The 1936 Winter Olympics
, officially known as the IV Olympic Winter Games
, were a winter multi-sport event
A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports between organized teams of athletes from nation-states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance was the modern Olympic Games.Many...
which was celebrated in 1936 in the market town
Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the medieval period, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city...
Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a mountain resort town in Bavaria, southern Germany. It is the administrative centre of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region, and the district is on the border with Austria...
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...
. Germany also hosted the Summer Olympics
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain on April 26, 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona...
the same year in Berlin. 1936 is the last year in which the Summer and Winter Games were both held in the same country (the cancelled 1940 games would have been held in Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...
, with that country likewise hosting the Winter and Summer games).
The 1936 Winter Olympics were organized on behalf of the Sports Office of the Third Reich
The Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen , more rarely "NSRBL", , known as Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen until 1938, was the umbrella organization for sports during the Third Reich.The NSRL was led by the Reichssportführer, who after 1934 was...
(DRL) by Karl Ritter von Halt
Dr Karl Ritter von Halt, born Karl Ferdinand Halt was a sport official in Nazi Germany and in the German Federal Republic. He was born and died in Munich.-Biography:...
. Von Halt had been named President of the Committee for the organization of the Fourth Winter Olympics in Garmisch by Reichssportführer Hans von Tschammer und Osten
Hans von Tschammer und Osten was a German sport official, SA leader and a member of the Reichstag...
- German skier Willy Bogner
Wilhelm Bogner , better known as Willy Bogner, Sr., was a German Nordic skier who competed in the 1930s. He won a pair of medals at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships with a silver in the 4 x 10 km event in 1934 and a bronze in the nordic combined in 1935. Bogner, Sr...
took the Olympic oath during the opening ceremonies.
- Alpine skiing
Alpine skiing is the sport of sliding down snow-covered hills on skis with fixed-heel bindings. Alpine skiing can be contrasted with skiing using free-heel bindings: Ski mountaineering and nordic skiing – such as cross-country; ski jumping; and Telemark. In competitive alpine skiing races four...
made its first appearance in the winter Olympics as the combined
Combined is an alpine skiing event. Although not technically a discipline of its own, it is sometimes referred to as a fifth alpine discipline, along with downhill, super G, giant slalom, and slalom.-Traditional & Super-Combined:...
, which added a skier's results in both the downhill
Downhill is an alpine skiing discipline. The rules for the Downhill were originally developed by Sir Arnold Lunn for the 1921 British National Ski Championships....
Slalom is an alpine skiing discipline, involving skiing between poles spaced much closer together than in Giant Slalom, Super-G or Downhill, thereby causing quicker and shorter turns.- Origins :...
. German athletes Franz Pfnür
Franz Pfnür was a German alpine skier who competed in the 1936 Winter Olympics.He was born in Schellenberg.In 1936 he won the gold medal in the alpine skiing combined event.-External links:*...
won men's alpine and Christl Cranz
Christl Franziska Antonia Cranz-Borchers was a German alpine skier. Crantz was the dominating skier of the 1930s winning twelve world championship titles between 1934 and 1939. At the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen she won the Alpine skiing combined competition .Cranz was born 1914...
won women's alpine events.
- Ivar Ballangrud
Ivar Ballangrud was a Norwegian speed skater, a four-time Olympic champion in Speed Skating. As the only triple gold medalists at the 1936 Winter Olympics, Ballangrud was the most successful athlete there.-Biography:Ivar Ballangrud was one of the best speed skaters in the world for a period of 15...
won three out of the four speed skating
Speed skating, or speedskating is a competitive form of ice skating in which the competitors race each other in traveling a certain distance on skates. Types of speed skating are long track speed skating, short track speed skating, and marathon speed skating...
- Sonja Henie
Sonja Henie was a Norwegian figure skater and film star. She was a three-time Olympic Champion in Ladies Singles, a ten-time World Champion and a six-time European Champion . Henie won more Olympic and World titles than any other ladies figure skater...
won her third consecutive gold medal in woman's figure skating
Figure skating is an Olympic sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform spins, jumps, footwork and other intricate and challenging moves on ice skates. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level , and at local, national, and international competitions...
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....
won the 4 man bobsled in a time of 5:19.85.
- Great Britain upset 1932 gold medalists Canada in ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...
- The country who won the overall games was Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...
with a total of 7 gold medals, 5 silver medals and 3 bronze medals.
- These games had the largest and heaviest medals ever awarded to athletes: 100 mm diameter, 4 mm thick, 324 grams.
Medals were awarded in 17 events in 6 sports (8 disciplines).
- Alpine skiing
At the 1936 Winter Olympics at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, alpine skiing was arranged for the first time in the Olympics, a combined event for men and women....
At the 1936 Winter Olympics, two bobsleigh events were contested. The competitions were held from February 11, 1936 to February 15, 1936.-Medal summary:-Participating nations:...
- Figure skating
At the 1936 Winter Olympics, three figure skating events were contested. The competitions were held from Sunday February 9, 1936 to Saturday February 15, 1936.-Medal summary:-Participating nations:...
- Ice hockey
At the 1936 Winter Olympics, Great Britain won the men's ice hockey competition. While only one player on the team was born in Canada, nine of the thirteen players on the roster grew up in Canada, and eleven had played previously in Canada.-Medalists:...
- Nordic skiing
At the 1936 Winter Olympics, five Nordic skiing events were contested – three cross-country skiing events, one ski jumping event, and one nordic combined event, all for men only....
- Cross-country skiing
At the 1936 Winter Olympics, three cross country skiing events were contested. The 4x10 km relay was added to the competition.The relay event was held on Monday, February 10, 1936, the 18 km competition was held on Wednesday, February 12, 1936, and the 50 km event was held on Saturday, February 15,...
- Nordic combined
At the 1936 Winter Olympics, one individual Nordic combined event was contested. It was held on Wednesday, February 12, 1936 and on Thursday, February 13, 1936 .-Medalists:-Cross-country skiing:...
- Ski jumping
At the 1936 Winter Olympics, one individual ski jumping event was contested. It was held on Sunday, February 16, 1936.-Medalists:-Final standings:The competition took place at "Olympiaschanze" with a K-Point of 80 metres . It started at 11 a.m....
- Speed skating
At the 1936 Winter Olympics, four speed skating events were contested. The competitions were held on Tuesday, February 11, 1936, Wednesday, February 12, 1936, Thursday, February 13, 1936, and on Friday, February 14, 1936.-Medal summary:...
- Military patrol
At the 1936 Winter Olympics, in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1936, a military patrol competition was held. The International Olympic Committee refused admission of this sport into the Olympic Program, but the expressed desires of Adolf Hitler forced the IOC to make this program a...
- Ice stock sport
Ice stock sport is a winter sport, somewhat similar to curling. In German, it is known as Eisstockschießen. Competitors slide ice stocks over an ice surface, aiming for a target, or to cover the longest distance. Ice stocks have a gliding surface, to which a stick is attached...
- Große Olympiaschanze
The Große Olympiaschanze is a ski jumping hill located in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.-1936 Winter Olympics:At the 1936 Winter Olympics, it hosted the ski jumping event and the ski jumping part of the nordic combined event. It also host the opening and closing ceremonies of those games...
- Cross-country skiing, Nordic combined, and Ski Jumping.
Gudiberg is a mountain of Bavaria, Germany.It hosted the slalom part of the alpine skiing combined event for the 1936 Winter Olympics in neighboring Garmisch-Partenkirchen.-Reference:* pp. 289-303....
- Alpine skiing (combined - slalom)
Kreuzjoch is a mountain of Bavaria, Germany. For the 1936 Winter Olympics in neighboring Garmisch-Partenkirchen, it was the starting line for the alpine skiing downhill part of the combined event.-Reference:* pp. 289-303....
- Alpine skiing (combined - downhill)
Kreuzeck is a mountain of Bavaria, Germany. For the 1936 Winter Olympics in neighboring Garmisch-Partenkirchen, it was the finish line for the alpine skiing downhill part of the combined event.-Reference:* pp. 289-303....
- Alpine skiing (downhill finish line)
The Olympia-Kunsteisstadion is a skating stadium located in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.It was built according to plans of architect Hanns Ostler in only 106 days for the figure skating and ice hockey at the 1936 Winter Olympics. It was opened on 16 December 1934. It contained an ice rink 30 meters by...
- Figure skating and Ice hockey
Riessersee is a German lake located in southwest Garmisch-Partenkirchen. The lake itself hosted the ice hockey and speed skating events for the 1936 Winter Olympics. Adjacent to the lake, the bobsleigh event took place.-Bobsleigh track:...
and surrounding areas - Bobsleigh, Ice hockey, and Speed skating
28 nations sent athletes to compete in Germany. Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....
The Principality of Liechtenstein is a doubly landlocked alpine country in Central Europe, bordered by Switzerland to the west and south and by Austria to the east. Its area is just over , and it has an estimated population of 35,000. Its capital is Vaduz. The biggest town is Schaan...
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...
, and Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...
all made their Winter Olympic debut in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, and Estonia
Estonia , officially the Republic of Estonia , is a state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia , and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation . Across the Baltic Sea lies...
Latvia , officially the Republic of Latvia , is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by Estonia , to the south by Lithuania , to the east by the Russian Federation , to the southeast by Belarus and shares maritime borders to the west with Sweden...
, the Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...
, and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia refers to three political entities that existed successively on the western part of the Balkans during most of the 20th century....
all returned to the Games after having missed the 1932 Winter Olympics
The 1932 Winter Olympics, officially known as the III Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1932 in Lake Placid, New York, United States. The games opened on February 4 and closed on February 15. It would be the first winter olympics held in the United...
|| (host nation)
- Sports Office of Nazi Germany
Olympia is a 1938 Nazi propaganda film by Leni Riefenstahl documenting the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in the Olympic Stadium in Berlin, Germany. The film was released in two parts: Olympia 1. Teil — Fest der Völker and Olympia 2. Teil — Fest der Schönheit . It was the first documentary feature...
, a controversial but landmark film chronicling the games by Leni Riefenstahl
Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl was a German film director, actress and dancer widely noted for her aesthetics and innovations as a filmmaker. Her most famous film was Triumph des Willens , a propaganda film made at the 1934 Nuremberg congress of the Nazi Party...
- Berlin Games – How Hitler Stole the Olympic Dream, by Guy Walters
Guy Walters is a British author and journalist.-Life and career:Guy Walters was born in Kensington, London. A descendant of Richard Harris Barham and Edward Augustus Bond, he was educated at Cheam School, Eton College, Westfield College, University of London , and is studying for a PhD in history...
ISBN 0-7195-6783-1 (UK) 0060874120 (USA)