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Samadhi

Samadhi

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Samadhi in Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

, Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

,Jainism
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

, Sikhism
Sikhism
Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, by Guru Nanak Dev and continued to progress with ten successive Sikh Gurus . It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world and one of the fastest-growing...

 and yogic schools is a higher level of concentrated meditation, or dhyāna. In the yoga tradition, it is the eighth and final limb identified in the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali
Patañjali
Patañjali is the compiler of the Yoga Sūtras, an important collection of aphorisms on Yoga practice. According to tradition, the same Patañjali was also the author of the Mahābhāṣya, a commentary on Kātyāyana's vārttikas on Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī as well as an unspecified work of medicine .In...

.

It has been described as a non-dualistic state of consciousness in which the consciousness of the experiencing subject becomes one with the experienced object, and in which the mind becomes still, one-pointed or concentrated while the person remains conscious. In Buddhism, it can also refer to an abiding in which mind becomes very still but does not merge with the object of attention, and is thus able to observe and gain insight into the changing flow of experience.

In Hinduism, samādhi can also refer to videha mukti
Videha mukti
Videha mukti refers to the moksha attained by a person after death. This a Hindu view of death....

or the complete absorption of the individual consciousness in the self at the time of death - usually referred to as mahasamādhi
Mahasamadhi
Mahasamādhi is the act of consciously and intentionally leaving one's body at the time of enlightenment. A realized yogi or yogini who has attained the state of nirvikalpa samadhi , will, at an appropriate time, consciously exit from their body. This is known as mahasamadhi...

.

Nomenclature, orthography and etymology


Samadhi (समाधि samādhi, səˈmaːd̪ʱi) is the state of consciousness induced by complete meditation. The term's etymology
Etymology
Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.For languages with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during...

 involves "sam" (together or integrated), "ā" (towards), and "dhā" (to get, to hold). Thus the result might be seen to be "to acquire integration or wholeness, or truth" (samāpatti
Samapatti
Samāpatti is a common term for both Theravada Buddhism and Hindu Yoga, quodammodo also for Jainism, frequently used as a synonym for samādhi. Samāpatti stands for correct acquisition of Truth...

).
Another possible etymological analysis of "samādhi" is "samā" (even) and "dhi" (intellect), a state of total equilibrium ("samā") of a detached intellect ("dhi").

Rhys Davis
Thomas William Rhys Davids
Thomas William Rhys Davids was a British scholar of the Pāli language and founder of the Pali Text Society.-Life:...

 holds that the first attested usage of the term samādhi in Sanskrit literature was in the Maitri Upanishad.

In Hinduism


Samādhi is the main subject of the first part of the Yoga Sūtras called Samādhi-pada. According to Vyāsa
Vyasa
Vyasa is a central and revered figure in most Hindu traditions. He is also sometimes called Veda Vyasa , or Krishna Dvaipayana...

, a major figure in Hinduism and one of the traditional authors of the Mahābharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

, "yoga is samādhi." This is generally interpreted to mean that samādhi is a state of complete control (samadhana) over the functions and distractions of consciousness.

Samādhi is described in different ways within Hinduism such as the state of being aware of one’s existence without thinking, in a state of undifferentiated “beingness" or as an altered state of consciousness that is characterized by bliss (ānanda
Ananda
Ānanda was one of the principal disciples and a devout attendant of the Buddha. Amongst the Buddha's many disciples, Ānanda had the most retentive memory and most of the suttas in the Sutta Pitaka are attributed to his recollection of the Buddha's teachings during the First Buddhist Council...

) and joy (sukha). Nisargadatta Maharaj
Nisargadatta Maharaj
Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj , born Maruti Shivrampant Kambli, was an Indian spiritual teacher and philosopher of Advaita , and a Guru, belonging to the Inchgiri branch of the Navnath Sampradaya....

 describes the state in the following manner:


When you say you sit for meditation, the first thing to be done is understand that it is not this body identification that is sitting for meditation, but this knowledge ‘I am’, this consciousness, which is sitting in meditation and is meditating on itself. When this is finally understood, then it becomes easy. When this consciousness, this conscious presence, merges in itself, the state of ‘Samadhi’ ensues. It is the conceptual feeling that I exist that disappears and merges into the beingness itself. So this conscious presence also gets merged into that knowledge, that beingness – that is ‘Samadhi’.


The initial experience of it is enlightenment and it is the beginning of the process of meditating to attain self-realization (tapas). "There is a difference between the enlightenment of samādhi and self-realization. When a person achieves enlightenment, that person starts doing tapas to realize the self."

According to Patañjali
Patañjali
Patañjali is the compiler of the Yoga Sūtras, an important collection of aphorisms on Yoga practice. According to tradition, the same Patañjali was also the author of the Mahābhāṣya, a commentary on Kātyāyana's vārttikas on Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī as well as an unspecified work of medicine .In...

 samādhi has three different categories:
  1. Savikalpa - This is an interface of trans meditation and higher awareness state, asamprajñata. The state is so named because mind retains its consciousness, which is why in savikalpa samādhi one can experience guessing (vitarka), thought (vicāra), bliss (ānanda) and self-awareness (asmita). In Sanskrit
    Sanskrit
    Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

    , "kalpa" means "imagination". Vikalpa (an etymological derivation of which could be 'विशेषः कल्पः विकल्पः।') connotes imagination. Patañjali in the Yoga Sūtras defines "vikalpa" saying: 'शब्द-ज्ञानानुपाति वस्तु-शून्यो-विकल्पः।'. "Sa" is a prefix which means "with". So "savikalpa" means "with vikalpa" or "with imagination". Ramana Maharshi
    Ramana Maharshi
    Sri Ramana Maharshi , born Venkataraman Iyer, was a Hindu spiritual master . He was born to a Tamil-speaking Brahmin family in Tiruchuzhi, Tamil Nadu. After experiencing at age 16 what he later described as liberation , he left home for Arunachala, a mountain considered sacred by Hindus...

     defines "savikalpa samādhi" as, "holding on to reality with effort".
  2. Asamprajñata is a step forward from savikalpa. According to Patañjali, asamprajñata is a higher awareness state with absence of gross awareness.
  3. Nirvikalpa or sanjeevan - This is the highest transcendent state of consciousness. In this state there is no longer mind, duality, a subject-object relationship or experience. Upon entering nirvikalpa samādhi
    Nirvikalpa
    Nirvikalpa is a Sanskrit adjective with the general sense of "not admitting an alternative", formed by applying the contra-existential prepositional prefix to the term .-Usage:...

    , the differences we saw before have faded and we can see everything as one. In this condition nothing but pure awareness remains and nothing detracts from wholeness and perfection.


Entering samādhi initially takes great willpower and maintaining it takes even more will. The beginning stages of samādhi (laya and savikalpa samādhi) are only temporary. By "effort" it is not meant that the mind has to work more. Instead, it means work to control the mind and release the self. Note that normal levels of meditation (mostly the lower levels) can be held automatically, as in "being in the state of meditation" rather than overtly "meditating." The ability to obtain positive results from meditation is much more difficult than simply meditating. It is recommended to find a qualified spiritual master (guru
Guru
A guru is one who is regarded as having great knowledge, wisdom, and authority in a certain area, and who uses it to guide others . Other forms of manifestation of this principle can include parents, school teachers, non-human objects and even one's own intellectual discipline, if the...

 or yogi
Yogi
A Yogi is a practitioner of Yoga. The word is also used to refer to ascetic practitioners of meditation in a number of South Asian Religions including Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism.-Etymology:...

) who can teach a meditator about the workings of the mind. As one self-realized yogi explained, "You can meditate but after some time you will get stuck at some point. That is the time you need a guru. Otherwise, without a Guru, there is no chance."

Samādhi is the only stable unchanging reality; all else is ever-changing and does not bring everlasting peace or happiness.

Staying in nirvikalpa samādhi is effortless but even from this condition one must eventually return to ego-consciousness. Otherwise this highest level of samādhi leads to nirvāṇa, which means total unity, the logical end of individual identity and also death of the body. However, it is entirely possible to stay in nirvikalpa samādhi and yet be fully functional in this world. This condition is known as sahājā nirvikalpa samādhi or sahājā samādhi. According to Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
Sri Ramana Maharshi , born Venkataraman Iyer, was a Hindu spiritual master . He was born to a Tamil-speaking Brahmin family in Tiruchuzhi, Tamil Nadu. After experiencing at age 16 what he later described as liberation , he left home for Arunachala, a mountain considered sacred by Hindus...

, "Remaining in the primal, pure natural state without effort is sahaja nirvikalpa samadhi".

In Bhakti


The Vaishnava Bhakti
Bhakti
In Hinduism Bhakti is religious devotion in the form of active involvement of a devotee in worship of the divine.Within monotheistic Hinduism, it is the love felt by the worshipper towards the personal God, a concept expressed in Hindu theology as Svayam Bhagavan.Bhakti can be used of either...

 Schools of Yoga
Yoga
Yoga is a physical, mental, and spiritual discipline, originating in ancient India. The goal of yoga, or of the person practicing yoga, is the attainment of a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquility while meditating on Supersoul...

 define samādhi as "complete absorption into the object of one's love (Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

)." Rather than thinking of "nothing," true samādhi is said to be achieved only when one has pure, unmotivated love of God
God
God is the English name given to a singular being in theistic and deistic religions who is either the sole deity in monotheism, or a single deity in polytheism....

. Thus samādhi can be entered into through meditation on the personal form of God. Even while performing daily activities a practitioner can strive for full samādhi.
"Anyone who is thinking of Krishna always within himself, he is first-class yogi." If you want perfection in yoga system, don't be satisfied only by practicing a course of asana. You have to go further. Actually, the perfection of yoga system means when you are in samadhi, always thinking of the Visnu form of the Lord within your heart, without being disturbed... Controlling all the senses and the mind. You have to control the mind, control the senses, and concentrate everything on the form of Vishnu
Vishnu
Vishnu is the Supreme god in the Vaishnavite tradition of Hinduism. Smarta followers of Adi Shankara, among others, venerate Vishnu as one of the five primary forms of God....

. That is called perfection of yoga" - A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
Abhay Charanaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada was a Gaudiya Vaishnava teacher and the founder-acharya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, commonly known as the "Hare Krishna Movement"...


"Meditation means to absorb your mind in the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is meditation, real meditation. In all the standard scriptures and in yoga practice formula, the whole aim is to concentrate one's mind in the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is called samadhi, samadhi, ecstasy. So that ecstasy is immediately brought by this chanting process. You begin chanting and hear for the few seconds or few minutes: you immediately become on the platform of ecstasy." - A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada


Bhava Samadhi
Bhava samadhi
Bhava Samadhi is a state of ecstatic consciousness that can sometimes be a seemingly spontaneous experience, but is recognized generally to be the culmination of long periods of devotional practices. It is believed by some groups to be evoked through the presence of 'higher beings'. "Bhava" means...

is a state of ecstatic consciousness that can sometimes be a seemingly spontaneous experience, but is recognized generally to be the culmination of long periods of devotional practices. Shivabalayogi explained that bhava samādhi awakens spiritual awareness, brings about healing, and deepens meditation.bhava samadhi" denotes an advanced spiritual state in which the emotions of the mind are channelled into one-pointed concentration and the practitioner experiences devotional ecstasy. Bhava samadhi
Bhava samadhi
Bhava Samadhi is a state of ecstatic consciousness that can sometimes be a seemingly spontaneous experience, but is recognized generally to be the culmination of long periods of devotional practices. It is believed by some groups to be evoked through the presence of 'higher beings'. "Bhava" means...

has been experienced by notable figures in Indian spiritual history, including Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and some of his disciples, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and his chief disciple Nityananda, Mirabai and numerous saints in the bhakti
Bhakti
In Hinduism Bhakti is religious devotion in the form of active involvement of a devotee in worship of the divine.Within monotheistic Hinduism, it is the love felt by the worshipper towards the personal God, a concept expressed in Hindu theology as Svayam Bhagavan.Bhakti can be used of either...

tradition.

As leaving the body



Yogis are said to attain the final liberation or videha mukti
Videha mukti
Videha mukti refers to the moksha attained by a person after death. This a Hindu view of death....

after leaving their bodies at the time of death. It is at this time that the soul knows a complete and unbroken union with the divine, and, being free from the limitations of the body, merges effortlessly into the transcendent Self. Mahāsamādhi
Mahasamadhi
Mahasamādhi is the act of consciously and intentionally leaving one's body at the time of enlightenment. A realized yogi or yogini who has attained the state of nirvikalpa samadhi , will, at an appropriate time, consciously exit from their body. This is known as mahasamadhi...

(literally great samādhi) is a term often used for this final absorption into the Self at death
Death
Death is the permanent termination of the biological functions that sustain a living organism. Phenomena which commonly bring about death include old age, predation, malnutrition, disease, and accidents or trauma resulting in terminal injury....

.

As mausoleum


Samādhi mandir
Hindu temple
A Mandir, Devalayam, Devasthanam, or a Hindu temple is a place of worship for followers of Hinduism...

is also the Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 name for a temple commemorating the dead (similar to a mausoleum
Mausoleum
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or persons. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb or the tomb may be considered to be within the...

), which may or may not contain the body of the deceased. Samādhi sites are often built in this way to honour people regarded as saint
Saint
A saint is a holy person. In various religions, saints are people who are believed to have exceptional holiness.In Christian usage, "saint" refers to any believer who is "in Christ", and in whom Christ dwells, whether in heaven or in earth...

s or guru
Guru
A guru is one who is regarded as having great knowledge, wisdom, and authority in a certain area, and who uses it to guide others . Other forms of manifestation of this principle can include parents, school teachers, non-human objects and even one's own intellectual discipline, if the...

s in Hindu
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

 religious traditions, wherein such souls are said to have passed into mahā-samādhi, (or were already in) samādhi at the time of death.

According to I.K. Taimni


I. K. Taimni
I. K. Taimni
I. K. Taimni was a Professor of Chemistry at the Allahabad University in India, and an influential scholar in the fields of Yoga and Indian Philosophy. He was a leader of the Theosophical Society and taught and practiced yoga most of his life...

, in The Science of Yoga, Taimni's commentary on Patanjali's Yoga Sutras, provides a lucid and precise understanding of samadhi. In simple terms, Taimni defines samadhi as "knowing by becoming". Samadhi, as pointed out above, is the eighth arm of Patanjali's Ashtanga (eight limbed) yoga. The last three of the eight limbs are called Antaranga, or Internal yoga, meaning they occur solely in the mind of the yogin. The three limbs are: dharana, dhyana and samadhi. Together, the three are collectively called samyama. Dharana, dhyana and samadhi are sometimes translated as concentration, contemplation, and meditation, respectively. These translations do not shed any light on the nature of dharana, dhyana and samadhi. Dharana, dhyana and samadhi are altered states of consciousness and have no direct counter-part in normal waking experience, according to Taimni's explanation of them.

According to Taimni, dharana, dhyana and samadhi form a graded series.
Dharana. In dharana, the mind learns to focus on a single object of thought. The object of focus is called a pratyaya. In dharana, the yogi learns to prevent other thoughts from intruding on focusing awareness on the pratyaya.

Dhyana. Over time and with practice, the yogin learns to sustain awareness of only the pratyaya, thereby dharana transforms into dhyana. In dhyana, the yogin comes to realize the triplicity of perceiver (the yogin), perceived (the pratyaya) and the act of perceiving. The new element added to the practice of dhyana, that distinguish it from dharana is the yogin learns to minimize the perceiver element of this triplicity. In this fashion, dhyana is the gradual minimization of the perceiver, or the fusion of the observer with the observed (the pratyaya).

Samadhi. When the yogin can: (1) sustain focus on the pratyaya for an extended period of time, and (2) minimize his or her self-consciousness during the practice, then dhyana transforms into samadhi. In this fashion then, the yogin becomes fused with the pratyaya. Patnajali compares this to placing a transparent jewel on a colored surface: the jewel takes on the color of the surface. Similarly, in samadhi, the consciousness of the yogin fuses with the object of thought, the pratyaya. The pratyaya is like the colored surface, and the yogin's consciousness is like the transparent jewel.


Samadhi can be compared to normal thought as a laser beam can be compared to normal light. Normal light is diffuse. A laser beam is highly concentrated light. The laser beam contains power that normal light does not. Similarly, samadhi is the mind in its most concentrated state. The mind in samadhi possess power than a normal mind does not. This power is used by the yogin to reveal the essence of the pratyaya. This essence is called the artha of the pratyaya. The release of the artha of the pratyaya is similar to cracking open the shell of a seed to discover the essential elements of the seed, the genetic material, protected by the shell.

Once perfected, samadhi is the main tool used by a yogin to penetrate into the deeper layers of consciousness and seek the center of the yogin's consciousness. Upon finding this center, the final act is using a variant form of samadhi, called dharma mega samadhi, to penetrate the center of consciousness and emerge through this center into Kaivalya. Kaivalya is the term used by Patanjali to designate the state of Absolute consciousness free from all fetters and limitations.

Thus it can be seen that, according to Taimni's interpretation of the Yoga Sutras, samadhi is the main tool the yogin uses to achieve the end goal of yoga, the joining of the individual self with the Universal Absolute.

In Buddhism


Samādhi, or concentration of the mind, is the 3rd division of the eightfold path of the Buddha
Gautama Buddha
Siddhārtha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian...

's threefold training
Threefold Training
The Buddha identified the threefold training as training in:* higher virtue * higher mind * higher wisdom - In the Pali Canon :...

: wisdom
Panna
Panna can refer to:* Aam panna, an Indian drink made from mangoes* Panna, Madhya Pradesh, a city in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India* Panna district, a district in Sagar Division of Madhya Pradesh, India* Panna National Park, in Madhya Pradesh, India...

 (pañña), conduct
Sila
Śīla or sīla in Buddhism and its non-sectarian offshoots, is a code of conduct that embraces self-restraint with a value on non-harming. It has been variously described as virtue, good conduct, morality, moral discipline and precept. It is an action that is an intentional effort...

 (sīla), Samādhi (Buddhism)
Samadhi (Buddhism)
In Buddhism, samādhi is mental concentration or composing the mind.-In the early Suttas:In the Pāli canon of the Theravada tradition and the related Āgamas of other early Buddhist schools, samādhi is found in the following contexts:* In the noble eightfold path, "right concentration" In Buddhism,...

 (samādhi) - within which it is developed by samatha
Samatha
Samatha , śamatha "calm abiding," comprises a suite, type or style of Buddhist meditation or concentration practices designed to enhance sustained voluntary attention, and culminates in an attention that can be sustained effortlessly for hours on end...

meditation. Some Buddhist schools teach of 40 different object
Kammatthana
In Buddhism, is a Pali word which literally means the place of work. Figuratively it means the place within the mind where one goes in order to work on spiritual development...

  meditations
Buddhist meditation
Buddhist meditation refers to the meditative practices associated with the religion and philosophy of Buddhism.Core meditation techniques have been preserved in ancient Buddhist texts and have proliferated and diversified through teacher-student transmissions. Buddhists pursue meditation as part of...

, according to the Visuddhimagga
Visuddhimagga
The Visuddhimagga , is the 'great treatise' on Theravada Buddhist doctrine written by Buddhaghosa approximately in 430 CE in Sri Lanka. A comprehensive manual condensing the theoretical and practical teaching of the Buddha, it is considered the most important Theravada text outside of the Tipitaka...

, an ancient commentarial text
Atthakatha
Atthakatha refers to Pali-language Theravadin Buddhist commentaries to the canonical Theravadin Tipitaka. These commentaries give the traditional interpretations of the scriptures. The major commentaries were based on earlier ones, now lost, in Old Sinhalese, which were written down at the same...

. These objects include meditations on the breath
Anapanasati
Ānāpānasati , meaning 'mindfulness of breathing' , is a form of Buddhist meditation now common to the Tibetan, Zen, Tiantai, and Theravada schools of Buddhism, as well as western-based mindfulness programs.According to tradition, Anapanasati was...

 (anapanasati), loving kindness
Metta
Mettā or maitrī is loving-kindness, friendliness, benevolence, amity, friendship, good will, kindness, love, sympathy, close mental union , and active interest in others. It is one of the ten pāramīs of the Theravāda school of Buddhism, and the first of the four sublime states...

 (metta) and various colours, earth, fire, etc.
Kasina
In Buddhism, kasiṇa refers to a class of basic visual objects of meditation. There are ten kasiṇa mentioned in the Pali Tipitaka:# earth ,# water ,# air, wind ,...

 (kasiṇa).

Important components of Buddhist meditation, frequently discussed by the Buddha, are the successively higher meditative states known as the four jhānas
Dhyāna in Buddhism
Dhyāna in Sanskrit or jhāna in Pāli can refer to either meditation or meditative states. Equivalent terms are "Chán" in modern Chinese, "Zen" in Japanese, "Seon" in Korean, "Thien" in Vietnamese, and "Samten" in Tibetan....

 which in the language of the eight-fold path, are "right concentration". Right concentration has also been characterised in the Maha-cattarisaka Sutta as concentration arising due to the previous seven steps of the noble eightfold path.

Four developments of samādhi are mentioned in the Pāli Canon:
  1. Jhāna
  2. Increased alertness
  3. Insight into the true nature of phenomena (knowledge and vision)
  4. Final liberation


Post-canonical Pāli literature
Pali literature
Pali literature is concerned mainly with Theravada Buddhism, of which Pali is the traditional language.- India :Main article: Pali CanonThe earliest and most important Pali literature constitutes the Pali Canon, the scriptures of Theravada...

 identifies three different types of samādhi:
  1. momentary samādhi ()
  2. access concentration (upacārasamādhi)
  3. fixed concentration ()


Not all types of samādhi are recommended either. Those which focus and multiply the five hindrances
Five hindrances
In Buddhism, the five hindrances are negative mental states that impede success with meditation and lead away from enlightenment...

 are not suitable for development.

The Buddhist suttas also mention that samādhi practitioners may develop supernormal powers (abhijñā
Abhijna
Abhijñā has been translated generally as "knowing," "direct knowing" and "direct knowledge" or, at times more technically, as "higher knowledge" and "supernormal knowledge." In Buddhism, such knowing and knowledge is obtained through virtuous living and meditation...

, also see siddhis) and list several that the Buddha developed, but warn that these should not be allowed to distract the practitioner from the larger goal of complete freedom from suffering.

The bliss of samādhi is not the goal of Buddhism; but it remains an important tool in reaching the goal of enlightenment. Samatha/samādhi meditation and vipassana/insight meditation are the two wheels of the chariot of the noble eightfold path and the Buddha strongly recommended developing them both.

In Sikhism


In Sikhism
Sikhism
Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, by Guru Nanak Dev and continued to progress with ten successive Sikh Gurus . It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world and one of the fastest-growing...

 the word is used to refer to an action that one uses to remember and fix one's mind and soul on Waheguru
Waheguru
Waheguru is a term most often used in Sikhism to refer to God, the Supreme Being or the creator of all. It means "The Good/Best Teacher" in the Punjabi language. Wahi means "good" and "Guru" is a term denoting "teacher"....

.

The Sri Guru Granth Sahib informs “Remember in meditation the Almighty Lord, every moment and every instant; meditate on God in the celestial peace of Samadhi.” (p 508). So to meditate and remember the Almighty at all times in one's mind takes the person into a state of Samadhi. Also “I am attached to God in celestial Samadhi.” (p 865) tells us that by carrying out the correct practices, the mind reaches a higher plane of awareness or Samadhi. The Sikh Scriptures advises the Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

 to keep the mind aware and the consciousness focused on the Lord at all times thus: “The most worthy Samadhi is to keep the consciousness stable and focused on Him.” (p 932)

The term Samadhi refers to a state of mind rather than a physical position of the body. Although, it has to said that you can sit in mediation and also be in a state of Samadhi. The Scriptures explain: “I am absorbed in celestial Samadhi, lovingly attached to the Lord forever. I live by singing the Glorious Praises of the Lord” (p 1232) and also “Night and day, they ravish and enjoy the Lord within their hearts; they are intuitively absorbed in Samadhi. ||2||” (p 1259). Further, the Sikh Gurus
Sikh Gurus
The Sikh Gurus established Sikhism from over the centuries beginning in the year 1469. Sikhism was founded by the first guru, Guru Nanak, and subsequently, all in order were referred to as "Nanak", and as "Lights", making their teachings in the holy scriptures, equivalent...

 inform their followers: “Some remain absorbed in Samadhi, their minds fixed lovingly on the One Lord; they reflect only on the Word of the Shabad.” (p503)

Analogous concepts


According to the book "God Speaks
God Speaks
God Speaks, The Theme of Creation and Its Purpose is the principal book by Meher Baba, and the most significant religious text used by his followers. It covers Meher Baba's view of the process of Creation and its purpose and has been in print continuously since 1955.-Overview:God Speaks is Meher...

" by Meher Baba
Meher Baba
Meher Baba , , born Merwan Sheriar Irani, was an Indian mystic and spiritual master who declared publicly in 1954 that he was the Avatar of the age....

, the Sufi
Sufism
Sufism or ' is defined by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a '...

 words fana-fillah and baqa-billah are analogous to nirvikalpa samādhi and sahajā samādhi respectively.

See also


  • Baqaa
    Baqaa
    Baqaa, with literal meaning of permanency, is a term in Sufi philosophy which describes a particular state of life with God, through God, in God, and for God. It is the summit of the mystical manazil, that is, the destination or the abode...

  • Bhakti Yoga
    Bhakti yoga
    Bhakti yoga is one of the types of yoga mentioned in Hindu philosophies which denotes the spiritual practice of fostering loving devotion to a personal form of God....

  • Egolessness
    Egolessness
    In psychology, egolessness is an emotional state where one feels no ego ; of having no distinct being apart from the world around oneself...

  • Fanaa
    Fanaa (Sufism)
    Fanaa is the Sufi term for dissolution. It means to dissolve the self, while remaining physically alive. Persons having entered this enlightenment state obtain awareness of the intrinsecal unity between Allah and all that exists, including the individual's mind.- External links :* *...

  • Jangama dhyana
    Jangama dhyana
    Jangama dhyana is a meditation technique, which has been practiced by various Sages over the centuries. In modern times, it has been used by Shri Shivabalayogi Maharaj and his direct disciple Shri Shivarudra Balayogi Maharaj to achieve Self Realization. The technique is currently taught by Shri...

  • Jnana Yoga
    Jnana yoga
    Jyâna yoga or "path of knowledge" is one of the types of yoga mentioned in Hindu philosophies...

  • Kriya Yoga
    Kriya Yoga
    Kriya Yoga finds mention in the ancient spiritual texts of Patanjali Yogasutras "Tapah svadhyayeshvara pranidhani kriyayogah" . It was later revived by Yogiraj Sri Shyamacharan Lahiri in the 19th century. Subsequently Paramhansa Yogananda in his Autobiography of a Yogi reported the same for his...

  • Mantra
    Mantra
    A mantra is a sound, syllable, word, or group of words that is considered capable of "creating transformation"...

  • Meditation
    Meditation
    Meditation is any form of a family of practices in which practitioners train their minds or self-induce a mode of consciousness to realize some benefit....

  • Raja Yoga
    Raja Yoga
    Rāja Yoga is concerned principally with the cultivation of the mind using meditation to further one's acquaintance with reality and finally achieve liberation.Raja yoga was first described in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, and is part of the Samkhya tradition.In the context of Hindu...

  • Sahaja Yoga
    Sahaja Yoga
    Sahaja Yoga is a new religious movement founded by Nirmala Srivastava, more widely known as 'Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi' and affectionately as 'Mother' by her followers . According to the movement, Sahaja Yoga is the state of self realization produced by kundalini awakening and is accompanied by the...

  • Turiya
    Turiya
    In Hindu philosophy, turiya is the experience of pure consciousness. It is the background that underlies and transcends the three common states of consciousness: the state of waking consciousness , the state of dreaming , and dreamless sleep .-Advaita concept:The first two states are not true...



External links