Munich

Munich

Overview
Munich. He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

 and the National Socialism
Nazism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

 rose to prominence.

In 1923 Hitler and his supporters, who were then concentrated in Munich, staged the Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch
The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed attempt at revolution that occurred between the evening of 8 November and the early afternoon of 9 November 1923, when Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler, Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff, and other heads of the Kampfbund unsuccessfully tried to seize power...

, an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
The Weimar Republic is the name given by historians to the parliamentary republic established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government...

 and seize power. The revolt failed, resulting in Hitler's arrest and the temporary crippling of the Nazi Party, which was virtually unknown outside Munich.

The city once again became a Nazi stronghold when the National Socialists took power in Germany in 1933.
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Timeline

1800   War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French General Moreau defeats the Austrian Archduke John near Munich decisively, coupled with First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte's victory at Marengo effectively forcing the Austrians to sign an armistice and ending the war.

1810   First Oktoberfest: The Bavarian royalty invites the citizens of Munich to join the celebration of the marriage of Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria to Princess Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen.

1869   Richard Wagner's opera ''Das Rheingold'' premieres in Munich.

1886   King Ludwig II of Bavaria is found dead in Lake Starnberg south of Munich at 11:30 PM.

1919   Kurt Eisner, German socialist, is assassinated. His death results in the establishment of the Bavarian Soviet Republic and parliament and government fleeing Munich, Germany.

1923   Beer Hall Putsch: In Munich, Adolf Hitler leads the Nazis in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the German government.

1937   The Nazi exhibition ''Der ewige Jude'' ("The Eternal Jew") opens in Munich.

1939   In Munich, Adolf Hitler narrowly escapes the assassination attempt of Georg Elser while celebrating the 16th anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch.

1972   Munich Massacre: 9 Israel athletes taken hostage at the Munich Olympic Games by the Palestinian "Black September" terrorist group died (as did a German policeman) at the hands of the kidnappers during a failed rescue attempt. 2 other Israeli athletes are slain in the initial attack the previous day.

1972   The United States suffers its first loss of an international basketball game in a disputed match against the Soviet Union at Munich, Germany.

 
Encyclopedia
Munich. He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

 and the National Socialism
Nazism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

 rose to prominence.

In 1923 Hitler and his supporters, who were then concentrated in Munich, staged the Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch
The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed attempt at revolution that occurred between the evening of 8 November and the early afternoon of 9 November 1923, when Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler, Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff, and other heads of the Kampfbund unsuccessfully tried to seize power...

, an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
The Weimar Republic is the name given by historians to the parliamentary republic established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government...

 and seize power. The revolt failed, resulting in Hitler's arrest and the temporary crippling of the Nazi Party, which was virtually unknown outside Munich.

The city once again became a Nazi stronghold when the National Socialists took power in Germany in 1933. The National Socialist Workers Party created the first concentration camp
Internment
Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. The Oxford English Dictionary gives the meaning as: "The action of 'interning'; confinement within the limits of a country or place." Most modern usage is about individuals, and there is a distinction...

 at Dachau, 10 miles (16 km) north-west of the city. Because of its importance to the rise of National Socialism, Munich was referred to as the Hauptstadt der Bewegung ("Capital of the Movement"). The NSDAP headquarters was in Munich and many Führerbauten ("Führer-buildings") were built around the Königsplatz, some of which have survived to this day.

The city is known as the site of the culmination of the policy of appeasement
Munich Agreement
The Munich Pact was an agreement permitting the Nazi German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland. The Sudetenland were areas along Czech borders, mainly inhabited by ethnic Germans. The agreement was negotiated at a conference held in Munich, Germany, among the major powers of Europe without...

 employed by Britain and France leading up to World War II. It was in Munich that British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain assented to the annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland region into Greater Germany in the hopes of sating the desires of Hitler's Third Reich.

Munich was the base of the White Rose
White Rose
The White Rose was a non-violent/intellectual resistance group in Nazi Germany, consisting of students from the University of Munich and their philosophy professor...

, a student resistance movement
Resistance movement
A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to opposing an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign state. It may seek to achieve its objects through either the use of nonviolent resistance or the use of armed force...

 from June 1942 to February 1943. The core members were arrested and executed following a distribution of leaflets in Munich University by Hans and Sophie Scholl
White Rose
The White Rose was a non-violent/intellectual resistance group in Nazi Germany, consisting of students from the University of Munich and their philosophy professor...

.

The city was heavily damaged by allied bombing during World War II—the city was hit by 71 air raids over a period of six years.

Postwar


After US occupation in 1945, Munich was completely rebuilt following a meticulous and – by comparison to other war-ravaged West German cities – rather conservative plan which preserved its pre-war street grid. In 1957 Munich's population passed the 1 million mark.

Munich was the site of the 1972 Summer Olympics
1972 Summer Olympics
The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972....

, during which Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

i athletes were assassinated by Palestinian
Palestinian people
The Palestinian people, also referred to as Palestinians or Palestinian Arabs , are an Arabic-speaking people with origins in Palestine. Despite various wars and exoduses, roughly one third of the world's Palestinian population continues to reside in the area encompassing the West Bank, the Gaza...

 terrorists in the Munich massacre
Munich massacre
The Munich massacre is an informal name for events that occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Bavaria in southern West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and eventually killed by the Palestinian group Black September. Members of Black September...

, when gunmen from the Palestinian "Black September
Black September (group)
The Black September Organization was a Palestinian paramilitary group, founded in 1970. It was responsible for the kidnapping and murder of eleven Israeli athletes and officials, and fatal shooting of a West German policeman, during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, their most publicized event...

" terrorist group took hostage members of the Israeli Olympic team.

Most Munich residents enjoy a high quality of life. Mercer HR Consulting consistently rates the city among the top 10 cities with the highest quality of life worldwide—a 2007 survey ranked Munich as 8th. The same company also ranks Munich as the world's 39th most expensive city to live in and the most expensive major city in Germany. Munich enjoys a thriving economy, driven by the information technology, biotechnology, and publishing sectors. Environmental pollution is low, although as of 2006 the city council is concerned about levels of particulate matter (PM), especially along the city's major thoroughfares. Since the enactment of EU legislation concerning the concentration of particulate in the air, environmental groups such as Greenpeace
Greenpeace
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over forty countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, The Netherlands...

 have staged large protest rallies to urge the city council and the State government to take a harder stance on pollution.

Today, the crime rate is low compared to other large German cities, such as Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

 or Berlin. This high quality of life and safety has caused the city to be nicknamed "Toytown
Toytowngermany.com
Toytown Germany is an English-language community website for Germany. It is an information resource, a meeting point, and a communication platform for English-speaking foreigners throughout the country. This moderated community is free to join, but requires registration to participate...

" amongst the English-speaking residents. German inhabitants call it "Millionendorf", an expression which means "village of a million people".

Geography



Munich lies on the elevated plains of Upper Bavaria
Upper Bavaria
Upper Bavaria is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany.- Geography :Upper Bavaria is located in the southern portion of Bavaria, and is centered around the city of Munich. It is subdivided into four regions : Ingolstadt, Munich, Bayerisches Oberland , and Südostoberbayern...

, about 50 km (31.07 mi) north of the northern edge of the Alps
Alps
The Alps is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west....

, at an altitude of about 520 m (1,706.04 ft) ASL
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

. The local rivers are the Isar
Isar
The Isar is a river in Tyrol, Austria and Bavaria, Germany. Its source is in the Karwendel range of the Alps in Tyrol; it enters Germany near Mittenwald, and flows through Bad Tölz, Munich, and Landshut before reaching the Danube near Deggendorf. At 295 km in length, it is the fourth largest river...

 and the Würm
Würm
The Würm is a river in Bavaria, Germany, right tributary of the Amper. It drains the overflow from Lake Starnberg and flows swiftly through the villages of Gauting, Krailling, Planegg, Gräfelfing and Lochham as well as part of Munich before joining, near Dachau, the Amper, which soon afterwards...

.
Munich is situated in the Northern Alpine Foreland
Foothills
Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increases in elevation at the base of a mountain range. They are a transition zone between plains and low relief hills to the adjacent topographically high mountains.-Examples:...

. The northern part of this sandy plateau includes a highly fertile flint
Flint
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones. Inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white, or brown in colour, and...

 area which is no longer affected by the folding
Fold (geology)
The term fold is used in geology when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation. Synsedimentary folds are those due to slumping of sedimentary material before it is lithified. Folds in rocks vary in...

 processes found in the Alps, while the southern part is covered with morainic
Moraine
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris which can occur in currently glaciated and formerly glaciated regions, such as those areas acted upon by a past glacial maximum. This debris may have been plucked off a valley floor as a glacier advanced or it may have...

 hills. Between these are fields of fluvio-glacial
Fluvio-glacial
Fluvio-glacial is the water created by the melting of glaciers. It literally means "Water Glacier." It is also commonly called melt water.Fluvio-glacial can also mean sediments deposited by the glacier meltwater....

 out-wash, such as around Munich. Wherever these deposits get thinner, the ground water
Groundwater
Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock...

 can permeate the gravel surface and flood the area, leading to marsh
Marsh
In geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of wetland that is subject to frequent or continuous flood. Typically the water is shallow and features grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, other herbaceous plants, and moss....

es as in the north of Munich.

Climate


Munich has a continental climate
Continental climate
Continental climate is a climate characterized by important annual variation in temperature due to the lack of significant bodies of water nearby...

, strongly modified by the proximity of the Alps
Alps
The Alps is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west....

. The city's altitude and proximity to the northern edge of the Alps mean that precipitation is high. Rainstorms often come violently and unexpectedly. The range of temperature between day and night or summer and winter can be extreme. A warm downwind from the Alps (a föhn wind) can raise temperatures sharply within a few hours, even in winter.

Winters last from December to March. Munich experiences cold winters, but heavy rainfall is rarely seen in the winter. The coldest month is January with an average temperature of -2.2 °C. Snow cover is seen for at least a couple of weeks during winter. Summers in Munich city are warm with an average maximum of 24 °C (75.2 °F) in the hottest month of July. The summers last from May until September.

Demographics



In July 2007, Munich had 1.34 million inhabitants; 300,129 of those did not hold German citizenship
German nationality law
German citizenship is based primarily on the principle of jus sanguinis. In other words one usually acquires German citizenship if a parent is a German citizen, irrespective of place of birth....

. The city has strong Turkish
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 and Balkan
Balkans
The Balkans is a geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe...

 communities. The largest groups of foreign nationals were Turks
Turkish people
Turkish people, also known as the "Turks" , are an ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities had been established in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania...

 (43,309), Albanians
Albanians
Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

 (30,385), Croats
Croats
Croats are a South Slavic ethnic group mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. There are around 4 million Croats living inside Croatia and up to 4.5 million throughout the rest of the world. Responding to political, social and economic pressure, many Croats have...

 (24,866), Serbs
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

 (24,439), Greeks
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

 (22,486), Austrians
Austrians
Austrians are a nation and ethnic group, consisting of the population of the Republic of Austria and its historical predecessor states who share a common Austrian culture and Austrian descent....

 (21,411), and Italians
Italian people
The Italian people are an ethnic group that share a common Italian culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a mother tongue. Within Italy, Italians are defined by citizenship, regardless of ancestry or country of residence , and are distinguished from people...

 (20,847). 37% of foreign nationals come from the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

.

With only 24,000 inhabitants in 1700, the population doubled about every 30 years. For example, it had 100,000 people in 1852 and then 250,000 people in 1883; by 1901, the figure had doubled again to 500,000. Since then, Munich has become Germany's third largest city. In 1933, 840,901 inhabitants were counted and in 1957, Munich's population passed the 1 million mark.

49.3% of Munich's residents are not affiliated with any religious group, and this group represents the fastest growing segment of the population. As in the rest of Germany, the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches have experienced a continuous, slow decline in their memberships. As of 31 December 2010, 36.8% of the city's inhabitants were Roman Catholic, 13.6% Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

, and 0.3% Jewish. There is also a small Old Catholic parish and an English-speaking parish of the Episcopal Church
Charismatic Episcopal Church
The Charismatic Episcopal Church, more officially known as the International Communion of the Charismatic Episcopal Church , is an international Christian denomination established as an autocephalous communion in 1992...

in the city. There's also a significant number of Muslims living in Munich, mostly composed of immigrants.

Politics



Munich's current mayor is Christian Ude
Christian Ude
Christian Ude is the current mayor of Munich. He is a member of the German Social Democratic Party.Additionally, until 2009 he was a member of the board of directors of the football club TSV 1860 München....

 of the Social Democratic Party of Germany
Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Social Democratic Party of Germany is a social-democratic political party in Germany...

. Munich has a nearly unbroken history of SPD governments since World War II, which is remarkable because the southern part of Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

 is a conservative stronghold, with the Christian Social Union
Christian Social Union of Bavaria
The Christian Social Union in Bavaria is a Christian democratic and conservative political party in Germany. It operates only in the state of Bavaria, while its sister party, the Christian Democratic Union , operates in the other 15 states of Germany...

 winning absolute majorities among the Bavarian electorate in many elections at the communal, state, and federal levels. Bavaria's second city Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Nuremberg[p] is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it is located about north of Munich and is Franconia's largest city. The population is 505,664...

 is also one of the very few bavarian cities governed by a SPD led coalition.

Munich is currently governed by a coalition of the SPD, the Greens and the Rosa Liste (Pink List, a gay rights party).

As the capital of the Free State of Bavaria, Munich is an important political centre in Germany and the seat of the Bavarian State Parliament
Landtag of Bavaria
The Landtag of Bavaria is the unicameral legislature of the state of Bavaria in Germany. Between 1946 and 1999 there was an upper house, the Senate of Bavaria. The parliament meets in the Maximilianeum....

, the Staatskanzlei (the State Chancellery) and of all state departments.

Several national and international authorities are located in Munich, including the Federal Finance Court of Germany
Federal Finance Court of Germany
The Federal Finance Court is one of the five federal supreme courts of Germany. It is the federal court of appeals for cases of tax and customs law, hearing appeals from the Finanzgerichte ....

 and the European Patent Office
European Patent Office
The European Patent Office is one of the two organs of the European Patent Organisation , the other being the Administrative Council. The EPO acts as executive body for the Organisation while the Administrative Council acts as its supervisory body as well as, to a limited extent, its legislative...

.

In 2003, Munich decided to switch 14,000 computers gradually to free software
Free software
Free software, software libre or libre software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions that only ensure that further recipients can also do...

. It develops a Debian
Debian
Debian is a computer operating system composed of software packages released as free and open source software primarily under the GNU General Public License along with other free software licenses. Debian GNU/Linux, which includes the GNU OS tools and Linux kernel, is a popular and influential...

 based Linux distribution called LiMux
LiMux
LiMux is a project by the city council of Munich to migrate their software systems, including 14,000 personal computers and laptops of public employees, to free and open source software...

.

Subdivisions



Since the administrative reform in 1992, Munich is divided into 25 borough
Borough
A borough is an administrative division in various countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing township although, in practice, official use of the term varies widely....

s or Stadtbezirke.

Architecture





The city is an inspiring mix of historic buildings and impressive architecture, since Munich reconstructed the ruins of their historic buildings but also created new landmarks of architecture. A survey, conducted by the Society's Center for Sustainable Destinations for the National Geographic Traveler
National Geographic Traveler
National Geographic Traveler is a magazine published by the National Geographic Society in the United States. It was launched in 1984. Local-language editions of National Geographic Traveler are published in Armenia, Belgium/the Netherlands, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Indonesia, Latin America,...

, chose over 100 historic places around the world and ranked Munich as the 30th best destination.

The inner city


At the centre of the city is the Marienplatz
Marienplatz
Marienplatz is a central square in the city center of Munich, Germany. It has been the city's main square since 1158.-Architecture:...

—a large open square named after the Mariensäule, a Marian column
Marian and Holy Trinity columns
Marian columns are religious monuments built in honour of the Virgin Mary, often in thanksgiving for the ending of a plague or for some other help. The purpose of the Holy Trinity columns was usually simply to celebrate the church and the faith. However, the plague motif could sometimes play its...

 in its centre—with the Old
Old Town Hall, Munich
The Old Town Hall , until 1874 the domicile of the municipality, serves today as a building for the city council in Munich. The Old Town Hall bounds the central square Marienplatz on its east side.-Architecture:...

 and the New Town Hall
New Town Hall, Munich
The New Town Hall is a town hall at the northern part of Marienplatz in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. It hosts the city government including the city council, offices of the mayors and part of the administration...

. Its tower contains the Rathaus-Glockenspiel
Rathaus-Glockenspiel
The Rathaus-Glockenspiel of Munich is a tourist attraction in Marienplatz the heart of Munich.Part of the second construction phase of the New Town Hall, it dates from 1908. Every day at 11 a.m. it chimes and re-enacts two stories from the 16th century to the amusement of mass crowds of tourists...

. Three gates of the demolished medieval fortification have survived to this day—the Isartor
Isartor
The Isartor at the Isartorplatz in Munich is one of four main gates of the medieval city wall. It served as a fortification for the defence and is the most easterly of Munich's three remaining gothic town gates...

in the east, the Sendlinger Tor
Sendlinger Tor
Sendlinger Tor is an U-Bahn station in the city center of Munich at a junction of the lines U1/2 and U3/6 line of the Munich U-Bahn system. It was opened on 19 October 1971 and 18 October 1980 ....

in the south and the Karlstor in the west of the inner city. The Karlstor leads up to the Stachus, a grand square dominated by the Justizpalast
Justizpalast (Munich)
The Justizpalast Munich is a palatial courthouse and administrative building in Munich.It was constructed in 1890-1897 by the architect Friedrich von Thiersch in neo-baroque style at the west side of the Karlsplatz . The building of the Gründerzeit is dominated by a glass dome...

 (Palace of Justice)
and a fountain.

The Peterskirche close to Marienplatz is the oldest church of the inner city. It was first built during the Romanesque
Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

 period, and was the focus of the early monastic settlement in Munich before the city's official foundation in 1158. Nearby St. Peter the Gothic hall-church Heiliggeistkirche
Heiliggeistkirche (Munich)
Heiliggeistkirche is a Gothic hall church in Munich, southern Germany, originally belonging to the Hospice of the Holy Ghost . It was remodeled in 1724-30 by Johann Georg Ettenhofer ; in the interior are Rococo frescoes and stucco ornament by the Asam brothers...

(The Church of the Holy Spirit) was converted to baroque style from 1724 onwards and looks down upon the Viktualienmarkt
Viktualienmarkt
The Viktualienmarkt is a daily food market and a square in the center of Munich, Germany.The Viktualienmarkt developed from an original farmers' market to a popular market for gourmets...

, the most popular market of Munich.

The Frauenkirche
Munich Frauenkirche
The Frauenkirche is a church in the Bavarian city of Munich that serves as the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising and seat of its Archbishop. It is a landmark and is considered a symbol of the Bavarian capital city.The church towers are widely visible because of local height...

is the most famous building in the city centre and serves as the cathedral for the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising
The Archdiocese of Munich and Freising is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Bavaria, Germany. It is led by the prelature of the Archbishop of Munich, who administers the see from the mother church in Munich, the Frauenkirche, also known as Munich Cathedral...

.
The nearby Michaelskirche
St. Michael's Church, Munich
St Michael is a Jesuit church in Munich, southern Germany, the largest Renaissance church north of the Alps. The style of the building had an enormous influence on Southern German early Baroque architecture.-Architecture:...

is the largest renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 church north of the Alps, while the Theatinerkirche is a basilica
Basilica
The Latin word basilica , was originally used to describe a Roman public building, usually located in the forum of a Roman town. Public basilicas began to appear in Hellenistic cities in the 2nd century BC.The term was also applied to buildings used for religious purposes...

 in Italianate high baroque which had a major influence on Southern German baroque
Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 architecture. Its dome dominates the Odeonsplatz
Odeonsplatz
Odeonsplatz is a large square in central Munich which was named after the former concert hall Odeon.-Architecture:In 1791 the medieval city wall was demolished and plans for a square at the point of the Schwabing Gate could be realized with the erection of the Brienner Straße in 1816. The...

. Other baroque churches in the inner city which are worth a detour are the Bürgersaalkirche
Bürgersaalkirche (Munich)
The Bürgersaal is a historical building in Munich, Germany. Also known as Bürgersaalkirche since the consecration of the altar on May 13, 1778, it is the prayer and meeting room of the Marian Men Congregation "Annunciation". It was built in 1709/1710 under design by Giovanni Antonio Viscardi...

, the Salvatorkirche (St. Salvator)
Salvatorkirche (Munich)
Salvatorkirche is a church in Munich, Germany, the former cemetery church of the Frauenkirche . Since 1829 the church has been used by Greek Orthodox Christians and it is now the headquarters of the Metropolitan of Germany and Exarch of Central Europe...

, the Dreifaltigkeitskirche
Trinity Church (Munich)
The Trinity Church is a religious building in Munich, southern Germany. It is a votive church and was designed in Bavarian Baroque style according to plans from Giovanni Antonio Viscardi from 1711 to 1718. It is a monastery church of the Carmelites and a church of the Metropolitan parish of Our...

, the St. Anna Damenstiftskirche
St. Anna Damenstiftskirche (Munich)
St. Anna Damenstiftskirche is a chapel in Munich, southern Germany.It was commissioned in the 18th century by Elector Charles Albert, who later became Emperor Charles VII starting from 1733. A monastery in the legal form of a chapter of nuns was set up. The architect was Johann Baptist...

and St. Anna im Lehel
Parish Church of St. Anna (Lehel, Munich)
St. Anna is a Catholic parish church Lehel, Munich, southern Germany, built in 1887-1892 under design by Gabriel Seidl. It is the main parish church of Lehel, located in the center of the quarter....

, the first rococo
Rococo
Rococo , also referred to as "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century style which developed as Baroque artists gave up their symmetry and became increasingly ornate, florid, and playful...

 church in Bavaria. The Asamkirche was endowed and built by the Brothers Asam
Cosmas Damian Asam
Cosmas Damian Asam was a German painter and architect during the late Baroque period. Born in Benediktbeuern, he moved to Rome in 1711 to study at the Accademia di San Luca with Carlo Maratta. There, he could see the fresco Ascensione di Cristo by Melozzo da Forlì in Santi Apostoli Church...

, pioneering artists of the rococo period.

The large Residenz palace complex (begun in 1385) on the edge of Munich's Old Town ranks among Europe's most significant museums of interior decoration. Having undergone several extensions, it contains also the treasury
Schatzkammer
Schatzkammer is a German word which translates as Treasure Room, and is a term also used in English for the collection of treasures, especially those in precious metals and jewels, of a ruler or other collector, kept in a secure room, often in the basement of a palace or castle...

 and the splendid rococo Cuvilliés Theatre
Cuvilliés Theatre
The Cuvilliés Theatre or Old Residence Theatre is the former court theatre of the Residenz in Munich, southern Germany.- Description :...

. Next door to the Residenz the neo-classical opera, the National Theatre was erected. Among the baroque and neoclassical mansions which still exist in Munich are the Palais Porcia
Palais Porcia
The Palais Porcia is a Baroque mansion in Munich, southern Germany, which served as residence for Count Fugger. It is Munich's oldest still existing Baroque style palace....

, the Palais Preysing
Palais Preysing
The Palais Preysing is a late-Baroque mansion in Munich, southern Germany, which served as residence for the Counts of Preysing. To distinguish it from the nearby Palais Neuhaus-Preysing, it is also called the Elder Palais Preysing....

, the Palais Holnstein
Palais Holnstein
The Palais Holnstein is a historical building in Munich, southern Germany, which has been the residence of the Archbishop of Munich and Freising since 1818....

and the Prinz-Carl-Palais
Prinz-Carl-Palais
The Prinz Carl Palais in Munich is a mansion built in the style of early Neoclassicism in 1804-1806. It was also known as the Palais Salabert and the Palais Royal, after its former owners....

. All mansions are situated close to the Residenz, same as the Alte Hof
Alter Hof
The Alte Hof in the center of Munich is the former imperial residence of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and consists of five wings Burgstock, Zwingerstock, Lorenzistock, Pfisterstock and Brunnenstock....

, a medieval castle and first residence of the Wittelsbach dukes in Munich.

The inner city has been recreated in the virtual world of Second Life
Second Life
Second Life is an online virtual world developed by Linden Lab. It was launched on June 23, 2003. A number of free client programs, or Viewers, enable Second Life users, called Residents, to interact with each other through avatars...

 and can be visited for a virtual sight seeing tour.

The royal avenues and squares


Four grand royal avenues of the 19th century with magnificent official buildings connect Munich's inner city with the suburbs:

The neoclassical Briennerstrasse
Brienner Straße (Munich)
The neoclassical Brienner Straße in Munich is one of four royal avenues and was constructed in line with a draft of Karl von Fischer and Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell under the reign of Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria from 1812 onwards...

, starting at Odeonsplatz
Odeonsplatz
Odeonsplatz is a large square in central Munich which was named after the former concert hall Odeon.-Architecture:In 1791 the medieval city wall was demolished and plans for a square at the point of the Schwabing Gate could be realized with the erection of the Brienner Straße in 1816. The...

on the northern fringe of the Old Town close to the Residenz, runs from east to west and opens into the impressive Königsplatz, designed with the "Doric
Doric order
The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.-History:...

" Propyläen
Propylaea (Munich)
The Propylaea is a gate in Munich at the west side of Koenigsplatz.- History :The building constructed in Doric order was completed by Leo von Klenze in 1862 and evokes the monumental entrance of the Propylaea for the Athenian Acropolis...

, the "Ionic
Ionic order
The Ionic order forms one of the three orders or organizational systems of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian...

" Glyptothek
Glyptothek
The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection of Greek and Roman sculptures . It was designed by Leo von Klenze in the Neoclassical style, and built from 1816 to 1830...

and the "Corinthian
Corinthian order
The Corinthian order is one of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The other two are the Doric and Ionic. When classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, two more orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order...

" State Museum of Classical Art
Staatliche Antikensammlungen
The Staatliche Antikensammlungen in the Kunstareal of Munich is a museum for the Bavarian state's antique collections for Greek, Etruscan and Roman art. The Bavarian state collection of Ancient Egyptian art is traditionally placed in its own museum...

, on its back side St. Boniface's Abbey
St. Boniface's Abbey, Munich
St. Boniface's Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. It was founded in 1835 by King Ludwig I of Bavaria, as a part of his efforts to reanimate the country's spiritual life by the restoration of the monasteries destroyed during the secularisation of the early 19th century....

 was erected. The area around Königsplatz is home to the Kunstareal
Kunstareal
The Kunstareal is a museum quarter in the city centre of Munich, Germany.It consists of the three "Pinakotheken" galleries , the Glyptothek, the Staatliche Antikensammlung , the Lenbachhaus, the Museum Brandhorst and...

, Munich's gallery and museum quarter (as described below).

Ludwigstrasse
Ludwigstraße (Munich)
The Ludwigstrasse in Munich is one of the city's four royal avenues. Principal was King Ludwig I of Bavaria, the avenue is named in his honour. The city's grandest boulevard with its public buildings still maintains its architectural uniformity envisioned as a grand street "worthy the kingdom" as...

also begins at Odeonsplatz and runs from south to north, skirting the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, the St. Louis church
Ludwigskirche (Munich)
The Catholic Parish and University Church St. Louis, called Ludwigskirche, in Munich is a monumental church in neo-romanesque style with the second-largest altar fresco of the world...

, the Bavarian State Library
Bavarian State Library
The Bavarian State Library in Munich is the central "Landesbibliothek", i. e. the state library of the Free State of Bavaria and one of Europe's most important universal libraries. With its collections currently comprising around 9.39 million books, it ranks among the best research libraries...

and numerous state ministries and palaces. The southern part of the avenue was constructed in Italian renaissance style while the north is strongly influenced by Italian Romanesque architecture.
The neo-Gothic Maximilianstrasse
Maximilianstraße (Munich)
The neo-Renaissance Maximilianstraße in Munich is one of the city's four royal avenues. It starts at Max-Joseph-Platz, where the Residenz and the National Theatre are situated, and runs from west to east....

starts at Max-Joseph-Platz
Max-Joseph-Platz
Max-Joseph-Platz is a large square in central Munich which was named after King Maximilian Joseph. Max-Joseph-Platz serves as the western starting point of the royal avenue Maximilianstraße.-Architecture:...

, where the Residenz and the National Theatre are situated, and runs from west to east. The avenue is framed by neo-Gothic buildings which house, among others, the Schauspielhaus
Munich Kammerspiele
The Munich Kammerspiele is a successful German language theatre in Munich. The Schauspielhaus in the Maximilianstrasse is the major stage.-History:...

and the Building of the district government of Upper Bavaria and the Museum of Ethnology
State Museum of Ethnology
The Bavarian State Museum of Ethnology in Munich, Germany is a museum for Non-European artworks and objects of cultural value.-The building:...

. After crossing the river Isar, the avenue circles the Maximilianeum
Maximilianeum
The Maximilianeum, a palatial building in Munich, was built as the home of a gifted students' foundation and has also housed the Bavarian Landtag since 1949.The principal was King Maximilian II of Bavaria, who started the project in 1857...

, home of the state parliament
Landtag of Bavaria
The Landtag of Bavaria is the unicameral legislature of the state of Bavaria in Germany. Between 1946 and 1999 there was an upper house, the Senate of Bavaria. The parliament meets in the Maximilianeum....

. The western portion of Maximilianstrasse is known for its designer shops, luxury boutiques, jewellery stores, and one of Munich's foremost five-star hotels, the Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten.

Prinzregentenstrasse
Prinzregentenstraße (Munich)
The Prinzregentenstraße in Munich is one of four royal avenues and runs parallel to Maximilianstraße and begins at Prinz-Carl-Palais, in the northeastern part of the Old Town...

runs parallel to Maximilianstrasse and begins at Prinz-Carl-Palais
Prinz-Carl-Palais
The Prinz Carl Palais in Munich is a mansion built in the style of early Neoclassicism in 1804-1806. It was also known as the Palais Salabert and the Palais Royal, after its former owners....

. Many museums can be found along the avenue, such as the Haus der Kunst
Haus der Kunst
The Haus der Kunst is an art museum in Munich, Germany. It is located at Prinzregentenstrasse 1 at the southern edge of the Englischer Garten, Munich's largest park.-History:...

, the Bavarian National Museum
Bavarian National Museum
The Bavarian National Museum in Munich is one of the most important cultural history museums in Europe.-Building and History:...

and the Schackgalerie
Schackgalerie
The Schackgalerie is a museum in Munich. It is one of the noted galleries in this city. The museum is under supervision of the Bavarian State Picture Collection.-Collection:...

. The avenue crosses the Isar and circles the Friedensengel monument passing the Villa Stuck and Hitler's old apartment. The Prinzregententheater
Prinzregententheater
The Prinzregententheater, or Prince Regent's Theatre, is a theatre and opera house located at 12 Prinzregentenplatz in the Bavarian city of Munich, Germany.- Building and History :...

is at Prinzregentenplatz further to the east.

Other boroughs



Two large baroque palaces in Nymphenburg and Oberschleissheim are reminders of Bavaria's royal past. Schloss Nymphenburg (Nymphenburg Palace
Nymphenburg Palace
The Nymphenburg Palace , i.e. "Nymph's Castle", is a Baroque palace in Munich, Bavaria, southern Germany. The palace was the main summer residence of the rulers of Bavaria.-History:...

), some 6 km north west of the city centre, is surrounded by an impressive park and is considered to be one of Europe's most beautiful royal residences. 2 km north west of Nymphenburg Palace is Schloss Blutenburg (Blutenburg Castle
Blutenburg Castle
Blutenburg Castle is an old ducal country seat in the west of Munich, Germany, on the banks of river Würm.-History:The castle was built between two arms of the River Würm for Duke Albert III, Duke of Bavaria in 1438–39 as a hunting-lodge, replacing an older castle burned down in war...

), an old ducal country seat with a late-Gothic palace church. Schloss Fürstenried (Fürstenried Palace
Fürstenried Palace
Fürstenried Palace is a Baroque palace in the southwest of Munich, Germany.-History:It was built by Joseph Effner for Elector Maximilian Emanuel in 1715–17 as a hunting lodge. Two pavilions are added each in the south and north of the main building....

), a baroque palace of similar structure to Nymphenburg but of much smaller size, was erected around the same time in the south west of Munich. The second large baroque residence is Schloss Schleissheim (Schleissheim Palace
Schleissheim Palace
The Schleissheim Palace actually comprises three palaces in a grand baroque park in the village of Oberschleißheim near Munich, Bavaria, Germany. The palace was the summer residence of the rulers of Bavaria.-Old Schleissheim Palace:...

), located in the suburb of Oberschleissheim
Oberschleißheim
Oberschleißheim is a municipality in the district of Munich, in Bavaria, Germany. It is located 13 km north of Munich . As of 2005 it had a population of 11,467....

, a palace complex encompassing three separate residences: Altes Schloss Schleissheim (the old palace), Neues Schloss Schleissheim (the new palace) and Schloss Lustheim (Lustheim Palace). Most parts of the palace complex serve as museums and art galleries. Deutsches Museum
Deutsches Museum
The Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany, is the world's largest museum of technology and science, with approximately 1.5 million visitors per year and about 28,000 exhibited objects from 50 fields of science and technology. The museum was founded on June 28, 1903, at a meeting of the Association...

's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special Landing Field.
St Michael in Berg am Laim might be the most remarkable church out of the inner city. Most of the boroughs have parish churches which originate from the Middle Ages like the most famous church of pilgrimage in Munich St Mary in Ramersdorf
St. Mary's Church, Ramersdorf
Saint Mary Ramersdorf in the district Ramersdorf-Perlach of Munich is a parish church and church of pilgrimage.-Architecture:The gothic building was mentioned for the first time in a document in 1315...

. The oldest church within the city borders is Heilig Kreuz in Fröttmaning next to the Allianz-Arena, known for its Romanesque fresco.
Especially in its suburbs, Munich features a wide and diverse array of modern architecture, although strict culturally sensitive height limitations for buildings have limited the construction of skyscrapers to avoid a loss of views to the distant Bavarian Alps. Most high-rise buildings are clustered at the northern edge of Munich in the skyline, like the Hypo-Haus
Hypo-Haus
The Hypo-Haus is a skyscraper in Munich constructed between 1975 and 1981 and serves as the headquarters of the HypoVereinsbank. It is located at Arabellapark, part of the Bogenhausen district in the East of Munich next to the Arabella High-Rise Building....

, the Arabella High-Rise Building
Arabella High-Rise Building
The Arabella High-Rise Building is a high-rise residential building with 23 floors, built from 1966 to 1969, by Josef Schörghuber in Munich, Germany. The building is 75 meters high and was designed by architect Toby Schmidbauer....

, the Highlight Towers
Highlight Towers
The Highlight Towers are two office towers completed in 2004 in Munich, Germany which are considered exemplary for new architecture in this city....

, Uptown Munich
Uptown Munich
The Uptown Munich building in Moosach, Munich with a height of is currently the highest skyscraper of the city.The building's glass facade wraps the structure of the building like a tensioned membrane...

, Münchner Tor and the BMW Headquarters
BMW Headquarters
BMW Headquarters is a Munich landmark, which has been serving as world headquarters for the Bavarian automaker for over 30 years. It was declared a protected historic building in 1999. Extensive refurbishments commenced in 2004 and were completed in 2006....

next to the Olympic Park. Several other high-rise buildings are located near the city centre and on the Siemens
Siemens
Siemens may refer toSiemens, a German family name carried by generations of telecommunications industrialists, including:* Werner von Siemens , inventor, founder of Siemens AG...

 campus in southern Munich. A landmark of modern Munich is also the architecture of the sport stadiums (as described below).

In Fasangarten is the former McGraw Kaserne
McGraw Kaserne
The McGraw Kaserne is a former military installation in southern Munich, Germany, which was used by the U.S. Military during the occupation of Germany after World War II. The main building was one of the first ones in Germany to be built using steel frame technology. The kaserne was named after...

, a former U.S. army base, near Stadelheim Prison
Stadelheim Prison
Stadelheim Prison, in Munich's Giesing district, is one of the largest prisons in Germany.Founded in 1894 it was the site of many executions, particularly by guillotine during the Nazi period.-Notable inmates:...

.

The parks



Munich is a green city with numerous parks. The Englischer Garten, close to the city centre and covering an area of 3.7 km² (larger than Central Park in New York), is one of the world's largest urban public parks, and contains a nudist
Naturism
Naturism or nudism is a cultural and political movement practising, advocating and defending social nudity in private and in public. It may also refer to a lifestyle based on personal, family and/or social nudism....

 area, jogging tracks and bridle-paths. It was designed and laid out by Benjamin Thompson
Benjamin Thompson
Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford , FRS was an American-born British physicist and inventor whose challenges to established physical theory were part of the 19th century revolution in thermodynamics. He also served as a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Loyalist forces in America during the American...

, Count of Rumford, for both pleasure and as a work area for the city's vagrants and homeless. Nowadays it is entirely a park with a Biergarten
Beer garden
Beer garden is an open-air area where beer, other drinks and local food are served. The concept originates from and is most common in Southern Germany...

 at the Chinese Pagoda.

Other large green spaces are the modern Olympiapark
Olympiapark, Munich
The Olympiapark in Munich, Germany, is an Olympic Park which was constructed for the 1972 Summer Olympics. Found in the area of Munich known as the "Oberwiesenfeld" , the Park continues to serve as a venue for cultural, social, and religious events such as events of worship...

, Westpark
Westpark (Munich)
The Westpark is a large urban public park in Munich, Germany. It was designed by landscape architect Peter Kluska and completed in 1983. It hosted the fourth International Garden Show that same year. The park covers an area of 720,000 m² extending 2 km from east to west...

, and the parks of Nymphenburg Palace
Nymphenburg Palace
The Nymphenburg Palace , i.e. "Nymph's Castle", is a Baroque palace in Munich, Bavaria, southern Germany. The palace was the main summer residence of the rulers of Bavaria.-History:...

 (with the Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg
Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg
The Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg is a botanical garden and arboretum located at Menzinger Straße 65, Munich, Bavaria, Germany...

 to the north), and Schleissheim Palace
Schleissheim Palace
The Schleissheim Palace actually comprises three palaces in a grand baroque park in the village of Oberschleißheim near Munich, Bavaria, Germany. The palace was the summer residence of the rulers of Bavaria.-Old Schleissheim Palace:...

. The city's oldest park is the Hofgarten, near the Residenz, and dating back to the 16th century. Best known for the largest beergarden in the town is the former royal Hirschgarten, founded in 1780 for deer which still live there.

The city's zoo
Zoo
A zoological garden, zoological park, menagerie, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred....

 is the Tierpark Hellabrunn
Tierpark Hellabrunn
Hellabrunn Zoo is a zoological garden in the Bavarian capital of Munich. The zoo is situated on the right bank of the river Isar, in the southern part of Munich near the quarter of Thalkirchen...

near the Flaucher Island in the Isar in the south of the city. Another notable park is Ostpark, located in Perlach-Ramersdorf area which houses the swimming area, Michaelibad, one of the largest in Munich.

Sports




Football


Munich is home to several professional football teams, including FC Bayern
FC Bayern Munich
FC Bayern Munich , is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria. It is best known for its professional football team, which is the most successful football club in Germany, having won 22 national titles and 15 cups....

 which is Germany's most popular and most successful club. The Munich area currently has three teams in the Bundesliga
Fußball-Bundesliga
The Fußball-Bundesliga is a professional association football league in Germany. At the top of Germany's football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. It is contested by 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga...

 system (FC Bayern
FC Bayern Munich
FC Bayern Munich , is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria. It is best known for its professional football team, which is the most successful football club in Germany, having won 22 national titles and 15 cups....

, TSV 1860
TSV 1860 München
Turn- und Sportverein München von 1860, commonly known as TSV 1860 München or 1860 Munich, is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria. The club's football team plays in the Second Bundesliga, after relegation from the Bundesliga following the 2003–04 season...

 and SpVgg Unterhaching
SpVgg Unterhaching
Spielvereinigung Unterhaching is a German sports club in Unterhaching, a semi-rural municipality on the southern outskirts of the Bavarian capital Munich....

), which comprises the three top divisions of German football
Football in Germany
Association football is the most popular sport in Germany. The German Football Association is the sport's national governing body, with 6.6 million members organized in over 26,000 football clubs. There is a league system, with the 1. and 2. Bundesliga on top, and the winner of the first...

.

Olympics




Munich has also hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics
1972 Summer Olympics
The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972....

 and was one of the host cities for the 2006 Football World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, which won the right to host the event in July 2000. Teams representing 198 national football associations from all six...

 which was not held in Munich's Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium (Munich)
Olympiastadion is a stadium located in Munich, Germany. Situated at the heart of the Olympiapark München in northern Munich, the stadium was built as the main venue for the 1972 Summer Olympics....

 but in a new football specific stadium
Soccer-specific stadium
Soccer-specific stadium is a term used mainly in the United States, Canada, Australia and South Korea coined by Lamar Hunt, to refer to a sports stadium either purpose built or fundamentally redesigned for soccer and whose primary function is to host soccer matches, as opposed to a multipurpose...

, the Allianz Arena
Allianz Arena
The Allianz Arena is a football stadium in the north of Munich, Bavaria, Germany. The two professional Munich football clubs FC Bayern Munich and TSV 1860 München have played their home games at Allianz Arena since the start of the 2005–06 season...

.

Munich bid to host the 2018 Winter Olympic Games but lost to Pyeongchang. In September 2011 the DOSB President Thomas Bach
Thomas Bach
Thomas Bach is a German fencer and, as of 2009, a vice-president and member of the executive board of the International Olympic Committee...

 confirmed that Munich would bid again for the Winter Olympics in the future.

Language



The Austro-Bavarian language is also spoken in and around Munich, where it is known as österreichisch-bayrisch. Austro-Bavarian has no official status by the Bavarian authorities or local government yet is recognised by the SIL
SIL International
SIL International is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages,...

 and has its own ISO-639 code.

Museums


The Deutsches Museum
Deutsches Museum
The Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany, is the world's largest museum of technology and science, with approximately 1.5 million visitors per year and about 28,000 exhibited objects from 50 fields of science and technology. The museum was founded on June 28, 1903, at a meeting of the Association...

or German Museum, located on an island in the River Isar, is one of the oldest and largest science museums in the world. Three redundant exhibition buildings which are under a protection order were converted to house the Verkehrsmuseum, which houses the land transport collections of the Deutsches Museum. Deutsches Museum's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special Landing Field.
Several non-centralised museums (many of those are public collections at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität) show the expanded state collections of palaeontology
Paläontologisches Museum München
The Paläontologische Museum München is a German national natural history museum situated in Munich, Bavaria. It is associated with the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität...

, geology, mineralogy
Mineralogy
Mineralogy is the study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical properties of minerals. Specific studies within mineralogy include the processes of mineral origin and formation, classification of minerals, their geographical distribution, as well as their utilization.-History:Early writing...

, zoology
Zoologische Staatssammlung München
Zoologische Staatssammlung München or ZSM or The Bavarian State Collection of Zoology is a major German research institution for zoological systematics. With over 20 million zoological specimens it is one of the largest natural history collections in the world. The sections are Entomology,...

, botany and anthropology.

The city has several important art galleries, most of which can be found in the Kunstareal
Kunstareal
The Kunstareal is a museum quarter in the city centre of Munich, Germany.It consists of the three "Pinakotheken" galleries , the Glyptothek, the Staatliche Antikensammlung , the Lenbachhaus, the Museum Brandhorst and...

, including the Alte Pinakothek
Alte Pinakothek
The Alte Pinakothek is an art museum situated in the Kunstareal in Munich, Germany. It is one of the oldest galleries in the world and houses one of the most famous collections of Old Master paintings...

, the Neue Pinakothek
Neue Pinakothek
The Neue Pinakothek is an art museum in Munich, Germany. Its focus is European Art of the 18th and 19th century and is one of the most important museums of art of the nineteenth century in the world...

, the Pinakothek der Moderne
Pinakothek der Moderne
The Pinakothek der Moderne is a modern art museum, situated in the city centre of Munich, Germany. Together with its two predecessors Alte Pinakothek and Neue Pinakothek The Pinakothek der Moderne (= "(Art) Gallery of the Modern"; from Greek: "pinax" = "board", "tablet") is a modern art museum,...

and the Museum Brandhorst
Museum Brandhorst
The Brandhorst Museum was opened in Munich on May 21, 2009. It displays about 200 exhibits from collection of modern art of the heirs of the Henkel trust Udo and Anette Brandhorst...

. Alte Pinakothek's monolithic structure contains a treasure trove of the works of European masters between the 14th and 18th centuries. The collection reflects the eclectic tastes of the Wittelsbachs over four centuries, and is sorted by schools over two sprawling floors. Major displays include Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer was a German painter, printmaker, engraver, mathematician, and theorist from Nuremberg. His prints established his reputation across Europe when he was still in his twenties, and he has been conventionally regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance ever since...

's Christ-like Self-Portrait, his Four Apostles, Raphael's
Raphael
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino , better known simply as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form and ease of composition and for its visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur...

 paintings The Canigiani Holy Family
Canigiani Holy Family (Raphael)
The Canigiani Holy Family or Canigiani Madonna is a painting by the Italian High Renaissance artist Raphael. It is housed in the Alte Pinakothek of Munich, Germany....

and Madonna Tempi
Tempi Madonna (Raphael)
The Tempi Madonna is an oil painting by the Italian High Renaissance painter Raphael. Painted for the Tempi family, it was bought by Ludwig I of Bavaria in 1829. It is housed in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. It is thought to have been made in 1508, at the end of the artist's Florentine period....

as well as Peter Paul Rubens two-storey-high Judgment Day. The gallery houses one of the world's most comprehensive Rubens collections. Before World War I, the Blaue Reiter
Der Blaue Reiter
Der Blaue Reiter was a group of artists from the Neue Künstlervereinigung München in Munich, Germany. The group was founded by a number of Russian emigrants, including Wassily Kandinsky, Alexej von Jawlensky, Marianne von Werefkin, and native German artists, such as Franz Marc, August Macke and...

 group of artists worked in Munich. Many of their works can now be seen at the Lenbachhaus
Lenbachhaus
The Lenbachhaus in Munich houses an art museum and is part of Munich's "Kunstareal" .- The building :The Lenbachhaus was built as a Florentine-style villa for the painter Franz von Lenbach between 1887 and 1891 by Gabriel von Seidl...

.
An important collection of Greek and Roman art is held in the Glyptothek
Glyptothek
The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection of Greek and Roman sculptures . It was designed by Leo von Klenze in the Neoclassical style, and built from 1816 to 1830...

and the Staatliche Antikensammlung
Staatliche Antikensammlungen
The Staatliche Antikensammlungen in the Kunstareal of Munich is a museum for the Bavarian state's antique collections for Greek, Etruscan and Roman art. The Bavarian state collection of Ancient Egyptian art is traditionally placed in its own museum...

(State Antiquities Collection). King Ludwig I managed to acquire such famous pieces as the Medusa Rondanini
Medusa Rondanini
The over-lifesize Medusa Rondanini, the best late Hellenistic or Augustan Roman marble copy of the head of Medusa, is rendered more humanized and beautiful than the always grotesque apotropaic head of Medusa that appeared as the Gorgoneion on the aegis of Athena...

, the Barberini Faun
Barberini Faun
The life-size marble statue known as the Barberini Faun or Drunken Satyr is located in the Glyptothek in Munich, Germany. A Faun is the Roman equivalent of a Greek Satyr. In Greek mythology, satyrs were human-like male woodland spirits with several animal features, often a goat-like tail, hooves,...

 and figures from the Temple of Aphaea
Temple of Aphaea
The Temple of Afea The Temple of Afea The Temple of Afea (the name Afea appears on all the local signs, Afea being the name of a Cretan woman of unsurpassed beauty. After escaping a unwelcome marriage on Crete, she was rescued by a fisherman from Aegina. In payment for this he also proposed an...

 on Aegina
Aegina
Aegina is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens. Tradition derives the name from Aegina, the mother of Aeacus, who was born in and ruled the island. During ancient times, Aegina was a rival to Athens, the great sea power of the era.-Municipality:The municipality...

 for the Glyptothek. The Kunstareal
Kunstareal
The Kunstareal is a museum quarter in the city centre of Munich, Germany.It consists of the three "Pinakotheken" galleries , the Glyptothek, the Staatliche Antikensammlung , the Lenbachhaus, the Museum Brandhorst and...

 will be further augmented by the completion of the Egyptian Museum
Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst
The Staatliches Museum Ägyptischer Kunst in Munich is the Bavarian State Collection for Ancient Egypt art. It displays exhibits from all periods of Ancient Egypt's history. The associated small Middle East section displays objects from the areas of Assyrian and Babylonian culture...

.

The famous gothic Morris dance
Morris dance
Morris dance is a form of English folk dance usually accompanied by music. It is based on rhythmic stepping and the execution of choreographed figures by a group of dancers. Implements such as sticks, swords, handkerchiefs and bells may also be wielded by the dancers...

rs of Erasmus Grasser
Erasmus Grasser
Erasmus Grasser was a leading sculptor in Munich in the early 16th century.He developed in an animated and realistic style, furthering on the works of Nikolaus Gerhaert...

 are exhibited in the Munich City Museum
Munich Stadtmuseum
The Munich Stadtmuseum is the city museum of Munich. It was founded in 1888 by Ernst von Destouches and is located in the former municipal arsenal and stables, both buildings of the late Gothic period.-Permanent exhibitions:...

in the old gothic arsenal building in the inner city.

Another area for the arts next to the Kunstareal is the Lehel
Altstadt-Lehel
Altstadt and Lehel are districts of the German city of Munich. Together they form the first borough of the city: Altstadt-Lehel.- Location :...

 quarter between the old town and the river Isar: The State Museum of Ethnology
State Museum of Ethnology
The Bavarian State Museum of Ethnology in Munich, Germany is a museum for Non-European artworks and objects of cultural value.-The building:...

in Maximilianstrasse is the second largest collection in Germany of artifacts and objects from outside Europe, while the Bavarian National Museum
Bavarian National Museum
The Bavarian National Museum in Munich is one of the most important cultural history museums in Europe.-Building and History:...

and the adjoining Bavarian State Archaeological Collection
Bavarian State Archaeological Collection
The Bavarian State Archaeological Collection in Munich is the central museum of prehistory of the State of Bavaria and one of the most important archaeological collections and cultural history museums in Germany.-History:...

in Prinzregentenstrasse rank among Europe's major art and cultural history museums. The nearby Schackgalerie
Schackgalerie
The Schackgalerie is a museum in Munich. It is one of the noted galleries in this city. The museum is under supervision of the Bavarian State Picture Collection.-Collection:...

is an important gallery of German 19th century paintings.

The former Dachau concentration camp is 16 kilometres outside the city.

Arts and literature


Munich is a major European cultural centre and has played host to many prominent composers including Orlando di Lasso
Orlande de Lassus
Orlande de Lassus was a Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance...

, W.A. Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , baptismal name Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart , was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. He composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music...

, Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school....

, Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, conductor, theatre director, philosopher, music theorist, poet, essayist and writer primarily known for his operas...

, Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler was a late-Romantic Austrian composer and one of the leading conductors of his generation. He was born in the village of Kalischt, Bohemia, in what was then Austria-Hungary, now Kaliště in the Czech Republic...

, Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss
Richard Georg Strauss was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier and Salome; his Lieder, especially his Four Last Songs; and his tone poems and orchestral works, such as Death and Transfiguration, Till...

, Max Reger
Max Reger
Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Reger was a German composer, conductor, pianist, organist, and academic teacher.-Life:...

 and Carl Orff
Carl Orff
Carl Orff was a 20th-century German composer, best known for his cantata Carmina Burana . In addition to his career as a composer, Orff developed an influential method of music education for children.-Early life:...

. With the Munich Biennale
Munich Biennale
The Munich Biennale is an opera festival in the city of Munich. The full German name is Internationales Festival für neues Musiktheater, literally: International Festival for New Music Theater. The biennial festival was created in 1988 by Hans Werner Henze and is held in even-numbered years over...

 founded by Hans Werner Henze
Hans Werner Henze
Hans Werner Henze is a German composer of prodigious output best known for "his consistent cultivation of music for the theatre throughout his life"...

, and the A*DEvantgarde festival, the city still contributes to modern music theatre.

The Nationaltheater where several of Richard Wagner's
Richard Wagner
Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, conductor, theatre director, philosopher, music theorist, poet, essayist and writer primarily known for his operas...

 operas had their premieres under the patronage of Ludwig II of Bavaria
Ludwig II of Bavaria
Ludwig II was King of Bavaria from 1864 until shortly before his death. He is sometimes called the Swan King and der Märchenkönig, the Fairy tale King...

 is the home of the Bavarian State Opera
Bavarian State Opera
The Bavarian State Opera is an opera company based in Munich, Germany.Its orchestra is the Bavarian State Orchestra.- History:The opera company which was founded under Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy has been in existence since 1653...

 and the Bavarian State Orchestra
Bavarian State Orchestra
The Bayerisches Staatsorchester is the orchestra of the Bavarian State Opera.- History :Founded in the times of Ludwig Senfl the orchestra, specializing in musica sacra, belonged to the finest ones in Europe already under Orlando di Lasso . In 1651 the Italian opera was introduced in Munich...

. Next door the modern Residenz Theatre
Residenz Theatre
The Residence Theatre or New Residence Theatre of the Residence in Munich was built from 1950 to 1951 by Karl Hocheder...

was erected in the building that had housed the Cuvilliés Theatre
Cuvilliés Theatre
The Cuvilliés Theatre or Old Residence Theatre is the former court theatre of the Residenz in Munich, southern Germany.- Description :...

before World War II. Many operas were staged there, including the premiere of Mozart's
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , baptismal name Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart , was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. He composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music...

 "Idomeneo" in 1781. The Gärtnerplatz Theatre
Staatstheater am Gärtnerplatz
Staatstheater am Gärtnerplatz is an opera house and opera company in Munich. Designed by the architect Michael Reiffenstuel, it opened on 5 November 1865 as the city's second opera house after the National Theatre....

is a ballet and musical state theatre while another opera house the Prinzregententheater
Prinzregententheater
The Prinzregententheater, or Prince Regent's Theatre, is a theatre and opera house located at 12 Prinzregentenplatz in the Bavarian city of Munich, Germany.- Building and History :...

has become the home of the Bavarian Theatre Academy.
The modern Gasteig
Gasteig
Gasteig is a cultural center in Munich, opened in 1985, which hosts the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. The Richard Strauss Conservatory, the Volkshochschule, and the municipal library are all located in the Gasteig...

center houses the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. The third orchestra in Munich with international importance is the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra
Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra
The Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, in German Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks is the internationally renowned orchestra of the Bayerischer Rundfunk , based in Munich, Germany. It is one of the three principal orchestras in the city of Munich, along with the Munich Philharmonic...

. Its primary concert venue is the Herkulesaal in the former city royal residence, the Residenz. A stage for shows, big events and musicals is the Deutsche Theater.

Next to the Bavarian Staatsschauspiel in the Residenz Theatre (Residenztheater), the Munich Kammerspiele
Munich Kammerspiele
The Munich Kammerspiele is a successful German language theatre in Munich. The Schauspielhaus in the Maximilianstrasse is the major stage.-History:...

in the Schauspielhaus is one of the most important German language theatres in the world. Since Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist, and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era. His plays and theoretical writings substantially influenced the development of German literature...

's premieres in 1775 many important writers have staged their plays in Munich such as Christian Friedrich Hebbel
Christian Friedrich Hebbel
Christian Friedrich Hebbel , was a German poet and dramatist.-Biography:Hebbel was born at Wesselburen in Ditmarschen, Holstein, the son of a bricklayer. He was educated at the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums...

, Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen was a major 19th-century Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet. He is often referred to as "the father of prose drama" and is one of the founders of Modernism in the theatre...

 and Hugo von Hofmannsthal
Hugo von Hofmannsthal
Hugo Laurenz August Hofmann von Hofmannsthal ; , was an Austrian novelist, librettist, poet, dramatist, narrator, and essayist.-Early life:...

.

The city is known as the second largest publishing center in the world (around 250 publishing houses have offices in the city), and many national and international publications are published in Munich, such as Matchless Magazine
Matchless Magazine
Matchless Magazine is a non-profit online magazine based in Munich, Germany and sponsored by the US-consulate. The magazine is a US-German cooperative project with contributions entirely in English.The magazine was founded in June 2009...

, LAXMag and Prinz.

Prominent literary figures worked in Munich especially during the final centuries of the Kingdom of Bavaria such as Paul Heyse
Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse
Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse was a distinguished German writer and translator. A member of two important literary societies, the Tunnel über der Spree in Berlin and Die Krokodile in Munich, he wrote novels, poetry, 177 short stories, and about sixty dramas...

, Max Halbe
Max Halbe
Max Halbe was a German dramatist and main exponent of Naturalism.Halbe was born at the manor of Güttland near Danzig , where he grew up. In 1883 he started to study law at the University of Heidelberg and obtained his doctorate at the University of Munich in 1888...

, Rainer Maria Rilke
Rainer Maria Rilke
René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke , better known as Rainer Maria Rilke, was a Bohemian–Austrian poet. He is considered one of the most significant poets in the German language...

 and Frank Wedekind
Frank Wedekind
Benjamin Franklin Wedekind , usually known as Frank Wedekind, was a German playwright...

.
The period immediately before World War I saw economic and cultural prominence for the city. Munich, and especially its suburb of Schwabing
Schwabing
Schwabing is a borough in the northern part of Munich, the capital of the German state of Bavaria. It is divided into the city borough 4 and the city borough 12...

, became the domicile of many artists and writers. Thomas Mann
Thomas Mann
Thomas Mann was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and ironic epic novels and novellas, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and the intellectual...

, who also lived there, wrote ironically in his novella Gladius Dei about this period, "Munich shone". It remained a centre of cultural life during the Weimar period with figures such as Lion Feuchtwanger
Lion Feuchtwanger
Lion Feuchtwanger was a German-Jewish novelist and playwright. A prominent figure in the literary world of Weimar Germany, he influenced contemporaries including playwright Bertolt Brecht....

, Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht was a German poet, playwright, and theatre director.An influential theatre practitioner of the 20th century, Brecht made equally significant contributions to dramaturgy and theatrical production, the latter particularly through the seismic impact of the tours undertaken by the...

 and Oskar Maria Graf
Oskar Maria Graf
Oskar Maria Graf was a German author.He wrote several socialist-anarchist novels and narratives about life in Bavaria, mostly autobiographical.In the beginning Graf wrote under his real name Oskar Graf...

. In 1919 the Bavaria Film Studios
Bavaria Film Studios
The Bavaria Film in Geiselgasteig, a district of Munich's suburb Grünwald, Bavaria belongs to one of Europe's biggest and most famous film production companies.- History :...

 were founded.

From the Gothic to the Baroque era, the fine arts were represented in Munich by artists like Erasmus Grasser
Erasmus Grasser
Erasmus Grasser was a leading sculptor in Munich in the early 16th century.He developed in an animated and realistic style, furthering on the works of Nikolaus Gerhaert...

, Jan Polack
Jan Polack
Jan Polack Johannes Polack , was a 15th-century painter....

, Johann Baptist Straub
Johann Baptist Straub
Johann Baptist Straub was a German Rococo sculptor.-Biography:Straub was born in Wiesensteig, into a family of sculptors. His father Johann George Straub and his brothers Philipp Jakob, Joseph, and Johann Georg Straub were also sculptors, as was his nephew Franz Xaver Messerschmidt. J. B...

, Ignaz Günther
Ignaz Günther
Ignaz Günther was a German sculptor and woodcarver working in the Bavarian rococo tradition.He was born in Altmannstein, Germany, where he received his earliest training from his father, then studied in Munich under the court sculptor Johann Baptist Straub from 1743 to 1750 and during his...

, Hans Krumpper
Hans Krumpper
Hans Krumpper was a German sculptor, plasterer, architect and intendant of the arts who served the Bavarian dukes William V...

, Ludwig von Schwanthaler
Ludwig Michael Schwanthaler
Ludwig Michael Schwanthaler, later ennobled as Ritter von Schwanthaler was a German sculptor.-Biography:Schwanthaler was born in Munich....

, Cosmas Damian Asam
Cosmas Damian Asam
Cosmas Damian Asam was a German painter and architect during the late Baroque period. Born in Benediktbeuern, he moved to Rome in 1711 to study at the Accademia di San Luca with Carlo Maratta. There, he could see the fresco Ascensione di Cristo by Melozzo da Forlì in Santi Apostoli Church...

, Egid Quirin Asam
Egid Quirin Asam
Egid Quirin Asam was a German plasterer and sculptor active during the period of the Late Baroque....

, Johann Baptist Zimmermann
Johann Baptist Zimmermann
Johann Baptist Zimmermann was a German painter and a prime stucco plasterer during the Baroque.Zimmermann was born in Gaispoint, Wessobrunn. He and his brother Dominikus Zimmermann were descended from an artist family of the Wessobrunner School...

, Johann Michael Fischer
Johann Michael Fischer
Johann Michael Fischer was a German architect in the late Baroque period....

 and François de Cuvilliés
François de Cuvilliés
François de Cuvilliés was a Belgian-born Bavarian decorative designer and architect who was instrumental in bringing the Rococo style to the Wittelsbach court at Munich and to Central Europe in general.Cuvilliés was so diminutive in stature that it was as a court dwarf he first came to the notice...

.
Munich had already become an important place for painters like Carl Rottmann
Carl Rottmann
Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann was a German landscape painter and the most famous member of the Rottmann family of painters....

, Lovis Corinth
Lovis Corinth
Lovis Corinth was a German painter and printmaker whose mature work realized a synthesis of impressionism and expressionism....

, Wilhelm von Kaulbach
Wilhelm von Kaulbach
Wilhelm von Kaulbach was a German painter, noted mainly as a muralist, but also as a book illustrator. His murals decorate buildings in Munich.-Education:...

, Carl Spitzweg
Carl Spitzweg
Carl Spitzweg was a German romanticist painter and poet. He is considered to be one of the most important artists of the Biedermeier era....

, Franz von Lenbach
Franz von Lenbach
Franz von Lenbach was a German painter of Realist style.-Biography:Lenbach was born at Schrobenhausen, in Bavaria. His father was a mason, and the boy was intended to follow his father's trade or be a builder. With this view he was sent to school at Landsberg, and then to the polytechnic at Augsburg...

, Franz von Stuck
Franz Stuck
Franz Stuck , Franz Ritter von Stuck after 1906, was a German symbolist/Art Nouveau painter, sculptor, engraver, and architect.-Life and career:...

 and Wilhelm Leibl
Wilhelm Leibl
Wilhelm Maria Hubertus Leibl was a German realist painter of portraits and scenes of peasant life.Leibl was born in Cologne and in 1861 began his first training with Hermann Becker, a local painter. He entered the Munich Academy in 1864, subsequently studying with several artists including Carl...

 when Der Blaue Reiter
Der Blaue Reiter
Der Blaue Reiter was a group of artists from the Neue Künstlervereinigung München in Munich, Germany. The group was founded by a number of Russian emigrants, including Wassily Kandinsky, Alexej von Jawlensky, Marianne von Werefkin, and native German artists, such as Franz Marc, August Macke and...

 (The Blue Rider), a group of expressionist artists, was established in Munich in 1911. The city was home to the Blue Rider's painters Paul Klee
Paul Klee
Paul Klee was born in Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland, and is considered both a German and a Swiss painter. His highly individual style was influenced by movements in art that included expressionism, cubism, and surrealism. He was, as well, a student of orientalism...

, Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky was an influential Russian painter and art theorist. He is credited with painting the first purely-abstract works. Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa. He enrolled at the University of Moscow, studying law and economics...

, Alexej von Jawlensky
Alexej von Jawlensky
Alexej Georgewitsch von Jawlensky was a Russian expressionist painter active in Germany. He was a key member of the New Munich Artist's Association , Der Blaue Reiter group and later the Die Blaue Vier .-Life and work:Alexej von Jawlensky was born in Torzhok, a town in Tver...

, Gabriele Münter
Gabriele Münter
Gabriele Münter was a German expressionist painter who was at the forefront of the Munich avant-garde in the early 20th century. Artists and writers associated with German Expressionism shared a rebellious attitude toward the materialism and mores of German imperial and bourgeois society...

, Franz Marc
Franz Marc
Franz Marc was a German painter and printmaker, one of the key figures of the German Expressionist movement...

, August Macke
August Macke
August Macke was one of the leading members of the German Expressionist group Der Blaue Reiter . He lived during a particularly innovative time for German art which saw the development of the main German Expressionist movements as well as the arrival of the successive avant-garde movements which...

 and Alfred Kubin
Alfred Kubin
Alfred Leopold Isidor Kubin was an Austrian printmaker, illustrator and occasional writer. Kubin is considered an important representative of Symbolism and Expressionism.-Biography:...

.

Hofbräuhaus and Oktoberfest





The Hofbräuhaus am Platzl
Hofbräuhaus am Platzl
The Hofbräuhaus am Platzl is a beer hall in the city center of Munich, Germany. The inn originally built in 1598 by Bavarian Duke Maximilian I. It was built as an extension of the original Hofbräu brewery, but for Weissbier . The general public was admitted only in 1828 by then king Ludwig I...

, arguably the most famous beer hall worldwide, is located in the city centre. It also operates the second largest tent at the Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest, or Wiesn, is a 16–18 day beer festival held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany, running from late September to the first weekend in October. It is one of the most famous events in Germany and is the world's largest fair, with more than 5 million people attending every year. The...

, one of Munich's most famous attractions. For two weeks, the Oktoberfest attracts millions of people visiting its beer tents ("Bierzelte") and fairground attractions. The Oktoberfest was first held on 12 October 1810 in honour of the marriage of crown prince Ludwig
Ludwig I of Bavaria
Ludwig I was a German king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states.-Crown prince:...

 to Princess Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen. The festivities were closed with a horse race and in the following years the horse races were continued and later developed into what is now known as the Oktoberfest. Despite its name, most of Oktoberfest occurs in September. It always finishes on the first Sunday in October unless the German national holiday on 3 October ("Tag der deutschen Einheit"-Day of German Unity) is a Monday or Tuesday-then the Oktoberfest remains open for these days.

Culinary specialities


The Weißwurst ('white sausage') is a Munich speciality. Traditionally eaten only before 12:00 noon – a tradition dating to a time before refrigerators – these morsels are often served with sweet mustard and freshly baked pretzel
Pretzel
A pretzel is a type of baked food made from dough in soft and hard varieties and savory or sweet flavors in a unique knot-like shape, originating in Europe...

s. Leberkäs
Leberkäse
is a specialty food found in the south of Germany, in Austria and parts of Switzerland, similar to bologna sausage...

, Bavarian baked sausage loaf, often served with potato salad, is another delicacy of the region.

The most famous soup might be the Leberknödel Soup. Leberknödel is a bread dumpling seasoned with liver and onions.

Schweinsbraten (pot roasted pork) with Knödel (dumplings made from potatoes and/or white bread) and Kraut (cabbage) or a Schweinshaxe (pork knuckle) are served as lunch or dinner. Beuscherl, a plate of lung, heart and spleen is also served with dumplings.

Popular as dessert is the Apfelstrudel (apple) strudel
Strudel
A strudel is a type of layered pastry with a — most often sweet — filling inside, often served with cream. It became well known and gained popularity in the 18th century through the Habsburg Empire....

 with vanilla sauce, the Millirahmstrudel a cream cheese strudel, Dampfnudeln (yeast dumplings served with custard) or Auszogene, a fried pastry shaped like a large donut but without a hole. And there is also the famous Prinzregententorte
Prinzregententorte
Prinzregententorte is a bavarian cake, which consists of at least six thin layers of sponge cake interlaid with chocolate buttercream. The exterior is covered in a dark chocolate glaze....

created in honour of the prince regent Luitpold
Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria
Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria , was the de facto ruler of Bavaria from 1886 to 1912, due to the incapacity of his nephews, King Ludwig II and King Otto.-Early life:...

.

Some specialities are typical cold dishes served in beergarden
Beer garden
Beer garden is an open-air area where beer, other drinks and local food are served. The concept originates from and is most common in Southern Germany...

s: Obatzda
Obatzda
Obatzda is a Bavarian cheese delicacy. It is prepared by mixing two thirds aged soft cheese, usually Camembert and one third butter....

is a Bavarian cheese delicacy, a savoury blend of smashed mellow camembert prepared with cream cheese, cut onions and spicy paprika (and sometimes some butter). It's often served in the beer gardens along with Radi, white radish cut in thin slices and salted, and Münchner Wurstsalat
Wurstsalat
Wurstsalat is a tart sausage salad prepared with vinegar, oil and onions. It is normally made from a sort of boiled sausage like lyoner, stadtwurst, regensburger or extrawurst...

, Munich's famous sausage salad with thinly sliced Knackwurst marinated in vinegar and oil with onions on a bed of lettuce. Popular grilled meals include Steckerlfisch which is usually Mackerel
Mackerel
Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. They may be found in all tropical and temperate seas. Most live offshore in the oceanic environment but a few, like the Spanish mackerel , enter bays and can be...

, but may also be a local fish, such as trout or whitefish, speared on a wooden stick, grilled and smoked on charcoal—the typical feature is the crispy skin. Another classic is A hoibs Hendl
Hendl
Hendl is the Austro-Bavarian word for "chicken", most commonly in its roasted form.Hendln are traditionally served in Bavarian beer gardens or at festivals such as Oktoberfest, and are generally eaten with a Brezen and/or a Maß of beer...

(half a grilled chicken). A Mass (die Maß) is a litre of beer, a Radler consists of half beer and half lemonade.

Local beers


Munich is famous for its breweries and the Weissbier
Weissbier
Weissbier , also known as Weizenbier , is a Bavarian specialty beer in which a significant proportion of malted barley is replaced with malted wheat: a wheat beer. By German law, Weissbiers brewed in Germany must be top-fermented...

(or Weizenbier, wheat beer) is a speciality from Bavaria. Helles
Pale lager
Pale lager is a very pale to golden-coloured beer with a well attenuated body and a varying degree of noble hop bitterness. The brewing process for this beer developed in the mid 19th century when Gabriel Sedlmayr took pale ale brewing techniques back to the Spaten Brewery in Germany and applied it...

with its translucent gold colour is the most popular Munich beer today, although it’s not old (only introduced in 1895). Helles and Pils
Pilsener
Pilsner is a type of pale lager. It takes its name from the city of Pilsen , Bohemia, in today's Czech Republic, where it has been developed since 1842, when a bottom-fermented beer was first produced. The original Pilsner Urquell beer is produced there today.-Origin:Until the mid-1840s, most ...

 have almost ousted the Munich Dark Beer (Dunkles
Dunkel
Dunkel, or Dunkles, is a dark German beer. Dunkel is the German word meaning dark, and dunkel beers typically range in colour from amber to dark reddish brown. They are characterized by their smooth malty flavour....

), which gets its dark colour from burnt malt, the most popular beer in Munich within the 19th century.
Starkbier is the strongest Munich beer, containing 6–9 percent alcohol. It is dark amber and has a heavy malty taste. It is available and popular during the Lenten Starkbierzeit (strong beer season), which begins on or before St. Joseph’s Day (19 March). There are around 20 major beer garden
Beer garden
Beer garden is an open-air area where beer, other drinks and local food are served. The concept originates from and is most common in Southern Germany...

s, with four of the most famous and popular being located in the Englischer Garten and the largest one in the Hirschgarten.
  • Augustiner Bräu
    Augustiner Bräu
    Augustiner Bräu is a brewery located in Munich, Germany. Established in 1328, it is Munich's oldest still independent brewery and produces some of Munich's most popular brands of beer.- Distribution and marketing :...

  • Paulaner
    Paulaner
    Paulaner is a German brewery, established in the early 17th century in Munich by the Minim friars of the Neudeck ob der Au cloister. The mendicant order and the brewery are named after Francis of Paola, the founder of the order....

  • Hacker-Pschorr
    Hacker-Pschorr Brewery
    Hacker-Pschorr Brewery traces its ancestry back to 1417 when the Hacker brewery was founded in Munich, Germany, 99 years before the enactment of the Reinheitsgebot Purity Law of 1516....

  • Hofbräu
    Hofbräuhaus
    The Staatliches Hofbräuhaus in München is a brewery in Munich, Germany, owned by the Bavarian state government...

  • Löwenbräu
    Löwenbräu
    Löwenbräu is a German brewery in Munich, Bavaria, Germany that produces a traditional Munich-style beer. It is currently owned by the American-Brazilian-Belgian company Anheuser-Busch InBev. Like other premium German beers, it is brewed according to the German "Reinheitsgebot" dating back to 1516...

  • Spaten-Franziskaner-Bräu

Markets


The Viktualienmarkt
Viktualienmarkt
The Viktualienmarkt is a daily food market and a square in the center of Munich, Germany.The Viktualienmarkt developed from an original farmers' market to a popular market for gourmets...

is Munich's most popular market for fresh food and delicatessen. A very old feature of Munich's Fasching (carnival) is the dance of the Marktfrauen (market women) of the Viktualienmarkt in comical costumes.

The Auer Dult
Auer Dult
The Auer Dult is a traditional annual market in Munich, Germany, taking place three times per year on the Mariahilfplatz in the Munich district of Au. The first fair of the year, the so-called Maidult is held in the first weekend of the month. The Jakobidult takes place in July and the...

is held three times a year on the square around Mariahilf church and is one of Munich's oldest markets, well known for its hardware, tat and antiques.

Three weeks before Christmas the Christkindlmarkt
Christmas Market
A Christmas market, also known as Christkindlmarkt, Christkindlesmarkt, Christkindlmarket, and Weihnachtsmarkt, is a street market associated with the celebration of Christmas during the four weeks of Advent...

opens at Marienplatz and other squares in the city, selling Christmas goods.

Nightlife



Nightlife
Nightlife
Nightlife is the collective term for any entertainment that is available and more popular from the late evening into the early hours of the morning...

 in Munich is thriving with over 6,000 licensed establishments in the city, especially in Schwabing
Schwabing
Schwabing is a borough in the northern part of Munich, the capital of the German state of Bavaria. It is divided into the city borough 4 and the city borough 12...

, which is still the main quarter for students and artists. Some notable establishments are:
  • the touristy Hofbräuhaus, one of the oldest breweries in Munich, located in the city centre near Tal
  • Kultfabrik (formerly known as Kunstpark Ost) and Optimolwerke, former industrial compounds converted to host many different discos and pubs
  • P1 which is Munich's premier socialite discothèque
  • Munich's gay quarter is located in the borough Isarvorstadt, surrounding the Staatstheater am Gärtnerplatz, and is also known as the Glockenbachviertel
  • Munich's newest (as of Jan. 2010) nightlife hot spot right at the heart of Munich, stretching from Maximiliansplatz via Stachus to Sonnenstrasse, its shape resembling a – and therefore colloqially called – banana.

Colleges and universities


Munich is a leading location for science and research with a long list of Nobel Prize laureates from Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1901 to Theodor Hänsch in 2005. Munich has become a spiritual centre already since the times of Emperor Louis IV when philosophers like Michael of Cesena
Michael of Cesena
Michael of Cesena was an Italian Franciscan, general of that Order, and theologian.-Biography:...

, Marsilius of Padua
Marsilius of Padua
Marsilius of Padua Marsilius of Padua Marsilius of Padua (Italian Marsilio or Marsiglio da Padova; (circa 1275 – circa 1342) was an Italian scholar, trained in medicine who practiced a variety of professions. He was also an important 14th century political figure...

 and William of Ockham
William of Ockham
William of Ockham was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a small village in Surrey. He is considered to be one of the major figures of medieval thought and was at the centre of the major intellectual and political controversies of...

 were protected at the emperor's court. The Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU) and the Technische Universität München (TU or TUM), were two of the first three German universities to be awarded the title elite university by a selection committee composed of academics and members of the Ministries of Education and Research of the Federation and the German states (Länder). Only the two Munich universities and the Technical University of Karlsruhe (now part of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is a German academic research and education institution with university status resulting from a merger of the university and the research center of the city of Karlsruhe. The university, also known as Fridericiana, was founded in 1825...

) have held this honour, and the implied greater chances of attracting research funds, since the first evaluation round in 2006.

  • Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU), founded in 1472 in Ingolstadt
    Ingolstadt
    Ingolstadt is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is located along the banks of the Danube River, in the center of Bavaria. As at 31 March 2011, Ingolstadt had 125.407 residents...

    , moved to Munich in 1826
  • Technical University of Munich
    Technical University of Munich
    The Technische Universität München is a research university with campuses in Munich, Garching, and Weihenstephan...

     (TUM), founded in 1868
  • Ukrainian Free University
    Ukrainian Free University
    The Ukrainian Free University is a private graduate university located in Munich, Germany.-History:The Ukrainian Free University was established in Vienna, January 17, 1921. The idea to organize a Ukrainian university-in-exile came from Ukrainian academics, some of whom had held chairs at...

    , founded in 1921 (from 1945 – in Munich)
  • Munich Business School
    Munich Business School
    The Munich Business School is a private university of applied science located in Munich . The MBS confers degrees in Business Administration and was ranked in 2004 as one of the leading private Business Schools in Germany....

     (MBS), founded in 1991
  • Munich University of Applied Sciences
    Munich University of Applied Sciences
    The Munich University of Applied Sciences, was founded in 1971 and is the largest University of Applied Sciences in Bavaria with about 14,000 students.-Organisation:...

     (HM), founded in 1971
  • Munich Intellectual Property Law Center
    Munich Intellectual Property Law Center
    The Munich Intellectual Property Law Center is a center for both research and education in intellectual property, founded in 2003 and based in Munich, Germany. The MIPLC is a project of the Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law, the University of Augsburg, the...

     (MIPLC)
  • Bundeswehr University Munich, founded in 1973
  • Pionierschule und Fachschule des Heeres für Bautechnik
  • Hochschule für Musik und Theater München
    Hochschule für Musik und Theater München
    The Hochschule für Musik und Theater München is one of the most respected traditional vocational universities in Germany specialising in music and the performing arts. The seat of the Hochschule is the former Führerbau of the NSDAP, located at Arcisstraße 12, on the eastern side of the Königsplatz...

    , founded in 1830
  • Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, founded in 1808
  • University of Television and Film Munich
    University of Television and Film Munich
    The University of Television and Film Munich is a publicly funded film school in Munich, Germany. The school was established in 1966 by decree of the Bavarian government. The University of Television and Film Munich is one of Germany's most reputable film schools with about 350 students enrolled...

    , (Hochschule für Fernsehen und Film) founded in 1966
  • Munich University of Philosophy
    Munich University of Philosophy
    Hochschule für Philosophie is a small Jesuit university in Munich, Germany with about 600 students.Founded as a seminary at Pullach in 1925, first named the Berchmanskolleg, it obtained the ability to issue a doctorate in 1932. In 1971 the school moved to central Munich and opened to non-Jesuit...

    , founded in 1925 in Pullach
    Pullach
    Pullach, officially Pullach i. Isartal, is a municipality in the district of Munich in Bavaria in Germany. It is serviced by the S 7 line of the Munich S-Bahn, at the Großhesselohe Isartalbahnhof, Pullach and Höllriegelskreuth railway stations....

    , moved to Munich in 1971
  • Munich School of Political Science
  • Katholische Stiftungsfachhochschule München, founded in 1971
  • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences
    International Max Planck Research School for molecular and cellular Life Sciences
    -International Max Planck Research Schools:To date more than 60 have been established in Germany, each representing a joint cooperative of Max Planck Institutes and one or several German universities...

     http://www.imprs-ls.de,
  • International School of Management
    International School of Management
    International School of Management may refer to*ISM University of Management and Economics - Lithuania*International School of Management - Paris, France, New York, Shanghai, Tokyo...

     http://www.ism.de
  • Deutsche Journalistenschule, founded in 1959

Max Planck Society


The Max Planck Society
Max Planck Society
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes publicly funded by the federal and the 16 state governments of Germany....

, an independent German non-profit research organization, has its administrative headquarters in Munich. The following institutes are located in the Munich area:
  • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
    Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
    The Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics is a Max Planck Institute, located in Garching, near Munich, Bavaria, Germany. It was founded as Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics in 1958 and split up into the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics and the Max Planck Institute for Physics...

    , Garching
    Garching bei München
    Garching bei München or Garching is a city in Bavaria, Germany near Munich. It is the home of several research institutes and university departments. It became a city on 14 September 1990.-Location:...

  • Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
    Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
    The Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry is a research institute of the Max Planck Society located in Martinsried, a suburb of Munich. The Institute was "founded in 1973 by the merger of three formerly independent institutes: the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, the Max Planck Institute of...

    , Martinsried
    Martinsried
    Martinsried is a section of Planegg, a municipality neighboring Munich, Germany. Martinsried lies about 15 km southwest of Munich's city center.Martinsried is mostly known as the location of the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry and the...

  • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
    The Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics is a Max Planck Institute, located in Garching, near Munich, Germany.In 1991 the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics split up into the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, the Max Planck Institute for Physics and the...

    , Garching
    Garching bei München
    Garching bei München or Garching is a city in Bavaria, Germany near Munich. It is the home of several research institutes and university departments. It became a city on 14 September 1990.-Location:...

  • Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Social Law
    Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Social Law
    The Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Social Law is a research institute devoted to the field of foreign and international social law. It is one of the research institutes of the Max Planck Society....

    , München
  • Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property, Competition and Tax Law
    Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property, Competition and Tax Law
    The Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law is a Munich, Germany, -based institute, part of the research institutions of the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science, which manages more than 90 institutes and research institutions...

    , München
  • Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology
    Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology
    The Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology is a research institute of the Max Planck Society located in Martinsried, a suburb of Munich in Germany. Research centers on the basic mechanisms and functions of the developing and adult nervous system. Main focus areas include the mechanisms of...

    , Martinsried
    Martinsried
    Martinsried is a section of Planegg, a municipality neighboring Munich, Germany. Martinsried lies about 15 km southwest of Munich's city center.Martinsried is mostly known as the location of the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry and the...

  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Andechs
    Andechs
    The Benedictine abbey of Andechs is a place of pilgrimage on a hill east of the Ammersee in the Landkreis of Starnberg in Germany, in the municipality Andechs. Andechs Abbey is famed for its flamboyant Baroque church and its brewery...

    -Erling (Biological Rhythms and Behaviour), Radolfzell
    Radolfzell
    Radolfzell am Bodensee is a town in Germany at the western end of Lake Constance approximately 18 km northwest of Konstanz. It is the third largest town, after Constance and Singen, in the district of Konstanz, in Baden-Württemberg....

    , Seewiesen (Reproductive Biology and Behaviour)http://www.orn.mpg.de/
  • Max Planck Institute for Physics
    Max Planck Institute for Physics
    Max Planck Institute for Physics is a physics institute in Munich, Germany that specializes in High Energy Physics and Astroparticle physics. It is part of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft and is also known as the Werner Heisenberg Institute, after its first director.It was founded as the Kaiser Wilhelm...

     (Werner Heisenberg Institute
    Max Planck Institute for Physics
    Max Planck Institute for Physics is a physics institute in Munich, Germany that specializes in High Energy Physics and Astroparticle physics. It is part of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft and is also known as the Werner Heisenberg Institute, after its first director.It was founded as the Kaiser Wilhelm...

    ), München
  • Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics
    Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik
    The Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik is a physics institute for the investigation of plasma physics, with the aim of working towards fusion power...

    , Garching
    Garching bei München
    Garching bei München or Garching is a city in Bavaria, Germany near Munich. It is the home of several research institutes and university departments. It became a city on 14 September 1990.-Location:...

     (also in Greifswald
    Greifswald
    Greifswald , officially, the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald is a town in northeastern Germany. It is situated in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, at an equal distance of about from Germany's two largest cities, Berlin and Hamburg. The town borders the Baltic Sea, and is crossed...

    )
  • Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry
    Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry
    The Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry is a psychiatric institute in Munich, Germany. It is a part of the Max Planck Society.-History:The Institute was founded as Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie by King Ludwig III of Bavaria in Munich on February 13, 1917. The main force behind the...

    , München
  • Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research
    Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research
    The Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research was a research institute of the Max Planck Society formerly located in Munich in Germany.Founded in 1981, the institute included during its history the following units:...

    , München (closed)
  • Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics
    Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics
    The Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics is a part of the Max Planck Society which operates 80 research facilities in Germany.The institute is located in Garching, Germany, which in turn is located 10 km north-east of Munich...

    , Garching
    Garching bei München
    Garching bei München or Garching is a city in Bavaria, Germany near Munich. It is the home of several research institutes and university departments. It became a city on 14 September 1990.-Location:...


Other research institutes

  • Botanische Staatssammlung München
    Botanische Staatssammlung München
    The Botanische Staatssammlung München is a notable herbarium and scientific center maintained by the Staatliche Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlungen Bayerns, and located within the Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg at Menzinger Straße 67, München, Bavaria, Germany...

    , a notable herbarium
    Herbarium
    In botany, a herbarium – sometimes known by the Anglicized term herbar – is a collection of preserved plant specimens. These specimens may be whole plants or plant parts: these will usually be in a dried form, mounted on a sheet, but depending upon the material may also be kept in...

  • Fraunhofer Institute
    Fraunhofer Society
    The Fraunhofer Society is a German research organization with 60 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science . It employs around 18,000, mainly scientists and engineers, with an annual research budget of about €1.65 billion...

  • European Southern Observatory
    European Southern Observatory
    The European Southern Observatory is an intergovernmental research organisation for astronomy, supported by fifteen countries...

  • Helmholtz Zentrum München
    Helmholtz Zentrum München
    The Helmholtz Zentrum München is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres and is responsible for studying environmental health issues. Founded in 1964, it is a joint project of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and Bavaria's Finance Ministry...

  • Doerner Institute
    Doerner Institute
    Doerner Institute was founded in 1937 Munich as a State Testing and Research Institute for Colour Technology ”.- The founding of the Institute :...


Economy



Munich has the strongest economy of any German city and the lowest unemployment rate (5.6%) of any German city with more than a million people (the other ones being Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

). The city is also the economic centre of southern Germany
Southern Germany
The term Southern Germany is used to describe a region in the south of Germany. There is no specific boundary to the region, but it usually includes all of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, and the southern part of Hesse...

. The initiative “Neue Soziale Marktwirtschaft (INSM)” (New Social Market Economy) and the “WirtschaftsWoche
WirtschaftsWoche
Wirtschaftswoche is a German weekly business news magazine. “Wirtschaft” means economy and “Woche” is week. For many years, the magazine was published on Thursday, but since March 2006, this has been changed to Monday. The editorial office is at Düsseldorf....

” (Business Weekly) magazine have awarded Munich the top score in their comparative survey for the third time in June 2006. Munich topped the ranking of the magazine “Capital” in February 2005 for the economic prospects between 2002 and 2011 in sixty German cities. Munich is considered a global city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

 and holds the headquarters of Siemens AG
Siemens
Siemens may refer toSiemens, a German family name carried by generations of telecommunications industrialists, including:* Werner von Siemens , inventor, founder of Siemens AG...

 (electronics), BMW
BMW
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It also owns and produces the Mini marque, and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW produces motorcycles under BMW Motorrad and Husqvarna brands...

 (car), MAN AG (truck manufacturer, engineering), Linde
The Linde Group
The Linde Group, registered as Linde AG is an international industrial gases and engineering company founded in Germany in 1879. Linde shares are traded on all the German stock exchanges and also in Zürich, and the Linde share price is included in the DAX 30 index...

 (gases), Allianz
Allianz
SE is a global financial services company headquartered in Munich, Germany. Its core business and focus is insurance. As of 2010, it was the world's 12th-largest financial services group and 23rd-largest company according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine.Its Allianz Global Investors...

 (insurance), Munich Re
Munich Re
Munich Re Group is a reinsurance company based in Munich, Germany. It is one of the world’s leading reinsurers. ERGO, a Munich Re subsidiary, is the Group’s primary insurance arm....

 (re-insurance
Reinsurance
Reinsurance is insurance that is purchased by an insurance company from another insurance company as a means of risk management...

), and Rohde & Schwarz
Rohde & Schwarz
Rohde & Schwarz is an independent group of companies specializing in electronics. Well known as a manufacturer of electronic test equipment, they also manufacture equipment used for broadcasting, radiolocation, and radio communications...

 (electronics
Electronics
Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with electrical circuits involving active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies...

). Among German cities with more than 500,000 inhabitants purchasing power is highest in Munich (26,648 euro per inhabitant) as of 2007. In 2006, Munich blue-collar workers enjoyed an average hourly wage of 18.62 euro (ca. $ 23).

The breakdown by cities proper (not metropolitan areas) of Global 500 cities
Fortune Global 500
The Fortune Global 500 is a ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue. The list is compiled and published annually by Fortune magazine....

 listed Munich in 8th position in 2009.
Munich is also a centre for biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose...

, software
Computer software
Computer software, or just software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it....

 and other service industries. Munich is also the home of the headquarters of many other large companies like the aircraft engine manufacturer MTU Aero Engines
MTU Aero Engines
MTU Aero Engines GmbH is Germany's leading aircraft engine manufacturer. MTU develops, manufactures and provides service support for military and civil aircraft engines...

, the space and defence contractor EADS
EADS
The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company N.V. is a global pan-European aerospace and defence corporation and a leading defence and military contractor worldwide...

 (headquartered in the suburban town of Ottobrunn
Ottobrunn
Ottobrunn is a municipality southeast of Munich, Bavaria, Germany, founded in 1955. Ottobrunn consists of mainly semi-detached and detached houses, and lots of gardens...

), the injection molding machine
Injection molding machine
An Injection molding machine, also known as an injection press, is a machine for manufacturing plastic products by the injection molding process. It consists of two main parts, an injection unit and a clamping unit....

 manufacturer Krauss-Maffei
Krauss-Maffei
The Krauss-Maffei Wegmann GmbH & Co KG or simply Krauss-Maffei is an injection molding machine manufacturer and defence company based in Munich, Germany...

, the camera and lighting manufacturer Arri
Arri
-History:Arri was founded in Munich, Germany as Arnold & Richter Cine Technik in 1917, named after founders August Arnold and Robert Richter. They produce professional motion picture equipment, digital and film cameras and cinematic lighting equipment...

, the semiconductor firm Infineon Technologies
Infineon Technologies
Infineon Technologies AG is a German semiconductor manufacturer and was founded on April 1, 1999, when the semiconductor operations of the parent company Siemens AG were spun off to form a separate legal entity. , Infineon has 25,149 employees worldwide...

 (headquartered in the suburban town of Neubiberg
Neubiberg
Neubiberg is a municipality south-east of Munich, Germany, founded in 1912. It used to have an airport that was used as a Luftwaffe-base in the Third Reich and after the war as an U.S. airbase and in the following years as the German Air Force officer school. Today the largest part of the area is...

), lighting giant Osram
Osram
Osram, founded 1919, is part of the industry sector of Siemens AG and one of the two leading lighting manufacturers in the world. The name is derived from osmium and Wolfram , as both these elements were commonly used for lighting filaments at the time the company was founded...

, as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies like Precision Plus, McDonald’s
McDonald's
McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 64 million customers daily in 119 countries. Headquartered in the United States, the company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant operated by the eponymous Richard and Maurice McDonald; in 1948...

 and Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft Corporation is an American public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions...

.

Munich has significance as a financial centre (secondary to Frankfurt), being home of HypoVereinsbank
HypoVereinsbank
UniCredit Bank Aktiengesellschaft is the sixth-largest private German financial institution, with a strong presence in Bavaria. The company is based in Munich, and together with Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, Commerzbank and Deutsche Postbank, it belongs to the Cash Group...

 and the Bayerische Landesbank. It outranks Frankfurt though as home of insurance companies like Allianz
Allianz
SE is a global financial services company headquartered in Munich, Germany. Its core business and focus is insurance. As of 2010, it was the world's 12th-largest financial services group and 23rd-largest company according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine.Its Allianz Global Investors...

 and Munich Re
Munich Re
Munich Re Group is a reinsurance company based in Munich, Germany. It is one of the world’s leading reinsurers. ERGO, a Munich Re subsidiary, is the Group’s primary insurance arm....

.

Munich is the largest publishing city in Europe and home to the Süddeutsche Zeitung
Süddeutsche Zeitung
The Süddeutsche Zeitung , published in Munich, is the largest German national subscription daily newspaper.-Profile:The title literally translates as "South German Newspaper". It is read throughout Germany by 1.1 million readers daily and boasts a relatively high circulation abroad...

, one of Germany's largest daily newspapers. Munich is also home to Germany's largest public broadcasting network, ARD
ARD (broadcaster)
ARD is a joint organization of Germany's regional public-service broadcasters...

, and its largest commercial network, Pro7-Sat1 Media AG, is home to the headquarters of the German branch of Random House
Random House
Random House, Inc. is the largest general-interest trade book publisher in the world. It has been owned since 1998 by the German private media corporation Bertelsmann and has become the umbrella brand for Bertelsmann book publishing. Random House also has a movie production arm, Random House Films,...

, the world's largest publishing house, and is also host to the Burda publishing group
Hubert Burda Media
Hubert Burda Media is a German privately held, family-owned global media company with its origins in printing and magazine publishing. The company is headquartered in Offenburg and Munich, has additional main offices in Berlin and Hamburg and has more than 7400 employees...

.

The Bavaria Film Studios
Bavaria Film Studios
The Bavaria Film in Geiselgasteig, a district of Munich's suburb Grünwald, Bavaria belongs to one of Europe's biggest and most famous film production companies.- History :...

 are located in the suburb of Grünwald
Grünwald, Bavaria
Grünwald is a municipality in the district of Munich, in Bavaria, Germany. It is located on the right bank of the Isar, 12 km southwest of Munich...

. They are one of Europe's biggest and most famous film production studios.

Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

 has opened a second hub at Munich's Franz Josef Strauss International Airport, the second-largest airport in Germany, after Frankfurt International Airport
Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport may refer to:Airports of Frankfurt, Germany:*Frankfurt Airport , the largest airport in Germany*Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport, a general aviation airport*Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , a converted U.S...

.

Munich International Airport


Franz Josef Strauss International Airport (IATA
International Air Transport Association
The International Air Transport Association is an international industry trade group of airlines headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where the International Civil Aviation Organization is also headquartered. The executive offices are at the Geneva Airport in SwitzerlandIATA's mission is to...

: MUC, ICAO
International Civil Aviation Organization
The International Civil Aviation Organization , pronounced , , is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth...

: EDDM) is Germany's second largest airport, after Frankfurt
Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport may refer to:Airports of Frankfurt, Germany:*Frankfurt Airport , the largest airport in Germany*Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport, a general aviation airport*Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , a converted U.S...

, with about 34 million passengers a year, and lies some 30 km (19 mi) north east of the city centre. The airport can be reached by suburban train lines S8 from the east and S1 from the west part of the city. From the Hauptbahnhof (main railway station), the journey takes 40–45 minutes. In 2017, S8 Express will be added and could take 23 minutes with limited stops on dedicated tracks. A magnetic levitation train (called Transrapid
Transrapid
Transrapid is a German high-speed monorail train using magnetic levitation. Based on a patent from 1934, planning of the Transrapid system started in 1969. The test facility for the system in Emsland, Germany was completed in 1987...

) which was to have run at speeds of up to 400 km/h (249 mph) from the central station to the airport in a travel time of 10 minutes had been approved, but was cancelled in March 2008 because of cost escalation. Supporters of the transrapid project founded the organization Bayern pro Rapid
Bayern pro Rapid
Bayern pro Rapid is a non-profit organization in Germany. It was founded on 19 December 2007 to support the activities for the construction of transrapid link between the Munich city and the airport....

 in 2007.

The airport began operations in 1992, replacing the former main airport, the Munich-Riem airport
Munich-Riem Airport
Munich-Riem Airport was the main, international airport of Munich until it was closed down on 16 May 1992, the day before the new airport near Freising commenced operation. It was located near the old village of Riem in the Munich borough of Trudering-Riem.-History:Construction on the airport...

 (active 1939–1992).

Other airports


The Bavarian state government has announced plans to expand the Oberpfaffenhofen Air Station located west of Munich, for commercial use. These plans are opposed by many residents in the Oberpfaffenhofen area .

The Memmingen Airport
Memmingen Airport
Memmingen Airport is a small public airport in the town of Memmingerberg near Memmingen, in the Swabia region of Germany. It is the smallest of three commercial airports in Bavaria and has the highest altitude of any commercial airport in Germany...

 is also called Airport Munich West.

Public transportation


For its urban population of 2.6 million people, Munich and its closest suburbs have one of the most comprehensive and punctual systems in the world, incorporating the Munich U-Bahn (underground railway)
Munich U-Bahn
The Munich U-Bahn system is an electric rail rapid transit network in Munich, Germany. "U-Bahn" is the German contraction for Untergrundbahn or "subway." It is operated by the municipally owned Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft...

, the Munich S-Bahn (suburban trains)
Munich S-Bahn
The Munich S-Bahn is an electric rail transit system in Munich, Germany. "S-Bahn" is the German abbreviation for stadtschnellbahn , and the Munich S-Bahn exhibits characteristics of both rapid transit and commuter rail systems.The Munich S-Bahn network is operated by S-Bahn München, a subsidiary...

, trams and buses. The system is supervised by the Munich Transport and Tariff Association
Munich Transport and Tariff Association
The Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund or MVV is the transit authority of the city of Munich, the capital of the German state of Bavaria...

 (Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund GmbH
Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung
Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung is a type of legal entityvery common in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and other Central European countries...

). The Munich tramway
Munich Tramway
The Munich tramway is the tramway network for the city of Munich in Germany. Today it is operated by the municipally owned Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft and is known officially and colloquially as the Tram...

 is the oldest existing public transportation system in the city, which has been in operation since 1876. Munich also has an extensive network of bus lines.

The extensive network of subway and tram lines assist and complement pedestrian movement in the city centre. The 700m-long Kaufinger Strasse, which starts near the Main train station, forms a pedestrian east-west spine that traverses almost the entire centre. Similarly, Weinstrasse leads off northwards to the Hofgarten. These major spines and many smaller streets cover an extensive area of the centre that can be enjoyed on foot and bike. The transformation of the historic area into a pedestrian priority zone enables and invites walking and biking by making these active modes of transport comfortable, safe and enjoyable. These attributes result from applying the principle of "filtered permability"
Permeability (spatial and transport planning)
Permeability or connectivity describes the extent to which urban forms permit movement of people or vehicles in different directions. The terms are often used interchangeably, although differentiated definitions also exist...

 which selectively restricts the number of roads that run through the centre. While certain streets are discontinuous for cars, they connect to a network of pedestrian and bike paths which permeate the entire centre. In addition, these paths go through public squares and open spaces increasing the enjoyment of the trip(see image). The logic of filtering a mode of transport is fully expressed in a comprehensive model for laying out neighbourhoods and districts – the Fused Grid
Fused Grid
The Fused Grid is a street network pattern first proposed in 2002 and subsequently applied in Calgary, Alberta and in Stratford, Ontario . It represents a synthesis of two well known and extensively used network concepts: the "grid" and the “Radburn” pattern, derivatives of which are found in most...

.

The main railway station is Munich Hauptbahnhof
München Hauptbahnhof
Munich Central Station is the main railway station of the city of Munich in Germany. It is one of the three long distance train stations in Munich, the others being München-Pasing and München Ost. The station sees about 350,000 passengers a day, which puts it on par with other large stations in...

, in the city centre, and there are two smaller main line stations at Pasing, in the west of the city, and Munich Ostbahnhof in the east. All three are connected to the public transport system and serve as transportation hubs.

ICE highspeed trains stop at Munich-Pasing and Munich-Hauptbahnhof only. InterCity
InterCity
InterCity is the classification applied to certain long-distance passenger train services in Europe...

 and EuroCity
EuroCity
EuroCity, abbreviated EC, denotes an international train service within the European inter-city rail network. In contrast to trains with the "IC" label, "EC" trains are international trains that meet certain criteria. The EuroCity label replaces the older Trans Europ Express name for...

 trains to destinations east of Munich also stop at Munich East. Since 28 May 2006 Munich has been connected to Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Nuremberg[p] is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it is located about north of Munich and is Franconia's largest city. The population is 505,664...

 via Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is located along the banks of the Danube River, in the center of Bavaria. As at 31 March 2011, Ingolstadt had 125.407 residents...

 by the 300 km/h (186 mph) Nuremberg–Munich high-speed railway line.

The trade fair transport logistic
Transport Logistic
Transport Logistic is, according to the organizer, the world's largest exhibition for logistics, telematics and transport in Munich, Germany. It is hosted by MMI which is a Member of UFI .The exhibition covers freight transport, in-company transport and material flow.In 2007 there were 1,582...

 is held every two years at the Neue Messe München (Messe München International).

Individual transportation



Munich is an integral part of the motorway network of southern Germany. Motorways from Stuttgart
Stuttgart
Stuttgart is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million ....

 (W), Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Nuremberg[p] is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it is located about north of Munich and is Franconia's largest city. The population is 505,664...

, Frankfurt and Berlin (N), Deggendorf
Deggendorf
Deggendorf is a town in Bavaria, capital of the district Deggendorf.The earliest traces of settlement in the area are found near the Danube, about 8,000 years ago. Both Bronze Age and Celtic era archeological finds indicate continuous habitation through the years...

 and Passau
Passau
Passau is a town in Lower Bavaria, Germany. It is also known as the Dreiflüssestadt or "City of Three Rivers," because the Danube is joined at Passau by the Inn from the south and the Ilz from the north....

 (E), Salzburg
Salzburg
-Population development:In 1935, the population significantly increased when Salzburg absorbed adjacent municipalities. After World War II, numerous refugees found a new home in the city. New residential space was created for American soldiers of the postwar Occupation, and could be used for...

 and Innsbruck
Innsbruck
- Main sights :- Buildings :*Golden Roof*Kaiserliche Hofburg *Hofkirche with the cenotaph of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor*Altes Landhaus...

 (SE), Garmisch Partenkirchen
Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a mountain resort town in Bavaria, southern Germany. It is the administrative centre of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region, and the district is on the border with Austria...

 (S) and Lindau
Lindau
Lindau is a Bavarian town and an island on the eastern side of Lake Constance, the Bodensee. It is the capital of the Landkreis or rural district of Lindau. The historic city of Lindau is located on an island which is connected with the mainland by bridge and railway.- History :The name Lindau was...

 (SW) terminate at Munich, allowing direct access to the different parts of Germany, Austria and Italy. However, traffic in and around Munich is often heavy. Traffic jams are commonplace during rush hour and at the beginning and end of major holidays in Germany.

Cycling


Cycling is recognized as a good alternative to motorized transport and the growing number of bicycle lanes
Segregated cycle facilities
Segregated cycle facilities are marked lanes, tracks, shoulders and paths designated for use by cyclists from which motorised traffic is generally excluded...

 are widely used throughout the year. A modern bike hire system
Call a Bike
Call a Bike is a bike hire system run by Deutsche Bahn in several German cities, which uses a system of authentication codes to automatically lock and unlock bikes.-Usage:...

 is available in the central area of Munich that is surrounded by the Mittlerer Ring ring road.

Around Munich


The Munich agglomeration sprawls across the plain of the Alpine foothills
Foothills
Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increases in elevation at the base of a mountain range. They are a transition zone between plains and low relief hills to the adjacent topographically high mountains.-Examples:...

 comprising about 2.6 million inhabitants. Several smaller traditional Bavarian towns and cities like Dachau
Dachau
Dachau is a town in Upper Bavaria, in the southern part of Germany. It is a major district town—a Große Kreisstadt—of the administrative region of Upper Bavaria, about 20 km north-west of Munich. It is now a popular residential area for people working in Munich with roughly 40,000 inhabitants...

, Freising
Freising
Freising is a town in Bavaria, Germany, and capital of the district Freising. Total population 48,500.The city is located north of Munich at the Isar river, near the Munich International Airport...

, Erding
Erding
Erding is a town in Bavaria, Germany, and capital of the district Erding. It had a population of 34,122 in 2004. It is twinned with Bastia in CorsicaThe original Erdinger Weissbier is a well-known Bavarian specialty...

, Starnberg
Starnberg
The city of Starnberg is in Bavaria, Germany, some 30 km south-west of Munich. It lies at the north end of Lake Starnberg, in the heart of the "Five Lakes Country", and serves as capital of the district of Starnberg...

, Landshut
Landshut
Landshut is a city in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany, belonging to both Eastern and Southern Bavaria. Situated on the banks of the River Isar, Landshut is the capital of Lower Bavaria, one of the seven administrative regions of the Free State of Bavaria. It is also the seat of the...

 and Moosburg
Moosburg
Moosburg an der Isar is a town in the Landkreis Freising of Bavaria, Germany.The oldest town between Regensburg and Italy, it lies on the river Isar at an altitude of 421 m . It has 17,275 inhabitants and covers an area of 44 km². It is easily reached by the A 92 autobahn and regional trains on...

 are today part of the Greater Munich Region, formed by Munich and the surrounding districts, making up the Munich Metropolitan Region, which has a population of about 4.5 million people.

International relations




Munich is twinned with the following cities (date of agreement shown in parentheses).
Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

, Scotland, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 (1954) Verona
Verona
Verona ; German Bern, Dietrichsbern or Welschbern) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, with approx. 265,000 inhabitants and one of the seven chef-lieus of the region. It is the second largest city municipality in the region and the third of North-Eastern Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona...

, Italy (1960) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne River in the Gironde department in southwestern France.The Bordeaux-Arcachon-Libourne metropolitan area, has a population of 1,010,000 and constitutes the sixth-largest urban area in France. It is the capital of the Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture...

, France (1964) Sapporo, Japan (1972) Monterrey
Monterrey
Monterrey , is the capital city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León in the country of Mexico. The city is anchor to the third-largest metropolitan area in Mexico and is ranked as the ninth-largest city in the nation. Monterrey serves as a commercial center in the north of the country and is the...

, Mexico (2010) Cincinnati, Ohio, United States (1989) Kiev
Kiev
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

, Ukraine (1989) Harare
Harare
Harare before 1982 known as Salisbury) is the largest city and capital of Zimbabwe. It has an estimated population of 1,600,000, with 2,800,000 in its metropolitan area . Administratively, Harare is an independent city equivalent to a province. It is Zimbabwe's largest city and its...

, Zimbabwe (1996) Hyderabad, India (2005)

Born in Munich

  • Professional Athletes
    • Markus Babbel
      Markus Babbel
      Markus Babbel is a former international German football player, who is currently manager of German Bundesliga club Hertha BSC. He played as a defender for clubs in Germany and England.-Career:...

      , born 1972, former footballer
    • Franz Beckenbauer
      Franz Beckenbauer
      Franz Anton Beckenbauer is a German football coach, manager, and former player, nicknamed Der Kaiser because of his elegant style, his leadership, his first name "Franz" , and his dominance on the football pitch...

      , born in 1945, former footballer and honorary president of Bayern Munich
      FC Bayern Munich
      FC Bayern Munich , is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria. It is best known for its professional football team, which is the most successful football club in Germany, having won 22 national titles and 15 cups....

    • Thomas Hitzlsperger
      Thomas Hitzlsperger
      Thomas Hitzlsperger is a German footballer who plays as a midfielder. He plays for Bundesliga club Wolfsburg after signing a three-year deal on 17 August 2011. Hitzlsperger spent the early part of his career playing for Aston Villa in England , before returning to Germany to play for Stuttgart...

      , born in 1982, footballer who currently plays for Vfl Wolfsburg
      VfL Wolfsburg
      VfL Wolfsburg is a professional German association football club based in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, who play in the Bundesliga football competition. Wolfsburg have won the Bundesliga once in their history, in the 2008–09 season, and were DFB-Pokal runners-up in 1995. The current head coach is Felix...

    • Philipp Lahm
      Philipp Lahm
      Philipp Lahm is a German footballer who plays for Bayern Munich and Germany. Lahm is also the captain for both the national team and Bayern....

      , born in 1983, footballer who currently plays for Bayern Munich
      FC Bayern Munich
      FC Bayern Munich , is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria. It is best known for its professional football team, which is the most successful football club in Germany, having won 22 national titles and 15 cups....

    • Christian Lell
      Christian Lell
      Christian Lell is a German football defender who plays for Hertha BSC.-Bayern Munich:Having started his training with FC Alemannia München, Lell earned a place in the Bayern Munich junior team in 1998, and played there for three years.For the 2001–02 season, Lell was a part of Bayern's reserve team...

      , born in 1984, footballer for Hertha BSC
    • Andreas Ottl
      Andreas Ottl
      Andreas Ottl is a German footballer who plays as a defensive midfielder for Hertha BSC. He signed his first professional contract for Bayern Munich on 1 July 2005. He was playing for Germany's U-21 Team. Ottl is a highly versatile player being able to play various midfield positions as well as...

      , born in 1985, footballer for Hertha BSC
    • Christoph Schubert
      Christoph Schubert
      Christoph Schubert is a German professional ice hockey player. Schubert is currently playing for Hamburg Freezers in Deutsche Eishockey Liga...

      , born in 1982, Ice hockey Player who currently plays in NHL
      National Hockey League
      The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

       for Winnipeg Jets
      Winnipeg Jets
      The Winnipeg Jets were a professional ice hockey team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. They began play in the World Hockey Association in 1972, moving to the National Hockey League in 1979 following the collapse of the WHA...

    • Frank Shorter
      Frank Shorter
      Frank Charles Shorter is a former American long-distance runner who won the gold medal in the marathon at the 1972 Summer Olympics. His victory is credited with igniting the running boom in the United States of the 1970s....

      , born 1947, champion distance runner
  • Politicians
    • Carl Amery
      Carl Amery
      Carl Amery , the pen name of Christian Anton Mayer, was a German writer and environmental activist. Born in Munich, he studied at the University of Munich. He was a participant of Gruppe 47.-Works:-References:...

      , 1922–2005, writer, President of the German PEN Center and founding member of the German Green Party
    • Jean-Jacques De Gucht
      Jean-Jacques De Gucht
      Jean-Jacques De Gucht is a Flemish politician and member of Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats. He was elected to the Belgian Senate by the Dutch electoral college in the 2007 Belgian federal election, which took place on 10 June 2007....

      , Belgian Politician, Born in Munich
    • Franz Josef Strauss, 1915–1988, Minister-President of the Free State of Bavaria
    • Dr. Carljörg Lacherbauer, 1902-1967, Co-Founder of Christian Social Union (CSU), Post-war mayor and Sec'y of the Dept. of Justice
  • Writers
    • Leon Feuchtwanger
      Lion Feuchtwanger
      Lion Feuchtwanger was a German-Jewish novelist and playwright. A prominent figure in the literary world of Weimar Germany, he influenced contemporaries including playwright Bertolt Brecht....

      , 1884–1958, writer
    • Klaus Mann
      Klaus Mann
      - Life and work :Born in Munich, Klaus Mann was the son of German writer Thomas Mann and his wife, Katia Pringsheim. His father was baptized as a Lutheran, while his mother was from a family of secular Jews. He began writing short stories in 1924 and the following year became drama critic for a...

      , 1906–1949, writer
    • Eugen Roth
      Eugen Roth
      Eugen Roth was a German lyricist and poet, he wrote mostly humorous verse.Roth was the son of the well-known Munich writer Hermann Roth. He volunteered for service in the first world war and was severely wounded. He studied history, art history, and philosophy earning in 1922 his doctorate degree...

      , 1895–1976, writer
    • Simran Sethi
      Simran Sethi
      Simran Preeti Sethi is an Emmy award-winning Indian American journalist and associate professor at the University of Kansas.-Career:...

      , born in 1970, environmental journalist
  • Musicians
    • Lou Bega
      Lou Bega
      David Lubega , also known as Lou Bega, is a German musician of Italian and Ugandan descent, and is famous for his song "Mambo No. 5 ". This song is a remake of the Perez Prado instrumental from 1949...

      , Singer/Songwriter, born in 1975
    • Willy Bogner, born in 1942, fashion designer and director of photography
    • Harold Faltermeyer
      Harold Faltermeyer
      Harold Faltermeyer is a German musician, keyboardist, composer and record producer.He is recognized as one of the composers/producers who best captured the zeitgeist of 1980s synth-pop in film scores...

      , born in 1952, composer and record producer
    • Nick Menza
      Nick Menza
      Nick Menza is an American drummer best known for his work in Megadeth from 1989 to 1998, appearing on four of the band's studio albums.-Early life:...

      , born in 1968, Megadeth
      Megadeth
      Megadeth is an American heavy metal band from Los Angeles, California which was formed in 1983 by guitarist/vocalist Dave Mustaine, bassist Dave Ellefson and guitarist Greg Handevidt, following Mustaine's expulsion from Metallica. The band has since released 13 studio albums, three live albums, two...

       drummer
    • Brent Mydland
      Brent Mydland
      Brent Mydland was the fourth keyboardist to play for the American rock band the Grateful Dead. He was with the band for eleven years, longer than any other keyboardist.- Early life :...

      , born in 1952, Grateful Dead
      Grateful Dead
      The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in the San Francisco Bay Area. The band was known for its unique and eclectic style, which fused elements of rock, folk, bluegrass, blues, reggae, country, improvisational jazz, psychedelia, and space rock, and for live performances of long...

       keyboardist
    • Carl Orff
      Carl Orff
      Carl Orff was a 20th-century German composer, best known for his cantata Carmina Burana . In addition to his career as a composer, Orff developed an influential method of music education for children.-Early life:...

      , 1895–1982, composer
    • Sportfreunde Stiller
      Sportfreunde Stiller
      Sportfreunde Stiller is a German antifascist rock band from Germering, near Munich, in Bavaria.The band was founded in 1996 by Peter "Balboa" Brugger , Florian "Rakete" Weber , and Rüdiger "Rüde" Linhof . They took their original name, Stiller, from their former football manager, Hans Stiller, at...

      , Popular German rock band
    • Wolfgang Sawallisch
      Wolfgang Sawallisch
      Wolfgang Sawallisch is a retired German conductor and pianist.-Biography:Sawallisch was born in Munich, and studied composition and pianoforte there privately: at the conclusion of the war, in 1946 he continued his studies at the Munich High School for Music and passed his final examination for...

      , born in 1923, conductor and pianist
    • Ralph Siegel
      Ralph Siegel
      Ralph Siegel is a German record producer and songwriter. He is married to the opera singer Kriemhild Jahn. He has three daughters, one of them Giulia Siegel divorced from German entrepreneur Hans Wehrmann....

      , born in 1945, composer
    • Richard Strauss
      Richard Strauss
      Richard Georg Strauss was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier and Salome; his Lieder, especially his Four Last Songs; and his tone poems and orchestral works, such as Death and Transfiguration, Till...

      , 1864–1949, composer
  • Fashion designers
    • Rudolph Moshammer
      Rudolph Moshammer
      Rudolph Moshammer was a German fashion designer. He was murdered at the age of 64 in the Grünwald neighborhood of Munich, Germany.- Life :Born in Munich, Germany, Moshammer had an education in retail industry trading...

      , 1940–2005, fashion designer
  • Entertainment
    • Percy Adlon
      Percy Adlon
      Percy Adlon is a German film and television director, screenwriter, and producer. He is best known for his film Bagdad Café aka Out of Rosenheim.-Biography:...

      , born in 1935, film director
    • Moritz Bleibtreu
      Moritz Bleibtreu
      Moritz Bleibtreu is a German actor.Bleibtreu was born in Munich, the son of actors Monica Bleibtreu and Hans Brenner, and the great-grand-nephew of the actress Hedwig Bleibtreu.Bleibtreu grew up in Hamburg...

      , born in 1971, actor
    • Werner Herzog
      Werner Herzog
      Werner Herzog Stipetić , known as Werner Herzog, is a German film director, producer, screenwriter, actor, and opera director.He is often considered as one of the greatest figures of the New German Cinema, along with Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Margarethe von Trotta, Volker Schlöndorff, Werner...

      , born in 1942, film director
    • Curd Jürgens
      Curd Jürgens
      Curd Gustav Andreas Gottlieb Franz Jürgens was a German-Austrian stage and film actor. He was usually billed in English-speaking films as Curt Jurgens.-Early life:...

      , 1915–1982, actor
    • Max Neal
      Max Neal
      Maximilian Dalhoff Neal was a German playwright, born to the artist David Dalhoff Neal and Marie Ainmiller, and later brother to composer Heinrich Neal. His grandfather was the great glass painter Max Emanuel Ainmiller....

       dramatist 1865–1941
    • Karl Valentin
      Karl Valentin
      Karl Valentin was a Bavarian comedian, cabaret performer, clown, author and film producer. He had significant influence on German Weimar culture...

      , 1882–1948, comedian, author and film producer
    • Gedeon Burkhard
      Gedeon Burkhard
      Gedeon Burkhard is a German film and television actor. Although he has appeared in numerous films and TV series in both Europe and the US, he is probably best recognised for his role as Alexander Brandtner in the Austrian/German television series Kommissar Rex , which has been aired on television...

      , actor born in 1969
    • Fritz Wepper
      Fritz Wepper
      Fritz Wepper is a German television actor.- Life and work :He has been married to Angela Prinzessin von Hohenzollern since 1979, and they have one daughter, Sophie...

      , actor, born in 1941
    • Michael Haneke
      Michael Haneke
      Michael Haneke is a German born Austrian filmmaker and writer best known for his bleak and disturbing style. His films often document problems and failures in modern society. Haneke has worked in television‚ theatre and cinema. He is also known for raising social issues in his work...

      , filmmaker and writer, born in 1942
    • Uschi Obermaier
      Uschi Obermaier
      Uschi Obermaier is a former fashion model, actress and is associated with the 1968 left-wing movement in Germany. In the latter she is considered an iconic sex symbol of the so-called "1968 generation"....

      , sex symbol of the late sixties, born in 1946
    • Jeri Ryan
      Jeri Ryan
      Jeri Lynn Zimmermann Ryan is an American actress best known for her roles as the liberated Borg, Seven of Nine, on Star Trek: Voyager; Tara Cole on Leverage; and Veronica "Ronnie" Cooke on Boston Public. She was also a regular on the science fiction show Dark Skies and the legal drama series...

      , actress, born in 1968
    • Julia Stegner
      Julia Stegner
      Julia Stegner is a German model.- Biography :Stegner, the daughter of Günter Stegner, the Director Central and Eastern Europe for LSI Corporation, and Erika Stegner, an accountant, was raised in an animal-loving household with many dogs alongside her older sister Jeanette, who currently works in...

      , topmodel, born in 1984
    • Briana Banks
      Briana Banks
      Briana Banks is a German-American pornographic actress and model.-Early life:Briana Bany was born in Munich, Bavaria to a German father and an Italian-American mother. They moved to Britain when she was four years old, and to the Los Angeles, California, United States suburb of Simi Valley when...

      , porn actress, born in 1979
  • Nobel Prize winners
    • Eduard Buchner
      Eduard Buchner
      Eduard Buchner was a German chemist and zymologist, awarded with the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry thanks to his work on fermentation.-Early years:...

      , 1860–1917, chemist and Nobel Prize winner
    • Ernst Otto Fischer
      Ernst Otto Fischer
      Ernst Otto Fischer was a German chemist who won the Nobel Prize for pioneering work in the area of organometallic chemistry.-Early life:...

      , 1918–2007, chemist and Nobel Prize winner
    • Wassily Leontief
      Wassily Leontief
      Wassily Wassilyovich Leontief , was a Russian-American economist notable for his research on how changes in one economic sector may have an effect on other sectors. Leontief won the Nobel Committee's Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1973, and three of his doctoral students have also...

      , 1905–1999, economist and Nobel Prize winner
    • Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen
      Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen
      Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen was a German biochemist.- Biography :Feodor Lynen was born in Munich, Germany on 6 April 1911. He started his studies at the chemistry department of Munich University in 1930 and graduated in March 1937 under Heinrich Wieland with the work: "On the Toxic Substances in...

      , 1911–1979, biochemist and Nobel Prize winner
    • Rudolf Mössbauer, born in 1927, physicist and Nobel Prize winner
    • Arno Allan Penzias
      Arno Allan Penzias
      Arno Allan Penzias is an American physicist and Nobel laureate in physics.-Early life and education:Penzias was born in Munich, Germany. At age six he was among the Jewish children evacuated to Britain as part of the Kindertransport rescue operation...

      , born in 1933, physicist and Nobel Prize winner
  • Nobility
    • Isabeau de Bavière
      Isabeau of Bavaria
      Isabeau of Bavaria was Queen consort of France as spouse of King Charles VI of France, a member of the Valois Dynasty...

      , 1371–1435, queen-consort
      Queen consort
      A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. A queen consort usually shares her husband's rank and holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles. Historically, queens consort do not share the king regnant's political and military powers. Most queens in history were queens consort...

       of France
    • Elisabeth of Bavaria
      Elisabeth of Bavaria
      Elisabeth of Austria was the spouse of Franz Joseph I, and therefore both Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary. She also held the titles of Queen of Bohemia and Croatia, among others...

      , 1837–1898, Empress "Sisi" of Austria
      Austria
      Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

    • Ludwig II
      Ludwig II of Bavaria
      Ludwig II was King of Bavaria from 1864 until shortly before his death. He is sometimes called the Swan King and der Märchenkönig, the Fairy tale King...

       the Dream King, at Nymphenburg
      Nymphenburg Palace
      The Nymphenburg Palace , i.e. "Nymph's Castle", is a Baroque palace in Munich, Bavaria, southern Germany. The palace was the main summer residence of the rulers of Bavaria.-History:...

  • Painters
    • Franz Marc
      Franz Marc
      Franz Marc was a German painter and printmaker, one of the key figures of the German Expressionist movement...

      , 1880–1916, painter
  • Others
    • Andreas Baader
      Andreas Baader
      Andreas Bernd Baader was one of the first leaders of the German left-wing militant organization Red Army Faction, also commonly known as the Baader-Meinhof Gang.- Life :...

      , 1943–1977, Red Army Faction
      Red Army Faction
      The radicalized were, like many in the New Left, influenced by:* Sociological developments, pressure within the educational system in and outside Europe and the U.S...

       leader
    • Adolf Abraham Halevi Fraenkel, 1891–1965, mathematician
    • Franz Xaver Gabelsberger
      Franz Xaver Gabelsberger
      Franz Xaver Gabelsberger was a German inventor of a shorthand writing system, named Gabelsberger shorthand after him....

      , 1789–1849, inventor of the Gabelsberger shorthand writing system
    • Charlotte Knobloch
      Charlotte Knobloch
      Charlotte Knobloch was elected President of Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland in June, 2006. She is also Vice President of the European Jewish Congress and the World Jewish Congress...

      , born in 1932, President of Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland, also Vice President of the European Jewish Congress and the World Jewish Congress

  • Famous residents

    • Julia Fischer
      Julia Fischer
      Julia Fischer is a German classical violinist and pianist.-Biography:Julia Fischer, born in Munich, Germany, is of German-Slovakian parentage. Her mother, Viera Fischer , came from the German minority in Slovakia and immigrated from Košice, Slovakia to the Federal Republic of Germany in 1972...

      , violinist, pianist, professor
    • Freddie Mercury
      Freddie Mercury
      Freddie Mercury was a British musician, singer and songwriter, best known as the lead vocalist of the rock band Queen. As a performer, he was known for his flamboyant stage persona and powerful vocals over a four-octave range...

      , lead singer of Queen
    • Orlande de Lassus
      Orlande de Lassus
      Orlande de Lassus was a Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance...

      , composer
    • Richard Wagner
      Richard Wagner
      Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, conductor, theatre director, philosopher, music theorist, poet, essayist and writer primarily known for his operas...

      , composer
    • Max Reger
      Max Reger
      Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Reger was a German composer, conductor, pianist, organist, and academic teacher.-Life:...

      , composer, organist, pianist and conductor
    • Max Emanuel Ainmiller
      Max Emanuel Ainmiller
      Maximilian Emanuel Ainmiller was a German artist and glass painter.Under the tutorage of Friedrich von Gärtner, director of the royal Nymphenburg Porcelain Manufactory, Ainmiller studied glass painting, both as a mechanical process and as an art, at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich...

       painter
    • Thomas Mann
      Thomas Mann
      Thomas Mann was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and ironic epic novels and novellas, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and the intellectual...

      , author
    • Hans Magnus Enzensberger
      Hans Magnus Enzensberger
      Hans Magnus Enzensberger , is a German author, poet, translator, and editor. He has also written under the pseudonym Andreas Thalmayr. He lives in Munich.- Life :...

      , author
    • Vladimir Lenin
      Vladimir Lenin
      Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and communist politician who led the October Revolution of 1917. As leader of the Bolsheviks, he headed the Soviet state during its initial years , as it fought to establish control of Russia in the Russian Civil War and worked to create a...

      , Russian revolutionary
    • Adolf Hitler
      Adolf Hitler
      Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

      , Austrian-born German dictator
    • Franz von Lenbach
      Franz von Lenbach
      Franz von Lenbach was a German painter of Realist style.-Biography:Lenbach was born at Schrobenhausen, in Bavaria. His father was a mason, and the boy was intended to follow his father's trade or be a builder. With this view he was sent to school at Landsberg, and then to the polytechnic at Augsburg...

      , painter
    • Franz von Stuck
      Franz Stuck
      Franz Stuck , Franz Ritter von Stuck after 1906, was a German symbolist/Art Nouveau painter, sculptor, engraver, and architect.-Life and career:...

      , painter and sculptor
    • Asger Hamerik
      Asger Hamerik
      Asger Hamerik , was a Danish composer of classical music.Born in Frederiksberg , he studied music with J.P.E. Hartmann and Niels Gade. He wrote his first pieces in his teens, including an unperformed symphony...

      , composer
    • Wassily Kandinsky
      Wassily Kandinsky
      Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky was an influential Russian painter and art theorist. He is credited with painting the first purely-abstract works. Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa. He enrolled at the University of Moscow, studying law and economics...

       (1866–1944), painter
    • David Dalhoff Neal
      David Dalhoff Neal
      David Dalhoff Neal , was an American artist.-Early years:David Dalhoff Neal was born to father Stephen Bryant Neal and mother Mary Neal, on Middlesex Street, in Lowell, Massachusetts...

      , painter
    • Brigitte Horney
      Brigitte Horney
      Brigitte Horney was a German theatre and film actress. Best remembered was her role as Empress Katherine the Great in the 1943 version of the UFA film version of Baron Munchhausen, directed by Josef von Báky, with Hans Albers in the title role.-Life and work:Brigitte Horney was the daughter of...

      , actress (Münchhausen
      Münchhausen am Christenberg
      The community of Münchhausen is found north of Marburg on the northern edge of Marburg-Biedenkopf district. It has 3,605 inhabitants and has had its current boundaries since 1974. The community's area is roughly 41 km².-Location:...

      )
    • Max Schreck
      Max Schreck
      Friedrich Gustav Max Schreck was a German actor. He is most often remembered today for his lead role in the film Nosferatu .-Early life:Max Schreck was born in Berlin-Friedenau, on 6 September 1879....

      , actor
    • Rainer Werner Fassbinder
      Rainer Werner Fassbinder
      Rainer Werner Maria Fassbinder was a German movie director, screenwriter and actor. He is considered one of the most important representatives of the New German Cinema.He maintained a frenetic pace in film-making...

      , film director
    • Helene Mayer
      Helene Mayer
      Helene Mayer was a world champion Olympic fencer who competed for Nazi Germany in the 1936 Summer Olympics, despite having been forced to leave Germany and resettle in the United States because she was of Jewish family background.She was Jewish, and was born in Offenbach am Main.-Fencing...

      , fencer
  • Lola Montez
    Lola Montez
    Eliza Rosanna Gilbert, Countess of Landsfeld , better known by the stage name Lola Montez, was an Irish dancer and actress who became famous as a "Spanish dancer", courtesan and mistress of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, who made her Countess of Landsfeld. She used her influence to institute liberal...

    , courtesan to King Ludwig I
    Ludwig I of Bavaria
    Ludwig I was a German king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states.-Crown prince:...

  • Marsilius of Padua
    Marsilius of Padua
    Marsilius of Padua Marsilius of Padua Marsilius of Padua (Italian Marsilio or Marsiglio da Padova; (circa 1275 – circa 1342) was an Italian scholar, trained in medicine who practiced a variety of professions. He was also an important 14th century political figure...

    , Italian medieval scholar
  • William of Ockham
    William of Ockham
    William of Ockham was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a small village in Surrey. He is considered to be one of the major figures of medieval thought and was at the centre of the major intellectual and political controversies of...

    , English medieval philosopher
  • Fyodor Tyutchev
    Fyodor Tyutchev
    Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev is generally considered the last of three great Romantic poets of Russia, following Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov.- Life :...

    , Russian Romantic poet
  • Joseph Ratzinger
    Pope Benedict XVI
    Benedict XVI is the 265th and current Pope, by virtue of his office of Bishop of Rome, the Sovereign of the Vatican City State and the leader of the Catholic Church as well as the other 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See...

     now Pope Benedict
    Pope Benedict XVI
    Benedict XVI is the 265th and current Pope, by virtue of his office of Bishop of Rome, the Sovereign of the Vatican City State and the leader of the Catholic Church as well as the other 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See...

     former Archbishop of Munich-Freising
  • Muhammad Iqbal
    Muhammad Iqbal
    Sir Muhammad Iqbal , commonly referred to as Allama Iqbal , was a poet and philosopher born in Sialkot, then in the Punjab Province of British India, now in Pakistan...

    , Pakistan's national poet, who got his PhD from Munich in 1907
  • Joseph von Fraunhofer
    Joseph von Fraunhofer
    Joseph von Fraunhofer was a German optician. He is known for the discovery of the dark absorption lines known as Fraunhofer lines in the Sun's spectrum, and for making excellent optical glass and achromatic telescope objectives.-Biography:Fraunhofer was born in Straubing, Bavaria...

    , optician
  • Justus von Liebig
    Justus von Liebig
    Justus von Liebig was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and worked on the organization of organic chemistry. As a professor, he devised the modern laboratory-oriented teaching method, and for such innovations, he is regarded as one of the...

    , chemist
  • Georg Ohm
    Georg Ohm
    Georg Simon Ohm was a German physicist. As a high school teacher, Ohm began his research with the recently-invented electrochemical cell, invented by Italian Count Alessandro Volta. Using equipment of his own creation, Ohm determined that there is a direct proportionality between the potential...

    , physicist
  • Wilhelm Röntgen, Nobel Prize winning physicist
  • Lucia Popp
    Lucia Popp
    Lucia Popp was a notable Slovak operatic soprano. She began her career as a soubrette soprano, and later moved into the light-lyric and lyric coloratura soprano repertoire and then the lighter Richard Strauss and Wagner operas. Her career included performances at Vienna State Opera, the...

    , Slovak-born opera singer
  • Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history...

    , Nobel Prize winning physicist, grew up in Munich
  • Max Planck
    Max Planck
    Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS, was a German physicist who actualized the quantum physics, initiating a revolution in natural science and philosophy. He is regarded as the founder of the quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.-Life and career:Planck came...

    , Nobel Prize winning physicist
  • Werner Heisenberg
    Werner Heisenberg
    Werner Karl Heisenberg was a German theoretical physicist who made foundational contributions to quantum mechanics and is best known for asserting the uncertainty principle of quantum theory...

    , Nobel Prize winning physicist
  • Ludwig Prandtl, father of modern aerodynamics
  • Sepp Maier, footballer
  • Gerd Müller
    Gerd Müller
    Gerhard "Gerd" Müller is a former German football player and one of the most prolific goalscorers of all time.With national records of 68 goals in 62 international appearances, 365 goals in 427 Bundesliga games and the international record of 66 goals in 74 European Club games, he was one of the...

    , footballer
  • Nick McCarthy
    Nicholas McCarthy
    Nick McCarthy is an English musician. He is the guitarist, backing/lead vocalist, and keyboardist of the Glasgow based band Franz Ferdinand as well as a member of the band Box Codax.-Early years:...

    , guitarist, Franz Ferdinand
    Franz Ferdinand (band)
    Franz Ferdinand are a Scottish post-punk revival band formed in Glasgow in 2002. The band is composed of Alex Kapranos , Bob Hardy , Nick McCarthy , and Paul Thomson .The band first experienced chart success when their second single, "Take Me Out", reached #3 in...

    , grew up in Munich
  • Bastian Schweinsteiger
    Bastian Schweinsteiger
    Bastian Schweinsteiger is a German footballer who plays as a midfielder for Bayern Munich and the German national team. A right-footed player, he is capable of playing out wide or in a more central role....

    , footballer
  • Roger C. Field
    Roger C. Field
    Roger C. Field is an inventor with over 100 patents, an award winning industrial designer and a guitarist.He is best known as the inventor of the Foldaxe folding electric guitar. He has also been written about in Playboy magazine in ten countries and in Penthouse magazine four times in Europe...

    , inventor, industrial designer
  • Gudrun Burwitz, Daughter of Heinrich Himmler

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