Pakistani general election, 1970

Pakistani general election, 1970

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General elections were held for the first time in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 in on 7 December 1970, although the polls in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
East Pakistan was a provincial state of Pakistan established in 14 August 1947. The provincial state existed until its declaration of independence on 26 March 1971 as the independent nation of Bangladesh. Pakistan recognized the new nation on 16 December 1971. East Pakistan was created from Bengal...

, originally scheduled for October, were delayed by disastrous floods and rescheduled for later in December and January 1971.

The results of the election saw the Awami League win a majority of seats. However, the President of Pakistan
President of Pakistan
The President of Pakistan is the head of state, as well as figurehead, of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Recently passed an XVIII Amendment , Pakistan has a parliamentary democratic system of government. According to the Constitution, the President is chosen by the Electoral College to serve a...

 never handed power to Awami League, which triggered mass uprising in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
East Pakistan was a provincial state of Pakistan established in 14 August 1947. The provincial state existed until its declaration of independence on 26 March 1971 as the independent nation of Bangladesh. Pakistan recognized the new nation on 16 December 1971. East Pakistan was created from Bengal...

 followed by the Bangladesh Liberation War
Bangladesh Liberation War
The Bangladesh Liberation War was an armed conflict pitting East Pakistan and India against West Pakistan. The war resulted in the secession of East Pakistan, which became the independent nation of Bangladesh....

 and the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971, and the ultimate secession of East Pakistan into Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

.

Parties and candidates


Twenty-four political parties ran in the elections. A total of 1,957 candidates filed nomination papers for 300 National Assembly seats. After scrutiny and withdrawals, 1,579 eventually contested the elections. The Awami League ran 170 candidates, of which 162 were for constituencies in East Pakistan. Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
This article is about Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan. For other organizations of similar name see Jamaat-e-Islami The Jamaat-e-Islami , is a Pro-Muslim political party in Pakistan...

 had the second-highest number of candidates with 151. The Pakistan Peoples Party
Pakistan Peoples Party
The Pakistan Peoples Party , is a democratic socialist political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist International. Pakistan People's Party is the largest political party of Pakistan...

 ran only 120 candidates, of which 103 were from constituencies in the Punjab
Punjab (Pakistan)
Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan, with approximately 45% of the country's total population. Forming most of the Punjab region, the province is bordered by Kashmir to the north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh to the...

 and Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

, and none in East Pakistan. The PML (Convention)
Convention Muslim League
The Convention Muslim League was a faction of the Pakistan Muslim League that split-off in 1962 in support of the military regime of the President of Pakistan Gen. Ayub Khan....

 ran 124 candidates, the PML (Council)
Council Muslim League
The Council Muslim League was a faction of the Pakistan Muslim League that divided from the Convention Muslim League that was supportive of the military regime of the President of Pakistan Gen. Ayub Khan. Mian Mumtaz Daultana, Chaudhry Muhammad Husain Chattha, Khawaja Muhammad Safdar and Chaudhry...

 119 and the PML (Qayyum)
Muslim League (Qayyum)
Muslim League , was a party created by Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan when he split with the Council Muslim League to run for the 1970 Pakistani general elections....

 133.

The government claimed a high level of public participation and a voter turnout of almost 63%. The total number of registered voters in the country was 56,941,500 out of which 31,211,220 were from the Eastern Wing
East Pakistan
East Pakistan was a provincial state of Pakistan established in 14 August 1947. The provincial state existed until its declaration of independence on 26 March 1971 as the independent nation of Bangladesh. Pakistan recognized the new nation on 16 December 1971. East Pakistan was created from Bengal...

, while 25,730,280 from the Western Wing
West Pakistan
West Pakistan , common name West-Pakistan , in the period between its establishment on 22 November 1955 to disintegration on December 16, 1971. This period, during which, Pakistan was divided, ended when East-Pakistan was disintegrated and succeeded to become which is now what is known as Bangladesh...

.

Results

Party Votes % Seats
Awami League 12,937,162 39.2 160
Pakistan Peoples Party
Pakistan Peoples Party
The Pakistan Peoples Party , is a democratic socialist political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist International. Pakistan People's Party is the largest political party of Pakistan...

6,148,923 18.6 81
Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
This article is about Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan. For other organizations of similar name see Jamaat-e-Islami The Jamaat-e-Islami , is a Pro-Muslim political party in Pakistan...

1,989,461 6.0 4
PML (Council)
Council Muslim League
The Council Muslim League was a faction of the Pakistan Muslim League that divided from the Convention Muslim League that was supportive of the military regime of the President of Pakistan Gen. Ayub Khan. Mian Mumtaz Daultana, Chaudhry Muhammad Husain Chattha, Khawaja Muhammad Safdar and Chaudhry...

1,965,689 6.0 2
PML (Qayyum)
Muslim League (Qayyum)
Muslim League , was a party created by Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan when he split with the Council Muslim League to run for the 1970 Pakistani general elections....

1,473,749 4.5 9
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam
The Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam is a political party in Pakistan. It formed a combined government in national elections in 2002 and 2008...

1,315,071 4.0 7
Markazi Jamiat-Ulema-Pakistan 1,299,858 3.9 7
PML (Convention)
Convention Muslim League
The Convention Muslim League was a faction of the Pakistan Muslim League that split-off in 1962 in support of the military regime of the President of Pakistan Gen. Ayub Khan....

1,102,815 3.3 7
National Awami Party (Wali)
National Awami Party (Wali)
The National Awami Party was formed after a split between Maulana Bhashani and Khan Wali Khan ostensibly over Bhashani's siding with China and Professor Muzaffar Ahmed along with Khan Abdul Wali Khan sided with U.S.S.R in the Sino-Soviet split...

801,355 2.4 6
Pakistan Democratic Party
Pakistan Democratic Party
The Pakistan Democratic Party is a political party in Pakistan.At the last legislative elections, 20 October 2002, the party won 0.3% of the popular vote and 1 out of 272 elected members....

737,958 2.2 1
Other parties 387,919 1.2 0
Independents 2,322,341 7.0 16
Total 33,004,065 100 300
Nohlen et al

By province

Party Punjab Sind NWFP Balochistan West Pakistan (Total) East Pakistan
Awami League 0 (0.07%) 0 (0.07%) 0 (0.2%) 0 (1.0%) 0 160 (74.9%)
Pakistan Peoples Party 62 (41.6%) 18 (44.9%) 1 (14.2%) 0 (2.3%) 81 0
PML (Qayyum) 1 (5.4%) 1 (10.7%) 7 (22.6%) 0 (10.9%) 9 0 (1.0%)
PML (Convention) 7 (5.1%) 0 (1.7%) 0 0 7 0 (2.8%)
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam 0 0 6(25.4%) 1(20.o%) 7 0
Markazi Jamiat-Ulema-Pakistan 4 (9.8%) 3 (7.4%) 0 0 7 0
National Awami Party (Wali) 0 0 (0.3%) 3 (18.4%) 3 (45.1%) 6 0 (1.8%)
Jamaat-e-Islami 1 (4.7%) 2 (10.3%) 1 (7.2%) 0 (1.1%) 4 0 (6.0%)
PML (Council) 2 (12.6%) 0 (6.8%) 0 (4.0%) 0 (10.9%) 2 0 (1.6%)
PDP 0 (2.2%) 0 (0.04%) 0 (0.3%) 0 (0.3%) 0 1 (2.2%)
Independents 5 (11.8%) 3 (10.7%) 7 (6.0%) 0 (6.8%) 15 1 (3.4%)
Total seats 82 27 25 4 138 162

(numbers in parentheses indicate percentage share of votes)

The Awami League emerged as the single largest party in the National Assembly by winning a majority with 160 seats, and also won 288 of the 300 East Pakistan Assembly seats in the provincial elections that were held simultaneously there. The Pakistan Peoples Party dominated in West Pakistan, winning 81 of 138 the seats there.

The more conservative parties performed poorly, possibly due to the number of conservative candidates competing with each other in most constituencies. In total the PML (Qayyum), PML (Council), PML (Convention), Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam, Jamiyat Ulema-e-Pakistan and Jamaat-e-Islami won only 37 National Assembly seats.

Provincial election results


In the provincial elections, the Awami League won 288 of the 300 seats in the East Pakistan Assembly, but none in any of the four West Pakistan assemblies. The Pakistan Peoples Party
Pakistan Peoples Party
The Pakistan Peoples Party , is a democratic socialist political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist International. Pakistan People's Party is the largest political party of Pakistan...

 did well the Punjab and Sindh Assembles but failed to win any seats in East Pakistan. The Assembles of the North West Frontier Province and Balochistan
Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or , it is the largest province of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of...

 were dominated by the more conservative National Awami Party (Wali)
National Awami Party (Wali)
The National Awami Party was formed after a split between Maulana Bhashani and Khan Wali Khan ostensibly over Bhashani's siding with China and Professor Muzaffar Ahmed along with Khan Abdul Wali Khan sided with U.S.S.R in the Sino-Soviet split...

 and the PML (Qayyum).
Party Punjab Sind NWFP Balochistan West Pakistan East Pakistan Total
Awami League 0 0 0 0 0 288 288
Pakistan Peoples Party 113 28 3 0 144 0 144
PML (Qayyum) 6 5 10 3 24 0 24
PML (Convention) 15 4 1 0 21 1 22
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam 2 0 4 2 8 0 8
Markazi Jamiat-Ulema-Pakistan 4 7 0 0 11 0 11
National Awami Party (Wali) 0 0 13 8 21 1 22
Jamaat-e-Islami 1 1 1 0 3 1 4
PML (Council) 6 0 2 0 8 0 8
PDP 4 0 0 0 4 2 6
Other parties 1 1 0 2 4 1 5
Independents 28 14 6 5 53 7 60
Total seats 180 60 40 20 300 300 600