 "Sub camps". There is also a site, survivors-landsberg.com for an association of survivors of the camps. See also Kaufering concentration camp
Kaufering concentration camp
Kaufering concentration camps were a network of subsidiary camps of the Dachau concentration camp.With the intensification of the Allied air war against German industrial and military enterprises after 1943, the German Armaments Ministry and the Schutzstaffel agreed to accelerate construction of...


Main camp



On 24 April 1945, about 140 prominent inmates, such as Léon Blum
Léon Blum
André Léon Blum was a French politician, usually identified with the moderate left, and three times the Prime Minister of France.-First political experiences:...

, Martin Niemöller
Martin Niemöller
Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemöller was a German anti-Nazi theologian and Lutheran pastor. He is best known as the author of the poem "First they came…"....

, Dan Hartzman, and Franz Halder
Franz Halder
Franz Halder was a German General and the head of the Army General Staff from 1938 until September, 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler.-Early life:...

, were transferred to Tyrol
Transport of concentration camp inmates to Tyrol
The Transport of Inmates of German Concentration Camps to Tyrol happened in late April 1945 and led to the only time such prisoners were liberated by German troops.- Transfer and liberation:...

, where the SS left the prisoners behind. They were later liberated by the Fifth U.S. Army on 5 May 1945 in Niederdorf, South Tyrol.

On 27 April 1945, Victor Maurer, delegate of the International Committee of the Red Cross, was allowed to enter camps and distribute food. In the evening of the same day a prisoner transport arrived from Buchenwald. Only 800 survivors were brought from the original 4,480 to 4,800 prisoners in transit. Over 2,300 corpses were left lying in and around the train. The last regular commander of the KZ, Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer was a paramilitary Nazi Party rank used by both the SA and the SS. It was created in May 1933 to fill the need for an additional field grade officer rank above Sturmbannführer as the SA expanded. It became an SS rank at the same time...

 Eduard Weiter
Eduard Weiter
Eduard Weiter was a German bureaucrat who became a Schutzstaffel Obersturmbannführer and concentration camp commandant.-Early years:...

, had fled on 26 April. He probably followed Obersturmbannführer Martin Gottfried Weiss, who had led the camp from September 1942 until November 1943.

On 28 April 1945, the day before the surrender, Camp Commandant Martin Gottfried Weiss had left the Dachau camp, along with most of the regular guards and administrators in the camp. On that same day, Victor Maurer, a representative of the Red Cross, had tried to persuade Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer was a paramilitary rank of the German Schutzstaffel first created in July 1934. The rank can trace its origins to the older SA rank of Sturmführer which had existed since the founding of the SA in 1921...

 Johannes Otto, the adjutant of Commandant Weiss, not to abandon the camp, but to leave guards posted to keep the prisoners inside until the Americans arrived. Maurer feared that the prisoners would escape en masse and spread the active typhus fever epidemic. Lt. Otto declined to remain and fled.

On 29 April 1945, the watchtowers of the Dachau camp remained occupied and a white flag was hoisted. Red Cross representative Maurer persuaded SS-Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer was a paramilitary rank of the German Schutzstaffel first created in July 1934. The rank can trace its origins to the older SA rank of Sturmführer which had existed since the founding of the SA in 1921...

 Heinrich Wicker, an NCO in the SS-Totenkopfverbände, to accompany him to the main gate of the complex to surrender the camp formally.
Late in the afternoon of 29 April 1945, KZ Dachau was surrendered to the American Army by SS-Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer was a paramilitary rank of the German Schutzstaffel first created in July 1934. The rank can trace its origins to the older SA rank of Sturmführer which had existed since the founding of the SA in 1921...

 Heinrich Wicker. A vivid description of the surrender appears in Brig. Gen. Henning Linden's official "Report on Surrender of Dachau Concentration Camp":

"As we moved down along the west side of the concentration camp and approached the southwest corner, three people approached down the road under a flag of truce. We met these people about 75 yards north of the southwest entrance to the camp. These three people were a Swiss Red Cross representative and two SS troopers who said they were the camp commander and assistant camp commander and that they had come into the camp on the night of the 28th to take over from the regular camp personnel for the purpose of turning the camp over to the advancing Americans. The Swiss Red Cross representative acted as interpreter and stated that there were about 100 SS guards in the camp who had their arms stacked except for the people in the tower. He said he had given instructions that there would be no shots fired and it would take about 50 men to relieve the guards, as there were 42,000 half-crazed prisoners of war in the camp, many of them typhus infected. He asked if I were an officer of the American army, to which I replied, "Yes, I am Assistant Division Commander of the 42nd Division and will accept the surrender of the camp in the name of the Rainbow Division for the American army."



General Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was the 34th President of the United States, from 1953 until 1961. He was a five-star general in the United States Army...

, issued a communique over the capture of Dachau concentration camp: "Our forces liberated and mopped up the infamous concentration camp at Dachau. Approximately 32,000 prisoners were liberated; 300 SS camp guards were quickly neutralized."

A tablet at the camp commemorates the liberation of Dachau by the 42nd Infantry Division of the U.S. Seventh Army on 29 April 1945. Others claim that the first forces to enter the main camp were a battalion of the 157th Infantry Regiment of the 45th Infantry Division commanded by Felix L. Sparks
Felix L. Sparks
Brigadier General Felix Sparks was an American military commander who led the 3rd Battalion of the 157th Infantry Regiment of the 45th Infantry Division of the United States Army, the first Allied force to enter Dachau concentration camp and liberate its prisoners...

. Both the 42nd and
45th Infantry Divisions are recognized by the U.S. Army as liberators of Dachau. General Patton visited the Buchenwald camp after it was liberated, but not Dachau.

The Americans found approximately 32,000 prisoners, crammed 1,600 to each of 20 barracks, which had been designed to house 250 people each.

Satellite camps


During the liberation of the sub-camps surrounding Dachau (which happened on the same day as the main camp's surrender on 29 April) the advance scouts of the US Army's 522nd Field Artillery Battalion, a Nisei
Nisei
During the early years of World War II, Japanese Americans were forcibly relocated from their homes in the Pacific coast states because military leaders and public opinion combined to fan unproven fears of sabotage...

-manned segregated Japanese-American Allied military unit, liberated the 3,000 prisoners of the "Kaufering IV Hurlach
Hurlach
Hurlach is a municipality in the district of Landsberg in Bavaria in Germany.-Liberation of Hurlach "satellite" camp of Dachau:On April 29, 1945, advance scouts of the US Army's Nisei 522nd Field Artillery Battalion, a segregated Japanese-American Allied military unit in World War II, encountered a...

" http://www.kaufering.com/kaufering4.html slave labor camp.

Perisco describes an Office of Strategic Services
Office of Strategic Services
The Office of Strategic Services was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency, and it was a predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency...

 (OSS) team (code name LUXE) leading Army Intelligence to a "Camp IV" on 29 April. "they found the camp afire and a stack of some four hundred bodies burning... American soldiers then went into Landsberg
Landsberg
Landsberg may refer to:* Landsberg , Bavaria, Germany* Landsberg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany* the Margraviate of Landsberg, Holy Roman Empire* Landsberg am Lech, Bavaria, Germany* Landsberg an der Warthe, German name of Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland...

 and rounded up all the male civilians they could find and marched them out to the camp. The former commandant was forced to lie amidst a pile of corpses. The male population of Landsberg was then ordered to walk by, and ordered to spit on the commandant as they passed. The commandant was then turned over to a group of liberated camp survivors."

Killing of camp guards



The American troops were so horrified by conditions at the camp that a few killed some of the camp guards after they had surrendered in what is called the Dachau massacre
Dachau massacre
The Dachau massacre occurred in the area of the Dachau concentration camp, near Dachau, Germany, on April 29, 1945, during World War II. During the camp's liberation, American soldiers from 45th Infantry Division of the U.S. Seventh Army allegedly wounded and killed German prisoners of war...

. The number massacred is disputed as some Germans were killed in combat, some were shot while attempting to surrender, and others were killed after their surrender was accepted. Felix L. Sparks, the commander of a battalion that captured the camp, has stated:



The "American Army Investigation of Alleged Mistreatment of German Guards at Dachau" found that about 15 Germans were killed (with another 4 or 5 wounded) after their surrender had been accepted. Two other reports collated years after the incident put the figure between 122 and 520 Germans murdered after their surrender had been accepted.

As a result of the American Army investigation court-martial, charges were drawn up against Sparks and several other men under his command but, as General George S. Patton
George S. Patton
George Smith Patton, Jr. was a United States Army officer best known for his leadership while commanding corps and armies as a general during World War II. He was also well known for his eccentricity and controversial outspokenness.Patton was commissioned in the U.S. Army after his graduation from...

 (the then recently appointed military governor of Bavaria) chose to dismiss the charges, the witnesses to the massacre were never cross-examined in court and no one was found guilty. Many guards were also killed by the liberated prisoners, which made the issue more complex. Lee Miller
Lee Miller
Elizabeth 'Lee' Miller, Lady Penrose was an American photographer. Born in Poughkeepsie, New York in 1907, she was a successful fashion model in New York City in the 1920s before going to Paris where she became an established fashion and fine art photographer...

 visited the camp just after liberation, and photographed several guards who died at the prisoners' hands.

American troops also forced local citizens to the camp to see for themselves the conditions there and to help clean the facilities. Many local residents were shocked about the experience and claimed no knowledge of the activities at the camp.

Post-liberation Easter


May 6 (23 April on the Orthodox calendar) was the day of Pascha, Orthodox Easter. In a cell block used by Catholic priests to say daily Mass, several Greek, Serbian and Russian priests and one Serbian deacon, wearing makeshift vestments made from towels of the SS guard, gathered with several hundred Greek, Serbian and Russian prisoners to celebrate the Paschal Vigil. A prisoner named Rahr described the scene:

In the entire history of the Orthodox Church there has probably never been an Easter service like the one at Dachau in 1945. Greek and Serbian priests together with a Serbian deacon adorned the make-shift 'vestments' over their blue and gray-striped prisoners' uniforms. Then they began to chant, changing from Greek to Slavonic, and then back again to Greek. The Easter Canon, the Easter Sticheras—everything was recited from memory. The Gospel—In the beginning was the Word—also from memory. And finally, the Homily of Saint John—also from memory. A young Greek monk from the Holy Mountain stood up in front of us and recited it with such infectious enthusiasm that we shall never forget him as long as we live. Saint John Chrysostomos himself seemed to speak through him to us and to the rest of the world as well!


There is a Russian Orthodox chapel at the camp today, and it is well known for its icon of Christ leading the prisoners out of the camp gates.

The U.S. 7th Army's version of the events of the Dachau Liberation is available in Report of Operations of the Seventh United States Army, Vol. 3, page 382.

After liberation


After liberation, the camp was used by the US Army as an internment camp. It was also the site of the Dachau Trials, a site chosen for its symbolism. In 1948 the Bavarian government established housing for refugees on the site, and this remained for many years.
The Kaserne quarters and other buildings used by the guards and trainee guards served as an American military post for many years. It had its own elementary school: Dachau American Elementary School, a part of the Department of Defense dependent school system.

In popular culture


The Dachau Massacre
Dachau massacre
The Dachau massacre occurred in the area of the Dachau concentration camp, near Dachau, Germany, on April 29, 1945, during World War II. During the camp's liberation, American soldiers from 45th Infantry Division of the U.S. Seventh Army allegedly wounded and killed German prisoners of war...

 figures prominently in the 'back story' of Teddy Daniels, the protagonist of Dennis Lehane
Dennis Lehane
Dennis Lehane is an American author. He has written several award-winning novels, including A Drink Before the War and the New York Times bestseller Mystic River, which was later made into an Academy Award-winning film. Another novel, Gone, Baby, Gone, was also adapted into an Academy...

's psychological mystery-thriller Shutter Island
Shutter Island
Shutter Island is a best-selling novel by Dennis Lehane, published by Harper Collins in April 2003. A film adaptation was released in February 2010. Lehane has said he sought to write a novel that would be an homage to Gothic settings, B movies, and pulp. He described the novel as a hybrid of the...

,
(later adapted into a film by Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
Martin Charles Scorsese is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, actor, and film historian. In 1990 he founded The Film Foundation, a nonprofit organization dedicated to film preservation, and in 2007 he founded the World Cinema Foundation...

, starring Leonardo DiCaprio
Leonardo DiCaprio
Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio is an American actor and film producer. He has received many awards, including a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor for his performance in The Aviator , and has been nominated by the Academy Awards, Screen Actors Guild and the British Academy of Film and Television...

). Among other memories, Daniels is haunted by his own recollections of the massacre and taking part in the executions after seeing piles of prisoners' bodies.

Dachau is depicted as the setting for The Twilight Zone
The Twilight Zone
The Twilight Zone is an American television anthology series created by Rod Serling. Each episode is a mixture of self-contained drama, psychological thriller, fantasy, science fiction, suspense, or horror, often concluding with a macabre or unexpected twist...

episode "Deaths-Head Revisited
Deaths-Head Revisited
"Deaths-Head Revisited" is an episode of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone.-Synopsis:Gunther Lutze, a former sadistic captain in the SS, returns to the ruins of Dachau concentration camp to relive the memories of his time as its commandant during World War II...

" in which a former SS captain revisits the place he once worked in and the ghosts of the men who died there.

Psychedelic blues singer Captain Beefheart
Captain Beefheart
Don Van Vliet January 15, 1941 December 17, 2010) was an American musician, singer-songwriter and artist best known by the stage name Captain Beefheart. His musical work was conducted with a rotating ensemble of musicians called The Magic Band, active between 1965 and 1982, with whom he recorded 12...

's song "Dachau Blues" from the album Trout Mask Replica
Trout Mask Replica
Trout Mask Replica is the third album by Captain Beefheart and his Magic Band, released in June 1969. Produced by Beefheart's friend and former schoolmate Frank Zappa, it was originally released as a double album on Zappa's Straight Records label...

 contains several references to the camp and to the Holocaust.

The British band The Style Council
The Style Council
The Style Council were an English band, formed in 1983 by the ex-The Jam singer and guitarist Paul Weller, with keyboardist Mick Talbot. The permanent line-up grew to include drummer Steve White and Weller's then-wife, vocalist Dee C. Lee. Other artists such as Tracie Young and Tracey Thorn also...

 released a song called "Ghosts of Dachau" in memory of those who died at Dachau after a visit by lead singer Paul Weller
Paul Weller
Paul Weller is an English singer-songwriter. Starting with the band The Jam , Weller then went on to branch out musically to a more soulful style with The Style Council...

 to a concentration camp.

The memorial site


Between 1945 and 1948 when the camp was handed over to the Bavarian authorities, many accused war criminals and members of the SS were imprisoned at the camp.

Owing to the severe refugee crisis mainly caused by the expulsions of ethnic Germans
Expulsion of Germans after World War II
The later stages of World War II, and the period after the end of that war, saw the forced migration of millions of German nationals and ethnic Germans from various European states and territories, mostly into the areas which would become post-war Germany and post-war Austria...

, the camp was from late 1948 used to house 2000 Germans from Czechoslovakia (mainly from the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
Sudetenland is the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the northern, southwest and western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by ethnic Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia being within Czechoslovakia.The...

). This settlement was called Dachau-East, and remained until the mid 1960s. During this time, former prisoners banded together to erect a memorial on the site of the camp, finding it unbelievable that there were still people (refugees) living in the former camp.

The display, which was reworked in 2003, takes the visitor through the path of new arrivals to the camp. Special presentations of some of the notable prisoners are also provided. Two of the barracks have been rebuilt and one shows a cross-section of the entire history of the camp, since the original barracks had to be torn down due to their poor condition when the memorial was built. The other 32 barracks are indicated by concrete foundations.

The memorial includes four chapels for the various religions represented among the prisoners.

The local government resisted designating the complete site a memorial. The former SS barracks adjacent to the camp are now occupied by the Bavarian Bereitschaftspolizei
Bereitschaftspolizei
The Bereitschaftspolizei are the support and rapid reaction units of Germany's police forces...

 (rapid response police unit).

Commanders

  • SS-Standartenführer
    Standartenführer
    Standartenführer was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was used in the so-called Nazi combat-organisations: SA, SS, NSKK and the NSFK...

     Hilmar Wäckerle
    Hilmar Wäckerle
    Hilmar Wäckerle was a German soldier in both the German Imperial Army and the Waffen-SS and the first commandant of Dachau concentration camp.-War service:...

     (22 March 1933 - 26 June 1933)
  • SS-Gruppenführer
    Gruppenführer
    Gruppenführer was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party, first created in 1925 as a senior rank of the SA.-SS rank:...

     Theodor Eicke
    Theodor Eicke
    Theodor Eicke was a SS Obergruppenführer , commander of the SS-Division Totenkopf of the Waffen-SS and one of the key figures in the establishment of concentration camps in Nazi Germany. His Nazi Party number was 114,901 and his SS number was 2,921...

     (26 June 1933 - 4 July 1934)
  • SS-Oberführer
    Oberführer
    Oberführer was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party dating back to 1921. Translated as “Senior Leader”, an Oberführer was typically a Nazi Party member in charge of a group of paramilitary units in a particular geographical region...

     Alexander Reiner (4 July 1934 - 22 October 1934)
  • SS-Brigadeführer
    Brigadeführer
    SS-Brigadeführer was an SS rank that was used in Nazi Germany between the years of 1932 and 1945. Brigadeführer was also an SA rank....

     Berthold Maack (22 October 1934 - 12 January 1935)
  • SS-Oberführer
    Oberführer
    Oberführer was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party dating back to 1921. Translated as “Senior Leader”, an Oberführer was typically a Nazi Party member in charge of a group of paramilitary units in a particular geographical region...

     Heinrich Deubel
    Heinrich Deubel
    Heinrich Deubel was a German soldier, civil servant and officer in the Schutzstaffel who served as commandant of Dachau concentration camp.Deubel was born in Ortenburg...

     (12 January 1935 - 31 March 1936)
  • SS-Oberführer
    Oberführer
    Oberführer was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party dating back to 1921. Translated as “Senior Leader”, an Oberführer was typically a Nazi Party member in charge of a group of paramilitary units in a particular geographical region...

     Hans Loritz
    Hans Loritz
    Oberführer Hans Loritz joined the SS in 1930 and in 1933, began work as an officer at the Dachau concentration camp. In July 1934 he became the commander of KZ Esterwegen where he was the Commandant for two years before being transferred back to serve as Commandant of Dachau until 1939...

     (31 March 1936 - 7 January 1939)
  • SS-Hauptsturmführer
    Hauptsturmführer
    Hauptsturmführer was a Nazi rank of the SS which was used between the years of 1934 and 1945. The rank of Hauptsturmführer was a mid-grade company level officer and was the equivalent of a Captain in the German Army and also the equivalent of captain in foreign armies...

     Alex Piorkowski (7 January 1939 - 2 January 1942)
  • SS-Obersturmbannführer
    Obersturmbannführer
    Obersturmbannführer was a paramilitary Nazi Party rank used by both the SA and the SS. It was created in May 1933 to fill the need for an additional field grade officer rank above Sturmbannführer as the SA expanded. It became an SS rank at the same time...

     Martin Weiß (3 January 1942 - 30 September 1943)
  • SS-Hauptsturmführer
    Hauptsturmführer
    Hauptsturmführer was a Nazi rank of the SS which was used between the years of 1934 and 1945. The rank of Hauptsturmführer was a mid-grade company level officer and was the equivalent of a Captain in the German Army and also the equivalent of captain in foreign armies...

     Eduard Weiter
    Eduard Weiter
    Eduard Weiter was a German bureaucrat who became a Schutzstaffel Obersturmbannführer and concentration camp commandant.-Early years:...

     (30 September 1943 - 26 April 1945)
  • SS-Obersturmbannführer
    Obersturmbannführer
    Obersturmbannführer was a paramilitary Nazi Party rank used by both the SA and the SS. It was created in May 1933 to fill the need for an additional field grade officer rank above Sturmbannführer as the SA expanded. It became an SS rank at the same time...

     Martin Weiß (26 April 1945 - 28 April 1945)
  • SS-Untersturmführer
    Untersturmführer
    Untersturmführer was a paramilitary rank of the German Schutzstaffel first created in July 1934. The rank can trace its origins to the older SA rank of Sturmführer which had existed since the founding of the SA in 1921...

     Johannes Otto (28 April 1945)
  • SS-Untersturmführer
    Untersturmführer
    Untersturmführer was a paramilitary rank of the German Schutzstaffel first created in July 1934. The rank can trace its origins to the older SA rank of Sturmführer which had existed since the founding of the SA in 1921...

     Heinrich Wicker (28 April 1945 - 29 April 1945)

Other staff

  • Adolf Eichmann
    Adolf Eichmann
    Adolf Otto Eichmann was a German Nazi and SS-Obersturmbannführer and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust...

     (29 January 1934 - October 1934) (Eichmann claimed that his unit had nothing to do with the concentration camp)
  • Rudolf Höss (1934–1938)
  • Max Kögel
    Max Kögel
    Otto Max Koegel was a Nazi officer who served as a commander at Lichtenburg, Ravensbrück, Majdanek and Flossenbürg concentration camps.-Early life:...

     (1937–1938)
  • Johannes Heesters
    Johannes Heesters
    Johan Marius Nicolaas "Johannes" Heesters is a Dutch actor, singer and entertainer with a -year career, almost exclusively in the German-speaking world. In Germany and Austria, Heesters is mainly known for his acting career...

     (1903) (visited the camp and entertained the SS-officers, was also given\giving tours)

SS and civilian doctors

  • SS-Untersturmführer
    Untersturmführer
    Untersturmführer was a paramilitary rank of the German Schutzstaffel first created in July 1934. The rank can trace its origins to the older SA rank of Sturmführer which had existed since the founding of the SA in 1921...

     - Dr. Hans Eisele
    Hans Eisele
    Hans Eisele may refer to:* Hans Eisele , Nazi doctor and convicted war criminal, see List of Axis personnel indicted for war crimes* Hans Eisele , German football player...

     - (13 March 1912-1967) - Escaped to Egypt
    Egypt
    Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

  • SS-Obersturmführer
    Obersturmführer
    Obersturmführer was a paramilitary rank of the Nazi party that was used by the SS and also as a rank of the SA. Translated as “Senior Assault Leader”, the rank of Obersturmführer was first created in 1932 as the result of an expansion of the Sturmabteilung and the need for an additional rank in...

     - Dr. Fritz Hintermayer - (28 Oct 1911 - 29 May 1946) - Executed by the Allies
    Allies
    In everyday English usage, allies are people, groups, or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out between them...

  • Dr. Ernst Holzlöhner - (Committed Suicide
    Suicide
    Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death. Suicide is often committed out of despair or attributed to some underlying mental disorder, such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, alcoholism, or drug abuse...

    )
  • SS-Hauptsturmführer
    Hauptsturmführer
    Hauptsturmführer was a Nazi rank of the SS which was used between the years of 1934 and 1945. The rank of Hauptsturmführer was a mid-grade company level officer and was the equivalent of a Captain in the German Army and also the equivalent of captain in foreign armies...

     - Dr. Fridolin Karl Puhr - (30 April 1913 - ?) - Death, later commuted to 10-years imprisonment
  • SS-Untersturmführer
    Untersturmführer
    Untersturmführer was a paramilitary rank of the German Schutzstaffel first created in July 1934. The rank can trace its origins to the older SA rank of Sturmführer which had existed since the founding of the SA in 1921...

     Dr. Sigmund Rascher
    Sigmund Rascher
    Sigmund Rascher was a German SS doctor.His deadly experiments on humans, planned and executed in the Nazi concentration camp of Dachau, were judged inhumane and criminal during the Nuremberg Trials.-Early life and career:Rascher was born the third child of Hanns-August Rascher , a...

     - (12 February 1909-26 April 1945) - Executed by the SS
  • Dr. Claus Schilling
    Claus Schilling
    Claus Karl Schilling , also recorded as Klaus Schilling, was a German tropical medicine specialist, particularly remembered for his infamous participation in the Nazi human experiments at the Dachau concentration camp during World War II.Though never a member of the Nazi Party and a recognized...

     - (25 July 1871-28.5.1946) - Executed by the Allies
    Allies
    In everyday English usage, allies are people, groups, or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out between them...

  • SS Sturmbannführer
    Sturmbannführer
    Sturmbannführer was a paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party equivalent to major, used both in the Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel...

     - Dr. Horst Schumann
    Horst Schumann
    Horst Schumann , SS-Sturmbannführer and medical doctor, conducted cruel sterilization and castration experiments at Auschwitz and was particularly interested in the mass sterilization of Jews by means of X-rays....

     - (11 May 1906-5 May 1983) - Escaped to Ghana
    Ghana
    Ghana , officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country located in West Africa. It is bordered by Côte d'Ivoire to the west, Burkina Faso to the north, Togo to the east, and the Gulf of Guinea to the south...

    , later extradited to West Germany
    West Germany
    West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

  • SS Obersturmführer
    Obersturmführer
    Obersturmführer was a paramilitary rank of the Nazi party that was used by the SS and also as a rank of the SA. Translated as “Senior Assault Leader”, the rank of Obersturmführer was first created in 1932 as the result of an expansion of the Sturmabteilung and the need for an additional rank in...

     - Dr. Helmuth Vetter - (21 March 1910-2 February 1949) - Executed by the Allies
    Allies
    In everyday English usage, allies are people, groups, or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out between them...

    )
  • SS Sturmbannführer
    Sturmbannführer
    Sturmbannführer was a paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party equivalent to major, used both in the Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel...

     - Dr. Wilhelm Witteler - (20 April 1909-?) - Death, later commuted to 20-years Imprisonment
  • SS Sturmbannführer
    Sturmbannführer
    Sturmbannführer was a paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party equivalent to major, used both in the Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel...

     - Dr. Waldemar Wolter - (19 May 1908-28 May 1947) - Executed by the Allies
    Allies
    In everyday English usage, allies are people, groups, or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out between them...


List of notable prisoners



Jewish (political)

  • Bruno Bettelheim
    Bruno Bettelheim
    Bruno Bettelheim was an Austrian-born American child psychologist and writer. He gained an international reputation for his work on Freud, psychoanalysis, and emotionally disturbed children.-Background:...

    , imprisoned in 1938, freed in 1939; left Germany
  • Jakob Ehrlich
    Jakob Ehrlich
    Jakob Ehrlich , was an early Zionist and leader of the Jewish Community in Vienna, Austria. Ehrlich represented the city's 180,000 Jewish citizens in the city government before World War II, and was among those deported in the "Prominententransport" to the Nazi concentration camp at Dachau, soon...

    , Member of Vienna's City Council (Rat der Stadt Wien), died in Dachau 17 May 1938
  • Viktor Frankl
    Viktor Frankl
    Viktor Emil Frankl M.D., Ph.D. was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist as well as a Holocaust survivor. Frankl was the founder of logotherapy, which is a form of Existential Analysis, the "Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy"...

    , neurologist and psychiatrist from Vienna, Austria
  • Hans Litten
    Hans Litten
    Hans Achim Litten was a German lawyer who represented opponents of the Nazis at important political trials between 1929 and 1932, defending the rights of workers during the Weimar Republic. During one trial in 1931, Litten subpoenaed Adolf Hitler, to appear as a witness, where Litten then...

     anti-Nazi lawyer, died in 1938 by apparent suicide
  • Aaron Miller, rabbi, chazzan, mohel
  • Benzion Miller, born at the camp, son of Aaron M.
  • Sol Rosenberg
    Sol Rosenberg (Louisiana businessman)
    Sol Rosenberg was a Jewish survivor of the German Nazi death and concentration camps who became an industrialist and philanthropist in Monroe, northeastern Louisiana....

    , participated in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising
    Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
    The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was the Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's effort to transport the remaining ghetto population to Treblinka extermination camp....

    ; sent to Dachau; liberated from the camp in 1945; relocated to the United States
  • Moshe Sanbar
    Moshe Sanbar
    Moshe Sanbar is an economist and Israeli public figure. He served as governor of the Bank of Israel during 1971–1976. The Moshe Sanbar Institute for Applied Economic Research was named in his honor....

    , Governor of the Bank of Israel
  • Vladek Spiegelman, a survivor whose story was portrayed in the book Maus
    Maus
    Maus: A Survivor's Tale, by Art Spiegelman, is a biography of the author's father, Vladek Spiegelman, a Polish Jew and Holocaust survivor. It alternates between descriptions of Vladek's life in Poland before and during the Second World War and Vladek's later life in the Rego Park neighborhood of...

    by son Art Spiegelman
    Art Spiegelman
    Art Spiegelman is an American comics artist, editor, and advocate for the medium of comics, best known for his Pulitzer Prize-winning comic book memoir, Maus. His works are published with his name in lowercase: art spiegelman.-Biography:Spiegelman was born in Stockholm, Sweden, to Polish Jews...


Scientists


Among many others, 183 professors and lower university staff from Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

 universities, arrested on 6 November 1939 during Sonderaktion Krakau
Sonderaktion Krakau
Sonderaktion Krakau was the codename for a German operation against professors and academics from the University of Kraków and other Kraków universities at the beginning of World War II....

.

Resistance fighters

  • Yolande Beekman
    Yolande Beekman
    Yolande Beekman was a World War II spy.-Early life:...

    , Special Operations Executive
    Special Operations Executive
    The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

     Agent, murdered 13 September 1944
  • Georges Charpak
    Georges Charpak
    Georges Charpak was a French physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1992.-Life:Georges Charpak was born to Jewish family in the village of Dąbrowica in Poland . Charpak's family moved from Poland to Paris when he was seven years old...

    , who in 1992 received the Nobel Prize in Physics
  • Madeleine Damerment
    Madeleine Damerment
    Madeleine Zoe Damerment was a World War II spy.-Biography:...

    , Special Operations Executive
    Special Operations Executive
    The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

     Agent, murdered 13 September 1944
  • Georg Elser
    Georg Elser
    Johann Georg Elser was a German opponent of Nazism. He is most remembered for his unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, but he also wanted to assassinate Hermann Göring and Joseph Goebbels in 1939....

    , who tried to assassinate Hitler in 1939, murdered 9 April 1945
  • Arthur Haulot
    Arthur Haulot
    Baron Arthur Haulot was a Belgian journalist, humanist and poet who served, during World War II as an active member of the military resistance against German foreign occupation also known in Western Europe as the Resistance...

  • Noor Inayat Khan
    Noor Inayat Khan
    Assistant Section Officer Noor Inayat Khan / Nora Baker, GC, MBE , usually known as Noor Inayat Khan was of Indian Muslim origin...

    , the George's Cross awardee of Indian origin who served as a clandestine radio operator for the Special Operations Executive
    Special Operations Executive
    The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

     in Paris, murdered 13 September 1944 when she and her SOE colleagues were shot in the back of the head and cremated
  • Kurt Nehrling
    Kurt Nehrling
    Kurt Nehrling was a German Social Democratic politician and member of the German resistance against Hitler. Nehrling was responsible for supplying information to the Soviet Union and was most famously known for hiding banned books...

    , murdered in 1943
  • Eliane Plewman
    Eliane Plewman
    Eliane Plewman was a French SOE agent and member of French resistance.Plewman was born Eliane Browne-Bartroli in Marseille. The daughter of an English father and Spanish mother, she was educated in England and in Spain...

    , Special Operations Executive
    Special Operations Executive
    The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

     Agent, murdered 13 September 1944
  • Enzo Sereni
    Enzo Sereni
    Enzo Sereni was an Italian Zionist, co-founder of kibbutz Givat Brenner, scholar, advocate of Jewish-Arab co-existence and a resistance fighter who was parachuted into Nazi-occupied Italy in World War II, captured by the Germans and executed in Dachau concentration camp.Sereni was born in Rome....

    , Jewish, son of King Victor Emmanuele's personal physician. Kibbutz Enzo Sereni in Israel is named after him. Parachuted into Nazi-occupied Italy, captured by the Germans and executed in November 1944

Clergy


Dachau had a special "priest block." Of the 2720 priests (among them 2579 Catholic) held in Dachau, 1034 did not survive the camp. The majority were Polish (1780), of whom 868 died in Dachau.
  • Patriarch
    Patriarch
    Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. The system of such rule of families by senior males is called patriarchy. This is a Greek word, a compound of πατριά , "lineage, descent", esp...

     Gavrilo V of the Serbian Orthodox Church
    Serbian Orthodox Church
    The Serbian Orthodox Church is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth in order of seniority after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia...

    , imprisoned in Dachau from September to December 1944
  • a number of the Polish 108 Martyrs of World War Two
    108 Martyrs of World War Two
    The 108 Martyrs of World War II, known also as 108 Blessed Polish Martyrs , were Roman Catholics from Poland killed during World War II by the Nazis....

    :
  • Father Jean Bernard
    Father Jean Bernard
    Father Jean Bernard was a Catholic priest from Luxembourg who was imprisoned from May 1941 to August 1942 in the Nazi concentration camp at Dachau...

     (1907–1994), Catholic Roman priest from Luxembourg who was imprisoned from May, 1941 to August, 1942. He wrote the book Pfarrerblock 25487 about his experiences in Dachau
  • Blessed
    Beatification
    Beatification is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name . Beatification is the third of the four steps in the canonization process...

     Titus Brandsma
    Titus Brandsma
    Blessed Titus Brandsma was a Dutch Carmelite priest and professor of philosophy. Brandsma was vehemently opposed to Nazi ideology and spoke out against it many times before the Second World War....

    , Dutch Carmelite
    Carmelites
    The Order of the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or Carmelites is a Catholic religious order perhaps founded in the 12th century on Mount Carmel, hence its name. However, historical records about its origin remain uncertain...

     priest and professor of philosophy, died 26 July 1942
  • Norbert Čapek
    Norbert Capek
    Norbert Fabián Čapek was the founder of the modern Unitarian Church in the Czech Republic.-Early life:Čapek was born into a Roman Catholic family on 3 June 1870, in Radomyšl, a village in Strakonice District in southern Bohemia. As a boy he wanted to join the priesthood, but soon became...

     (1870–1942) founder of the Unitarian Church in the Czech Republic
  • Blessed
    Beatification
    Beatification is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name . Beatification is the third of the four steps in the canonization process...

     Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski
    Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski
    Blessed Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski was a Polish priest, scout and is patron of Polish Scouts. He joined Scouting on March 21, 1927. Stefan served as Patrol leader, later as Troop Leader and during his years in the High Seminary of Pelplin Diocese he was an active member of its Scout Club...

    , Polish Roman Catholic priest, died 23 February 1945
  • August Froehlich
    August Froehlich
    August Froehlich was a German Roman Catholic priest. In his pastoral activity he opposed National Socialism. He stood up for rights of German Catholics and of Polish forced labourers, martyred in Dachau concentration camp....

    , German Roman Catholic priest, he protected the rights of the German Catholics and the maltreatment of Polish forced labourers
  • Hilary Paweł Januszewski
  • Ignacy Jeż
    Ignacy Jez
    Ignacy Ludwik Jeż was the Latin Rite Catholic Bishop Emeritus of Koszalin-Kołobrzeg, located in Poland....

     Catholic Bishop
  • Joseph Kentenich
    Joseph Kentenich
    Father Joseph Kentenich was a father of the Pallottines and founder of the Schoenstatt Movement...

    , founder of the Schoenstatt Movement
    Schoenstatt Movement
    The Apostolic Movement of Schoenstatt is a Roman Catholic Marian Movement founded in Germany in 1914 by Father Joseph Kentenich. Fr. Kentenich saw the movement as being a means of spiritual renewal in the Catholic Church...

    , spent three and a half years in Dachau
  • Bishop Jan Maria Michał Kowalski
    Jan Maria Michał Kowalski
    Jan Maria Michał Kowalski was the first Minister Generalis of the order of the Mariavites. At the time of his selection, he was the most important person in this Christian movement. He was consecrated Bishop in 1909 by the Utrecht Union Old Catholic Archbishop Gerardus Gul...

    , the first Minister Generalis (Minister General) of the order of the Mariavites. He perished on 18 May 1942, in a gas chamber in Schloss Hartheim
    Schloss Hartheim
    Schloss Hartheim, located at Alkoven in Upper Austria, some 14 km. from Linz, Austria, became notorious as one of the Nazi Euthanasia killing centers, where the killing program Action T4 took place.The castle was built by Jakob von Aspen in 1600...

    .
  • Adam Kozlowiecki, Polish Cardinal
  • Max Lackmann
    Max Lackmann
    Max Lackmann was a German Lutheran ecumenist.Lackmann studied theology at Bonn and Basel as a pupil of Karl Barth. He wrote against Nazi ideology, and he had to move from Germany to Basel. When he returned to Germany, he was ordained in 1940 and became pastor in Confessing Church...

    , Lutheran pastor and founder of League for Evangelical-Catholic Reunion.
  • Blessed
    Beatification
    Beatification is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name . Beatification is the third of the four steps in the canonization process...

     Karl Leisner
    Karl Leisner
    Blessed Karl Leisner was a Roman Catholic priest interned in the Dachau concentration camp. He died of tuberculosis shortly after being liberated by the Allied forces...

    , in Dachau since 14 December 1941, freed 4 May 1945, but died on 12 August from tuberculosis contracted in the camp
  • Josef Lenzel
    Josef Lenzel
    Josef Lenzel was a German Roman Catholic priest active in resistance movement against the National Socialism, who died in the Dachau concentration camp where he had been sent as a result of his work with Polish forced labourers....

    , German Roman Catholic priest, he helped of the Polish forced labourers
  • Bernhard Lichtenberg
    Bernhard Lichtenberg
    Blessed Bernhard Lichtenberg was a German Roman Catholic priest and theologian, awarded the title righteous among the Nations....

     - German Roman Catholic priest, was sent to Dachau but died on his way there in 1943
  • Martin Niemöller
    Martin Niemöller
    Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemöller was a German anti-Nazi theologian and Lutheran pastor. He is best known as the author of the poem "First they came…"....

    , imprisoned in 1941, freed 4 May 1945
  • Nikolai Velimirović
    Nikolai Velimirovic
    Saint Nikolai Velimirovich of Ohrid and Žiča or Nikolaj Velimirović was bishop of Ohrid and of Žiča in the Serbian Orthodox Church, an influential theological writer and a very gifted orator, therefore also known as The New Chrysostom.His birth name was Nikola...

    , bishop of the Serbian Orthodox Church
    Serbian Orthodox Church
    The Serbian Orthodox Church is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth in order of seniority after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia...

     and an influential theological writer, venerated as saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church
    Eastern Orthodox Church
    The Orthodox Church, officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church and commonly referred to as the Eastern Orthodox Church, is the second largest Christian denomination in the world, with an estimated 300 million adherents mainly in the countries of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece,...

    .
  • Lawrence Wnuk
    Lawrence Wnuk
    Lawrence Anthony Wnuk, O.Ont was a Polish Roman Catholic priest and Protonotary Apostolic.He grew up in a Catholic and patriotic Polish family...

  • Nanne Zwiep
    Nanne Zwiep
    The Reverend Nanne Zwiep was a pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church in the town of Enschede. He was arrested by the Nazis during the German occupation of the Netherlands and died in the concentration camp at Dachau near Munich.Zwiep became a pastor in Enschede in 1929 and was a well-known figure in...

    , Pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church in Enschede, spoke out from the pulpit against Nazis and their treatment of Dutch Citizens and anti-Semitism, arrested 20 April 1942, died in Dachau of exhaustion and malnutrition 24 November 1942

More than two dozen members of the Religious Society of Friends, known to the World's People as Quakers, were interned at Dachau. They may or may not have been considered clergy by the Nazis, as all Quakers perform services which in other Protestant denominations are considered the province of clergy. Over a dozen of them were murdered there.

Politicians


  • Jan Buzek
    Jan Buzek
    Dr. Jan Jerzy Buzek was a Polish physician, activist and politician from the region of Zaolzie, Czechoslovakia....

    , murdered in November 1940
  • Theodor Duesterberg
    Theodor Duesterberg
    Theodor Duesterberg was a leader of the Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten, in Germany prior to the Nazi seizure of power.-Background:Born the son of an army surgeon in Darmstadt, Duesterberg entered the Prussian Army in 1893 after training in the cadet corps. In 1900, Duesterberg was part of the...

    , briefly imprisoned in 1934
  • Leopold Figl
    Leopold Figl
    Leopold Figl was an Austrian politician of the Austrian People's Party and the first Federal Chancellor after World War II...

    , arrested 1938, released 8 May 1943
  • Andrej Gosar
    Andrej Gosar
    Andrej Gosar was a Slovenian and Yugoslav politician, sociologist, economist and political theorist.- Early life and career :...

    , Slovenian politician and political theorist, arrested in 1944
  • Karl Haushofer
    Karl Haushofer
    Karl Ernst Haushofer was a German general, geographer and geopolitician. Through his student Rudolf Hess, Haushofer's ideas may have influenced the development of Adolf Hitler's expansionist strategies, although Haushofer denied direct influence on the Nazi regime.-Biography:Haushofer belonged to...

  • Miklós Horthy, Jr.
    Miklós Horthy, Jr.
    Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya II was the younger son of Hungarian regent Admiral Miklós Horthy and, until the end of World War II, a politician.-Biography:...

  • Alois Hundhammer
    Alois Hundhammer
    Alois Hundhammer was one of the most prominent politicians in Bavaria following World War II-Early life:...

    , arrested 21 June 1933, freed 6 July 1933
  • Miklós Kállay
    Miklós Kállay
    Dr. Miklós Kállay de Nagykálló was a Hungarian politician who served as Prime Minister of Hungary during World War II, from 9 March 1942 to 19 March 1944....

  • Franz Olah
    Franz Olah
    Franz Olah was an Austrian politician who served as the country's Interior Minister from 1963 until 1964 as a member of the Social Democratic Party ....

    , arrested in 1938 and transported on the first train to bring Austrian prisoners to Dachau.
  • Hjalmar Schacht
    Hjalmar Schacht
    Dr. Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht was a German economist, banker, liberal politician, and co-founder of the German Democratic Party. He served as the Currency Commissioner and President of the Reichsbank under the Weimar Republic...

    , arrested 1944, released April 1945
  • Richard Schmitz
    Richard Schmitz
    Richard Schmitz was the last Social-Christian mayor of Vienna, Austria.Richard Schmitz served as Vice Chancellor of Austria, as well as its Minister of Social Welfare and of Education, and as Commissioner of Vienna...

  • Kurt Schumacher
    Kurt Schumacher
    Dr. Kurt Schumacher , was chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany from 1946 and first Leader of the Opposition in the West German Bundestag parliament from 1949 until his death...

    , in Dachau since July 1935, sent to Flossenbürg concentration camp
    Flossenbürg concentration camp
    Konzentrationslager Flossenbürg was a Nazi concentration camp built in May 1938 by the Schutzstaffel Economic-Administrative Main Office at Flossenbürg, in the Oberpfalz region of Bavaria, Germany, near the border with Czechoslovakia. Until its liberation in April 1945, more than 96,000 prisoners...

     in 1939, returned to Dachau in 1940, released due to extreme illness 16 March 1943
  • Kurt Schuschnigg
    Kurt Schuschnigg
    Kurt Alois Josef Johann Schuschnigg was Chancellor of the First Austrian Republic, following the assassination of his predecessor, Dr. Engelbert Dollfuss, in July 1934, until Germany’s invasion of Austria, , in March 1938...

    , the last fascist
    Austrofascism
    Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used by historians to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria with the May Constitution of 1934, which ceased with the forcible incorporation of the newly-founded Federal State of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938...

     chancellor of Austria before the Austrian Nazi Party was installed by Hitler, shortly before the Anschluss
    Anschluss
    The Anschluss , also known as the ', was the occupation and annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938....

  • Stefan Starzyński
    Stefan Starzynski
    Stefan Starzyński was a Polish politician, economist, writer and statesman, President of Warsaw before and during the Siege of Warsaw in 1939.-Soldier:Starzyński was born on August 19, 1893 in Warsaw...

    , the President of Warsaw
    President of Warsaw
    The Mayor of Warsaw, or more properly the President of Warsaw is the head of the capital of Poland....

    , probably murdered in Dachau in 1943
  • Petr Zenkl
    Petr Zenkl
    Petr Zenkl, PhD. was a influential Czech politician, government minister, Mayor of Prague, chairman of the Czech National Social Party , deputy Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia and the chairman of exile Council of Free Czechoslovakia .- Biography :Petr Zenkl was born as the eighth son of a small...

    , Czech national socialist politician

Communists

  • Alfred Andersch
    Alfred Andersch
    Alfred Hellmuth Andersch was a German writer, publisher, and radio editor. The son of a conservative East Prussian army officer, he was born in Munich, Germany and died in Berzona, Ticino, Switzerland...

    , held 6 months in 1933
  • Hans Beimler
    Hans Beimler (Communist)
    Hans Beimler was an active member of the German Communist Party and a deputy in the Reichstag.Beimler was born in Munich and served in the Kaiserliche Marine during the First World War...

    , imprisoned but escaped. Died in the Spanish Civil War
    Spanish Civil War
    The Spanish Civil WarAlso known as The Crusade among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War among Carlists, and The Rebellion or Uprising among Republicans. was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939...

    .
  • Emil Carlebach
    Emil Carlebach
    Emil Carlebach was a Hessian Landtag member, a writer, and a journalist. He was born and died in Frankfurt am Main.-Life:...

     (Jewish), in Dachau since 1937, sent to Buchenwald concentration camp
    Buchenwald concentration camp
    Buchenwald concentration camp was a German Nazi concentration camp established on the Ettersberg near Weimar, Germany, in July 1937, one of the first and the largest of the concentration camps on German soil.Camp prisoners from all over Europe and Russia—Jews, non-Jewish Poles and Slovenes,...

     in 1938
  • Alfred Haag
    Alfred Haag
    Alfred Haag was a member of the Youth movement of the Communist Party of Germany in the small Württemberg town of Schwäbisch Gmünd in the 1920s, he married another communist; Lina Haag in 1927...

    , In Dachau from 1935 to 1939, when moved to Mauthausen
    Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp
    Mauthausen Concentration Camp grew to become a large group of Nazi concentration camps that was built around the villages of Mauthausen and Gusen in Upper Austria, roughly east of the city of Linz.Initially a single camp at Mauthausen, it expanded over time and by the summer of 1940, the...

  • Adolf Maislinger
    Adolf Maislinger
    Adolf Maislinger was a member of the German Resistance and was a survivor of Dachau concentration camp.-Early years:Maislinger, known as "Adi", came from a Social Democratic Party household...

  • Oskar Müller
    Oskar Müller
    Oskar Müller was the first employment minister in Hesse, Germany after World War II.-Early career:Müller was born in Wohlau in Prussian Silesia as the son of a farmer. He fought in World War I and became an officer. After the war, he joined the Communist Party of Germany...

    , in Dachau from 1939, freed 1945
  • Nikolaos Zachariadis
    Nikolaos Zachariadis
    Nikolaos Zachariadis was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece from 1931 to 1956.-Early life:Born in Adrianopole in 1903, the son of an employee of the Ottoman tobacco monopoly. He worked as a seaman on the Black Sea, where he came under the influence of the Bolshevik Revolution...

     (Greek), from November 1941 to May 1945

Writers

  • Fran Albreht
    Fran Albreht
    Fran Albreht was a Slovenian poet, editor, politician and partisan. He also published under the pseudonym Rusmir....

    , Slovenian poet
  • Robert Antelme
    Robert Antelme
    Robert Antelme was a French writer. During the Second World War he was involved in the French Resistance and deported....

    , French writer
  • Raoul Auernheimer
    Raoul Auernheimer
    Raoul Auernheimer was an Austrian jurist and writer.Auernheimer was the son of German businessman Johann Wilhelm Auernheimer and his Hungarian wife Charlotte "Jenny" Büchler. After receiving his Abitur, Auernheimer began to study law at the university in his hometown...

    , writer, in Dachau 4 months
  • Tadeusz Borowski
    Tadeusz Borowski
    Tadeusz Borowski was a Polish writer and journalist. His wartime poetry and stories dealing with his experiences as a prisoner at Auschwitz are recognized as classics of Polish literature and had much influence in Central European society.- Early life :...

    , writer, survived, but committed suicide in 1951
  • Adolf Fierla
    Adolf Fierla
    Adolf Fierla was a Polish writer and poet from the region of Cieszyn Silesia.He was born 16 January 1908 in Orlová to a coal miner's family and graduated from the local Juliusz Słowacki Polish Gymnasium. Fierla later studied Polish studies at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków and Slavic...

    , Polish poet
  • Viktor Frankl
    Viktor Frankl
    Viktor Emil Frankl M.D., Ph.D. was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist as well as a Holocaust survivor. Frankl was the founder of logotherapy, which is a form of Existential Analysis, the "Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy"...

    , an Austrian psychiatrist and writer
  • Fritz Gerlich
    Fritz Gerlich
    Carl Albert Fritz Gerlich was a German journalist and historian, and one of the main journalistic resisters to Adolf Hitler.-Early life:...

    , a German journalist
  • Stanisław Grzesiuk, Polish writer, poet and singer, in Dachau from 4 April 1940, later transferred to Mauthausen-Gusen complex
  • Heinrich Eduard Jacob
    Heinrich Eduard Jacob
    Heinrich Eduard Jacob was a German and American journalist and author. Born to a Jewish family in Berlin and raised partly in Vienna, Jacob worked for two decades as a journalist and biographer before the rise to power of the Nazi Party...

    , German writer, in Dachau 6 months in 1938, transferred to Buchenwald
  • Stefan Kieniewicz
    Stefan Kieniewicz
    Stefan Kieniewicz was a Polish historian and university professor, notable for his works on 19th century history of Poland...

    , Polish historian
  • Juš Kozak
    Juš Kozak
    Juš Kozak , also known under the pseudonym Jalanov, was a Slovenian writer, playwright and editor. He is most famous for his autobiographic novels, such as "The Cell" on his experience as political prisoner, and "Wooden Spoon" on life during World War II.He was born in a wealthy middle class...

    , Slovenian playwright
  • Friedrich Bernhard Marby
    Friedrich Bernhard Marby
    Friedrich Bernhard Marby was a German rune occultist and Germanic revivalist. He is abest known for his revivalism and use of the Armanen runes row. He was imprisoned during the Third Reich, which may have been due to a denunciation by Karl Maria Wiligut...

    , German occult writer
  • Gustaw Morcinek
    Gustaw Morcinek
    Gustaw Morcinek was a Polish writer, educator and later member of Sejm from 1952 to 1957. He is considered one of the most important writers from Silesia....

    , Polish writer
  • Boris Pahor
    Boris Pahor
    Boris Pahor is a Slovene writer from Italy. He is considered to be one of the most influential living authors in the Slovene language and has been nominated for the Nobel prize for literature by the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts...

    , Slovenian writer
  • Karol Piegza
    Karol Piegza
    Karol Piegza was a Polish teacher, writer, folklorist, photographer, and painter from Zaolzie region of Cieszyn Silesia.-Biography:...

    , Polish writer, teacher and folklorist
  • Gustaw Przeczek
    Gustaw Przeczek
    Gustaw Przeczek was a Polish writer, poet, teacher and activist from the Zaolzie region of Cieszyn Silesia.He was born in a large coal miner's family in the village of Łazy which lies in the coal basin. He graduated from schools in Orłowa and Łazy and in 1933 from a teachers' seminary in Ostrava...

    , Polish writer and teacher
  • Friedrich Reck-Malleczewen, German writer
  • Franz Roh
    Franz Roh
    Franz Roh , was a German historian, photographer, and art critic.Roh was born in Apolda , Germany. He studied at universities in Leipzig, Berlin, and Basel. In 1920, he received his Ph. D...

    , German art critic and art historian, for a few months in 1933
  • Jura Soyfer
    Jura Soyfer
    Jura Soyfer was an important Austrian political journalist and cabaret writer.-Life:...

    , writer, in Dachau 6 months in 1938, transferred to Buchenwald
  • Adam Wawrosz
    Adam Wawrosz
    Adam Wawrosz was a Polish poet, writer, and activist from the Zaolzie region of Cieszyn Silesia. He is considered the most important writer of the folk literature of Cieszyn Silesia....

    , Polish poet and writer
  • Stanislaw Wygodzki
    Stanislaw Wygodzki
    Stanisław Wygodzki was a Polish writer of Jewish origin.He published his first volume of poetry in 1933 before the Nazi occupation of Poland, during which Wygodzki was first interred in the Bedzin ghetto and later in the concentration camps of Auschwitz, Dachau, Oranienburg and Sachsenhausen...

    , Polish writer
  • Stevo Žigon
    Stevo Žigon
    Stevo Žigon was a famous Serbian and Slovenian actor, theatre director, and writer. His origins were primary Italian....

     (number: 61185), Serbian actor, theatre director, and writer, in Dachau from December 1943 to May 1945

Royalty

  • Antonia, Crown Princess of Bavaria
  • Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria
    Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria
    Albrecht Luitpold Ferdinand Michael, Duke of Bavaria, of Franconia and in Swabia, Count Palatine of the Rhine , was the son of Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria and his first wife, Duchess Marie Gabrielle in Bavaria. He was the one surviving child from that marriage...

  • Princess Irmingard of Bavaria
    Princess Irmingard of Bavaria
    Princess Irmingard of Bavaria was the daughter of Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria and his second wife, Princess Antonia of Luxembourg. She was a half-sister of Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria.-Early life:...

  • Franz, Duke of Bavaria
    Franz, Duke of Bavaria
    Franz Bonaventura Adalbert Maria Herzog von Bayern , styled as His Royal Highness The Duke of Bavaria, is head of the Wittelsbach family, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria...

  • Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia
    Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia
    Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia was the second daughter of Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich of Russia and Grand Duchess Victoria Feodorovna...

  • Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia
    Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia
    -Children:* Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia , married firstly Waltraud Freytag on 22 August 1967 in Plön, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany; secondly Ehrengard von Reden on 23 April 1976; thirdly Sibylle Kretschmer. He renounced his succession rights on 18 September 1967...

  • Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria
    Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria
    Max-Emanuel Ludwig Maria Herzog in Bayern, sometimes styled Prince Max of Bavaria, Duke in Bavaria, born 21 January 1937 as son of Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria, is the heir presumptive to both the headship of the former Bavarian Royal House and the Jacobite Succession...

  • Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse
  • Franz Wittelsbach, Prinz von Bayern
  • Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg
    Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg
    Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg was the eldest son of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary, and his morganatic wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg...

  • Prince Ernst von Hohenberg
  • Princess Sophie of Hohenberg

Others

  • Charles Delestraint
    Charles Delestraint
    Charles Delestraint was a French Army general and member of the French Resistance during World War II.He was born in Biache Saint-Waast, Pas-de-Calais....

    , French General and leader of French resistance. Executed by Gestapo
    Gestapo
    The Gestapo was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it was under the administration of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler in his position as Chief of German Police...

     in 1945
  • Jan Ertmański
    Jan Ertmanski
    Jan Ertmański was a Polish boxer who competed in the 1924 Summer Olympics.He was born in Poznań and died in London, Great Britain....

    , Polish boxer who competed in the 1924 Summer Olympics.
  • Alexander von Falkenhausen
    Alexander von Falkenhausen
    Alexander Ernst Alfred Hermann Freiherr von Falkenhausen was a German general. He was the head of the military government of Belgium from 1940–44 during its occupation by Germany in World War II....

  • Brother Theodore
    Brother Theodore
    Brother Theodore , born Theodore Gottlieb, was a German-American monologuist and comedian known for rambling, stream-of-consciousness dialogues which he called "stand-up tragedy".-Early years:...

    , comedian.
  • Franz Halder
    Franz Halder
    Franz Halder was a German General and the head of the Army General Staff from 1938 until September, 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler.-Early life:...

    , former Chief of Army General Staff
  • Zoran Mušič
    Zoran Mušic
    Zoran Mušič was a Slovenian painter. He spent half of his life living and working in Italy.-Life:Zoran Mušič was born in a Slovene-speaking family in Bukovica, a village in the Vipava Valley near Gorizia, in what was then the Austrian County of Gorizia and Gradisca...

    , Slovenian painter
  • Alexander Papagos
    Alexander Papagos
    Field Marshal Alexander Papagos , was a Greek General who led the Greek Army in the Greco-Italian War and the later stages of the Greek Civil War and became the country's Prime Minister...

    , future Prime Minister of Greece
  • Ernest Peterlin
    Ernest Peterlin
    Ernest Peterlin was a Slovene military officer who rose to a senior position in the Royal Yugoslav Army prior to the Second World War.Married to Anja Roman Rezelj...

    , Slovenian military officer
  • Tullio Tamburini
    Tullio Tamburini
    Tullio Tamburini was an Italian soldier, adventurer and fascist official.Born in Prato, Tamburini had been a schoolteacher in Florence but was sacked from his job. He then made his way as a petty criminal before serving in the Italian Army during the First World War without distinction...

    , Italian police chief
  • Fritz Thyssen
    Fritz Thyssen
    Friedrich "Fritz" Thyssen was a German businessman born into one of Germany's leading industrial families.-Youth:Thyssen was born in Mülheim in the Ruhr area...

    , businessman and early supporter of Hitler, later an opponent
  • Bogislaw von Bonin
    Bogislaw von Bonin
    Bogislaw von Bonin was a German Wehrmacht officer and journalist.- Early life :Bonin was born in Potsdam, Province of Brandenburg and joined the 4. Reiterregiment of the German Reichswehr in 1926...

    , Wehrmacht officer, opponent
  • Morris Weinrib, father of Rush
    Rush (band)
    Rush is a Canadian rock band formed in August 1968, in the Willowdale neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario. The band is composed of bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart...

     singer, bassist, keyboardist Geddy Lee
    Geddy Lee
    Gary Lee Weinrib, OC, better known as Geddy Lee , is a Canadian musician, best known as the lead vocalist, bassist, and keyboardist for the Canadian rock group Rush...

    .

See also


  • Karl von Eberstein
    Karl von Eberstein
    Freiherr Freidrich Karl von Eberstein was a member of the German nobility, early member of the Nazi party, the SA, the SS, Reichstag delegate, an HSSPF and SS-Oberabschnitt Führer, head of the Munich Police in World War II, introduced Reinhard Heydrich to Heinrich Himmler, and was a witness at the...

  • List of Nazi concentration camps
  • List of subcamps of Dachau
  • Standing cell
    Standing cell
    A standing cell was a special cell used in Nazi concentration camps during the Third Reich. It was used as extra and severe punishment within the concentration camp system, being constructed so as to prevent the prisoner from doing anything but standing while held there. In addition, prisoners in...



External links