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Astro (Malaysian satellite television)

Astro (Malaysian satellite television)

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Astro is the brand name of the Malaysian direct broadcast satellite
Direct broadcast satellite
Direct broadcast satellite is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception.A designation broader than DBS would be direct-to-home signals, or DTH. This has initially distinguished the transmissions directly intended for home viewers from cable television...

 (DBS) pay television service. It transmits digital satellite television
Satellite television
Satellite television is television programming delivered by the means of communications satellite and received by an outdoor antenna, usually a parabolic mirror generally referred to as a satellite dish, and as far as household usage is concerned, a satellite receiver either in the form of an...

 and radio
Satellite radio
Satellite radio is an analogue or digital radio signal that is relayed through one or more satellites and thus can be received in a much wider geographical area than terrestrial FM radio stations...

 to households in Malaysia & Brunei. The name Astro is an acronym for All-Asian Satellite Television and Radio Operator.

Astro is owned and operated by MEASAT Broadcast Network Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of Astro Malaysia Holdings Sdn Bhd
Astro Malaysia Holdings Sdn Bhd
Astro Malaysia Holdings Sdn Bhd is operated as a wholly owned subsidiary of Astro Holdings Sdn Bhd.- Company Background :Astro Malaysia Holdings Sdn Bhd is Malaysia’s leading integrated cross-media group with operations in 4 key businesses: Pay TV, Radio, Content and Digital...

 that owned by Astro Holdings Sdn Bhd. It has operations at All Asia Broadcast Centre located in Bukit Jalil
Bukit Jalil
Bukit Jalil is a suburb about 20 km. south of Kuala Lumpur. It is a small suburb bounded by the National Sports Complex on the east, the Shah Alam Expressway on the north, city boundaries to the west, and the Puchong-Sungai Besi Highway as well as city boundaries to the south...

, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

, Malaysia and Measat in Cyberjaya
Cyberjaya
Cyberjaya is a town with a science park as the core that forms a key part of the Multimedia Super Corridor in Malaysia. It is located in the district of Sepang, Selangor and is situated about 50 km south of Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia...

.

In addition to serving consumers in households, Astro has substantial coverage in commercial establishments such as bars, restaurants, hotels, dorms, and hospitals. Since 2008, the Astro has been offering a video streaming service to mobile phone users throughout the country (Astro Mobile TV) and subsequently Astro B.yond Mobile.

Astro launched the first High Definition (HD) broadcast in Malaysia in December 2009 under the brand Astro B.yond. Following the launch of HD, Astro B.yond PVR (Personal Video Recorder) was introduced in June 2010 and Astro B.yond IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) in April 2011.

Introduction and early history



After the launch of the MEASAT-1
MEASAT
MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd., formerly Binariang Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd is a Malaysian communications satellite operator.MEASAT is the name of a line of communications satellites owned and operated by the company.As of 2006, the MEASAT satellite network consists of three geostationary...

 satellite as part of Malaysia's commercialisation of space
Commercialization of space
Commercialization of space is the use of equipment sent into or through outer space to provide goods or services of commercial value, either by a corporation or state. Examples of the commercial use of space include satellite navigation systems, satellite television and satellite radio...

, Astro commenced broadcasting in 1 June 1996 with an initial bouquet of 32 television channel and 8 radio channel; 40 channel.

In 2003, a new logo was launched, the uppercase 'ASTRO' was changed to the lowercase 'astro', with the slogan Making Your Life Richer.

Channels Launches


In June 1, 1996, Astro
Astro (Malaysian satellite television)
Astro is the brand name of the Malaysian direct broadcast satellite pay television service. It transmits digital satellite television and radio to households in Malaysia & Brunei...

 was launched satellite television broadcasting form of the programme for general used 3 satellite television channel used translated into Mandarin Chinese on Astro AEC
Astro AEC
Astro AEC is a 24-hour in house Mandarin-generic television channel from Malaysia, which is provided by Astro on channel 301 . It offers local content as well as programmes from China, Taiwan, Singapore and Japan.-External links:*...

, Malay
Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

 on Astro Ria
Astro Ria
Astro Ria is a Malaysian 24 hour television network broadcast on the Astro satellite television service. It was one of the first 22 channels to commence broadcast on Astro in 1996.Programs on the network include Malay dramas, films and reality shows....

 and Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

 on Astro Vaanavil
Astro Vaanavil
Astro Vaanavil is Malaysia's first 24-hour Tamil language television channel broadcast on the Astro satellite television service. It was one of the first 22 channels to commence broadcast on Astro in 1996. Astro Vaanavil is owned by South East Asia's second richest man Ananda Krishnan.Most of its...

.

In January 1, 2002, Astro Showcase
Astro Box Office
Astro Box Office is a pay-per-view system on the Astro platform in Malaysia. It shows movies and occasionally sporting events.- History :...

 was launched as a free-to-view channel showcasing Southeast Asian movies. The following year, Season Pass was launched, showing games and other sporting events. These two have now became pay-per-view
Pay-per-view
Pay-per-view provides a service by which a television audience can purchase events to view via private telecast. The broadcaster shows the event at the same time to everyone ordering it...

 channels under the Astro Box Office
Astro Box Office
Astro Box Office is a pay-per-view system on the Astro platform in Malaysia. It shows movies and occasionally sporting events.- History :...

 name.

In November 1, 2006, Astro News
Astro Awani
Astro Awani is the in-house rolling television news and current affairs channel providing 24-hour news coverage including news in Malay. with its slogan and motto tagline names Our Gateway to The World , Astro Awani presents news and informative programs include current affairs, lifestyle,...

 was co-produced with the national news agency Bernama
BERNAMA
BERNAMA is a news agency of the government of Malaysia. It is an autonomous body placed under the Information, Culture and Communications Ministry. It was set up by an Act of Parliament in 1967 and started work on 26 May 1968....

, with the former taking 12 minutes of the programme for general, The news is also translated into Mandarin Chinese on Astro AEC
Astro AEC
Astro AEC is a 24-hour in house Mandarin-generic television channel from Malaysia, which is provided by Astro on channel 301 . It offers local content as well as programmes from China, Taiwan, Singapore and Japan.-External links:*...

, Malay
Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

 on Astro Ria
Astro Ria
Astro Ria is a Malaysian 24 hour television network broadcast on the Astro satellite television service. It was one of the first 22 channels to commence broadcast on Astro in 1996.Programs on the network include Malay dramas, films and reality shows....

 and Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

 on Astro Vaanavil
Astro Vaanavil
Astro Vaanavil is Malaysia's first 24-hour Tamil language television channel broadcast on the Astro satellite television service. It was one of the first 22 channels to commence broadcast on Astro in 1996. Astro Vaanavil is owned by South East Asia's second richest man Ananda Krishnan.Most of its...

. In January 1, 2007, Bernama
BERNAMA
BERNAMA is a news agency of the government of Malaysia. It is an autonomous body placed under the Information, Culture and Communications Ministry. It was set up by an Act of Parliament in 1967 and started work on 26 May 1968....

 took over the full half-hour production pending a revamp of the internal news team at Astro in which Astro Awani
Astro Awani
Astro Awani is the in-house rolling television news and current affairs channel providing 24-hour news coverage including news in Malay. with its slogan and motto tagline names Our Gateway to The World , Astro Awani presents news and informative programs include current affairs, lifestyle,...

 was launched on April 1, 2007.

In April 1, 2007, Astro added another 9 channels into its line-up. The nine channels that were announced were Jia Yu Channel
Jia Yu Channel
Jia Yu Channel is a 24-hour Mandarin and Cantonese subscription channel in Malaysia, broadcasting under the slogan "Wholesome family entertainment"....

, Discovery Science
The Science Channel
Science is a United States cable, satellite and IPTV Television Network produced by Discovery Communications. Science features programming in the fields of space, technology, prehistory and animals.-History:...

, Discovery Real Time
Discovery Real Time
Discovery Real Time is a factual television channel owned by Discovery Networks Europe.It was originally launched in the UK in March 1992 as TLC, a British version of the US channel of the same name...

, Discovery Home & Health
Discovery Home & Health
Discovery Home & Health is a television channel based in the United Kingdom.Discovery Home & Health is available in Latin America , Australia, Republic of Ireland, Hong Kong, Philippines, New Zealand, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia.It was formerly available on SelecTV from March 2007...

, E! Entertainment, Astro Vellithirai, Sun Music, Eurosport
Eurosport
Eurosport is a pan-European television sport network operated by French broadcaster TF1 Group. The network of channels are available in 59 countries, in 20 different languages providing viewers with European and international sporting events...

 and The Golf Channel
The Golf Channel
Golf Channel, known as The Golf Channel before the July 2008 dropping of The, is an American cable television network with coverage focused on the game of golf. Founded in Birmingham, Alabama, the American headquarters and studio are currently located in Orlando, Florida...

. The first three channels were already added into Astro's line-up on April 24, 2007. The other six channels became available from May 1, 2007 onwards. Another two channels The History Channel
The History Channel
History, formerly known as The History Channel, is an American-based international satellite and cable TV channel that broadcasts a variety of reality shows and documentary programs including those of fictional and non-fictional historical content, together with speculation about the future.-...

 and the Crime & Investigation Network
Crime & Investigation Network
Crime & Investigation Network is a British television channel which focuses on crime, investigation and mystery programming. It is owned and operated by A+E Networks UK, jointly owned by A&E Television Networks and British Sky Broadcasting and launched in July 2006.A high definition version...

 joined the Astro
Astro (Malaysian satellite television)
Astro is the brand name of the Malaysian direct broadcast satellite pay television service. It transmits digital satellite television and radio to households in Malaysia & Brunei...

 platform on June 1, 2007.

In June 1, 2007, Astro introduced Astro On Demand
Astro On Demand
Astro On Demand is the brand-name of a range of near video on demand services from Astro on the same platform of the same name.Astro On Demand is a HK drama channel co-established by HK TVBI and Malay Astro. While broadcasting the newest HK drama on the same time HK does, it also plays TVB dramas...

, a new near-video on demand
Video on demand
Video on Demand or Audio and Video On Demand are systems which allow users to select and watch/listen to video or audio content on demand...

 channel featuring the latest TVB
Television Broadcasts Limited
Television Broadcasts Limited, commonly known as TVB, is the second over-the-air commercial television station in Hong Kong. It commenced broadcasting on 19 November 1967...

 dramas from Hong Kong. On July 1, 2007 onwards, Astro On-Demand Preview was launched, and it is entirely devoted to telling the Astro subscribers about this new channel. A total of 31 channels have been allocated for this new service.

On October 13, 2007, Astro added seven new channels into its repertoire, including the Asian Food Channel
Asian Food Channel
The Asian Food Channel is an Asian lifestyle cable and satellite television channel first launched in August 2005. Based in Singapore, AFC currently covers seven markets: Hong Kong, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore and Thailand...

, Astro Hua Hee Dai, Astro Oasis
Astro Oasis
Astro Oasis is a Malaysian television station owned and operated by Astro. The channel broadcasts Islamic-related programmes. Its highest rated program is the reality TV series, Young Imam....

, Astro Xiao Tai Yang, Chutti TV
Chutti TV
Chutti TV is a 24-hour Tamil language television channel owned by the Sun Network. The target audience are children aged between 3 and 14. It was launched in 2007, making it Sun TV Network's first ever television channel for kids....

, KBS World
KBS World
KBS World is a name of Korean Broadcasting System's international broadcasting service. It consists of KBS World Radio and a KBS World television channel.- History :...

 and Makkal TV. This increased the number of television channels on Astro to 80.

In December 1, 2007, Australia Network
Australia Network
Australia Network, originally Australia Television International and later ABC Asia Pacific, is a free-to-air international satellite television service operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation since 2006. The television and online service broadcasts 24 hours a day on 7 days a week, to...

 started transmission on Astro
Astro (Malaysian satellite television)
Astro is the brand name of the Malaysian direct broadcast satellite pay television service. It transmits digital satellite television and radio to households in Malaysia & Brunei...

 platform.

In January 1, 2008, Bernama TV
Bernama TV
Bernama TV is a 24 hour international news and current affairs television network in Malaysia. It is owned by Bernama, a government news agency. The service places emphasis on decidedly right-leaning and pro-government content and views...

 is a 24 hour Malaysian
Malaysian language
Malaysian or Standard Malay is the official language of Malaysia and a standardized form of the Malay language of the Austronesian family. It is over 80% cognate with Indonesian and is spoken natively by over 10 million people...

 news channel, starts transmission on the Astro
Astro (Malaysian satellite television)
Astro is the brand name of the Malaysian direct broadcast satellite pay television service. It transmits digital satellite television and radio to households in Malaysia & Brunei...

 platform.

In May 1, 2009, Astro launched the Mustika Pack is a new pay television package comprising three new channels named Astro Citra (channel 131), Astro Warna (channel 132) and B4U (channel 133). Astro Warna offers comedy; while Astro Citra is the Malaysian
Malaysian language
Malaysian or Standard Malay is the official language of Malaysia and a standardized form of the Malay language of the Austronesian family. It is over 80% cognate with Indonesian and is spoken natively by over 10 million people...

 version of the HBO Asia
HBO Asia
HBO Asia is a franchise of HBO in Asia. HBO Asia is now a joint venture of media giants Viacom and Time Warner . Sony Pictures Entertainment and Universal Studios exited the fifteen year-old HBO Asia premium movie joint venture on January 16, 2008....

 channel providing Southeast Asian blockbuster movies, Malay
Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

 premieres and Malay
Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

 epic series; and B4U the latest box-office Bollywood
Bollywood
Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing...

 movies and music with Malaysian
Malaysian language
Malaysian or Standard Malay is the official language of Malaysia and a standardized form of the Malay language of the Austronesian family. It is over 80% cognate with Indonesian and is spoken natively by over 10 million people...

 subtitles.

Astro then added a second Astro branded sports channel, Astro SuperSport 2 in November 1, 2009.

On November 23, 2009, Astro starts transmission of the first HD channels in Malaysia, Astro Supersport HD, ESPN HD, HBO HD, National Geographic Channel HD and HISTORY HD, followed by ESPN HD in January 11, 2010.

Granada TV was added the Astro platform on December 1, 2009 featuring many of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

's best shows. Granada TV was subsequently renamed to ITV Granada on November 1, 2010.

On March 25, 2010, Astro Arena, the country's first local sports channel went on air. Astro Arena (Channel 801), a 24 hour local sports channel will be delivered predominantly in Malaysian
Malaysian language
Malaysian or Standard Malay is the official language of Malaysia and a standardized form of the Malay language of the Austronesian family. It is over 80% cognate with Indonesian and is spoken natively by over 10 million people...

 and available to all Astro customers under its Family Pack.

On April 1, 2010, Astro starts transmission of TVB Classic Channel is a drama channel in Cantonese
Hong Kong Cantonese
Hong Kong Cantonese is a form of Yue Chinese commonly spoken in Hong Kong. Although Hongkongers largely identify this variant of Chinese with the term "Cantonese" , a variety of publications in mainland China describe the variant as Hong Kong speech...

, featuring memorable and highly rated dramas from the 1970s and 1980s - all from TVB's much-coveted vault of library titles, covering varied genres such as romance, costume, action and comedy.

On May 1, 2010, Astro starts transmission of ESPNews is a sports news channel from ESPN STAR Sports showcasing the latest international and local sports news. This channel is a rolling news service featuring highlights, interviews, results and lead-up stories.

In conjunction with the launch of Astro B.yond PVR, Astro starts transmission of 3 new HD channels - AXN HD (CH 721), Astro Zhi Zun HD (CH 310), a Chinese general entertainment HD channel and FX HD (CH 726) will join Astro B.yond's HD line up. In addition, FOX will make its debut on Astro in standard definition. All these new channels started transmission on June 11, 2010.

On July 1, 2010, Astro starts transmission of Astro SuperSport 3 (ASSP 3). ASSP 3 will broadcast 'LIVE' coverage of BPL (Barclays Premier League) games as well as also feature highlights, previews and magazine programs around the BPL. ASSP 3 will also broadcast other football plus a variety of other sporting genres.

On August 11, 2010, Astro starts transmission of National Geographic Wild (Nat Geo Wild). Nat Geo Wild, is in Malaysian
Malaysian language
Malaysian or Standard Malay is the official language of Malaysia and a standardized form of the Malay language of the Austronesian family. It is over 80% cognate with Indonesian and is spoken natively by over 10 million people...

, English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 and Mandarin language tracks for all programs, bringing to Malaysian households a 24-hour television channel fully dedicated to breathtaking nature and wildlife programming.

On August 17, 2010, Astro starts transmission of AXN Beyond HD as well. AXN Beyond HD is a hip and happening TV destination will offer viewers the most first-run US shows among all pay-television channels in Malaysia, serving up at least two new first-and-exclusive programmes each month to discerning viewers.

On October 1, 2010, Astro launches 3 additional HD channels, ONE HD provides the best selection in Asian general entertainment with a focus on Korean content. while STAR Movies HD brings you the best Hollywood movies in HD and Astro Lifestyle HD channel on Channel 706 which will air programmes from both Food Network Asia HD (9:00 am to 9:00 pm) and Life Inspired (Li) (9:00 pm to 9:00 am).

On December 9, 2010, Astro Tutor TV UPSR returned as a permanent channel on Astro with a programme line-up include, Mathematics, Science, English and Bahasa Malaysia with full interactive 'red-button' features to make revision even more engaging and fun.

On January 1, 2011, Astro launches Astro First, a first of its kind movie-on-demand service. Astro customers will be able to watch the latest cinema titles within two weeks after the cinema release, in the comfort of their homes at an affordable price.

On May 1, 2011, Astro offers Astro Tutor TV channel for PMR and SPM version, with newest line-up programmes include, Mathematics, Science, Malaysian English
Malaysian English
Malaysian English , formally known as Malaysian Standard English , is a form of English used and spoken in Malaysia as a second language...

, History, Malaysian
Malaysian language
Malaysian or Standard Malay is the official language of Malaysia and a standardized form of the Malay language of the Austronesian family. It is over 80% cognate with Indonesian and is spoken natively by over 10 million people...

, and Additional Maths (only for SPM) with full interactive 'red-button' features to make revision even more engaging and fun.

On July 1, 2011, Astro launches another new package called Indo Pek, which comprising 2 new Astro branded channels named Bintang (channel 141) and Pelangi (channel 142). Bintang provides the best of Indonesian
Indonesian language
Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia. Indonesian is a normative form of the Riau Islands dialect of Malay, an Austronesian language which has been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for centuries....

 lifestyle entertainment such as music videos, gossips, and more. which Pelangi brings you the best Indonesian
Indonesian language
Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia. Indonesian is a normative form of the Riau Islands dialect of Malay, an Austronesian language which has been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for centuries....

 movies from the 1970s until now.

Astro B.yond


ASTRO launched Malaysia's first high-definition television service branded Astro B.yond on December 11, 2009. The roll out of these services is estimated to cost some RM200 million, including marketing and operating costs of approximately RM150 million, over the next financial year, ahead of revenue and earnings from these services.

Incorporating best in class technologies, Astro B.yond offers customers more innovative services which will be introduced in phases. Starting with the first ever High-Definition (HD) broadcast in Malaysia, Astro B.yond will change TV viewing experience with richer colours, picture-perfect clarity and cinematic surround sound. Along with this, a new and improved Electronic Programming Guide (EPG) designed for better viewer interface will be introduced.

Astro B.yond also introduced a Digital Video Recording (DVR) service, available through the Astro B.yond Personal Video Recorder (PVR) and an external hard disk drive connected to the Astro B.yond decoder. The Astro B.yond PVR comes with an inbuilt 500GB hard disk and allows customers to record up to two live programmes at one time, rewind and pause live TV thus giving customers the ultimate control over their television viewing. Recording services ia also availalble through Astro B.yond via a compatible external hard disk driveand activate the recording service by Astro.

In April 2011, Astro B.yond introduced it's IPTV services through Astro B.yond IPTV a collaboration with TIME dotCom Berhad (TIME) to deliver IPTV since December 2010 brings an unparalleled multiplay of Astro channels in HD (High-Definition) with Personal Video Recording (PVR) and VOD (Video-on-Demand) services delivered via TIME's 100% fibre broadband offering the fastest internet speed in the country with voice at the best value to Malaysian homes. Astro B.yond IPTV will be progressively available in Klang Valley and Penang. At present, Astro B.yond IPTV is available at 60 high-rise condominiums within Mont Kiara, KLCC, Bangsar and Penang.

The Astro B.yond decoder is a rebranded Pace plc DS-830NA.

List of channels by Astro



Astro offers a wide variety of channels and radio content.

Channel Name Group(s) Notes Official Websites/Links
101 RTM TV1  News, Entertainment Astro Family Package Official Website
102 RTM TV2
TV2 (Malaysia)
RTM2, also known as TV2 is a television station in Malaysia owned and operated by the Radio Television Malaysia, a division of the Malaysian Government. RTM2 is now broadcasting for 24 hours a day effective January 2006.- History :...

 
News, Entertainment Astro Family Package Official Website
103 TV3
TV3 (Malaysia)
Sistem Televisyen Malaysia Berhad or TV3 began broadcasting on 1 June 1984 as Malaysia’s first commercial television station. It is part of Media Prima Berhad group of companies. It now transmits opened broadcasting business private 24-hours a day, 7 days a week since 1 January 2010...

 
Entertainment Astro Family Package Official Website
104 Astro Ria Entertainment Astro Family Package Official Website
105 Astro Prima Entertainment Astro Family Package Official Website
106 Astro Oasis Entertainment Astro Family Package Official Website
107 NTV7
Ntv7
Natseven TV Sdn Bhd or better known as ntv7 is a terrestrial television channel in Malaysia. It was launched nationwide on 7 April 1998 and was the country's third private free-to-air TV station after TV3 and Astro. Its mission is to promote a happier and more enlightened Malaysia...

 
Entertainment Astro Family Package Official Website
108 Zee Variasi Entertainment Astro Family Package Official Website
109 astro@15 Entertainment Astro Family Package Official Website
111 ART Entertainment Astro Family Package Official Website
114 TV AlHijrah Religion Entertainment Astro Family Package Official Website
119 TV9
TV9 (Malaysia)
TV9 is a free-to-air private television station in Malaysia. TV9 began broadcasting on 22 April 2006, as a subsidiary of Media Prima Berhad. It formerly existed as Channel 9, which began airing on 9 September 2003 and ceased transmission on 1 February 2005 due to financial difficulties faced by the...

 
Entertainment Astro Family Package Official Website
130 i130 Infotainment Astro Family Package Official Website
131 Astro Citra Movies Mustika Package Official Website
132 Astro Warna Comedy Mustika Package Official Website
133 Bollywood for You (B4U) Movies, Entertainment Official Website
141 Bintang Entertainment Official Website
142 Pelangi Movies Official Website
180 RTM TVi Music Official Website
201 Astro Vaanavil Entertainment Official Website
202 Astro Vellithirai Movies Official Website
203 Makkal TV Cultural Official Website
211 Sun TV Entertainment Official Website
212 Sun Music Music Official Website
213 Chutti TV Children Official Website
214 Adithya TV Comedy
301 Astro AEC / Astro亞洲娛樂台 Entertainment Official Website
302 iView / Astro精彩預告 Infotainment Official Website
304 Jia Yu / 家娛頻道 Entertainment Official Website
305 TVB Classic / 無線經典台 Entertainment Official Website
310 Astro Zhi Zun HD / Astro至尊HD High Definition Official Website
311 Astro Wah Lai Toi / Astro華麗台 Entertainment Official Website
312 Phoenix Chinese Channel / 鳳凰衛視中文台 Entertainment Official Website
313 TVB Entertainment / 無線娛樂新聞台 Entertainment Official Website
314 TVB Xing He / TVB星河頻道 Entertainment Official Website
315 WATV Entertainment Official Website
316 CTI Asia / 中天亞洲台 Entertainment Official Website
317 TVBS Asia / 無線衛星亞洲台 Entertainment Official Website
322 Celestial Movies / 天映頻道 Movies Official Website
323 Phoenix Info News / 鳳凰衛視資訊台 News Official Website
324 Astro Shuang Xing / Astro雙星 Entertainment Official Website
325 Astro Xiao Tai Yang / Astro小太陽 Children Official Website
333 Astro Hua Hee Dai / Astro歡喜台 Entertainment Official Website
334 CCTV4 / 中央電視台中文國際頻道 Entertainment Official Website
391 KBS World Entertainment Official Website
393 SET ONE HD Asia High Definition Official Website
398 NHK World Entertainment Official Website
411 HBO Asia Movies Official Website
412 MAX (cineMAX) Movies Official Website
413 STAR Movies Movies Official Website
431 HBO HD High Definition Official Website
433 STAR Movies HD High Definition Official Website
438 Sundance Channel HD High Definition Official Website
482 - 492 Astro First On Demand Including 3 Astro First HD channels on CH483, CH487 & CH492 for selected movies only Official Website
501 Astro Awani News Official Website
502 Bernama TV News Official Website
509 CCTV News News Official Website
511 CNN News Official Website
512 BBC World News Official Website
513 Al-Jazeera English News Official Website
518 CNBC Asia News Official Website
519 Bloomberg Television News Official Website
521 Australia Network News, Entertainment Official Website
550 Nat Geo Wild Documentaries Official Website
551 Discovery Channel Documentaries Official Website
553 Nat Geo Channel Documentaries Official Website
554 Discovery Science Documentaries Official Website
555 History Documentaries Official Website
556 Animal Planet Documentaries Official Website
571 Discovery HD World High Definition Official Website
573 Nat Geo HD High Definition Official Website
575 History HD High Definition Official Website
601 Astro Tutor TV UPSR Education Official Website
603 Astro Tutor TV SPM Education Now until November 25 Official Website
610 Astro TVIQ Knowledge Official Website
611 Astro Ceria Children Official Website
612 Nickelodeon
Nickelodeon South East Asia
Nickelodeon Southeast Asia is a satellite and cable TV channel for children and teenagers. Operated by MTV Networks Asia Pacific and owned by Viacom International....

 
Children Official Website
613 Disney Junior Children Official Website
615 Disney Channel
Disney Channel Asia
Disney Channel Asia, a franchise of Disney Channel, airs in most parts of Southeast Asia.- Programming :Disney Channel Asia airs a variety of shows, aimed particularly at children and teenagers. Most of the programming is similar to the American counterpart with some shows exclusive to the Asian...

 
Children Official Website
616 Cartoon Network  Children Official Website
618 BabyTV
BabyTV
BabyTV is a television channel for infants, toddlers, and their parents. Launched in 2003 BabyTV is distributed in 85 countries globally via over 300 affiliates, and is localized in 15 languages ....

 
Children Official Website
701 AXN Entertainment Official Website
702 DIVA Universal Entertainment Official Website
703 Asian Food Channel Entertainment Official Website
705 Astro Hitz Music Official Website
706 Astro Lifestyle HD High Definition Official Website
707 TLC Documentaries Official Website
708 8TV / 八度空间
8TV (Malaysia)
8TV is a private Malaysian Chinese television station, previously known as MetroVision Channel 8. Metrovision closed on 1 November 1999. 8TV was officially launched on Thursday, 8 January 2004 as 8TV after being acquired by Media Prima Berhad....

Entertainment Official Website
710 FOX Asia Entertainment Official Website
711 STAR World Entertainment Official Website
712 E! Entertainment Entertainment Official Website
713 MTV Asia Music Official Website
715 Animax Asia Entertainment Official Website
720 AXN Beyond HD Asia High Definition Official Website
721 AXN HD High Definition Official Website
726 FX HD High Definition Official Website
731 The Biography Channel (bio.) Documentaries Official Website
732 Crime & Investigation Network (CI) Documentaries Official Website
733 Discovery Home & Health Documentaries Official Website
734 Discovery Turbo Documentaries Official Website
735 ITV Granada Entertainment Official Website
801 Astro Arena Sports Official Website
811 Astro SuperSport Sports Official Website
812 ESPN Sports Official Website
813 STAR Sports Sports Official Website
814 Eurosport Sports Official Website
815 Golf Channel Sports Official Website
816 Astro SuperSport 2 Sports Official Website
817 Astro SuperSport 3 Sports Official Website
818 ESPNews Sports Official Website
831 Astro SuperSport HD High Definition Official Website
832 ESPN HD High Definition Official Website
833 Astro SuperSport HD 2 High Definition Official Website
852 - 870 Radio Radio Entertainment
888 Astro Stocklink Official Website
901 - 942 Astro On Demand Drama On Demand Official Website
951 Astro Box Office Thangathirai Movies Official Website
952 - 953 Astro Box Office Tayangan Hebat Movies Official Website
971 - 972 Astro Box Office Sports/Events Entertainment Official Website

Service and technical information



The direct-to-home (DTH), is broadcast as high-power Ku-band transmissions utilising the transponders of the MEASAT
MEASAT
MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd., formerly Binariang Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd is a Malaysian communications satellite operator.MEASAT is the name of a line of communications satellites owned and operated by the company.As of 2006, the MEASAT satellite network consists of three geostationary...

 satellite system. Reception of the service signals uses a fixed 60-cm diameter dish antenna.

Ku-band signals can be affected by rain attenuation (rain fade
Rain fade
Rain fade refers primarily to the absorption of a microwave radio frequency signal by atmospheric rain, snow or ice, and losses are especially prevalent at frequencies above 11 GHz. It also refers to the degradation of a signal caused by the electromagnetic interference of the leading edge of a...

), making it susceptible to frequent outages in heavy rainfall areas such as Malaysia, the operators of Astro have employed a tailor-made system to boost power of the satellite delivery system to overcome this problem. The service availability of 99.7%, however, is still a topic of much debate by subscribers.

Set Top Box Manufacturers

Generation Manufacturer Model Year Introduced
1st generation/launch product Philips
Philips
Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. , more commonly known as Philips, is a multinational Dutch electronics company....

 
INS 610 1996
2nd generation Philips
Philips
Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. , more commonly known as Philips, is a multinational Dutch electronics company....

 
DSX7072 1999
Nokia
Nokia
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications corporation that is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighbouring Finland's capital Helsinki...

 
DVB 8750s 1999
3rd generation Philips
Philips
Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. , more commonly known as Philips, is a multinational Dutch electronics company....

 
DSR4201 2004
Thomson
Thomson SA
Technicolor SA , formerly Thomson SA and Thomson Multimedia, is a French international provider of solutions for the creation, management, post-production, delivery and access of video, for the Communication, Media and Entertainment industries. Technicolor’s headquarters are located in Issy les...

 
DVB 850s 2004
4th generation Thomson
Thomson
-People:* Thomson , includes a list of people with this name and a description of its origin-Science:*thomson , a unit for mass-to-charge ratio, symbol: Th; named in honor of J. J...

 
860N 2010

Encryption


Since its launch, Astro transmits programming with encryption
Encryption
In cryptography, encryption is the process of transforming information using an algorithm to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge, usually referred to as a key. The result of the process is encrypted information...

 to mitigate signal piracy
Pirate decryption
Pirate decryption most often refers to the reception of compromised pay TV or pay radio signals without authorization from the original broadcaster...

. The receiver (also known as an IRD, or "integrated receiver-decoder") utilizes ISO/IEC 7816 smart card
Smart card
A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card , is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits. A smart card or microprocessor cards contain volatile memory and microprocessor components. The card is made of plastic, generally polyvinyl chloride, but sometimes acrylonitrile...

s which tell the receiver how to decrypt the programming for viewing. Astro is now utilizing a third generation of access smart cards.
  • The first generation of smart cards were used until 2004. The encryption uses the SECA
    Nagra France
    Nagra France is a company which develops and markets the Mediaguard conditional access system for digital television. It is a subsidiary of the Kudelski Group .-History:...

     Mediaguard.
  • The second generation of smart cards were introduced in 2004 and used until 2008. The encryption uses the improved version of Mediaguard.
  • The third generation of smart cards were introduced in 2008. This is the current "standard issue" smart card. It uses the NDS
    NDS Group
    NDS Group Plc. is a developer of pay TV technology. NDS was established in 1988 as an Israeli start up company. It was acquired by News Corporation in 1992. The company is currently headquartered in Staines, United Kingdom...

     VideoGuard
    VideoGuard
    VideoGuard , produced by NDS, is a digital encryption system for use with conditional access television broadcasting. It is used on digital satellite television systems - some of which are operated by News Corporation, which owns about half of NDS...

     encryption system.

Packages / subscription


The Astro service uses the package pricing model commonly used by other pay-TV providers in which channels are grouped into packages (i.e. basic and premium
Premium
Premium may refer to:* Premium , a promotional item that can be received for a small fee when redeeming proofs of purchase that come with or on retail products....

) made available to subscribers at a monthly fee.

Since 15 November 2007, there has been a slight alteration to the packages and prices. The Family package, which is the lowest entry level, offers a fee of RM37.95. Subscribers who pay this amount will only enjoy channels grouped under Astro Family banner that offers 26 channels, including six free-to-air terrestrial television networks, in-house vernacular channels and some international networks.

The basic packages (also known as Mini packages) are categorised into four groups known as Variety (Entertainment channels such as MTV
MTV
MTV, formerly an initialism of Music Television, is an American network based in New York City that launched on August 1, 1981. The original purpose of the channel was to play music videos guided by on-air hosts known as VJs....

 and E!
E!
E! Entertainment Television is an American basic cable and satellite television network, owned by NBCUniversal. It features entertainment-related programming, reality television, feature films and occasionally series and specials unrelated to the entertainment industry.E! has an audience reach of...

), Learning (Educational and documentary-related channels such as Discovery Channel
Discovery Channel
Discovery Channel is an American satellite and cable specialty channel , founded by John Hendricks and distributed by Discovery Communications. It is a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav...

), Fun (Children's channels such as Disney Channel
Disney Channel
Disney Channel is an American basic cable and satellite television network, owned by the Disney-ABC Television Group division of The Walt Disney Company. It is under the direction of Disney-ABC Television Group President Anne Sweeney. The channel's headquarters is located on West Alameda Ave. in...

) and News. The sports package – initially a mini package – is now offered separately, and must be subscribed with another Mini package at least.

Premium packages (known as Super packages) include the Movie and Dynasty (Chinese language channels) packages. They are offered at a higher rate than the other available package.

Also, five new packages, collectively known as the Plus packages, were introduced to Astro since 15 November 2007. They include the Metro package (such as Discovery Home & Health
Discovery Home & Health
Discovery Home & Health is a television channel based in the United Kingdom.Discovery Home & Health is available in Latin America , Australia, Republic of Ireland, Hong Kong, Philippines, New Zealand, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia.It was formerly available on SelecTV from March 2007...

), the Maharaja package (Tamil language channels), the Gold package, the New Emperor package (both Chinese language packages), and the Mustika package (Malay and Bollywood package). Subscribers cannot select both the Gold Package and the New Emperor Package as four channels in the Gold Package are available within the New Emperor Package as well.

Broadband and internet-based services


At the end of 1999, Astro's operator MEASAT Broadcast Network Systems announced a proposal to provide high-speed satellite-delivered Internet access
Satellite Internet access
Satellite Internet access is Internet access provided through satellites. The service can be provided to users world-wide through low Earth orbit satellites. Geostationary satellites can offer higher data speeds, but their signals can not reach some polar regions of the world...

 services. The service, called @stronet-JARING, was to be a one-way terrestrial return system, whereby Malaysian ISP
Internet service provider
An Internet service provider is a company that provides access to the Internet. Access ISPs directly connect customers to the Internet using copper wires, wireless or fiber-optic connections. Hosting ISPs lease server space for smaller businesses and host other people servers...

 Jaring
Jaring
JARING is a Malaysian internet service provider based in Technology Park Malaysia . It was the first internet service provider in the country and was formerly owned by MIMOS Berhad....

 would provide the outbound data service through dial-up (and later broadband
Broadband
The term broadband refers to a telecommunications signal or device of greater bandwidth, in some sense, than another standard or usual signal or device . Different criteria for "broad" have been applied in different contexts and at different times...

) access. Downloads would be received via the MEASAT
MEASAT
MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd., formerly Binariang Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd is a Malaysian communications satellite operator.MEASAT is the name of a line of communications satellites owned and operated by the company.As of 2006, the MEASAT satellite network consists of three geostationary...

 satellite system, which promised a maximum download speed of 6.5Mbit/s. A PC
Personal computer
A personal computer is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator...

-based trial was performed in early 2000 with a maximum download speed of 400kbit/s. Other proposed services included Multicast File Transfer
Multicast
In computer networking, multicast is the delivery of a message or information to a group of destination computers simultaneously in a single transmission from the source creating copies automatically in other network elements, such as routers, only when the topology of the network requires...

 and Multicast Streaming Delivery
Multicast
In computer networking, multicast is the delivery of a message or information to a group of destination computers simultaneously in a single transmission from the source creating copies automatically in other network elements, such as routers, only when the topology of the network requires...

. The service, however, has never been made available publicly.

In May 2005, Astro launched Astro.tv, a broadband TV portal. Initially, it had two video channels: Akademi Fantasia Xtra and GOALTV
GOALTV
GOALTV is a dedicated football network offering Asia audiences coverage of top European football. This includes exclusive live games from three major European leagues as well as behind-the-scenes access to three Premier League clubs in England, Manchester City, Chelsea and Liverpool, in addition...

. The service required a separate subscription fee charged to the subscribers mobile phone bill. It was rebranded as Astro Broadband..

In 2010, Astro introduced the Astro B.yond Player Online offering access to selected programmes via LIVE video streaming on astro.com.my to its customers. There is also Video-On-Demand and selected programme replays available online. The Astro B.yond Player comprises videos from Astro's locally produced content, LIVE football matches and a special programmes HD broadcast. Astro B.yond Player Online requires a Microsoft Silverlight plug-in.

Since December 2010, Astro's strategic collaboration with TIME dotCom Berhad (TIME) has enabled Astro to deliver IPTV with an unparalleled multiplay of Astro channels in HD (High-Definition) with Personal Video Recording (PVR) and VOD (Video-on-Demand) services delivered via TIME's 100% fibre broadband offering the fastest internet speed in the country with voice to Malaysian homes.

Viewership


As at 1 April 2011, the service has close to 3 million customers, which represents 50% of Malaysian TV homes.

Red button feature


During high-profile events, Astro adds a Red-Button
Red Button (Digital Television)
Red Button is a button on the remote control for certain digital television set top boxes in the UK, Australia, Belgium, Malaysia and By Directv in the USA. It is for interactive television services such as BBC Red Button and Astro...

 interactive feature to some channels to provide a link to several different feeds from the event, thereby enabling viewers to select between events or sporting matches that may be taking place simultaneously. The Red Button feature is also used to provide interactive services such as programming updates, event news, scores, contest information and sponsor advertising. The service is accessible by pressing the Red Button on the set-top box's
Set-top box
A set-top box or set-top unit is an information appliance device that generally contains a tuner and connects to a television set and an external source of signal, turning the signal into content which is then displayed on the television screen or other display device.-History:Before the...

 remote control
Remote control
A remote control is a component of an electronics device, most commonly a television set, used for operating the television device wirelessly from a short line-of-sight distance.The remote control is usually contracted to remote...

 when prompted by a "Press Red Button" logo on-screen.

The Red Button service was first used in June 2004 to provide enhanced services for the program Akademi Fantasia, the localised version of Mexico's
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 La Academia.

Other multi-feed/channel events using the Red Button feature:
Event No of feeds / channels Broadcast channel
2004 Summer Olympics
2004 Summer Olympics
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece from August 13 to August 29, 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team...

6 Astro Supersport (Channel 80)
2006 Winter Olympics
2006 Winter Olympics
The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. This marked the second time Italy hosted the Olympic Winter Games, the first being the VII Olympic Winter...

3 Astro Supersport (Channel 80)
2006 Commonwealth Games
2006 Commonwealth Games
The 2006 Commonwealth Games were held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia between 15 March and 26 March 2006. It was the largest sporting event to be staged in Melbourne, eclipsing the 1956 Summer Olympics in terms of the number of teams competing, athletes competing, and events being held.The site...

3 Astro Supersport (Channel 80)
2006 FIFA World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, which won the right to host the event in July 2000. Teams representing 198 national football associations from all six...

8 Astro Supersport (Channel 83)
2006 Asian Games
2006 Asian Games
The 15th Asian Games, officially known as the XV Asiad, is Asia's Olympic-style sporting event that was held in Doha, Qatar from December 1 to December 15, 2006. Doha was the first city in its region and only the second in West Asia to host the games...

4 Astro Supersport (Channel 83)
2008 Thomas Cup 1 Astro Supersport (Channel 816)
UEFA Euro 2008 3 Astro Supersport (Channel 816)
2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics
The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, was a major international multi-sport event that took place in Beijing, China, from August 8 to August 24, 2008. A total of 11,028 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees competed in 28 sports and 302 events...

11 Astro Supersport (Channel 816)
2010 World Cup 10 (5 SD/5 HD) Astro Supersport (Channel 820 SD/HD)

Astro Mobile TV


In October 2008, Astro launched Astro Mobile TV which provides over 20 channels some exclusively. Astro Mobile TV is only available to Maxis 3G customers. The customer pays no data fee for the streaming video.

In 2010, Astro introduced the Astro B.yond Player Mobile, which brings live video streaming of signature TV programs, football matches on mobile phones. The iPhone Astro B.yond Player App is accessible via the Apple App Store. The Astro B.yond Mobile service is available through the Maxis, DiGi and Celcom 3G network.

Brunei


The Astro service is currently also available in Brunei
Brunei
Brunei , officially the State of Brunei Darussalam or the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace , is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia...

 under the brand Kristal-Astro
Kristal-Astro
Kristal-ASTRO, formed on January 24, 2000, is the sole operator of Brunei's multi-channel pay-television service. The company is a joint-venture between Kristal Sdn Bhd and Malaysia's Astro Malaysia Holdings Sdn Bhd, a subsidiary of Astro Holdings Sdn Bhd....

. Launched on 24 January 2000, the Brunei operation is a joint venture company established between Brunei company DST through its subsidiary, Kristal Sdn Bhd (51.1%) and Measat Broadcast Network Systems (48.9%). That service comprises over 80 DTH television and radio channels.

Indonesia


A joint venture company, PT Direct Vision, in which Astro will hold a 20% stake, operates the Astro service in Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

. 48 channels including 5 locally produced Indonesia exclusive channels were launched under the Astro brand. The service ceased transmission sign-off closedown on Monday, 20 October 2008 at 00:01 local time
Time in Indonesia
The Indonesian archipelago geographically stretches across four time zones from UTC+7 in Banda Aceh to UTC+9 in Western Papua. However, The Indonesian government only recognizes three time zones in its territory: Western Indonesian Time—seven hours in advance of Greenwich Mean Time ,...

 midnight.

India


Sun Direct is a 80:20 joint venture between the Kalanidhi Maran family and the Astro Group of Malaysia. Sun Direct adds around 200,000 subscribers per month in the south and the target is three million plus active subscribers by the end of this fiscal nationally. Sun Direct is the first one to adopt the advanced MPEG4 technology offering better compression and signal quality and is the first one to offer HDTV (High definition) content. Sun Direct offers all customer premises equipments like the dish and Set Top box at no additional cost to the customer, which is a practice followed by DTH platforms across the world.

Endemol


Astro joint venture with Endemol to open the second Asian branch and the branch is call Endemol Malaysia and than the first format from Endemol is Kamilah Bintang - Kids talent searching reality show and was aired on Astro Ceria
Astro Ceria
Astro Ceria is a 24-hour Malay language television channel that is broadcast on the Astro satellite television service. This channel is dedicated to toddlers and children...

.

Awards and accolades


On November 2009, Astro was awarded the Cable and Satellite Broadcasting Association of Asia (CASBAA)
Cable & Satellite Broadcasting Association of Asia
CASBAA is the association for digital multichannel television, content, platforms, advertising and video delivery across Asia.-Mission:The CASBAA mission is to promote the growth of mulitchannel TV and video content across Asia through industry information, networking exchanges and events while...

 Chairman's Award 2009 for its contribution to the pay-TV industry in the region.

Astro won Gold in the Media and Entertainment category for The Putra Brand Awards in 2010 and 2011.

See also

  • Astro Indonesia (Astro Nusantara)
    Astro Nusantara
    Astro Nusantara was a satellite television service in Indonesia, operated by PT Direct Vision since 28 February 2006, a joint venture company between Astro All Asia Networks plc and PT First Media Tbk, a subsidiary of Lippo Group. The service consisted of 48 channels including 5 locally produced...

  • Kristal-Astro
    Kristal-Astro
    Kristal-ASTRO, formed on January 24, 2000, is the sole operator of Brunei's multi-channel pay-television service. The company is a joint-venture between Kristal Sdn Bhd and Malaysia's Astro Malaysia Holdings Sdn Bhd, a subsidiary of Astro Holdings Sdn Bhd....

  • List of Malaysian television stations
  • Mega TV (non-operational since 2001)
  • MiTV
    MiTV
    U Television Sdn. Bhd. is Malaysia's third pay television operator. It was launched in September 2005 after having obtained all the necessary approvals from the censorship board on its broadcast contents...

     (non-operational since 31 October 2006, awaiting relaunch as U Television)
  • Fine TV
    Fine TV
    Fine TV is the fourth Pay TV station in Malaysia. It was launched on December 28, 2005 and follows a TV On-Demand model and also has PPV channels...

  • Commercialization of space
    Commercialization of space
    Commercialization of space is the use of equipment sent into or through outer space to provide goods or services of commercial value, either by a corporation or state. Examples of the commercial use of space include satellite navigation systems, satellite television and satellite radio...

  • Aora TV
    Aora TV
    Aora TV is an Indonesian direct broadcast satellite pay television company that is operated by PT Karya Megah Adijaya and is owned by Rini M. Soemarno, Ongki P. Soemarno and join at dormant period Sugiono Wiyono. It started its nation-wide broadcast in the beginning of August 2008 with an initial...


External links