Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Polygonaceae

Polygonaceae

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Polygonaceae'
Start a new discussion about 'Polygonaceae'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Polygonaceae is a family
Family (biology)
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...

 of flowering plant
Flowering plant
The flowering plants , also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants. Angiosperms are seed-producing plants like the gymnosperms and can be distinguished from the gymnosperms by a series of synapomorphies...

s known informally
Common name
A common name of a taxon or organism is a name in general use within a community; it is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism...

 as the "knotweed family" or "smartweed family"— "buckwheat family" in the United States. The name
Botanical name
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar and/or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants...

 is based
Basionym
Basionym is a term used in botany, regulated by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature...

 on the genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 Polygonum
Polygonum
Polygonum is a genus in the Polygonaceae family. Common names include knotweed, knotgrass, bistort, tear-thumb, mile-a-minute, and several others. In the Middle English glossary of herbs "Alphita" , it was known as ars-smerte. There have been various opinions about how broadly the genus should be...

and was first used by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu was a French botanist, notable as the first to propose a natural classification of flowering plants; much of his system remains in use today.-Life:...

 in 1789 in his book, Genera Plantarum. The name refers to the many swollen nodes that the stems of some species have. It is derived
Etymology
Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.For languages with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during...

 from Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

; poly means many and goni means knee or joint.

Polygonaceae comprises about 1200 species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

. These are distributed into about 50 genera. The largest genera are Eriogonum
Eriogonum
Eriogonum is the scientific name for a genus of flowering plants, in the family Polygonaceae. The genus is found in North America and is known as wild buckwheat. This is a highly species-rich genus, and indications are that active speciation is continuing...

(240 species), Rumex
Rumex
The docks and sorrels, genus Rumex L., are a genus of about 200 species of annual, biennial and perennial herbs in the buckwheat family Polygonaceae....

(200 species), Coccoloba
Coccoloba
Coccoloba is a genus of about 120–150 species of flowering plants in the family Polygonaceae. The genus is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, in South America, the Caribbean and Central America, with two species extending into Florida.The species are shrubs and trees,...

(120 species), Persicaria
Persicaria
Persicaria is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae, collectively known as smartweeds or pinkweeds. The genus was formerly included in the genus Polygonum.The genus includes both annuals and perennials...

(100 species) and Calligonum
Calligonum
Calligonum is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with about 80 species around the Mediterranean, Asia and in the North America.-Characteristics:...

(80 species). The family is present worldwide, but is most diverse
Biodiversity
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas polar regions...

 in the North Temperate Zone.

Several species are cultivated
Horticulture
Horticulture is the industry and science of plant cultivation including the process of preparing soil for the planting of seeds, tubers, or cuttings. Horticulturists work and conduct research in the disciplines of plant propagation and cultivation, crop production, plant breeding and genetic...

 as ornamentals
Ornamental plant
Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as house plants, for cut flowers and specimen display...

  A few species of Triplaris
Triplaris
Triplaris is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with about 25 species distributed in the Americas. Some species are used for lumber....

provide lumber
Lumber
Lumber or timber is wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural material for construction, or wood pulp for paper production....

. The fruit of the sea grape (Coccoloba uvifera
Coccoloba uvifera
Coccoloba uvifera is a species of flowering plant in the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae, that is native to coastal beaches throughout tropical America and the Caribbean, including southern Florida, the Bahamas, Barbados and Bermuda...

) is eaten, and in Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

, jelly
Fruit preserves
Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage. The preparation of fruit preserves today often involves adding commercial or natural pectin as a gelling agent, although sugar or honey may be used, as well. Prior to World War II, fruit preserve...

 is made from it and sold commercially
Commerce
While business refers to the value-creating activities of an organization for profit, commerce means the whole system of an economy that constitutes an environment for business. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural, and technological systems that are in operation in any...

. The seeds of two species of Fagopyrum
Fagopyrum
The genus Fagopyrum in the flowering plant family Polygonaceae contains 15 to 16 species of plants, including two important crop plants, the Buckwheat or Japanese Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum, and the Tartary Buckwheat Fagopyrum tataricum. They have similar uses, and are classed as pseudocereals,...

, known as buckwheat
Buckwheat
Buckwheat refers to a variety of plants in the dicot family Polygonaceae: the Eurasian genus Fagopyrum, the North American genus Eriogonum, and the Northern Hemisphere genus Fallopia. Either of the latter two may be referred to as "wild buckwheat"...

, provide grain
Food grain
thumb|150px|Barleythumb|150px|LentilGrains are small, hard, dry seeds harvested for human food or animal feed Agronomists also call the plants producing such seeds grains or grain crops....

. The petioles
Petiole (botany)
In botany, the petiole is the stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem. The petiole usually has the same internal structure as the stem. Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole are called stipules. Leaves lacking a petiole are called sessile, or clasping when they partly surround the...

 of rhubarb ( Rheum
Rheum (genus)
Rheum is a genus of about 60 perennial plants in the family Polygonaceae. The genus includes the vegetable rhubarb The species have large somewhat triangular shaped leaves with long, fleshy petioles. The flowers are small, greenish-white to rose-red, and grouped in large compound leafy...

 rhabarbarum and hybrids
) are a food item. The leaves of the common sorrel
Sorrel
Common sorrel or garden sorrel , often simply called sorrel, is a perennial herb that is cultivated as a garden herb or leaf vegetable...

 (Rumex
Rumex
The docks and sorrels, genus Rumex L., are a genus of about 200 species of annual, biennial and perennial herbs in the buckwheat family Polygonaceae....

 acetosa
) are eaten in salad
Salad
Salad is any of a wide variety of dishes, including vegetable salads; salads of pasta, legumes, eggs, or grains; mixed salads incorporating meat, poultry, or seafood; and fruit salads. They may include a mixture of cold and hot, often including raw vegetables or fruits.Green salads include leaf...

s or as a potherb.

Polygonaceae contains some of the worst weeds
Ruderal species
A ruderal species is a plant species that is first to colonize disturbed lands. The disturbance may be natural , or due to human influence – constructional , or agricultural .Ruderal species typically dominate the disturbed area...

. These include species of Persicaria, Emex, Rumex, and Polygonum, such as Japanese knotweed
Japanese knotweed
Japanese Knotweed is a large, herbaceous perennial plant, native to eastern Asia in Japan, China and Korea...

.

Taxonomy


Polygonaceae is very well-defined and has long been universally recognized. In the APG III system
APG III system
The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy...

, it is placed in the order
Order (biology)
In scientific classification used in biology, the order is# a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family...

 Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, carnations, amaranths, ice plants, and many carnivorous plants. Many members are succulent, having fleshy stems or leaves.-Description:...

. Within the order, it lies outside of the large clade
Clade
A clade is a group consisting of a species and all its descendants. In the terms of biological systematics, a clade is a single "branch" on the "tree of life". The idea that such a "natural group" of organisms should be grouped together and given a taxonomic name is central to biological...

 known as the core Caryophyllales. It is sister to the family Plumbaginaceae
Plumbaginaceae
Plumbaginaceae is a family of flowering plants, with a cosmopolitan distribution. The family is sometimes referred to as the leadwort family or the plumbago family....

, which it does not resemble morphologically
Plant morphology
Plant morphology or phytomorphology is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants. This is usually considered distinct from plant anatomy, which is the study of the internal structure of plants, especially at the microscopic level...

.

The last comprehensive revision of the family was published in 1993 by John Brandbyge as part of The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants
Kubitzki system
A system of plant taxonomy, the Kubitzki system is the product of an ongoing survey of vascular plants, entitled The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants....

. Brandbyge followed earlier systems of plant classification
History of plant systematics
The history of plant systematics—the biological classification of plants—stretches from the work of ancient Greek to modern evolutionary biologists. As a field of science, plant systematics came into being only slowly, early plant lore usually being treated as part of the study of...

 in dividing Polygonaceae into two subfamilies, Eriogonoideae and Polygonoideae. Since 1993, the circumscriptions
Circumscription (taxonomy)
In taxonomy, circumscription is the definition of the limits of a taxonomic group of organisms. One goal of taxonomy is to achieve a stable circumscription for every taxonomic group. Achieving stability can be simple or difficult....

 of these two subfamilies have been changed in light of phylogenetic studies
Research
Research can be defined as the scientific search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories, usually using a scientific method...

 of DNA sequence
DNA sequence
The sequence or primary structure of a nucleic acid is the composition of atoms that make up the nucleic acid and the chemical bonds that bond those atoms. Because nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, are unbranched polymers, this specification is equivalent to specifying the sequence of...

s. Genera related to Coccoloba and Triplaris were moved from Polygonoideae to Eriogonoideae. The genus Symmeria does not belong to either of these subfamilies because it is sister to the rest of the family. Afrobrunnichia might constitute a new subfamily as well.

Brandbyge wrote descriptions for 43 genera of Polygonaceae in 1993. Since that time, a few more genera have been erected, and some segregates
Segregate (taxonomy)
In taxonomy, a segregate, or a segregate taxon is created when a taxon is split off, from another taxon. This other taxon will be better known, usually bigger, and will continue to exist, even after the segregate taxon has been split off...

 of Brunnichia, Eriogonum, and Persicaria have been given generic status
Taxonomic rank
In biological classification, rank is the level in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, and class. Each rank subsumes under it a number of less general categories...

 in major works. Some of the genera are not monophyletic and their limits will eventually be revised. These include Ruprechtia, Eriogonum, Chorizanthe, Persicaria, Aconogonon, Polygonum, Fallopia, and Muehlenbeckia.

Description


Most Polygonaceae are perennial
Perennial plant
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives for more than two years. The term is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter lived annuals and biennials. The term is sometimes misused by commercial gardeners or horticulturalists to describe only herbaceous perennials...

 herbaceous
Herbaceous plant
A herbaceous plant is a plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of the growing season to the soil level. They have no persistent woody stem above ground...

 plants with swollen nodes, but tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

s, shrub
Shrub
A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m tall. A large number of plants may become either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience...

s and vine
Vine
A vine in the narrowest sense is the grapevine , but more generally it can refer to any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent, that is to say climbing, stems or runners...

s are also present. The leaves
Leaves
-History:Vocalist Arnar Gudjonsson was formerly the guitarist with Mower, and he was joined by Hallur Hallsson , Arnar Ólafsson , Bjarni Grímsson , and Andri Ásgrímsson . Late in 2001 they played with Emiliana Torrini and drew early praise from the New York Times...

 of Polygonaceae are simple, and arranged alternately
Phyllotaxis
In botany, phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem .- Pattern structure :...

 on the stems
Plant stem
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant. The stem is normally divided into nodes and internodes, the nodes hold buds which grow into one or more leaves, inflorescence , conifer cones, roots, other stems etc. The internodes distance one node from another...

. Each leaf has a peculiar pair of fused, sheathing stipule
Stipule
In botany, stipule is a term coined by Linnaeus which refers to outgrowths borne on either side of the base of a leafstalk...

s known as an ochrea
Ochrea
Ochrea, commonly spelled ocrea, is a structure formed of stipules fused into a sheath surrounding the stem. It is a diagnostic character in the Polygonaceae.In palms it denotes an extension of the leaf sheath beyond the petiole insertion....

(plural: ochreae). Those species that do not have the nodal ocrea can be identified by their possession of involucrate flower heads
Head (botany)
The capitulum is considered the most derived form of inflorescence. Flower heads found outside Asteraceae show lesser degrees of specialization....

. The flower
Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

s are normally bisexual, small, and actinomorphic, with a perianth of 3-6 sepal
Sepal
A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms . Collectively the sepals form the calyx, which is the outermost whorl of parts that form a flower. Usually green, sepals have the typical function of protecting the petals when the flower is in bud...

s. After flowering
Anthesis
Anthesis is the period during which a flower is fully open and functional. It may also refer to the onset of that period.The onset of anthesis is spectacular in some species. In Banksia species, for example, anthesis involves the extension of the style far beyond the upper perianth parts...

, the sepals often become thickened and enlarged around the developing fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

. Flowers lack a corolla and in some, the sepals are petal-like and colorful. The androecium is composed of 3 to 8 stamen
Stamen
The stamen is the pollen producing reproductive organ of a flower...

s that are normally free or united
Connation
Connation in plants is the developmental fusion of organs of the same type, for example, petals to one another to form a tubular corolla. This is in contrast to adnation, the fusion of dissimilar organs.-Terms for connation of flower parts:...

 at the base. The ovary
Ovary (plants)
In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. Specifically, it is the part of the pistil which holds the ovule and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals...

 consists of three united carpels that form a single locule
Locule
A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an organ or part of an organism ....

 which produces only one ovule
Ovule
Ovule means "small egg". In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells. It consists of three parts: The integument forming its outer layer, the nucellus , and the megaspore-derived female gametophyte in its center...

. The ovary is superior with basal or free-central placentation. The gynoecium
Gynoecium
Gynoecium is most commonly used as a collective term for all carpels in a flower. A carpel is the ovule and seed producing reproductive organ in flowering plants. Carpels are derived from ovule-bearing leaves which evolved to form a closed structure containing the ovules...

 terminates in 1 to 3 styles, each of which ends in a single stigma
Stigma (botany)
The stigma is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. The stigma receives pollen at pollination and it is on the stigma that the pollen grain germinates. The stigma is adapted to catch and trap pollen with various hairs, flaps, or sculpturings...

.

Genera


Lists of genera of Polygonaceae can be found on the internet
Internet
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite to serve billions of users worldwide...

. In the list below, the first three columns are the 43 genera described by Brandbyge in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. The fourth column is an incomplete list of genera that have been recognized in recent works.
  • Antigonon
    Antigonon
    Antigonon is a genus of flowering plants in the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae. It contains four species of lianas native to Mexico and Central America.-Species:The four species in the genus are:*Antigonon cinerascens...

  • Aristocapsa
    Aristocapsa
    Aristocapsa is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with a single species restricted to California. It is known by the common names Indian Valley spineflower or Indian Valley spinecape, and it is endemic to the inland southern Coast Ranges of Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties.-External...

  • Atraphaxis
    Atraphaxis
    Atraphaxis is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with about 18 species....

  • Brunnichia
    Brunnichia
    The genus Brunnichia, also known as redvine or buckwheat vine, are perennial woody vines native to the United States.Redvine species are a pest when they grow within crops; for example, B. ovata is a significant problem in soybean crops in the Mississippi Delta....

  • Calligonum
    Calligonum
    Calligonum is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with about 80 species around the Mediterranean, Asia and in the North America.-Characteristics:...

  • Centrostegia
    Centrostegia
    Centrostegia is a monotypic genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with a single species in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Centrostegia thurberi is known by the common names Thurber's spineflower and red triangles. It is a petite herb with a distinct red...

  • Chorizanthe
    Chorizanthe
    Chorizanthe is a genus of plants in the buckwheat family known generally as spineflowers. These are small, squat, herbaceous plants with spiny-looking inflorescences of flowers. The flowers may be in shades of red or yellow to white. The bracts are pointed and sometimes tipped with a hooked awn,...

  • Coccoloba
    Coccoloba
    Coccoloba is a genus of about 120–150 species of flowering plants in the family Polygonaceae. The genus is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, in South America, the Caribbean and Central America, with two species extending into Florida.The species are shrubs and trees,...

  • Dedeckera
    Dedeckera
    The monotypic genus Dedeckera contains the single species Dedeckera eurekensis, a plant known by the common name July gold which is endemic to California. It is found in the mountains east and south of the Sierra Nevada, especially the Inyo and White Mountains.July gold is a member of the buckwheat...

  • Dodecahema
    Dodecahema
    Dodecahema is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with a single species restricted to California, where it is an endangered species on the state and federal levels. Its common name is slender-horned spineflower. This is a small annual plant forming a patch of spreading basal leaves a few...

       
  • Emex
    Emex
    Emex is a genus of annual herbaceous plants of the Polygonaceae family. There are only two species in this genus: Emex australis, commonly known as doublegee or three-cornered jack, which is a weed in Australia, and Emex spinosa or lesser jack....

  • Eriogonum
    Eriogonum
    Eriogonum is the scientific name for a genus of flowering plants, in the family Polygonaceae. The genus is found in North America and is known as wild buckwheat. This is a highly species-rich genus, and indications are that active speciation is continuing...

  • Fagopyrum
    Fagopyrum
    The genus Fagopyrum in the flowering plant family Polygonaceae contains 15 to 16 species of plants, including two important crop plants, the Buckwheat or Japanese Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum, and the Tartary Buckwheat Fagopyrum tataricum. They have similar uses, and are classed as pseudocereals,...

  • Fallopia
    Fallopia
    Fallopia is a genus of about 12–15 species of flowering plants in the family Polygonaceae, often included in a wider treatment of the related genus Polygonum in the past. The genus is native to temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere...

  • Gilmania
  • Goodmania
    Goodmania
    Goodmania is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae containing the single species Goodmania luteola. Its common name is yellow spinecape. It is a tiny annual herb forming small patches on the ground no more than a few centimeters high and wide. It has fuzzy club-shaped leaves and bears bright...

  • Gymnopodium
    Gymnopodium
    Gymnopodium is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with three species of shrubs in Central America....

  • Harfordia
    Harfordia
    Harfordia, also called Rabbit's Purse, is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with a single species in Baja California.-External links:*...

  • Hollisteria
    Hollisteria
    Hollisteria is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with a single species which is endemic to California. It is known by the common name false spikeflower.The genus was named for California rancher William Welles Hollister....

  • Koenigia
    Koenigia
    Koenigia is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with about seven species. These include:*Koenigia islandica - Iceland Purslane....

  • Lastarriaea
    Lastarriaea
    Lastarriaea is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with three species. One is native to western North America, and the other two are found in southern South AmericaSpecies include:*Lastarriaea coriacea - leather spineflower-External links:*...

  • Leptogonum
    Leptogonum
    Leptogonum is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with three species on the island of Hispaniola....

  • Mucronea
    Mucronea
    Mucronea is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with two species restricted to California. Known generally as spineflowers, they are closely related to genus Chorizanthe. They are annual herbs producing slender, erect, glandular stems from taproots. The leaves are located around the base...

  • Muehlenbeckia
    Muehlenbeckia
    Muehlenbeckia or the Maidenhair genus is native to the southern hemisphere, especially South America, Papua New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand and has been introduced both by birds and cultivation to temperate locales north of the equator. Some are tiny alpine mat-forming plants whereas others...

  • Nemacaulis
    Nemacaulis
    Nemacaulis is a monotypic plant genus in the buckwheat family containing the single species Nemacaulis denudata, which is known by the common names woollyheads and cottonheads. This plant is a somewhat nondescript delicate annual herb with thin, spindly, naked stems and woolly white flowerheads...

  • Neomillspaughia
    Neomillspaughia
    Neomillspaughia is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with two species in Central America....

       
  • Oxygonum
    Oxygonum
    Oxygonum is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with about 30 species....

  • Oxyria
    Oxyria
    Oxyria is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with two species....

  • Oxytheca
    Oxytheca
    Oxytheca is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with seven species found in dry and temperate parts of the Americas. The taxonomy of this genus is in flux, with some species often listed under tentative new names.Species include:...

  • Persicaria
    Persicaria
    Persicaria is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae, collectively known as smartweeds or pinkweeds. The genus was formerly included in the genus Polygonum.The genus includes both annuals and perennials...

  • Podopterus
    Podopterus
    Podopterus is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with about four species in Mexico and Central America....

  • Polygonella
    Polygonella
    Polygonella is a genus of flowering plants in the knotweed and smartweed family, Polygonaceae. Members of this genus are sometimes called jointweed or wireweed.-Selected species:...

  • Polygonum
    Polygonum
    Polygonum is a genus in the Polygonaceae family. Common names include knotweed, knotgrass, bistort, tear-thumb, mile-a-minute, and several others. In the Middle English glossary of herbs "Alphita" , it was known as ars-smerte. There have been various opinions about how broadly the genus should be...

  • Pteropyrum
    Pteropyrum
    Pteropyrum is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with about five species in western Asia....

  • Pterostegia
    Pterostegia
    Pterostegia is a monotypic plant genus containing only the single species Pterostegia drymarioides, which is known as the woodland threadstem or woodland pterostegia. It is native to the western United States. This is a very small annual spreading or climbing plant with very thin, hairy stems. The...

  • Reynoutria
  • Rheum
    Rheum (genus)
    Rheum is a genus of about 60 perennial plants in the family Polygonaceae. The genus includes the vegetable rhubarb The species have large somewhat triangular shaped leaves with long, fleshy petioles. The flowers are small, greenish-white to rose-red, and grouped in large compound leafy...

  • Rumex
    Rumex
    The docks and sorrels, genus Rumex L., are a genus of about 200 species of annual, biennial and perennial herbs in the buckwheat family Polygonaceae....

  • Ruprechtia
    Ruprechtia
    Ruprechtia is a genus of plant in family Polygonaceae. It contains the following species :* Ruprechtia apetala, Weddell* Ruprechtia howardiana* Ruprechtia tangarana...

  • Stenogonum
    Stenogonum
    Stenogonum is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with 2 species endemic to North America....

  • Symmeria
    Symmeria
    Symmeria is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with a single species distributed in North and South America as well as western Africa....

  • Systenotheca
    Systenotheca
    Systenotheca is a monotypic plant genus in the buckwheat family containing the single species Systenotheca vortriedei, which is known by the common name Vortriede's spineflower.-Description:...

       
  • Triplaris
    Triplaris
    Triplaris is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with about 25 species distributed in the Americas. Some species are used for lumber....

  • Acanthoscyphus
  • Aconogonon
  • Afrobrunnichia
    Afrobrunnichia
    Afrobrunnichia is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with two species in West Africa....

  • Bistorta
    Bistorta
    Bistorta is a genus of flowering plants in the Polygonaceae family, often included in Polygonum or in Persicaria.- Selected species :* Bistorta bistortoides Small* Bistorta officinalis Delarbre...

  • Homalocladium
    Homalocladium
    Centipede Plant or Tapeworm Plant is a plant in the knotweed family from New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. It is also known as Ribbon Bush.-External links:*USDA PLANTS: ...

  • Johanneshowellia
  • Knorringia
    Knorringia
    Knorringia is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with a single species in central Asia....

  • Parapteropyrum
    Parapteropyrum
    Parapteropyrum is a genus of plants in the family Polygonaceae with a single species endemic to Tibet....

  • Pteroxygonum
    Pteroxygonum
    Pteroxygonum is a plant genus in the family Polygonaceae....

  • Rubrivena
  • Sidotheca

  • Phylogeny


    The following phylogenetic tree
    Phylogenetic tree
    A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities based upon similarities and differences in their physical and/or genetic characteristics...

     is based on two papers on the molecular phylogenetics of Polygonaceae.

    External links