Tangshan

Tangshan

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"唐山"redirects here. For an alternative name of China, see Names of China#Tang
Tangshan is a largely industrial prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 in Hebei
Hebei
' is a province of the People's Republic of China in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "" , named after Ji Province, a Han Dynasty province that included what is now southern Hebei...

 province, People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

. It has become known for the 1976 Tangshan earthquake
1976 Tangshan earthquake
The Tangshan Earthquake also known as the Great Tangshan Earthquake, was a natural disaster that occurred on July 28, 1976. It is believed to be the largest earthquake of the 20th century by death toll. The epicenter of the earthquake was near Tangshan in Hebei, People's Republic of China, an...

 which measured 7.8 on the Richter scale
Richter magnitude scale
The expression Richter magnitude scale refers to a number of ways to assign a single number to quantify the energy contained in an earthquake....

 and killed at least 255,000 residents. The city has since been rebuilt and has become a tourist attraction.

Tangshan's prefecture population was 7,577,284 at the 2010 census, with over 3 million in the 6 core districts.

Etymology


Tangshan is named after Dacheng Mountain (which is also named Mountain Tang[Tangshan in Chinese]) in the middle of Tangshan city.

In 645 A.D., Li Shimin-emperor of Tang Dynasty and his army stationed at Dacheng Mountain
Dacheng Mountain
Dachengshan is a hill in central Tangshan, China. Covering an area of more than 1,180,000 m², Dachengshan is north of the Phoenix Peak on the central of Tangshan....

 on his way back from Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. It extends southwards for about 684 miles from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan to the south, and the Yellow Sea to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the first two bodies of water.Until the end of...

. Unfortunately, Caofei-his beloved concubine died here. In order to commemorate his Caofei, he named the mountain with the name of the state—Tang. Later, the name of the mountain became the name of the city.

Early history


Tangshan is a place with a long history, where there was ancient human living as early as 4 million years ago. Tangshan was in the territory of Guzhu Kingdom(1600 B.C.) in the Shang Dynasty, became a part of Yan Kingdom(one of the seven Warring States, 403 B.C--221 B.C.), and later included to Youzhou in the Han Dynasty. It was under the jurisdiction of Yongping Province and Zunhua State successively in the Qing Dynasty.

Ming and Qing period


Tangshan used to be a village in the Tang Dynasty and developed to certain extent (majorly in agriculture, oil exploitation and ceramics) in the Ming Dynasty.

With the development of “Westernization Movement” in late Qing Dynasty, Kaiping Mining Administration was established in the third year of Guangxu (the year of 1877). In 1878, Qiaotun town was established at Tangshan and was renamed as Tangshan Town in 1889. In 1938, Tangshan City was formally founded. The system of Tangshan in the Republic of China in 1912 still followed the system of Qing Dynasty. In 1929, Zhili Province changed its name to Hebei Province. On January 28, 1939, for Tangshan’s special position in economy and politics, Eastern-Hebei Anti-communist Government established Tangshan City which was initially called “Tangshan Municipal Government” and later changed to “Tangshan Municipal Office”. After the Japan’s announcement of surrender, the Party of Chinese Nationalists in Peking (now called Beijing) took over the political power of Tangshan from Japan and set up Administration Inspector Office. In April 1946, it was decided on the 132nd Meeting of CPC Hebei Provincial Committee to set up Tangshan City and on May 5 of the same year, Tangshan Municipal government was founded.

People's Republic


After the establishment of P.R. China on October 1, 1949, Tangshan remained a provincially administered municipality with 12 areas under its jurisdiction.
In March 1955, it was decided on the 2nd session of the first People’s Congress of Tangshan City to change Tangshan Municipal people’s government to Tangshan people’s committee without changing its administration areas.

On April 28, 1958, the State Council approved to set Tangshan prefecture. On August 29, 1958, it was decided on the Seventh Session of the first People’s Congress of Hebei Province to move Tangshan Commissioner Office from Changli County to Tangshan city.

On June 3, 1959, the CPC Central Committee decided to designate Tangshan city as one of the 45 cities open to the world. On June 8, 1959, CPC Hebei Provincial Committee and Hebei Provincial People’s Congress decided to combine Tangshan Commissioner Office and Tangshan People’s Committee to set up Tangshan People’s Committee. On April 2, 1960, the State Council officially approved to cancel Tangshan prefecture. Qinhuangdao city, Qian’an, Changli, Laoting, Baodi, Yutian, Jixian County and Zunhua which were formerly administrated by Tangshan Prefecture were incorporated into Tangshan Municipality. Luanxian County, Fengrun County (used to be a district) and Baigezhuang Farm were also incorporated into Tangshan Municipality after the cancellation of Tangshan prefecture. Meanwhile, Tangshan turned to be a provincially administered municipality.

On May 23, 1961, the State Council approved to reset up Tangshan prefecture. On June 1, 1961, the 14th Meeting of Hebei Provincial People’s Committee adopted the decision of resetting up Tangshan prefecture. Tangshan prefecture and Tangshan municipality were separated again and Tangshan turned to be a specially administered municipality.

On January 6, 1968, Tangshan Municipal Revolutionary Committee affiliated to Revolutionary Committee of Tangshan Region was set up.
On March 11, 1978, Tangshan turned to be a provincially administered municipality.

In October 1982, it was decided on the Seventh People’s Congress of Tangshan city to cancel Tangshan Municipal Revolutionary Committee and set up Tangshan Municipal People’s government.

On March 3, 1983, the State Council approved to cancel Tangshan prefecture and implement city-governing-county system. On May 13, 1983, Hebei Provincial People’s government announced to cancel Civic Administration office of Tangshan region, which stopped its business later on May 15, 1983.

On December 15, 1984, the State Council approved Tangshan city as one of the 13 national “comparatively big” cities.

1976 Tangshan Earthquake


Tangshan suffered an earthquake
Earthquake
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time...

 of moment magnitude
Moment magnitude scale
The moment magnitude scale is used by seismologists to measure the size of earthquakes in terms of the energy released. The magnitude is based on the seismic moment of the earthquake, which is equal to the rigidity of the Earth multiplied by the average amount of slip on the fault and the size of...

 7.8 (7.5 from official report) at 3:42 a.m. on July 28, 1976, the Tangshan earthquake, which resulted in many casualties. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that the actual number of fatalities was two to three times that number, making it the most destructive earthquake in modern history. As a result of the earthquake, most of the town had to be rebuilt.


Geography and climate


Tangshan is located in the central section of the circum-Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of Northeastern and North China. It is approximately 78,000 km2 Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of...

 region, facing the Bohai Sea to the south. Lying on the North China Plain
North China Plain
The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. The plain is bordered on the north by the Yanshan Mountains and on the west by the Taihang Mountains edge of the Shanxi plateau. To the south, it merges into the Yangtze Plain...

, Tangshan is adjacent to the Yanshan Mountains to the north, borders the Luan River
Luan River
The Luan River is a river in China. It flows northwards from its source in the province of Hebei into the province of Inner Mongolia, and then flows southeast back into Hebei to its mouth on the Bohai Sea. Its length is about 600 km. One subsidiary of the Luan River is the Yixun He, which...

 and Qinhuangdao
Qinhuangdao
Qinhuangdao is a port city in northeastern Hebei province of North China. It is about 300 km east of Beijing, on the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea....

 to the east, and to the west adjoins with Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

 and Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

. Because of its location in the northeast of Hebei, it is a strategic area and a corridor linking two large regions of China: North China
North China
thumb|250px|Northern [[People's Republic of China]] region.Northern China or North China is a geographical region of China. The heartland of North China is the North China Plain....

 and Northeast China
Northeast China
Northeast China, historically known in English as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China, consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. The region is sometimes called the Three Northeast Provinces...

. The largest river in the prefecture is the Luan River.

Tangshan has a humid continental climate (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dwa), cold but dry winters, and hot, humid summers. In January, temperatures in the daytime often remain below freezing, and in July, consistently rise above 30 °C (86 °F), sometimes to 35 °C (95 °F). Well over half of the annual precipitation falls in July and August alone.

Economy


Tangshan is an important heavy industrial city in North China. Its output include machinery, motor vehicles, chemicals, textiles, glass, petroleum products, and cement. It has been a coal-mining center since late Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

, as Guangdong merchant Tong King-sing
Tong King-sing
Tong King-sing , also known as Tang Tingshu was a Chinese comprador, interpreter, and businessman during the late Qing dynasty. Born in Xiangshan, Guangdong province, he studied in Robert Morrison's missionary schools as a boy and his classmates included Yung Wing...

 opened the first coal mine using modern techniques in Kaiping in 1877. Since the construction of the Caofeidian Project, it has hosted large iron and steel plants, chemical projects, and electricity plants. Tangshan is also called the "porcelain capital of North China."

Modern industry in China first arose in Tangshan. The second railway in Chinaafter the abortive Woosung Railway in Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

was the six-mile track laid between Hsukochuang and Tangshan which opened in 1881; this eventually grew into the Imperial Railroad of North China and China's modern Jingshan and Jingha Railways. The first fire-resistant material manufactory and the first and largest cement
Cement
In the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term opus caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed...

 manufactory were constructed in Tangshan as well.

In 2008, the GDP of Tangshan was ¥356.119 billion, ranked No. 1 among all the prefecture-level cities in Hebei
Hebei
' is a province of the People's Republic of China in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "" , named after Ji Province, a Han Dynasty province that included what is now southern Hebei...

 Province, and No. 19 in China. GDP per capita reached ¥48,190 ($6,817).

Administration


The prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 of Tangshan administers 14 county-level divisions including 6 districts, 6 counties and 2 county-level cities.
Map
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2004 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
1 Lubei District
Lubei District
-Administrative Divisions:Subdistricts:*Qiaotun Subdistrict , Wenhua Road Subdistrict , Diaoyutai Subdistrict , Dongxincun Subdistrict , Gangyao Subdistrict , Airport Road Subdistrict , Hebei Road Subdistrict , Longdong Subdistrict , Dali Subdistrict , Guangming Subdistrict The only township is...

路北区 Lùběi Qū 620,000 113 5,487
2 Lunan District
Lunan District
-Administrative Divisions:Subdistricts:*Youyili Subdistrict , South Xueyuan Road Subdistrict , Guangchang Subdistrict , Yonghongqiao Subdistrict , Xiaoshan Subdistrict , North Wenhua Avenue Subdistrict , Qianjiaying Mining District Subdistrict The only township is Nüzhizhai Township -External Links:...

路南区 Lùnán Qū 240,000 65 3,692
3 Guye District
Guye District
-Administrative Divisions:Subdistricts:*Tangjiazhuang Subdistrict , Zhaogezhuang Subdistrict , Linxi Subdistrict , Guye Subdistrict , Nanfangezhuang Subdistrict , Lüjiatuo Subdistrict Townships:...

古冶区 Gǔyě Qū 360,000 263 1,369
4 Kaiping District
Kaiping District
-Administrative Divisions:Subdistricts:*Kaiping Subdistrict , Doudian Subdistrict , Jinggezhuang Mining District Subdistrict , Majiagou Subdistrict , Shuiwuzhuang Subdistrict Towns:*Kaiping Town , Liyuan Townships:...

开平区 Kāipíng Qū 330,000 253 1,304
5 Fengrun District
Fengrun District
-Administrative Divisions:Subdistricts:*Taiping Road Subdistrict , Yanshan Road Subdistrict , Gengyang Subdistrict Towns:*Fengrun Town , Laozhuangzi , Rengezhuang , Zuojiawu , Quanhetou , Wangguanying , Huoshiying , Hancheng , Chahe , Xinjuntun , Xiaozhanggezhuang , Fengdengwu , Lizhaozhuang ,...

丰润区 Fēngrùn Qū 890,000 1,334 667
6 Fengnan District
Fengnan District
-Administrative Divisions:Subdistricts:*Xugezhuang Subdistrict Towns:*Fengnan Town , Daodi , Qianying , Tangfang , Huanggezhuang , Xige , Xiaoji , Wanglanzhuang , Daxinzhuang , Liushuquan , Binhai , Heiyanzi , Daqigezhuang Townships:*Nansunzhuang Township , Dongtianzhuang Township , Jianzigu...

丰南区 Fēngnán Qū 520,000 1,568 332
Total Built up area 2,960,000 3,596 823
7 Zunhua City
Zunhua
Zunhua is a county-level city under the administration of Tangshan, Hebei, China. Historic sites include the Eastern Qing Tombs .-Administrative Divisions:Towns:...

遵化市 Zūnhuà Shì 690,000 1,521 454
8 Qian'an City
Qian'an
Qian'an may refer to the following locations in China:*Qian'an, Hebei , county-level city of Tangshan, Hebei*Qian'an County , of Songyuan, Jilin...

迁安市 Qiān'ān Shì 680,000 1,208 563
9 Luan County
Luan County
Luan County is a county of Hebei, China. It is under the administration of the Tangshan city.Not to be confused with Lu'an, city in Anhui, China.-Administrative Divisions:Towns:...

滦县 Luán Xiàn 540,000 999 541
10 Luannan County
Luannan County
Luannan County is a county of Hebei, China. It is under the administration of the Tangshan city.-Administrative Divisions:Towns:*Bencheng , Songdaokou , Changning, Luannan County , Hugezhuang , Tuoli , Yaowangzhuang , Sigezhuang , Angezhuang , Bachigang , Chengzhuang , Qingtuoying , Baigezhuang ,...

滦南县 Luánnán Xiàn 570,000 1,270 449
11 Laoting County 乐亭县 Làoting Xiàn 490,000 1,308 375
12 Qianxi County
Qianxi County, Hebei
Qianxi County is a county of Hebei, China. It is under the administration of Tangshan City.-Administrative Divisions:The only subdistrict is Lixiang Subdistrict Towns:...

迁西县 Qiānxī Xiàn 360,000 1,439 250
13 Yutian County
Yutian County, Hebei
Yutian County is a county within Hebei province, China, and is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Tangshan. It locates approximately 55 kilometers northwest of Tangshan and 110 kilometers east of Beijing...

玉田县 Yùtián Xiàn 660,000 1,165 567
14 Tanghai County
Tanghai County
Tanghai County is a county of Hebei, China. It is under the administration of Tangshan City.-Administrative Divisions:The only town is Tanghai Town Farms:...

唐海县 Tánghǎi Xiàn 140,000 700 200

High Schools

  • Tangshan NO.1 high school
    Tangshan NO.1 high school
    Tangshan No.1 High School , commonly abbreviated as Tangshan Yizhong , is a highly prestigious public in Hebei province, China. It was established in 1902 by the Yong Ping Government during the Qing Dynasty, known as the Yong Ping Zhongli High School.-Title:The calligraphic title Tangshan Yizhong...

     (founded 1902), one of the most famous high schools in China http://www.ts-edu.net.cn

Traditional Arts

  • Pingju
    Pingju
    Pingju is a form of local Chinese opera from northern China. It originated in Tangshan, Hebei, near the city of Tianjin.The term Píngjù was also formerly used to refer to Beijing opera.-External links:*...

     (评剧)
  • Tangshan Shadow Play
    Shadow Play
    -Television:*Shadow Play , a PBS documentary about the rise and fall of the Suharto regime in Indonesia*"Shadow Play" , an episode of the original television series The Twilight Zone...

     (唐山皮影)
  • Laoting Drum
    Drum
    The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments, which is technically classified as the membranophones. Drums consist of at least one membrane, called a drumhead or drum skin, that is stretched over a shell and struck, either directly with the player's hands, or with a...

    s (乐亭大鼓)

Tourism

  • Eastern Tombs of the Qing Dynasty
  • Jingzhong Mountain, a religious shrine for the believers of Confucianism
    Confucianism
    Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius . Confucianism originated as an "ethical-sociopolitical teaching" during the Spring and Autumn Period, but later developed metaphysical and cosmological elements in the Han...

    , Buddhism
    Buddhism
    Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

    , and Taoism
    Taoism
    Taoism refers to a philosophical or religious tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with the Tao , which is the mechanism of everything that exists...

  • The Anti-seismic Monument, located in Anti-Seismic Square

Notable people

  • Li Dazhao
    Li Dazhao
    Li Dazhao was a Chinese intellectual who co-founded the Communist Party of China with Chen Duxiu in 1921.-Early life:...

     early founder of Communist Party of China
  • Jiang Wen
    Jiang Wen
    Jiang Wen is a Chinese film actor and director. As a director, he is sometimes grouped with the "sixth generation" that emerged in the 1990s. Jiang is also well known internationally as an actor, having starred with Gong Li in Zhang Yimou's debut film Red Sorghum...

     a contemporary director and actor
  • Cao Xueqin
    Cao Xueqin
    Cao Xueqin was a Qing Dynasty Chinese writer, best known as the author of Dream of the Red Chamber, one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature...

     author of Dream of the Red Chamber
    Dream of the Red Chamber
    Dream of the Red Chamber , composed by Cao Xueqin, is one of China's Four Great Classical Novels. It was composed in the middle of the 18th century during the Qing Dynasty. It is considered to be a masterpiece of Chinese vernacular literature and is generally acknowledged to be a pinnacle of...


Twin towns — Sister cities


Tangshan is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Sakata, Yamagata
Sakata, Yamagata
is a city located in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan.As of 2006, the city has an estimated population of 116,883 and the population density of 193.92 persons per km². The total area is 602.74 km².-History:The city was founded on April 1, 1933...

, Japan Żyrardów
Zyrardów
Żyrardów is a town in central Poland with 41,400 inhabitants . It is situated in the Masovian Voivodship ; previously, it was in Skierniewice Voivodship 45 km West of Warsaw. It is the capital of Żyrardów County...

, Poland Malmö
Malmö
Malmö , in the southernmost province of Scania, is the third most populous city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg.Malmö is the seat of Malmö Municipality and the capital of Skåne County...

, Sweden Lincoln, Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire is a county in the east of England. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west, Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north west, and the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north. It also borders...

, United Kingdom Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Cedar Rapids is the second largest city in Iowa and is the county seat of Linn County. The city lies on both banks of the Cedar River, north of Iowa City and east of Des Moines, the state's capital and largest city...

, United States

External links