Punjab (Pakistan)

Punjab (Pakistan)

Overview
Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, with approximately 45% of the country's total population. Forming most of the Punjab region
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

, the province is bordered by Kashmir
Kashmir
Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range...

 (Azad Kashmir
Azad Kashmir
Azad Jammu and Kashmir or Azad Kashmir for short, is the southernmost political entity within the Pakistani-administered part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir...

, Pakistan and Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India. It is situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains. Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south and internationally with the People's Republic of China to the north and east and the...

, India) to the north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 to the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 to the south, the province of Balochistan to the southwest, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, and the Islamabad Capital Territory
Islamabad Capital Territory
The Islamabad Capital Territory is one of the two federal territories of Pakistan. It includes Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, and covers an area of 1,165.5 km² of which 906 km² is Islamabad proper...

 to the north.
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Encyclopedia
Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, with approximately 45% of the country's total population. Forming most of the Punjab region
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

, the province is bordered by Kashmir
Kashmir
Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range...

 (Azad Kashmir
Azad Kashmir
Azad Jammu and Kashmir or Azad Kashmir for short, is the southernmost political entity within the Pakistani-administered part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir...

, Pakistan and Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India. It is situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains. Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south and internationally with the People's Republic of China to the north and east and the...

, India) to the north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 to the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 to the south, the province of Balochistan to the southwest, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, and the Islamabad Capital Territory
Islamabad Capital Territory
The Islamabad Capital Territory is one of the two federal territories of Pakistan. It includes Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, and covers an area of 1,165.5 km² of which 906 km² is Islamabad proper...

 to the north. The Punjab is home to the Punjabis
Punjabi people
The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

 and various other groups. The main languages are Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

 and Saraiki
Saraiki language
Saraiki , transliterated as Sirāikī and sometimes spelled Seraiki and Saraiki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages. It is a language spoken in the heart of Pakistan...

 and the dialects of Mewati
Mewati
Mewati is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million speakers in the Alwar, Bharatpur and Dholpur districts of Rajasthan, Mewat districts of Haryana, as well as parts of southern Pakistan and in Punjab. It contributed profoundly to Rajasthani literature in medieval periods.There are 9...

 and Potowari. The name Punjab derives from the Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 words Panj (Five), and Āb (Water), i.e. (the) Five Waters - referring to five tributaries of the Indus River
Indus River
The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India.Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and...

 from which is also the origin of the name of "India" - these being Jhelum
Jhelum River
Jehlum River or Jhelum River , ) is a river that flows in India and Pakistan. It is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District...

, Chenab
Chenab River
The Chenab River چنRiver' آب) is a major river of Jammu and Kashmir and the Punjab in Pakistan. It forms in the upper Himalayas in the Lahaul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh, India, and flows through the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of the Punjab, Pakistan...

, Ravi
Ravi River
The Ravi is a trans-boundary river flowing through Northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is one of the six rivers of the Indus System in Punjab region ....

, Beas
Beas River
The Beas River is a river in the northern part of India. The river rises in the Himalayas in central Himachal Pradesh, India, and flows for some 470 km to the Sutlej River in the Indian state of Punjab....

 and Sutlej, that flow through the larger Punjab.

Punjab is the most developed, most populous, and most prosperous province of Pakistan. Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

 has traditionally been the capital of Punjab for a thousand years; it is Punjab's main cultural, historical, administrative and economic center. Historically, the Punjab region
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

 has been the gateway to the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent, also Indian Subcontinent, Indo-Pak Subcontinent or South Asian Subcontinent is a region of the Asian continent on the Indian tectonic plate from the Hindu Kush or Hindu Koh, Himalayas and including the Kuen Lun and Karakoram ranges, forming a land mass which extends...

 for invaders who came from Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

, Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

. Due to its stategic location, it has been part of various empires and dynasties throughout history, including the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

, Aryans, Kushans, Scythians, Greeks
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

, Persians, Arabs, Turks
Turkic peoples
The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

, Ghaznavids, Timurids, Mughals, Afghans
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, Sikhs and the British
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

.

The Greeks
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

 referred to Punjab as Pentapotamia, an inland delta of five converging rivers. In Avesta
Avestan geography
Avestan geography, is the geographical references in the Avesta, which are limited to the regions on the eastern Iranian plateau up to Indo-Iranian border...

, the sacred text of Zoroastrians, the Punjab region is associated with the ancient hapta həndu or Sapta Sindhu, the Land of Seven Rivers. The British used to call Punjab "Our Prussia."

Etymology


The word Punjab is a combination of the Indo-Iranian
Indo-Iranian languages
The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. It consists of three language groups: the Indo-Aryan, Iranian and Nuristani...

 words panj (five) and āb (water), thus the (land of) five rivers. The five rivers are the tributaries of the Indus River
Indus River
The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India.Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and...

 namely Chenab
Chenab River
The Chenab River چنRiver' آب) is a major river of Jammu and Kashmir and the Punjab in Pakistan. It forms in the upper Himalayas in the Lahaul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh, India, and flows through the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of the Punjab, Pakistan...

, Jhelum
Jhelum River
Jehlum River or Jhelum River , ) is a river that flows in India and Pakistan. It is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District...

, Ravi
Ravi River
The Ravi is a trans-boundary river flowing through Northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is one of the six rivers of the Indus System in Punjab region ....

, Beas
Beas River
The Beas River is a river in the northern part of India. The river rises in the Himalayas in central Himachal Pradesh, India, and flows for some 470 km to the Sutlej River in the Indian state of Punjab....

 and Sutlej. Sometimes, in English, there can be a definite article before the name i.e. the Punjab. The name is also sometimes spelt as Panjab or Panjaab or Punjaab. From the Himalayas
Himalayas
The Himalaya Range or Himalaya Mountains Sanskrit: Devanagari: हिमालय, literally "abode of snow"), usually called the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau...

 they all end up in the down-stream of Panjnad
Panjnad
Panjnad is located in Punjab, Pakistan. It is an agriculture area and it is where all the five rivers of Punjab merge together.- See also :* Panjnad River...

, eventually to the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

.

Ancient history



Punjab during Mahabharata times was known as Panchanada. Punjab was the cradle of the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

, more than 4000 years old.
The main site of the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

 in Punjab was the city of Harrapa. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of what is today Pakistan and eventually evolved into the Indo-Aryan
Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryan is an ethno-linguistic term referring to the wide collection of peoples united as native speakers of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-Iranian family of Indo-European languages...

 civilization. The arrival of the Indo-Aryans led to the flourishing of the Vedic civilization along the length of the Indus River
Indus River
The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India.Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and...

. This civilization shaped subsequent cultures in South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

. Although the archaeological site at Harappa was partially damaged in 1857 when engineers constructing the Lahore-Multan railroad used brick from the Harappa ruins for track ballast, an abundance of artifacts have nevertheless been found. Punjab was part of the great ancient empires including the Gandhara
Gandhara
Gandhāra , is the name of an ancient kingdom , located in northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau and on the Kabul River...

 Mahajanapadas
Mahajanapadas
Mahājanapadas , literally "great realms", were ancient Indian kingdoms or countries...

, Mauryas, Kushans and Hindu Shahi. Agriculture flourished and trading cities (such as Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

 and Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

) grew in wealth. The Aryans invaded Punjab between 1500 B.C. and 500 B.C.; they called Punjab Arya-Varta, or the land of Arya. The Rig Veda is also supposed to have been written in Punjab.

Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and influence from the west. Invaded by the Persians, Greeks
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

, Kushans, Scythians, Turks
Turkic peoples
The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

, and Afghans
Demographics of Afghanistan
The population of Afghanistan is around 29,835,392 as of the year 2011, which is unclear if the refugees living outside the country are included or not. The nation is composed of a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual society, reflecting its location astride historic trade and invasion routes between...

, Punjab witnessed centuries of bitter bloodshed. Its legacy is a unique culture that combines Zorastrian, Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

, Buddhist, Persian
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, Central Asian, Islamic, Afghan
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

, Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

, and British
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

 elements. The city of Taxila
Taxila
Taxila is a Tehsil in the Rawalpindi District of Punjab province of Pakistan. It is an important archaeological site.Taxila is situated about northwest of Islamabad Capital Territory and Rawalpindi in Panjab; just off the Grand Trunk Road...

, founded by son of Taksh the son Bharat
Bharata (Ramayana)
In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Bharata was the second brother of the main protagonist Rama, and the son of Dasaratha and Kaikeyi. Dasaratha was the Emperor of Ayodhya and belonged to the Suryavansha or Solar Dynasty...

 who was the brother of Ram
Rama
Rama or full name Ramachandra is considered to be the seventh avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism, and a king of Ayodhya in ancient Indian...

. It was reputed to house the oldest university in the world, Takshashila University, one of the teachers was the great Vedic
Vedic period
The Vedic period was a period in history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. The time span of the period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rigveda, the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700–1100 BCE, also...

 thinker and politician Chanakya
Chanakya
Chānakya was a teacher to the first Maurya Emperor Chandragupta , and the first Indian emperor generally considered to be the architect of his rise to power. Traditionally, Chanakya is also identified by the names Kautilya and VishnuGupta, who authored the ancient Indian political treatise...

. Taxila was a great centre of learning and intellectual discussion during the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC...

. It is a UN World Heritage site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

, valued for its archaeological and religious history.

Greeks, Central Asians, and Persians



Unique to Pakistani Punjab was that this area was repeatedly conquered into various Persian, Central Asian, and Greek empires, such as those of Tamerlane, Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan , born Temujin and occasionally known by his temple name Taizu , was the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death....

. Having conquered Drangiana
Drangiana
Drangiana or Zarangiana was a historical region of the Achaemenid Empire. This region comprises territory around lake Hâmûn, wetlands in endorheic Sīstān basin on the Irano-Afghan-Pakistan border, and its primary watershed Helmand river in nowadays southwestern Afghanistan and the "Nok Kondi" of...

, Arachosia
Arachosia
Arachosia is the Latinized form of the Greek name of an Achaemenid and Seleucid governorate in the eastern part of their respective empires, around modern-day southern Afghanistan. The Greek term "Arachosia" corresponds to the Iranian land of Harauti which was between Kandahar in Afghanistan and...

, Gedrosia
Gedrosia
Gedrosia from Pashto Gwadar-khua is the hellenized name of an area that corresponds to today's Balochistan. Eastern Balochistan is southwestern province of Pakistan and parts of southwestern and south-central Afghanistan and western Balochistan is divided between Iranian provinces of Hormozgan and...

 and Seistan in ten days, Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
The Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches between central Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. The highest point in the Hindu Kush is Tirich Mir in the Chitral region of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.It is the westernmost extension of the Pamir Mountains, the Karakoram Range, and is a...

 and was thus fully informed of the magnificence of the country and its riches in gold, gems and pearls. However, Alexander had to encounter and reduce the tribes on the border of Punjab before entering the luxuriant plains. Having taken a northeasterly direction, he marched against the Aspii, mountaineers, who offered vigorous resistance but were subdued. Alexander then marched through Ghazni
Ghazni
For the Province of Ghazni see Ghazni ProvinceGhazni is a city in central-east Afghanistan with a population of about 141,000 people...

, blockaded Magassa, and then marched to Ora and Bazira. Turning to the northeast, Alexander marched to Pucela, the capital of the district now known as Pakhli. He entered Western Punjab, where the ancient city of Nysa was situated. A coalition was formed against Alexander by the Cathians, the people of Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

, who were very skillful in war. Alexander invested heavy troops; eventually seventeen thousand Cathians fell in this battle, and the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot
Sialkot
Sialkot is a city in Pakistan situated in the north-east of the Punjab province at the foothills of snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. It is the capital of Sialkot District. The city is about north-west of Lahore and only a few kilometers from Indian-controlled Jammu.The...

) was razed to the ground. Alexander left Punjab in 326 B.C. and took his army to Persia and Susa
Susa
Susa was an ancient city of the Elamite, Persian and Parthian empires of Iran. It is located in the lower Zagros Mountains about east of the Tigris River, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers....

.

Of particular importance were the periods of contact between Punjab and various Persian Empires when the region either became a part of the empire itself, or was an autonomous region which paid taxes to the Persian king. In later centuries, when Persian was the language of the Mughal government, Persian architecture, poetry, art and music were an integral part of the region's culture. The official language of Punjab remained Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 until the arrival of the British in the mid-19th century, when the administrative language was changed to English. After 1947, Urdu, which has Persian and Turkish roots, became Pakistan's national language (Qaumi Zubaan).

Arrival of Islam


The Punjabis followed a diverse plethora of faiths, mainly comprising Hindus but with large minorities of Buddhists and Zoroastrians when the Umayyad
Umayyad
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the...

 Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 army led by Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi was a Umayyad general who, at the age of 17, began the conquest of the Sindh and Punjab regions along the Indus River for the Umayyad Caliphate. He was born in the city of Taif...

 conquered southern Punjab and Sindh in 712.
During the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni , actually ', was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty who ruled from 997 until his death in 1030 in the eastern Iranian lands. Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazni into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire which covered most of today's Iran,...

, the province became an important centre and Lahore was made into a second capital of the Ghaznavid Empire
Ghaznavid Empire
The Ghaznavids were a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic slave origin which existed from 975 to 1187 and ruled much of Persia, Transoxania, and the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. The Ghaznavid state was centered in Ghazni, a city in modern-day Afghanistan...

 based out of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

.

Mughals


The Mughals controlled the region from 1524 until 1739 and would also lavish the province with building projects such as the Shalimar Gardens
Shalimar Gardens (Lahore)
The Shalimar Gardens , sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, is a Persian garden and it was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. Construction began in 1641 CE and was completed the following year...

 and the Badshahi Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
The Badshahi Mosque or the 'King's Mosque' in Lahore, commissioned by the sixth Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1671 and completed in 1673, is the second largest mosque in Pakistan and South Asia and the fifth largest mosque in the world...

, both situated in Lahore. Muslim soldiers, traders, architects, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to the Islamic Sultanate in South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 and some may have settled in the Punjab. Following the decline of the Mughals, the Shah of Iran
History of Iran
The history of Iran has been intertwined with the history of a larger historical region, comprising the area from the Danube River in the west to the Indus River and Jaxartes in the east and from the Caucasus, Caspian Sea, and Aral Sea in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman and Egypt...

 and founder of the Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
The Afsharids were members of an Iranian dynasty of Turkmen origin from Khorasan who ruled Persia in the 18th century. The dynasty was founded in 1736 by the military commander Nader Shah who deposed the last member of the Safavid dynasty and proclaimed himself King of Iran. During Nader's reign,...

 in Persia, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
Nāder Shāh Afshār ruled as Shah of Iran and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia or the Second Alexander...

 crossed the Indus and sacked the province in 1739. Later, the Afghan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 conqueror Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani , also known as Ahmad Shāh Abdālī and born as Ahmad Khān, was the founder of the Durrani Empire in 1747 and is regarded by many to be the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.Ahmad Khan enlisted as a young soldier in the military of the Afsharid kingdom and quickly rose...

, incidentally born in Panjab, in the city of Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

 made the Punjab a part of his Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
The Durrani Empire was a Pashtun dynasty centered in Afghanistan and included northeastern Iran, the Kashmir region, the modern state of Pakistan, and northwestern India. It was established at Kandahar in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an Afghan military commander under Nader Shah of Persia and chief...

 lasting until 1762.

Pashtuns


The founder of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani , also known as Ahmad Shāh Abdālī and born as Ahmad Khān, was the founder of the Durrani Empire in 1747 and is regarded by many to be the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.Ahmad Khan enlisted as a young soldier in the military of the Afsharid kingdom and quickly rose...

, an ethnic Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

 (Afghan), was born on the outskirts of Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

, souther Panjab where many of his descendants live to this day. After cementing his authority over various Afghan tribes, he went about to establish the first united Afghan Kingdom (Greater Afghanistan
Durrani Empire
The Durrani Empire was a Pashtun dynasty centered in Afghanistan and included northeastern Iran, the Kashmir region, the modern state of Pakistan, and northwestern India. It was established at Kandahar in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an Afghan military commander under Nader Shah of Persia and chief...

) that during its greatest extent included modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and northeastern Iran. The Punjab was a cultural reservoir for the Afghans, and many where attracted to its lush fertile lands, a process that continues to this very day. It has been said that with the loss of the breadbasket regions of the Punjab and Sindh, Afghanistan has never been able to achieve a stable state ever since. Many ethnic Afghan or Pashtun tribes have made Pakistan's Punjab their home over the centuries. These tribes include the Khugyani
Khugyani
The Khogyani tribe is a Pashtun tribe of the Karlani or "Hill Tribes" branch. The tribe originated from the Khogyani District along the Koh-i-Safed mountain range in Nangarhar Province of Afghanistan...

s known as Khakwanis, Alizais, Tareen
Tareen
The Tareen are a prominent Sarbanri Pashtun tribe residing in Afghanistan and in Pakistan. They are one of the largest Pashtun tribes.-History:...

s, Durrani
Durrani
Durrani or Abdali is the name of a chief Pashtun tribal confederation in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Originally known by their ancient name Abdali later as Durrani they have been called Durrani since the beginning of the Durrani Empire in 1747. The number of Durranis are estimated to be roughly 16%...

s, Mullazai
Mullazai
Mullazai is a Pashtun village in Pakistan situated in southern part of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa near Tank District..Mullazai, also known as Malazai or Malay zai or Mali Zai, is a Pashtun Marwat village.-Geography:...

s, Niazi
Niazi
The Niazi are a tribe of Ghilzai Pashtun people in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Turkey. The name Niazi is derived from Niazai, like the other forms of Pashtun tribes, such as Yusufzai and Orakzai...

s, Khattak
Khattak
Khattak or Khatak , is the name of an Afghan tribe. speaking a variant of the Kandahari Pashto. They are accorded the status of being one of the original and true Afghans. The tribe is settled along the western bank of the river Indus from as north upwards as Sammah; modern day Lund Khwar & Sher...

s, yousafzai
Yousafzai
The Yūsufzai is one of the largest Pashtun tribes...

s, sadozais, tahirkheli
Tahirkheli
The Tahir Kheli are a Pashtun tribe who mainly dwell in the Hazara region of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Most Tahirkhelis have adopted the language of Hindko, which is the native language of the people of Haripur. However, there is still a substantial number of Tahirkhelis that...

, utmanzai
Utmanzai
Utmanzai is a town in Charsadda District in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. It is located at 34°22'24N 71°45'33E with an altitude of 390 metres and lies to the north of Charsadda city. Utmanzai is famous for being the birth place of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan....

s,
bangash
Bangash
Bangash is the name of a Pashtun clan. The Bangash clan inhabit regions within the Federally Administered Tribal Areas , the Kurram Agency, the Miranzai Valley bordering the Samana Range, Naryab, Tirah, Kohat and Peshawar within the Sarhad province...

, mashwani, Lodhi
Lodhi
Lodhi is a Batani Pashtun tribe mainly found in Afghanistan and Pakistan. They were part of a wave of Pashtuns who pushed east into what is today Pakistan. Often accompanying the Timurids who conquered South Asia, the Lodhi established themselves during the Islamic period as a Muslim ruling class...

s, Kakar
Kakar
The Kakar are a Pashtun tribe, with members living in Afghanistan and Pakistan.-Kakar :Kakar Afghan was one of the grandsons of Qais Abdur Rashid. Kakar's father's name was Dani, son of Gharghasht, who was the son of Qais in the Afghan appendix of tribes. According to Afghan and Muslim historians,...

s, Kakazai
Kakazai
The Kakazai , also known as Loye Mamund , are a Pashtun tribe originally from the Laghman province of Afghanistan.They came to South Asia during Afghan invasions such as those of Mahmud of Ghazni, settling in various regions....

s, and Barakzai
Barakzai
- History :Barakzai is a common ethnic name among the Pashtuns of Afghanistan/Pakistan and it means . Barakzai is also a Pashtun tribe in Pakistan, and more predominantly, in Afghanistan...

s, to name a few.

Sikhs



At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the religion of Sikhism
Sikhism
Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, by Guru Nanak Dev and continued to progress with ten successive Sikh Gurus . It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world and one of the fastest-growing...

 was born, and during the Mughal period gradually transformed into a formidable military force. After fighting Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani , also known as Ahmad Shāh Abdālī and born as Ahmad Khān, was the founder of the Durrani Empire in 1747 and is regarded by many to be the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.Ahmad Khan enlisted as a young soldier in the military of the Afsharid kingdom and quickly rose...

 in the later eighteenth century, the Sikhs wrested control of the Punjab and established rule of native population after a long time confederacy
Confederation
A confederation in modern political terms is a permanent union of political units for common action in relation to other units. Usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution, confederations tend to be established for dealing with critical issues such as defense, foreign...

, which at the end of the eighteenth century became the Sikh Empire of the Punjab under Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.-Early life:...

. A denizen of the city of Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Gujranwala is a industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province. It is the sixth largest city in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as on 24 June 2011...

, the capital of Ranjit Singh's empire was Lahore.

British



Maharaja Ranjit Singh's death in the summer of 1839 brought political chaos and the subsequent battles of succession and the bloody infighting between the factions at court weakened the state. Relationships with neighbouring British territories then broke down, starting the First Anglo-Sikh War
First Anglo-Sikh War
The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company between 1845 and 1846. It resulted in partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom.-Background and causes of the war:...

; this led to a British official being resident in Lahore and the annexation in 1849 of territory south of the Satluj to British India. After the Second Anglo-Sikh War
Second Anglo-Sikh War
The Second Anglo-Sikh War took place in 1848 and 1849, between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company. It resulted in the subjugation of the Sikh Empire, and the annexation of the Punjab and what subsequently became the North-West Frontier Province by the East India Company.-Background...

 in 1849, the Sikh Empire became the last territory to be merged into British India. Some parts of Pakistani Punjab also served as the centre of resistance in the Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to...

.

Independence and Partition


In 1947 the Punjab province of British India
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

 was divided along religious lines into West Punjab
West Punjab
West Punjab was a province of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955. The province covered an area of 160,622 km², including much of the current Punjab province and the Islamabad Capital Territory, but excluding the former princely state of Bahawalpur. The capital was the city of Lahore and the province...

 and East Punjab
East Punjab
East Punjab was the part of the Punjab region that went to India following the Partition of the Punjab Province of British India between India and Pakistan in 1947...

. Western Punjab was assimilated into the new country of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 while East Punjab stayed in India. This led to massive rioting as both sides committed atrocities against fleeing refugees.

The undivided Punjab, of which Punjab (Pakistan) forms a major region today, was home to a large minority population of Punjabi
Punjabi people
The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

 Sikhs and Hindus unto 1947 apart from the Muslim majority.

At the time of independence in 1947 and due to the ensuing horrendous exchange of populations, the Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus migrated to India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. Punjabi Muslims were uprooted similarly from their homes in East Punjab which now forms part of India. Approximately 7 million plus moved to Pakistan, of whom over 6 million settled in Punjab.

Recent history



Since the 1950s, Punjab industrialized rapidly. New factories came up in Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

, Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

, Sialkot
Sialkot
Sialkot is a city in Pakistan situated in the north-east of the Punjab province at the foothills of snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. It is the capital of Sialkot District. The city is about north-west of Lahore and only a few kilometers from Indian-controlled Jammu.The...

 and Wah
Wah
Wah is a city in the Rawalpindi District in Punjab, Pakistan. It contains a garden which is said to have been built by the Mughal emperor Akbar in the 16th century. Wah Cantonment is nearby....

. In the 1960s the new city of Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

 was built near Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi , locally known as Pindi, is a city in the Pothohar region of Pakistan near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. Rawalpindi is the fourth largest city in Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad...

.

Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

 continues to be the largest sector of Punjab's economy. The province is the breadbasket of the country as well as home to the largest ethnic group in Pakistan, the Punjabis. Unlike neighbouring India, there was no large-scale redistribution of agricultural land. As a result most rural areas are dominated by a small set of feudalistic land-owning families
Zamindar
A Zamindar or zemindar , was an aristocrat, typically hereditary, who held enormous tracts of land and ruled over and taxed the bhikaaris who lived on batavaslam. Over time, they took princely and royal titles such as Maharaja , Raja , Nawab , and Mirza , Chowdhury , among others...

.


In the 1950s there was tension between the eastern and western halves of Pakistan. In order to address the situation, a new formula resulted in the abolition of the province status for Punjab in 1955. It was merged into a single province West Pakistan
West Pakistan
West Pakistan , common name West-Pakistan , in the period between its establishment on 22 November 1955 to disintegration on December 16, 1971. This period, during which, Pakistan was divided, ended when East-Pakistan was disintegrated and succeeded to become which is now what is known as Bangladesh...

. In 1972, after East Pakistan
East Pakistan
East Pakistan was a provincial state of Pakistan established in 14 August 1947. The provincial state existed until its declaration of independence on 26 March 1971 as the independent nation of Bangladesh. Pakistan recognized the new nation on 16 December 1971. East Pakistan was created from Bengal...

 seceded and became Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

, Punjab again became a province.

Punjab witnessed major battles between the armies of India
Indian Army
The Indian Army is the land based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces. With about 1,100,000 soldiers in active service and about 1,150,000 reserve troops, the Indian Army is the world's largest standing volunteer army...

 and Pakistan
Pakistan Army
The Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan...

 in the wars of 1965 and 1971. Since the 1990s Punjab hosted several key sites of Pakistan's nuclear program such as Kahuta
Kahuta
Kahuta is a town and tehsil in the Rawalpindi District of Pakistan's Punjab Province. According to Pakistan's 2008 census, Kahuta tehsil has a population of approximately 160,000....

. It also hosts major military bases such as at Sargodha
Sargodha
Sargodha is a city in the Sargodha District of Punjab province, Pakistan.Sargodha is located in the northwest of Pakistan. It is the eleventh largest city of Pakistan and also known as Pakistan's best citrus-producing area. It is an agricultural trade centre with various industries...

 and Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi , locally known as Pindi, is a city in the Pothohar region of Pakistan near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. Rawalpindi is the fourth largest city in Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad...

. The peace process between India and Pakistan, which began in earnest in 2004, has helped pacify the situation. Trade and people-to-people contacts through the Wagah
Wagah
Wagah is the only road border crossing between Pakistan and India , and lies on the Grand Trunk Road between the cities of Lahore, Pakistan and Amritsar, India. Wagah itself is a village through which the controversial Radcliffe Line was drawn. The village was divided by independence in 1947...

 border are now starting to become common. Indian Sikh pilgrims visit holy sites such as Nankana Sahib
Nankana Sahib
Nankana Sahib , earlier known as Rai-Bhoi-Di-Talwandi, is a city in the Pakistani province of Punjab. It is named after the first Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak Dev, the central figure in Sikhism who was born here, so it is a city of high historic and religious value and is a popular pilgrimage site...

.

Starting in the 1980s, large numbers of Punjabis migrated to the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

, Britain
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 and the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 for economic opportunities, forming the large Punjabi diaspora
Punjabi diaspora
The Punjabi diaspora refers to the descendants of ethnic Punjabis who emigrated out of the Punjab region to the rest of world. Punjabis are one of the largest ethnic groups in both the Pakistani and Indian diasporas...

. Business and cultural ties between the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and Punjab are growing.

Geography



Punjab is Pakistan's second largest province at 205344 km² (79,283.8 sq mi) after Balochistan
Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or , it is the largest province of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of...

 and is located at the northwestern edge of the geologic Indian plate in South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

. The capital and largest city is Lahore which was the historical capital of the wider Punjab region. Other important cities include Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

, Faisalabad
Faisalabad
Faisalabad , formerly known as Lyallpur, is the third largest metropolis in Pakistan, the second largest in the province of Punjab after Lahore, and a major industrial center in the heart of Pakistan. Before the foundation of the city in 1880, the area was very thinly populated. The population has...

, Sheikhupura
Sheikhupura
Sheikhupura or Shekhupur , formerly Kot Dayal Das or Singhpuria or Virkgarh , is an industrial city in the province of Punjab slightly northwest to Lahore in Pakistan. It is known for its historical places, and is commonly known locally as Qila Shaikhupura, because of the fort in the city,...

, Sialkot
Sialkot
Sialkot is a city in Pakistan situated in the north-east of the Punjab province at the foothills of snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. It is the capital of Sialkot District. The city is about north-west of Lahore and only a few kilometers from Indian-controlled Jammu.The...

, Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Gujranwala is a industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province. It is the sixth largest city in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as on 24 June 2011...

, Jhelum
Jhelum
Jhelum or Jehlum may refer to:* Jhelum, a city in Pakistan on the banks of the Jhelum River* Jhelum District, an administrative division in Punjab, Pakistan surrounding the city of Jhelum...

 and Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi , locally known as Pindi, is a city in the Pothohar region of Pakistan near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. Rawalpindi is the fourth largest city in Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad...

. Undivided punjab is home to six rivers, of which five flow through Pakistani Punjab. From west to east, these are: the Indus
Indus River
The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India.Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and...

, Jhelum
Jhelum River
Jehlum River or Jhelum River , ) is a river that flows in India and Pakistan. It is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District...

, Beas
Beas
Beas may refer to:* Beas, Punjab, a town in Punjab, India* Beas River, a river in the northwestern region of India...

, Chenab, Ravi
Ravi River
The Ravi is a trans-boundary river flowing through Northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is one of the six rivers of the Indus System in Punjab region ....

 and Sutlej
Sutlej
The Sutlej River is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroad region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. It is located north of the Vindhya Range, south of the Hindu Kush segment of the Himalayas, and east of the Central Sulaiman Range in Pakistan.The Sutlej...

. Nearly 60% of Pakistan's population lives in the Punjab. It is the nation's only province that touches every other province; it also surrounds the federal enclave
Islamabad Capital Territory
The Islamabad Capital Territory is one of the two federal territories of Pakistan. It includes Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, and covers an area of 1,165.5 km² of which 906 km² is Islamabad proper...

 of the national capital city at Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

.This geographical position and a large multi-ethnic population strongly influence Punjab's outlook on National affairs
Government of Pakistan
The Government of Pakistan is a federal parliamentary system, with an indirectly-elected President as the Head of State and Commander in Chief of the Pakistani Armed Forces, and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the Head of Government. The President’s appointment and term are...

 and induces in Punjab a keen awareness of the problems of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

's other important provinces and territories. In the acronym P
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

-A-K-I-S
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

-T-A-N
Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or , it is the largest province of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of...

, the P
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 is for PUNJAB
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

.

The province is a mainly a fertile region along the river valleys, while sparse deserts
Déserts
Déserts is a piece by Edgard Varèse for brass , percussion , piano, and tape. Percussion instruments are exploited for their resonant potential, rather than used solely as accompaniment...

 can be found near the border with Rajasthan and the Sulaiman Range. The region contains the Thar
Thar Desert
The Thar Desert |Punjab]] province. The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar desert spreading into Pakistani Punjab province.-Location and description:...

 and Cholistan
Cholistan Desert
Cholistan Desert sprawls thirty kilometers from Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan and covers an area of 26,300 km². It adjoins the Thar Desert extending over to Sindh and into India....

 deserts. The Indus River
Indus River
The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India.Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and...

 and its many tributaries traverse the Punjab from north to south.

The landscape is amongst the most heavily irrigated on earth and canals can be found throughout the province. Weather extremes are notable from the hot and barren south to the cool hills of the north. The foothills of the Himalayas
Himalayas
The Himalaya Range or Himalaya Mountains Sanskrit: Devanagari: हिमालय, literally "abode of snow"), usually called the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau...

 are found in the extreme north as well.

Climate


Most areas in Punjab experience warm winters, often accompanied by rain. By mid-February the temperature begins to rise; springtime
Spring (season)
Spring is one of the four temperate seasons, the transition period between winter and summer. Spring and "springtime" refer to the season, and broadly to ideas of rebirth, renewal and regrowth. The specific definition of the exact timing of "spring" varies according to local climate, cultures and...

 weather continues until mid-April, when the summer heat sets in.

The onset of the southwest monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 is anticipated to reach Punjab by May, but since the early 1970s the weather pattern has been irregular. The spring monsoon has either skipped over the area or has caused it to rain so hard that floods have resulted. June and July are oppressively hot. Although official estimates rarely place the temperature above 46°C, newspaper sources claim that it reaches 51°C and regularly carry reports about people who have succumbed to the heat. Heat records were broken in Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

 in June 1993, when the mercury
Temperature measurement
Attempts of standardized temperature measurement have been reported as early as 170 AD by Claudius Galenus. The modern scientific field has its origins in the works by Florentine scientists in the 17th century. Early devices to measure temperature were called thermoscopes. The first sealed...

 was reported to have risen to 54°C. In August the oppressive heat is punctuated by the rainy season
Wet season
The the wet season, or rainy season, is the time of year, covering one or more months, when most of the average annual rainfall in a region occurs. The term green season is also sometimes used as a euphemism by tourist authorities. Areas with wet seasons are dispersed across portions of the...

, referred to as barsat, which brings relief in its wake. The hardest part of the summer is then over, but cooler weather does not come until late October.

Recently the province experienced one of the coldest winters in the last 70 years. Experts are suggesting that this is due to global climate change.

Punjab's region temperature ranges from -2° to 40°C, but can reach 47°C (117°F) in summer and can touch down to -5°C in winter.

Climatically, Punjab has three major seasons:
  • Hot weather (April to June) when temperature rises as high as 110°F.
  • Rainy season (July to September). Average rainfall annual ranges between 96 cm sub-mountain region and 46 cm in the plains.
  • Mild weather (October to March). Temperature goes down as low as 40°F.

Demographics and society

Historical populations
Census Population Urban Rural

----
1951 20,540,762 3,568,076 16,972,686
1961 25,463,974 5,475,922 19,988,052
1972 37,607,423 9,182,695 28,424,728
1981 47,292,441 13,051,646 34,240,795
1998 73,621,290 23,019,025 50,602,265


The population of the province is estimated to be 81,330,531 in 2010 and is home to over half the population of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. The major language spoken in the Punjab is Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

 (which is written in a Shahmukhi script
Shahmukhi script
Shahmukhi is a local variant of the Urdu alphabet, which itself is a Perso-Arabic derivation that has used to write and record the Urdu language in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Nastaʿlīq is a portmanteau word of naskh of Arabic and ta'aliq,...

 in Pakistan) and Punjabis
Punjabi people
The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

 comprise the largest ethnic group in country. Punjabi is the provincial language of Punjab. The language is not given any official recognition in the Constitution of Pakistan
Constitution of Pakistan
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is the supreme law of Pakistan. Known as the Constitution of 1973, it was drafted by the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and, following additions by the opposition parties, was approved by the legislative assembly on April 10, 1973...

 at National level. Punjabis themselves are a heterogeneous group comprising different tribe
Tribe
A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states.Many anthropologists use the term tribal society to refer to societies organized largely on the basis of kinship, especially corporate descent groups .Some theorists...

s, clan
Clan
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent. Even if lineage details are unknown, clan members may be organized around a founding member or apical ancestor. The kinship-based bonds may be symbolical, whereby the clan shares a "stipulated" common ancestor that is a...

s (Qaum ) and communities. In Pakistani Punjab these Qaums have more to do with traditional occupations such as blacksmith
Blacksmith
A blacksmith is a person who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal; that is, by using tools to hammer, bend, and cut...

s or artisan
Artisan
An artisan is a skilled manual worker who makes items that may be functional or strictly decorative, including furniture, clothing, jewellery, household items, and tools...

s as opposed to rigid social stratification
Social stratification
In sociology the social stratification is a concept of class, involving the "classification of persons into groups based on shared socio-economic conditions ... a relational set of inequalities with economic, social, political and ideological dimensions."...

s.

The biradari, which literally means brotherhood is an important unit of Punjabi society, and includes people claiming descent from a common ancestor. The biradaris collectively form larger units known as quoms or tribes. Historically, these quoms were endogamous, but latterly, especially in the large cities, there is considerable intermarriage between members of different quoms, and differences are getting blurred. Important quoms within the Punjab include Aheer
Aheer
Aheer is a Jat tribe found mainly in the western districts of Punjab and Sindh in Pakistan. -History and origin:The tribe is also known as Heer or Purewal depending on the dialect of the speaker. Those that tend to speak dialects of Lahanda, such as Seraiki or Pothari tend to refer to themselves...

s, Arain
Arain
The Arain , are a Muslim agricultural caste settled mainly in the Punjab, with significant numbers also in Sindh. They are chiefly associated with farming, traditionally being landlords or zamindars.- Origin :...

s, Awan
Awan (Pakistan)
Awan , is a South Asian Zamindar tribe, putatively of Arab origin, living predominantly in northern, central, and western parts of Punjab, Pakistan...

s, Niazi
Niazi
The Niazi are a tribe of Ghilzai Pashtun people in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Turkey. The name Niazi is derived from Niazai, like the other forms of Pashtun tribes, such as Yusufzai and Orakzai...

s, Dogar
Dogar
Dogar is a Muslim, Punjabi tribe in the Punjab region of Pakistan. It is also used as a family name in Turkey and Northern Iraq among some Kurds and Turks.-Ethnography:...

s, Gakhars
Gakhars
The Gakhars are an ancient warrior clan who have predominantly resided in what is present day northern Punjab and South-Western Kashmir, Pakistan. In particular in the cities of Rawalpindi, Jhelum and regions of Gilgit, Baltistan, Chitral, Khanpur and Mirpur, Pakistan...

, Gujjar
Gujjar
The Gurjar are an ethnic group in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Alternative spellings include Gurjara, Gujar, Gurjjara and Gūrjara. The spelling Gurjara or Gurjar is preferable to the rest....

s, Jats, Kambohs, Khokhar
Khokhar
The Khokhar or Khokar are a people of Punjab region of Pakistan and north-western India. According to H. A. Rose they are the gotra of Rajput, Jat, Arain, Nai, and Churah. According to Denzil Ibbetson, they are also a gotra of the Tarkhan and Khatri tribes. The Khokhars were designated as an...

s, Mughal
Mughal (tribe)
The term Mughal is simply a Turkic word and many groups in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh use the term Mughal to describe themselves...

s, Rajput
Punjabi Rajput
Rajputs during the medieval period were a dominant caste in Northwestern India, including the Punjab region.According to the 1911 census in British India, the total Rajput population in the Punjab was 1,635,578, of which 1,222,024 were Muslim, 388,744 were Hindu and were Sikh.Traditionally,...

s, Sheikh
Punjabi Shaikh
Sheikh , is an Arabic word meaning elder of a tribe, lord, Honorable revered old man, or Islamic scholar. In South Asia it is used as an ethnic title generally attributed to Muslim trading families....

s and Syed
Syed
Syed is a masculine given name derived from the title Sayyid, it is not to be confused with the similar looking name Sayid...

s. Other smaller tribes are the Rawns, Maliks
Malik (Julaha)
The Malik or Malik Julaha are ethnic community found in the Punjab province of Pakistan. They are one of many communities found in South Asia associated with weaving.- History and origin :...

, Khetran, and Rehmanis (Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 Labana
Labana
Labanas are a Punjabi tribe. The Labanas of Punjab region are mostly Sikhs, with a small minority of Muslims and Hindus.- History:According to British records 33% of the Labana were baptised Sikhs and were found primarily in the Lahore, Gujranwala, and Sialkot areas...

)

In addition to the Punjabis, the province is also home to other smaller ethnic groups in the province include the Siraiki, Hindkowan, Kashmiris
Kashmiri people
The Kashmiri people are a Dardic linguistic group living in Kashmir Valley in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and parts of the Pakistani territory of Azad Kashmir who speak the Kashmiri language...

, Sindhis
Sindhi people
Sindhis are a Sindhi speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating from Sindh, a province Formerly of British India, now in Pakistan. Today Sindhis that live in Pakistan belong to various religious denominations including Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Christianity...

, Pashtuns, Baloch
Punjabi Baloch
A significant number of Baloch tribes have over time settled in the Punjab province of Pakistan. These Baloch are often referred to as the Punjabi Baloch.-History and origin:...

s and Muhajirs. The Muhajirs are Urdu speaking Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 migrants from India and settled in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 after independence in 1947. Three decades of bloodshed in neighbouring Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 have also brought a large number of Afghan refugees to the province.

As per the census of Pakistan 1998, linguistic distribution of the Punjab province is: Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

 (75.23%), Saraiki
Saraiki language
Saraiki , transliterated as Sirāikī and sometimes spelled Seraiki and Saraiki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages. It is a language spoken in the heart of Pakistan...

 (17.36%), Urdu (4.51%), Pashto (1.16%), Balochi
Balochi language
Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch of Balochistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Brahui. It is designated as one of nine official languages of Pakistan.-Vowels:The Balochi vowel...

 (0.66%), Sindhi
Sindhi people
Sindhis are a Sindhi speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating from Sindh, a province Formerly of British India, now in Pakistan. Today Sindhis that live in Pakistan belong to various religious denominations including Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Christianity...

 (0.13%) others (0.95%). The population of Punjab (Pakistan) is estimated to be between 97.21% Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 with a Sunni Hanafi
Hanafi
The Hanafi school is one of the four Madhhab in jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. The Hanafi madhhab is named after the Persian scholar Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit , a Tabi‘i whose legal views were preserved primarily by his two most important disciples, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani...

 majority and Shia Ithna 'ashariyah minority. The largest non-Muslim minority is Christians and make up 2.31% of the poulation. The Other minorites include Ahmedi, Hindus, Sikhs, Parsis and Bahá'í.

The dialect
Dialect
The term dialect is used in two distinct ways, even by linguists. One usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors,...

s spoken in different regions of the land have a common vocabulary
Vocabulary
A person's vocabulary is the set of words within a language that are familiar to that person. A vocabulary usually develops with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge...

 and a shared heritage
Cultural heritage
Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations...

. The people of Punjab have also a shared spiritual
Supernatural
The supernatural or is that which is not subject to the laws of nature, or more figuratively, that which is said to exist above and beyond nature...

 experience, which has been disseminated by Tasawwaf and can be witnessed on the occasion of the remembrance-fairs held on the Urs
Urs
Urs is the death anniversary of a Sufi saint in South Asia, usually held at the saint's dargah . South Asian Sufis being mainly Chishtiyya, refer to their saints as lovers and God as beloved...

 of Sufi Saints.

Provincial government

Provincial symbols of Punjab (unofficial)
Provincial animal Punjab Urial
Urial
The Urial , also known as the Arkars or Shapo, is a subspecies group of the wild sheep Ovis orientalis. Noticeable features are the reddish-brown long fur that fades during winter; males are characterized by a black ruff stretching from the neck to the chest and large horns. It is found in western...

Provincial bird Peacock
Provincial tree Indian rosewood
Dalbergia sissoo
Dalbergia sissoo, known as Shisham, is an erect deciduous tree, native to the Indian Subcontinent. It is also called sissoo, sisu, sheesham, tahli and sometimes referred to as Indian Rosewood. It is state tree of Punjab state and provincial tree of Punjab province...

Provincial flower Bhekkar
Justicia adhatoda
Justicia adhatoda L. ; syn. Adhatoda vasica Nees, is a medicinal plant native to Asia.The plant grows wild in abundance all over Nepal, India, and the Pothohar region of Pakistan, particularly in the Pharwala...


Districts


There are 36 districts
Districts of Pakistan
The Districts of Pakistan are the second order administrative divisions of Pakistan. Districts were the third order of administrative divisions, below provinces and "divisions", until the reforms of August 2000, when "divisions" were abolished...

 in Punjab, Pakistan.

Major cities


List of major cities in Punjab
Rank City District Population

Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...




Faisalabad
Faisalabad
Faisalabad , formerly known as Lyallpur, is the third largest metropolis in Pakistan, the second largest in the province of Punjab after Lahore, and a major industrial center in the heart of Pakistan. Before the foundation of the city in 1880, the area was very thinly populated. The population has...




Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi , locally known as Pindi, is a city in the Pothohar region of Pakistan near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. Rawalpindi is the fourth largest city in Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad...


1 Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

Lahore
Lahore District
Lahore District is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan that contains the city of Lahore, the district and provincial capital. The total area is...

 
7,129,609
2 Faisalabad
Faisalabad
Faisalabad , formerly known as Lyallpur, is the third largest metropolis in Pakistan, the second largest in the province of Punjab after Lahore, and a major industrial center in the heart of Pakistan. Before the foundation of the city in 1880, the area was very thinly populated. The population has...

Faisalabad
Faisalabad District
Faisalabad District is one of the districts of Punjab province, Pakistan. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan it had a population of 5,429,547 of which almost 42% were in Faisalabad City....

 
2,880,675
3 Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi , locally known as Pindi, is a city in the Pothohar region of Pakistan near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. Rawalpindi is the fourth largest city in Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad...

Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi District
Rawalpindi is a district of Pakistan in the north of the Punjab province which contains the city of Rawalpindi. The district has an area of . It was part of Rawalpindi Division, until the year 2000 when the division was abolished...

 
1,991,656
4 Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

Multan
Multan District
Multan District is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan it had a population of 3,116,851 of which 41.64% were urban. Its capital is the city of Multan....

 
1,606,481
5 Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Gujranwala is a industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province. It is the sixth largest city in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as on 24 June 2011...

Gujranwala
Gujranwala District
Gujranwala District is a district in Punjab, Pakistan.- History :The village of Asarur which has been identified as the location of Taki, an ancient town, visited by the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang contains immense ruins of Buddhist origin...

 
1,569,090
6 Sargodha
Sargodha
Sargodha is a city in the Sargodha District of Punjab province, Pakistan.Sargodha is located in the northwest of Pakistan. It is the eleventh largest city of Pakistan and also known as Pakistan's best citrus-producing area. It is an agricultural trade centre with various industries...

Sargodha
Sargodha District
Sargodha District is a district of Punjab province, Pakistan, the capital of the district is Sargodha. It is an agricultural district, wheat, rice, and sugarcane being its main crops. The Sargodha district and region are also famous for citrus fruit; kino is a newly developed variety...

 
600,501
7 Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur , located in the province of Punjab, is the twelfth largest city in Pakistan. The city was once the capital of the former princely state of Bahawalpur. The city was home to various Nawabs and counted as part of the Rajputana states...

Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur District
Bahawalpur District is one of the districts of Punjab, Pakistan. According to the 1998 Census of Pakistan it had a population of 2,433,091 of which 27.01% were urban Bahawalpur district covers 24,830 km². Approximately two-thirds of the district is covered by the Cholistan Desert, which...

 
543,929
8 Sialkot
Sialkot
Sialkot is a city in Pakistan situated in the north-east of the Punjab province at the foothills of snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. It is the capital of Sialkot District. The city is about north-west of Lahore and only a few kilometers from Indian-controlled Jammu.The...

Sialkot
Sialkot District
Sialkot District or the District of Sialkot , is one of the districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is located in the north-east of the province...

 
510,863
9 Sheikhupura
Sheikhupura
Sheikhupura or Shekhupur , formerly Kot Dayal Das or Singhpuria or Virkgarh , is an industrial city in the province of Punjab slightly northwest to Lahore in Pakistan. It is known for its historical places, and is commonly known locally as Qila Shaikhupura, because of the fort in the city,...

Sheikhupura
Sheikhupura District
Sheikhupura District is a district of Punjab province, Pakistan. Sheikhupura is the headquarters of Sheikhupura District. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the district had a population of 3,321,029 of which 25.45% were urban....

 
426,980
10 Jhang
Jhang
- Demographics :According to 1981 census of Pakistan population of Jhang was 1,970,944 with the 434,495 housing units in Jhang. In 1998 census, population of Jhang was 2,834,545, whose annually growth rate was 2.16%. Male population was 1,474,099 and female population was 1,360,446...

Jhang
Jhang District
Jhang District is a district of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The city of Jhang is the district's capital. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the district's population was 2.8 million, of which 23 percent lived in urban areas. By 2008, according to estimates, the population had...

 
372,645
Source: World Gazetteer 2010
This is a list of each city's urban populations and does not indicate total district populations

Economy




Punjab has always contributed the most to the national economy of Pakistan. Punjab's economy has quadrupled since 1972. Its share of Pakistan's GDP was 54.7% in 2000 and 59% as of 2010. It is especially dominant in the Service & Agriculture sectors of the Pakistan Economy. With its contribution ranging from 52.1% to 64.5% in the Service Sector and 56.1% to 61.5% in the Agriculture Sector. It is also major manpower contributor because it has largest pool of professionals and highly skilled (Technically trained) manpower in Pakistan. It is also dominant in the Manufacturing sector, though the dominance is not as huge, with historical contributions raging from a low of 44% to a high of 52.6%. In 2007, Punjab achieved a growth rate of 7.8% and during the period 2002-03 to 2007-08, its economy grew at a rate of between 7% to 8% per year. and during 2008-09 grew at 6% against the total GDP growth of Pakistan at 4%.


Despite lack of a coastline, Punjab is the most industrialized province of Pakistan; its manufacturing industries produce textiles, sports goods, Heavy machinery, electrical appliances, surgical instruments, Cement, Vehicles, Auto Parts, I.T, metals, Sugar mill plants,Aircrafts, Cement Plants, Agriculture Machinery, bicycles and rickshaws, floor coverings, and processed foods. In 2003, the province manufactured 90% of the paper and paper boards, 71% of the fertilizers, 69% of the sugar and 40% of the cement of Pakistan.

Despite its a tropical wet and dry climate, extensive irrigation makes it a rich agricultural region. Its canal-irrigation system established by the British is the largest in the world. Wheat
Wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

 and cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

 are the largest crops. Other crops include rice
Rice
Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the West Indies...

, sugarcane
Sugarcane
Sugarcane refers to any of six to 37 species of tall perennial grasses of the genus Saccharum . Native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia, they have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar, and measure two to six metres tall...

, millet
Millet
The millets are a group of small-seeded species of cereal crops or grains, widely grown around the world for food and fodder. They do not form a taxonomic group, but rather a functional or agronomic one. Their essential similarities are that they are small-seeded grasses grown in difficult...

, corn
Maize
Maize known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable...

, oilseeds, pulses, vegetables, and fruits such as kinoo. Livestock
Livestock
Livestock refers to one or more domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor. The term "livestock" as used in this article does not include poultry or farmed fish; however the inclusion of these, especially poultry, within the meaning...

 and poultry
Poultry
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for the purpose of producing eggs, meat, and/or feathers. These most typically are members of the superorder Galloanserae , especially the order Galliformes and the family Anatidae , commonly known as "waterfowl"...

 production are also important. Despite past animosities, the rural masses in Punjab's farms continue to use the Hindu calendar for planting and harvesting.

Punjab contributes about 76% to annual food grain production in the country. Cotton and rice are important crops. They are the cash crops that contribute substantially to the national exchequer. Attaining self-sufficiency in agriculture has shifted the focus of the strategies towards small and medium farming, stress on barani areas, farms-to-market roads, electrification for tube-wells and control of water logging and salinity.

Punjab has also more than 68 thousand industrial units. The small and cottage industries are in abundance. There are 39,033 small and cottage industrial units. The number of textile units is 14,820. The ginning industries are 6,778. There are 7,355 units for processing of agricultural raw materials including food and feed industries.

Lahore and Gujranwala Divisions have the largest concentration of small light engineering units. The district of Sialkot excels in sports goods, surgical instruments and cutlery goods.

Punjab is also a mineral rich province with extensive mineral deposits of Coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

, Gas
Gas
Gas is one of the three classical states of matter . Near absolute zero, a substance exists as a solid. As heat is added to this substance it melts into a liquid at its melting point , boils into a gas at its boiling point, and if heated high enough would enter a plasma state in which the electrons...

, Petrol, Rock salt (with the second largest salt mine in the world), Dolomite
Dolomite
Dolomite is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg2. The term is also used to describe the sedimentary carbonate rock dolostone....

, gypsum
Gypsum
Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. It is found in alabaster, a decorative stone used in Ancient Egypt. It is the second softest mineral on the Mohs Hardness Scale...

, and silica-sand. The Punjab Mineral Development Corporation is running over a hundreds economically viable projects. Manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and various other goods.

The incidence of poverty differs between the different regions of Punjab. With Northern and Central Punjab facing much lower levels of poverty than Western and Southern Punjab. Those living in Southern and Western Punjab are also a lot more dependant on agriculture due to lower levels of industrialisation in those regions.
Region Incidence
of
Poverty (%)
Workforce
employed
in
Agriculture (%)
North 21.31% 27%
Central 28.76% 33%
South 50.1% 55%
West 52.1% 53%


Source:

Education


The literacy rate has increased greatly since independence. Punjab has the highest Human Development Index out of all of Pakistan's provinces at 0.670.
Year Literacy Rate
1972 20.7%
1981 27.4%
1998 46.56%
2009 59.6%


Sources:

Regional differences

Region Never
enrolled in School
(boys)
Never
enrolled in School
(girls)
North 6% 15%
Central 12% 23%
South 30% 44%
West 27% 44.5%


Source:

This is a chart of the education market of Punjab estimated by the government in 1998.
Qualification Urban Rural Total Enrolment Ratio(%)
23,019,025 50,602,265 73,621,290
Below Primary 3,356,173 11,598,039 14,954,212 100.00
Primary 6,205,929 18,039,707 24,245,636 79.68
Middle 5,140,148 10,818,764 15,958,912 46.75
Matriculation 4,624,522 7,119,738 11,744,260 25.07
Intermediate 1,862,239 1,821,681 3,683,920 9.12
BA, BSc... degrees 110,491 96,144 206,635 4.12
MA, MSc... degrees 1,226,914 764,094 1,991,008 3.84
Diploma, Certificate... 418,946 222,649 641,595 1.13
Other qualifications 73,663 121,449 195,112 0.26

Public universities


  • COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
    COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
    COMSATS University of Science and Technology or CUST is a public sector university in Pakistan. It comes under the umbrella of Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South or COMSATS, an international inter-governmental organization.COMSATS Institute of...

    , Lahore
    Lahore
    Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

  • Allama Iqbal Medical College
    Allama Iqbal Medical College
    Allama Iqbal Medical College Allama Iqbal Medical College Allama Iqbal Medical College (Urdu:, established in 1975, is a public school of medicine, nursing and allied health sciences located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Jinnah hospital is attached to the college as a teaching hospital. Today Allama...

    , Lahore
  • Bahauddin Zakariya University
    Bahauddin Zakariya University
    Bahauddin Zakariya University is located in Multan, Punjab, Pakistan. It is the Largest university of South Punjab. Bahauddin Zakariya University was formerly known as Multan University. It was renamed in honor of Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya...

    , Multan
    Multan
    Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

     
  • Fatima Jinnah Women University
    Fatima Jinnah Women University
    Fatima Jinnah Women University was established in 1998 at Old Presidency in Rawalpindi. It is situated on mall road, Rawalpindi. It is the first female university in Pakistan. A sub-campus of FJWU is being established at Sialkot. The university is ranked at number 18 in general category of HEC...

    , Rawalpindi
    Rawalpindi
    Rawalpindi , locally known as Pindi, is a city in the Pothohar region of Pakistan near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. Rawalpindi is the fourth largest city in Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad...

  • Government College University
    Government College University
    Government College University, Lahore is a co-educational public university located on The Mall in Lahore, Pakistan...

    , Lahore
    Lahore
    Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

  • Government College University, Faisalabad
    Government College University, Faisalabad
    The Government College University Faisalabad is a general university in the industrial and agricultural hub of Pakistan, Faisalabad....

  • The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur
    Bahawalpur
    Bahawalpur , located in the province of Punjab, is the twelfth largest city in Pakistan. The city was once the capital of the former princely state of Bahawalpur. The city was home to various Nawabs and counted as part of the Rajputana states...

  • Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore
  • King Edward Medical College, Lahore
  • Lahore College for Women University
    Lahore College for Women University
    Lahore College for Women University is an independent women's university in Lahore, Pakistan, founded as a women's college in 1922. One of the oldest female institutions of Pakistan, the university has approximately 7,000 students and a teaching faculty of more than 330. It admits students at the...

    , Lahore
  • Lahore College for Women University
    Lahore College for Women University
    Lahore College for Women University is an independent women's university in Lahore, Pakistan, founded as a women's college in 1922. One of the oldest female institutions of Pakistan, the university has approximately 7,000 students and a teaching faculty of more than 330. It admits students at the...

    , Jhang
    Jhang
    - Demographics :According to 1981 census of Pakistan population of Jhang was 1,970,944 with the 434,495 housing units in Jhang. In 1998 census, population of Jhang was 2,834,545, whose annually growth rate was 2.16%. Male population was 1,474,099 and female population was 1,360,446...

     campus
  • Cadet College Hassanabdal, Pakistan
  • National College of Arts
    National College of Arts
    The National College of Arts Lahore, usually referred to by its acronym NCA, is a famous old college in Lahore, Pakistan.Like all old institutions, the National College of Arts, has a historical tradition. Much of its present tone was set long ago when it was known as the Mayo School of Arts...

    , Lahore
  • National Textile University
    National Textile University
    National Textile University, or NTU, is the premier institution of Textile Education in Pakistan. It was formerly known as National College of Textile Engineering affiliated with University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore since 1976. The University campus is spread over an area of more than...

    , Faisalabad
  • University of Agriculture
    University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
    The University of Agriculture, Faisalabad جامعہ زرعيه فيصل آباد, originally the Punjab Agricultural College and Research Institute, Lyallpur, is a university in the city of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan....

    , Faisalabad
  • University of Arid Agriculture
    University of Arid Agriculture
    The University of Arid Agriculture is located at Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan. In the 1970s, the government of Punjab established an Agricultural College in Rawalpindi for the development of rain fed agriculture. The college was upgraded to the level of the University in 1994.. The University is...

    , Rawalpindi
  • University of Education
    University of Education
    The University of Education , at Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan is the first specialized university in the field of education in Pakistan. It was established on September 10, 2002...

    , Lahore
  • University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Faisalabad
    Faisalabad
    Faisalabad , formerly known as Lyallpur, is the third largest metropolis in Pakistan, the second largest in the province of Punjab after Lahore, and a major industrial center in the heart of Pakistan. Before the foundation of the city in 1880, the area was very thinly populated. The population has...

  • University of Engineering and Technology
    University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila
    The University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, or UET Taxila is located at Taxila, Punjab, Pakistan. It was established in 1975 as a campus of University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore and chartered as an independent university in 1993, offering Bachelor, Master, and Doctoral degrees...

    , Taxila
    Taxila
    Taxila is a Tehsil in the Rawalpindi District of Punjab province of Pakistan. It is an important archaeological site.Taxila is situated about northwest of Islamabad Capital Territory and Rawalpindi in Panjab; just off the Grand Trunk Road...

  • University of Health Sciences
    University of Health Sciences
    University of Health Sciences Lahore is an innovative, vibrant, internationally recognized student centered research university with a mission of Academic Excellence and improvement of Health Care delivery to populace....

    , Lahore
  • University of Gujrat
    University of Gujrat
    - History :The University of Gujrat is one of the new major public sector universities in Punjab. The university was established under Act IX of 2004 by Government of Punjab, Pakistan on February 23, 2004 to cater for the higher education needs of the population of Central Punjab which includes...

    , Gujrat
    Gujrat
    Gujrat is a city in Pakistan. It is the capital of Gujrat District and the Gujrat Tehsil subdivision in the Punjab Province. People living in Gujrat refer to themselves as Gujratis, which sometimes leads to confusion with people from the Indian state of Gujarat which adjoins Pakistan...

  • University of the Punjab
    University of the Punjab
    University of the Punjab , colloquially known as Punjab University, is located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The University of the Punjab is the oldest and biggest University of Pakistan. The University of the Punjab was formally established with the convening of the first meeting of its...

    , Lahore, Gujranwala
    Gujranwala
    Gujranwala is a industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province. It is the sixth largest city in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as on 24 June 2011...

     
  • University of Sargodha
    University of Sargodha
    The University of Sargodha was established in 2002 by an ordinance of the Government of Pakistan Formerly, it was called the Government College, Sargodha...

    , Sargodha
    Sargodha
    Sargodha is a city in the Sargodha District of Punjab province, Pakistan.Sargodha is located in the northwest of Pakistan. It is the eleventh largest city of Pakistan and also known as Pakistan's best citrus-producing area. It is an agricultural trade centre with various industries...

  • University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
    University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
    The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences , located in Lahore, Pakistan, was established in 2002 by upgrading College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, which was established in 1882. The University comprises 5 Faculties, 3 Institutes, 5 Directorates, hospitals, and Library...

    , Lahore
  • Virtual University of Pakistan
    Virtual university of pakistan
    The Virtual University of Pakistan is the first university in Pakistan based entirely on modern information and communication technologies. It was established by the Government of Pakistan as a public sector, not-for-profit institution, with a mission to provide education to students all over the...

    , Lahore

Private universities

  • Hajvery University, Lahore
    Hajvery University, Lahore
    Hajvery University is an institution of higher education in Lahore, Pakistan. HU is chartered by the government of Pakistan as an Autonomous Degree Awarding Institution...

  • Beaconhouse National University, Lahore
  • Forman Christian College
    Forman Christian College
    Forman Christian College University, or FCCU, is a chartered university in Lahore, Pakistan, named after its American-born founder, Dr. Charles William Forman.- History :...

    , Lahore
  • GIFT University
    GIFT University
    GIFT University was established in 2002 by the Government of Punjab , and all its degrees are recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. It is situated in Gujranwala.The Gift University is owned by Anwar dar and many students are inspired by its well trained faculty and overall...

    , Gujranwala
  • Imperial College of Business Studies
    Imperial College of Business Studies
    The Imperial College of Business Studies is a business college located in Lahore, Pakistan.-Imperial College of Business Studies:The Imperial College of Business Studies, Lahore , was established in 1991 by the Pakistan Benevolence & Social Management Trust. The initial development of ICBS was...

    , Lahore
  • Institute of Management Sciences, Lahore
    Institute of Management Sciences, Lahore
    The Institute of Management Sciences , formerly known as Pak-American Institute of Management Sciences , is a project of AKEF established in Lahore in 1987 which offers undergraduate and graduate programs in management and computer sciences.The chairman is Dr. Khalid Ranjha...

    , Pak-AIMS, Lahore
  • Lahore School of Economics
    Lahore School of Economics
    The Lahore School of Economics was established in 1993 and chartered by the Government of Punjab in January 1997, through The Lahore School of Economics Act 1997 . It is based in the city of Lahore, Pakistan....

    , Lahore
  • Lahore University of Management Sciences
    Lahore University of Management Sciences
    The Lahore University of Management Sciences, usually referred to by its acronym LUMS, is a university located in Lahore, Pakistan. LUMS was established in 1984 by a group of industrialists and people belonging to Pakistan's leading private and public sector corporations, to provide rigorous...

    , Lahore
  • Minhaj International University
    Minhaj International University
    The Minhaj International University, also referred to as The Minhaj University Lahore or MUL, is a private university located in Lahore, Pakistan....

    ,
  • University of Management and Technology, Lahore
  • University of Central Punjab
    University of Central Punjab
    The University of Central Punjab , located in Lahore, Pakistan, is a private sector university. The five colleges in the university are the faculties of Commerce, Management Studies, Information Technology, Engineering, and Law.-History:...

    , Lahore
  • University of Faisalabad
    University of Faisalabad
    The University of Faisalabad is a private institution of higher education in the city of Faisalabad, Pakistan. It was established to cater to the educational and technological need emerging in the progressive scenario of the country in general and Faisalabad and surrounding areas...

    , Faisalabad
  • University of Lahore
    University of Lahore
    The University Of Lahore was established in 1999 as a private university by the Ibadat Educational Trust. It is accredited by the Pakistan Engineering Council , Pakistan Medical and Dental Council and Pharmacy Council of Pakistan...

    , Lahore
  • University of South Asia, Lahore
    University of South Asia, Lahore
    University of South Asia is a chartered university located in Lahore, Pakistan. It was mainly developed to promote computer education but since then has expanded to provide certified degrees in various fields of academia which include business studies, engineering, pharmaceuticals, architecture,...

  • International Islamic University
    International Islamic University
    International Islamic University may refer to:*The International Islamic University Malaysia *The International Islamic University, Islamabad *The International Islamic University, Chittagong...

    , Bahawalpur
    Bahawalpur
    Bahawalpur , located in the province of Punjab, is the twelfth largest city in Pakistan. The city was once the capital of the former princely state of Bahawalpur. The city was home to various Nawabs and counted as part of the Rajputana states...

  • University College Lahore
    University College Lahore
    University College Lahore or more commonly known as UCL is a higher educational institution. It offers a number of programs, including GCE A Levels, BSc in various areas of business & management, and Bachelors, Masters and diplomas in Law...

    , Lahore
  • National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences, Lahore
    Lahore
    Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

  • University of Health Sciences, Lahore

Culture




Punjab has been the cradle of civilization since times immemorial. The ruins of Harappa
Harappa
Harappa is an archaeological site in Punjab, northeast Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River. The current village of Harappa is from the ancient site. Although modern Harappa has a train station left from...

 show an advanced urban culture that flourished over 8000 years ago. Taxila
Taxila
Taxila is a Tehsil in the Rawalpindi District of Punjab province of Pakistan. It is an important archaeological site.Taxila is situated about northwest of Islamabad Capital Territory and Rawalpindi in Panjab; just off the Grand Trunk Road...

, another historic landmark also stands out as a proof of the achievements of the area in learning, arts and crafts. The ancient Hindu Katasraj temple
Katasraj temple
Katasraj Mandir , कटासराज मन्दिर ) is a Hindu mandir situated in Katas village in the Chakwal district of Punjab in Pakistan. Dedicated to Shiva, the temple has existed since the days of Mahābhārata and the Pandava brothers spent a substantial part of their exile at the site...

 and the Salt Range temples are regaining attention and much-needed repair.

The structure of a mosque is simple and it expresses openness. Calligraphic inscriptions from the Quran decorate mosques and mausoleums in Punjab. The inscriptions on bricks and tiles of the mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam (1320 AD) at Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

 are outstanding specimens of architectural calligraphy. The earliest existing building in South Asia with enamelled tile-work is the tomb of Shah Yusuf Gardezi (1150 AD) at Multan. A specimen of the sixteenth century tile-work at Lahore is the tomb of Sheikh Musa Ahangar, with its brilliant blue dome. The tile-work of Emperor Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) (Full title: His Imperial Majesty Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan...

 is of a richer and more elaborate nature. The pictured wall of Lahore Fort is the last line in the tile-work in the entire world.

Fairs and festivals


The culture of Punjab derives its basis from the institution of Sufi saints
Sufism
Sufism or ' is defined by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a '...

. The Sufi saints spread Islam and preached and lived the Muslim way of life. People have festivities to commemorate these traditions. The fairs and festivals of Punjab reflect the entire gamut of its folk life and cultural traditions. These mainly fall in following categories:

Religious and seasonal fairs/festivals


Religious fairs are held on special days of Islamic significance like Eid ul-Adha
Eid ul-Adha
Eid al-Adha or "Festival of Sacrifice" or "Greater Eid" is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide to commemorate the willingness of Abraham to sacrifice his son Ishmael as an act of obedience to God, before God intervened to provide him with a sheep— to sacrifice...

, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi, Ashura
Day of Ashura
The Day of Ashura is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram.It is commemorated by Shia Muslims as a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10...

, Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
Lailatul Qadr , the Night of Destiny, Night of Power, Night of Value, the Night of Decree or Night of Measures, is the anniversary of two very important dates in Islam that occurred in the month of Ramadan...

 and Jumu'ah-tul-Wida
Jumu'ah-tul-Wida
Jumu'ah-tul-Wida occurs on the last Friday in the month of Ramadan before Eid-ul-Fitr.Some Muslims regard this jumu'ah as the second holiest day of the month of Ramadan and one of the most important days of the year. Some Muslims spend a large part of their day on Jumu'ah-tul-Wida doing ibadah....

. The main activities on these special occasions are confined to congregational prayers and rituals. Melas are also held to mark these occasions.

Devotional fairs (Urs)



The fairs held at the shrines of Sufi saints are called urs
Urs
Urs is the death anniversary of a Sufi saint in South Asia, usually held at the saint's dargah . South Asian Sufis being mainly Chishtiyya, refer to their saints as lovers and God as beloved...

. They generally mark the death anniversary of the saint. On these occasions devotees assemble in large numbers and pay homage to the memory of the saint. Soul inspiring music is played and devotees dance in ecstasy. The music on these occasions is essentially folk and appealing. It forms a part of the folk music through mystic messages. The most important urs are: urs of Data Ganj Buksh at Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

, urs of Hazrat Sultan Bahu
Sultan Bahu
Sultan Bahu was a Muslim Sufi and saint, who founded the Sarwari Qadiri Sufi order.Sultan Bahu belonged to the Awan tribe, and was born in Anga, Soon Valley, Sakesar . Like many other Sufi saints of South Asia, Sultan Bahu was a prolific writer, with more than forty books on Sufism attributed to...

 at Jhang
Jhang
- Demographics :According to 1981 census of Pakistan population of Jhang was 1,970,944 with the 434,495 housing units in Jhang. In 1998 census, population of Jhang was 2,834,545, whose annually growth rate was 2.16%. Male population was 1,474,099 and female population was 1,360,446...

, urs of Hazrat Shah Jewna at Jhang
Jhang
- Demographics :According to 1981 census of Pakistan population of Jhang was 1,970,944 with the 434,495 housing units in Jhang. In 1998 census, population of Jhang was 2,834,545, whose annually growth rate was 2.16%. Male population was 1,474,099 and female population was 1,360,446...

 ,urs of Hazrat Mian Mir
Mian Mir
Baba Sain Mir Mohammed Sahib , popularly known as Mian Mir, was a famous Sufi saint who resided in Lahore, specifically in the town of Dharampura . He belonged to the Qadiri order of Sufism. He is famous for being a spiritual instructor of Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan...

 at Lahore, urs of Baba Farid Ganj Shakar at Pakpattan
Pakpattan
Pakpattan is the capital city of the Pakpattan District in the Sahiwal Division in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Pakpattan is one of the ancient cities of Pakistan. It is the city that has the shrine of the well-known Sufi of all times, Baba Fareed...

, urs of Hazrat Bahaudin Zakria at Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

, urs of Sakhi Sarwar Sultan at Dera Ghazi Khan
Dera Ghazi Khan
Dera Ghazi Khan is a city located in Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab, Pakistan. Dera Ghazi Khan is one of the most populous cities in Southern Punjab, and it is the largest district in Punjab in terms of area, being approximately in extent....

, urs of Shah Hussain
Shah Hussain
Shah Hussain was a Punjabi Sufi poet who is regarded as a Sufi saint. He was the son of Sheikh Usman, a weaver, and belonged to the Dhudha clan of Rajputs. He was born in Lahore...

 at Lahore, urs of Hazrat Bulleh Shah
Bulleh Shah
Bulleh Shah was a Punjabi Sufi poet, a humanist and philosopher.-Early life:Bulleh Shah is believed to have been born in 1680, in the small village of Uch, Bahawalpur, Punjab, in present day Pakistan. His father, Shah Muhammad Darwaish, was a teacher and preacher in a village mosque...

 at Kasur
Kasur
Kasur , the capital of Kasur District in Pakistan. Kasur is located adjacent to the border of Ganda Singh Wala between Pakistan and India, and is a tourist attraction because of the daily occurring Flags lowering ceremony...

, urs of Hazrat Imam Bari (Bari Shah Latif) at Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi , locally known as Pindi, is a city in the Pothohar region of Pakistan near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. Rawalpindi is the fourth largest city in Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad...

-Islamabad and urs of Shah Inayar Qadri (the murrshad of Bulleh Shah
Bulleh Shah
Bulleh Shah was a Punjabi Sufi poet, a humanist and philosopher.-Early life:Bulleh Shah is believed to have been born in 1680, in the small village of Uch, Bahawalpur, Punjab, in present day Pakistan. His father, Shah Muhammad Darwaish, was a teacher and preacher in a village mosque...

) in Lahore.

A big fair/mela is organized at Jandiala Sher Khan
Jandiala Sher Khan
Jandiala Sher Khan, or Jandiala Sherkhan, is a town and union council of Sheikhupura District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is part Sheikhupura Tehsil and is located at 31°49'15N 73°55'10E. The town is notable for being the birthplace of famous poet Waris Shah, known as the Punjabi...

 in district Sheikhupura
Sheikhupura
Sheikhupura or Shekhupur , formerly Kot Dayal Das or Singhpuria or Virkgarh , is an industrial city in the province of Punjab slightly northwest to Lahore in Pakistan. It is known for its historical places, and is commonly known locally as Qila Shaikhupura, because of the fort in the city,...

 on the Mausoleum of Syed Waris Shah
Waris Shah
Waris Shah was a Punjabi Sufi poet, renowned for his contribution to Punjabi literature. He is best-known for his seminal work Heer Ranjha, based on the traditional folk tale of Heer and her lover Ranjha. Heer is considered one of the quintessential works of classical Punjabi literature...

 who is the most loved Sufi poet of Punjab due to his claasic work known as Heer Ranjha
Heer Ranjha
For 1970 Hindi movie of same name and characters, see Heer Raanjha.Heer Ranjha is one of the four popular tragic romances of the Punjab. The other three are Mirza Sahiba, Sassi Punnun and Sohni Mahiwal. There are several poetic narrations of the story, the most famous being 'Heer' by Waris Shah...

. The shrine of Heer Ranjha
Heer Ranjha
For 1970 Hindi movie of same name and characters, see Heer Raanjha.Heer Ranjha is one of the four popular tragic romances of the Punjab. The other three are Mirza Sahiba, Sassi Punnun and Sohni Mahiwal. There are several poetic narrations of the story, the most famous being 'Heer' by Waris Shah...

 in Jhang
Jhang
- Demographics :According to 1981 census of Pakistan population of Jhang was 1,970,944 with the 434,495 housing units in Jhang. In 1998 census, population of Jhang was 2,834,545, whose annually growth rate was 2.16%. Male population was 1,474,099 and female population was 1,360,446...

 has been one of the most visited shrines in Punjab.

Industrial and commercial fairs


Exhibitions and Annual Horse Shows in all Districts and National Horse and Cattle Show at Lahore are held with the official patronage. National Horse and Cattle Show at Lahore is the biggest festival where sports, exhibitions, and livestock competitions are held. It not only encourages and patronizes agricultural products and livestock through the exhibitions of agricultural products and cattle but is also a colourful documentary on the rich cultural heritage of the Province with its strong rural roots.

Other Festivals


In addition to the religious festivals, Punjabis celebrate seasonal and harvest festivals which include Lohri, Basant, Baisakhi and Teej
Teej
Teej is a fasting festival for Hindu women. It takes place on the third day of Shukla Paksha of the Shraavana or Saawan month of Hindu calendar that normally falls from late July to early September...

.

Arts and crafts


The crafts in the Punjab are of two types: the crafts produced in the rural areas and the royal crafts that flourished in the urban centres particularly in Lahore. The former include cotton textiles, basketry, embroidery etc. while the latter are tile and woodwork skills, ivory, silver and gold work, naqqashi and architectural crafts.

Hand knotted carpets of fine quality are made in Punjab since the Mughal period. Emperor Akbar in the 15th century established the first factory in Lahore. While carpets were made for the wealthy, rough rugs (known as namdas) were made by the common people for their own use. Lahore is the centre of hand-made carpets.

Since ancient times the weavers of the region have produced colourful fabrics of silk and cotton. The hand-woven cotton cloth like khaddar of Kamalia, are popular. The cloth woven on handlooms is either block printed or beautifully embroidered. Multan is famous for beautiful hand-woven bed covers.

Major attractions


The province is home to many well known historical sites including the Shalimar Gardens
Shalimar Gardens (Lahore)
The Shalimar Gardens , sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, is a Persian garden and it was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. Construction began in 1641 CE and was completed the following year...

, Lahore Fort
Lahore Fort
The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila is citadel of the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is located in the northwestern corner of the Walled City of Lahore...

, the Badshahi Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
The Badshahi Mosque or the 'King's Mosque' in Lahore, commissioned by the sixth Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1671 and completed in 1673, is the second largest mosque in Pakistan and South Asia and the fifth largest mosque in the world...

, Rohtas Fort and the ruins of the ancient city of Harrapa. The Anarkali Market
Anarkali
Anarkali ; Anārkalī ) was a legendary slave girl from Lahore, Punjab . During the Mughal period, she was supposedly ordered to be buried alive between two walls by Mughal emperor Akbar for having an illicit relationship with the Prince Nuruddin Saleem later to become Emperor Jahangir...

 and Jahangir
Jahangir
Jahangir was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until his death. The name Jahangir is from Persian جهانگیر,meaning "Conqueror of the World"...

's Tomb are prominent in the city of Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

 as is the Lahore Museum
Lahore Museum
Lahore Museum , established in 1894, is located in The Mall, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Rudyard Kipling's father, John Lockwood Kipling, was one of the famous curators of the museum. Over 250,000 admissions were registered in 2005.-Attractions:...

, while the ancient city of Taxila
Taxila
Taxila is a Tehsil in the Rawalpindi District of Punjab province of Pakistan. It is an important archaeological site.Taxila is situated about northwest of Islamabad Capital Territory and Rawalpindi in Panjab; just off the Grand Trunk Road...

 in the northwest was once a major centre of Buddhist and Hellenic
Hellenistic civilization
Hellenistic civilization represents the zenith of Greek influence in the ancient world from 323 BCE to about 146 BCE...

 influence. Many important Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

 shrines are in the Pakistani portion of Punjab, including the birthplace of the first Guru
Guru
A guru is one who is regarded as having great knowledge, wisdom, and authority in a certain area, and who uses it to guide others . Other forms of manifestation of this principle can include parents, school teachers, non-human objects and even one's own intellectual discipline, if the...

: Guru Nanak (born at Nankana Sahib
Nankana Sahib
Nankana Sahib , earlier known as Rai-Bhoi-Di-Talwandi, is a city in the Pakistani province of Punjab. It is named after the first Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak Dev, the central figure in Sikhism who was born here, so it is a city of high historic and religious value and is a popular pilgrimage site...

). There is also the largest salt mine in Asia situated the Khewra Salt Mines
Khewra Salt Mines
Khewra Salt Mines is a salt mine located in Khewra, Jhelum District, Punjab in Pakistan, about from Islamabad and from Lahore. It attracts up to 40,000 visitors per year and is the second largest salt mine in the world...

.Khewra salt mines is an attraction for visitors accompanied by guides due to the fact that the mines itself is very large and complex interconnected pass ways are like a maze.There is a small but beautiful Mosque inside the mines made from salt stone.The mines have a good reputation with the patients of Asthma as breathing inside the mines help to permanently cure the Asthma and some other diseases related to respiratory system. There are few famous hill stations in the province include Murree
Murree
Murree city is a popular hill station and a summer resort, especially for the residents of Rawalpindi/Islamabad, and for the cities of the province of Punjab, Pakistan...

, Bhurban
Bhurban
Bhurban is a small town and a hill station in Punjab province, Pakistan. The resort town is named after a nearby forest. It is located approximately 13 kilometres from Murree city.-Government:...

 and Patriata
Patriata
Patriata also known as New Murree is a hill station in northern Punjab, Pakistan. It is situated 15 km south-east of Murree hill. - Location :Patriata is located in Murree Tehsil which is a subdivision of Rawalpindi District....

.

Music and dance



Classical music forms, such as Hindustani classical music
Hindustani classical music
Hindustani classical music is the Hindustani or North Indian style of Indian classical music found throughout the northern Indian subcontinent. The style is sometimes called North Indian Classical Music or Shāstriya Sangeet...

, are an important part of the cultural wealth of the Punjab. The Muslim musicians have contributed a large number of ragas to the repository of classical music. The most common instruments used are the Tabla
Tabla
The tabla is a popular Indian percussion instrument used in Hindustani classical music and in popular and devotional music of the Indian subcontinent. The instrument consists of a pair of hand drums of contrasting sizes and timbres...

 and Harmonium
Harmonium
A harmonium is a free-standing keyboard instrument similar to a reed organ. Sound is produced by air being blown through sets of free reeds, resulting in a sound similar to that of an accordion...

.

Among the Punjabi poets, the names of Sultan Bahu
Sultan Bahu
Sultan Bahu was a Muslim Sufi and saint, who founded the Sarwari Qadiri Sufi order.Sultan Bahu belonged to the Awan tribe, and was born in Anga, Soon Valley, Sakesar . Like many other Sufi saints of South Asia, Sultan Bahu was a prolific writer, with more than forty books on Sufism attributed to...

, Bulleh Shah
Bulleh Shah
Bulleh Shah was a Punjabi Sufi poet, a humanist and philosopher.-Early life:Bulleh Shah is believed to have been born in 1680, in the small village of Uch, Bahawalpur, Punjab, in present day Pakistan. His father, Shah Muhammad Darwaish, was a teacher and preacher in a village mosque...

, Mian Muhammad Baksh, and Waris Shah
Waris Shah
Waris Shah was a Punjabi Sufi poet, renowned for his contribution to Punjabi literature. He is best-known for his seminal work Heer Ranjha, based on the traditional folk tale of Heer and her lover Ranjha. Heer is considered one of the quintessential works of classical Punjabi literature...

 and folk singers like Inayat Hussain Bhatti
Inayat Hussain Bhatti
Inayat Hussain Bhatti was a Pakistani singer, actor, producer, director, script writer, social worker, columnist, religious scholar and a protagonist of the development of Punjabi language and literature.- History :...

 and Tufail Niazi, Alam Lohar
Alam Lohar
Muhammad Alam Lohar was a prominent Punjabi folk music singer of Pakistan.He died in 1979 in an accident. He is also credited with popularizing the term and song Jugni.-Early life:...

, Sain Marna, Mansoor Malangi
Mansoor Malangi
Mansoor Malangi is a notable Pakistani singer. He is known for singing Punjabi and Saraiki folk/sufi songs.Mansoor Malangi was born in Garh More in Jhang District....

, Allah Ditta Lona wala, Talib Hussain Dard, Attaullah Khan Essa Khailwi
Attaullah Khan Essa Khailwi
Attaullah Khan Niazi Esakhelvi is a Pakistani Pride of Performance award-winning musician from Isakhel, Mianwali, Punjab. He is traditionally considered a Seraiki artist, but most of his music albums are in either Punjabi or Urdu...

, Gamoo Tahliwala, Mamzoo Gha-lla, Akbar Jat, Arif Lohar, Ahmad Nawaz Cheena and Hamid Ali Bela are well-known. In the composition of classical ragas, there are such masters as Malika-i-Mauseequi (Queen of Music) Roshan Ara Begum, Ustad Amanat Ali Khan, Salamat Ali Khan and Ustad Fateh Ali Khan. Alam Lohar has made significant contributions to folklore and Punjabi literature, by being a very influential Punjabi folk singer from 1930 until 1979.

For the popular taste however, light music, particularly Ghazals and folk songs, which have an appeal of their own, the names of Mehdi Hasan
Mehdi Hasan
Mehdi Hasan is a British journalist who has worked in television current affairs and the national press. He was appointed senior editor at the New Statesman In the late spring of 2009.-Television career:...

, Ghulam Ali
Ghulam Ali
USTAAD Ghulam Ali is a Pakistani ghazal singer of the Patiala gharana. He is not to be confused with the Indian singer Bade Ghulam Ali Khan or Chhote Ghulam Ali, who is another Pakistani singer in the Qual Bachon Gharana....

, Nur Jehan
Nur Jehan
Begum Nur Jahan , also known as Mehr-un-Nisaa, was an Empress of the Mughal Dynasty that ruled much of the Indian subcontinent...

, Malika Pukhraj
Malika Pukhraj
Malika Pukhraj was a highly popular singer of Pakistan. She was generally called as "Malika" meaning "The Queen." She is extremely popular for her rendition of Hafeez Jalandhri's song, Abhi to main jawan hoon , which is enjoyed by millions not only in Pakistan, but also in India...

, Farida Khanum
Farida Khanum
Farida Khanum is a Pakistani Ghazal singer from Punjab. The Times of India has called her "Malika-e-Ghazal" ....

, Roshen Ara Begum, and Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan are well-known. Folk songs and dances of the Punjab reflect a wide range of moods: the rains, sowing and harvesting seasons. Luddi, Bhangra and Sammi depict the joy of living. Love legends of Heer Ranjha, Mirza Sahiban, Sohni Mahenwal and Saiful Mulk are sung in different styles.

For the most popular music from the region, bhangra, the names of Abrar-Ul-Haq
Abrar-ul-Haq
Abrar-ul-Haq is a Pakistani pop, bhangra and folk singer. On his first album "Billo De Ghar" his name appears as simply "Abrar". Before becoming a singer, he was a geography teacher at the Aitchison College in Lahore.- Life :Abrar has kept the year of his birth a secret, so as to not reveal his age...

, Arif Lohar
Arif Lohar
Arif Lohar is a Pakistani folk singer. He usually sings with native musical instrument resembling tongs . His folk music is representative of traditional folk heritage of the Punjab...

, Attaullah Khan Essa Khailwi
Attaullah Khan Essa Khailwi
Attaullah Khan Niazi Esakhelvi is a Pakistani Pride of Performance award-winning musician from Isakhel, Mianwali, Punjab. He is traditionally considered a Seraiki artist, but most of his music albums are in either Punjabi or Urdu...

, Jawad Ahmed, Legacy, and Malkoo
Malkoo
Malkoo born as Mohammad Ashraf Malik in Sargodha, Pakistan is a pop, bhangra and folk singer. He is best known for the song "Kala Jora Pa", which was a hit in Pakistan.-Life:...

 are renowned.

Folklore



The folk heritage of the Punjab is the traditional urge of thousands of years of its history. While Urdu is the official language of the province, there are a number of local dialects through which the people communicate. These include Majhi
Majhi dialect
Majhi dialect is referred to as the standard dialect of Punjabi language originating from the Majha region of the Punjab...

, Jhangochi
Jhangochi
Jhangochi is the oldest and most conservative dialect of the Punjabi language. Jaangli,Jhangvi,Chenavri,Changvi and Rachnavi are alternate names of this dialect. It is spoken throughout a widespread area, starting from Khanewal and Jhang at both ends of Ravi River and Chenab River to Gujranwala...

, Pothohari
Pothohari
Potwari or Pothohari can refer to:*Pothohari people, inhabitants of Pothohar , a plateau in northern Pakistan*Pothohari language , a dialect spoken widely by the population of the Potohar Plateau and Mirpur in neighbouring Azad Kashmir...

, Saraiki
Saraiki language
Saraiki , transliterated as Sirāikī and sometimes spelled Seraiki and Saraiki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages. It is a language spoken in the heart of Pakistan...

, Jatki, Hindko, Chhachhi
Chhachhi
Chhachhi is a dialect of Punjabi language. It is spoken in the Chhachh region of Attock District in Punjab Pakistan....

, Doabi
Doabi
Doabi is one of the Punjabi dialects spoken in Doab . The word "Do Aabi" means "the land between two rivers" and this dialects is spoken between the rivers of Beas and Sutlej...

, and Derewali. The songs, ballads, epics and romances are generally written and sung in these dialects.

There are a number of folk tales that are popular in different parts of the Punjab. These are the folk tales of Mirza Sahiban, Sayful Muluk, Yusuf Zulekha, Heer Ranjha
Heer Ranjha
For 1970 Hindi movie of same name and characters, see Heer Raanjha.Heer Ranjha is one of the four popular tragic romances of the Punjab. The other three are Mirza Sahiba, Sassi Punnun and Sohni Mahiwal. There are several poetic narrations of the story, the most famous being 'Heer' by Waris Shah...

, Sohni Mahiwal
Sohni Mahiwal
Sohni Mahiwal and is included in seven popular tragic romances from Sindh and Baluchistan. The other six are Momal Rano, Umar Marvi, LiLa Chanesar, Noori Jam Tamachi, Sassi Punnun and Dhaj, Ror Kumar commonly known as Seven Queens of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai...

, Dulla Bhatti
Dulla Bhatti
Rai Abdullah Khan Bhatti Rajput, popularly known as Dulla Bhatti , was a famous legendary Rajput hero of the Punjab, who led a rebellion against the Mughal emperor Akbar...

, and Sassi Punnun
Sassi Punnun
Sassi Punnun ; is one of the seven popular tragic romances from Sindh and Baluchistan. The other six are Umar Marui, Sohni Mehar, Lila Chanesar, Noori Jam Tamachi, Momal Rano and Dhaj, Ror Kumar commonly known as Seven Queens of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai...

.
The mystic folk songs include the Kafees of Khwaja Farid in Saraiki, Punjabi and the Shalooks by Baba Farid. They also include Baits, Dohas, Lohris, Sehra, and Jugni
Jugni
Jugni is an age-old narrative device used in Punjabi folk music and sung at Punjabi weddings in Pakistan, India, US, Canada, Australia and UK. The word literally means 'Female Firefly', in folk music it stands in for the poet-writer who uses Jugni as an innocent observer to make incisive, often...

.

The most famous of the romantic love songs are Mayhiah, Dhola and Boliyan. Punjabi romantic dances include Dharees, Dhamaal
Dhamaal
Dhamaal is a 2007 Hindi Caper film directed and produced by Indra Kumar and starring Riteish, Sanjay Dutt, Arshad Warsi, Javed Jaffrey and Aashish Chaudhary....

, Bhangra, Giddha
Giddha
About the Folk dance=Giddha is a popular folk dance of women in Punjab region of India and Pakistan. The dance is often considered derived from the ancient dance known as the ring dance and is just as energetic as Bhangra; at the same time it manages to creatively display feminine grace, elegance...

, Dhola, and Sammi.

Social issues


One social/educational issue is the status of Punjabi language. According to Dr. Manzur Ejaz, "In Central Punjab, Punjabi is neither an official language of the province nor it is used as medium of education at any level. There are only two daily newspapers published in Punjabi in the Central areas of Punjab. Only a few monthly literary magazines constitute Punjabi press in Pakistan". Many have called for the Punjabi language to be given recognition as it has in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

.

Punjabis are prominent in business, agriculture, industry, government, and the military to the point that there is resentment from other ethnic groups. The smaller provinces often voice concern at Punjabi domination of key institutions such as the Army. A newer generation of upper class Panjabis is re-affirming their maternal language and have begun requesting the government for official patronage not just of their languages (Punjabi,Potohari and Seraiki) but those of other major ethnic groups in Pakistan such as the Pashtuns and Balochi
Baloch people
The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau in Western Asia....

 .

Notable people



  • Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal
    Muhammad Iqbal
    Sir Muhammad Iqbal , commonly referred to as Allama Iqbal , was a poet and philosopher born in Sialkot, then in the Punjab Province of British India, now in Pakistan...

    , lawyer, National poet of Pakistan, philosopher
  • Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari
    Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari
    Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari , was an Indian Muslim scholar, religious and senior political leader from the Indian subcontinent. He was one of the Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam's founding members...

    , (founder of Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam)
  • Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan (1893 - 1985), politician, diplomat, international jurist
  • Ibn-e-Insha
    Ibn-e-Insha
    Ibn-e-Insha was a Pakistani Leftist Urdu poet, humorist, travelogue writer and columnist. Along with his poetry, he was regarded one of the best humorists of Urdu...

    , poet, writer (travelogues, humor)
  • Chaudhry Afzal Haq
    Chaudhry Afzal Haq
    Chaudhry Afzal Haq was a leader of Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam and a political figure in the history of Sub-Continent India. He was also a founder of Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam. He founded Ahrar with Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari. He was elected for three times in Punjab Assembly. He was also a Member of...

    , writer, Politician
  • Prithviraj Kapoor
    Prithviraj Kapoor
    Prithviraj Kapoor , 3 November 1906 – 29 May 1972) was a pioneer of Indian theatre and of the Hindi film industry, who started his career as an actor, in the silent era of Hindi cinema, associated with IPTA and who founded Prithvi Theatres, a travelling theatre company based in Mumbai, in...

    , Legendary Thespian, Actor and owner of Theatre Company Prithvi Theatres
  • Malik Allahyar Khan
    Malik Allahyar Khan
    -Early life:He was born on June 2, 1927 in Khunda, a small village in Attock District. His father, Malik Khaki Jan, was a landlord of the area given the title of Khan Bahadur by the British government. His mother, Bibi Beherawar Sultan, was the daughter of a Muslim Barrister from N.W.F.P Mufti Fida...

     (1927–2007), former member of parliament
  • Malik Amir Muhammad Khan,(died 1967), Nawab of Kalabagh, Governer East Pakistan
  • Agha Shorish Kashmiri
    Agha Shorish Kashmiri
    Agha Shorish Kashmiri was a scholar, writer, debater, and leader of the Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam party. He was a figure of the freedom movement of undivided India. He was the chief editor of the weekly Chattan.-References:...

    , (Journalist, orator, poet, political activist, historian)
  • Colonel Muhammad Khan
    Colonel Muhammad Khan
    Colonel Muhammad Khan was a Pakistan Army officer and a war veteran. He also served in the Indian Army of the undivided British India and was a veteran of World War II. While serving in Pakistan Army, he wrote his first book Bajung Aamad which was a humorous autobiography‎...

    , writer, columnist, military education specialist
  • Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry
    Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry
    Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry (Punjabi, ; (January 1, 1904 - June 2, 1982) was the fifth President of Pakistan from August 14, 1973 until his resignation on September 16, 1978.-Early life:...

    , former President of Pakistan
  • Janbaz Mirza
    Janbaz Mirza
    Janbaz Mirza was a writer, poet, and journalist from the Indian subcontinent and later Pakistan. He played a role in the Pakistan Movement and was the leader and official historian of the Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam party. He joined the Ahrar Party in 1932. After the partition of India, he started to...

     (Journalist, orator, historian)
  • Qudrat Ullah Shahab
    Qudrat Ullah Shahab
    Qudrat Ullah Shahab was an eminent Urdu writer and civil servant from Pakistan. He is best known for his autobiography Shahabnama.-Early life:...

    , writer, bureaucrat
  • Mazhar Ali Azhar (Politicain, co-founder of Majlis-e-Ahrar)
  • Jamshed Dasti
    Jamshed Dasti
    Jamshed Dasti is a MNA in Pakistan fromMuzaffargarh , NA-178, which is a district in the south of the Punjab province of Pakistan...

    , currently a member of the National Assembly of Pakistan
  • Shah Hussain
    Shah Hussain
    Shah Hussain was a Punjabi Sufi poet who is regarded as a Sufi saint. He was the son of Sheikh Usman, a weaver, and belonged to the Dhudha clan of Rajputs. He was born in Lahore...

    , Sufi saint (1538–1599)
  • Sheikh Hissam-ud-Din
    Sheikh Hissam-ud-Din
    Sheikh Hissam-ud-Din was a figure in the history of Indian subcontinent and a leader of All India Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam. After the partition of India he left politics and struggle for Khatm-e-Nubuwwat movement with Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, chief of Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam Pakistan. In 1953 he...

     (Politicain)
  • Ajaz Akhtar
    Ajaz Akhtar
    Ajaz Akhtar is a Pakistani born English cricketer. Akhtar is a right-handed batsman who bowled right-arm medium pace. He was born at Bahawalpur, Pakistan...

    , cricketer
  • Shoaib Akhtar
    Shoaib Akhtar
    Shoaib Akhtar is a former Pakistani right arm fast bowler in cricket, who is regarded as the fastest bowler in the history of cricket. He set an official world record by achieving the fastest delivery, when he clocked in at 161.3 km/h in his bowling speed, twice at a cricket match against...

    , cricketer
  • Master Taj-uj-Din Ansari
    Master Taj-uj-Din Ansari
    Master Taj-ud-Din Ansari was a figure in the history of Indian subcontinent and a leader of All India Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam. After the partition of India he left politics and struggle for Khatm-e-Nubuwwat movement with Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, chief of Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam Pakistan. In 1953...

     (Politician)
  • Abdul Razzaq, cricketer
  • Wasim Akram
    Wasim Akram
    Wasim Akram is a former Pakistani left arm fast bowler and left-handed batsman in cricketer and model. who represented the Pakistan national cricket team in Test cricket and One Day International matches....

    , cricketer and sports presenter
  • Waris Shah
    Waris Shah
    Waris Shah was a Punjabi Sufi poet, renowned for his contribution to Punjabi literature. He is best-known for his seminal work Heer Ranjha, based on the traditional folk tale of Heer and her lover Ranjha. Heer is considered one of the quintessential works of classical Punjabi literature...

    , Sufi poet, mystic philosopher
  • Chaudhry Niaz Ali Khan
    Chaudhry Niaz Ali Khan
    Chaudhry Niaz Ali Khan , founder of the Dar ul Islam Movement and the Dar ul Islam Trust in South Asia and the Dar ul Islam Trust Institutes in Pathankot, India and Jauharabad, Pakistan, was a civil engineer, civil servant, landowner, agriculturalist and philanthropist...

    , landowner, agriculturalist, philanthropist, civil engineer
  • Nisar Ali Khan, politician of PML(N)
  • Faiz Ahmed Faiz
    Faiz Ahmed Faiz
    Faiz Ahmad Faiz was a Pakistani intellectual, poet, and one of the most famous poets of the Urdu language. He was a member of the Anjuman Tarraqi Pasand Mussanafin-e-Hind and an avowed Marxist. In 1962, he was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize by the Soviet Union...

    , poet
  • Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain
    Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain
    Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain is a politician from Pakistan who was the Prime Minister of that country from June 30, 2004 until August 28 2004...

    , politician PML(Q)
  • Air Marshal Nur Khan
    Nur Khan
    Air Marshal Malik Nur Khan, HJ, HS, HQA, SPk was the Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Air Force from 1965 to 1969. Considered the hero of the 1965 air war - the man who led the Pakistan air force achieve parity over the three times bigger Indian air force on the very first day of the 1965 war - a...

  • Captain Muhammad Sarwar
    Muhammad Sarwar
    Raja Muhammad Sarwar Khan Bhati was born in Singhori village, Tehsil Gujar Khan, District of Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan. Muhammad Sarwar was a captain in the newly formed Pakistani Army. Commissioned: 1944, Punjab Regiment...

     Shaheed NH (1910–July 27, 1948), 6/8 Punjab
  • Major Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed NH (1928–September 10, 1965), 17 Punjab
  • Major Muhammad Akram
    Muhammad Akram
    Major Muhammad Akram , was a Pakistan Army officer who was posthumously awarded the Pakistan military's highest decoration, the Nishan-e-Haider, for his actions during the 1971 Indo-Pak...

     Shaheed NH (1938–1971), 4 FF
  • Major Shabbir Sharif
    Shabbir Sharif
    Major Shabbir Sharif Rana was a Pakistani officer who received both the Sitara-e-Jurat and Nishan-e-Haider for his bravery.-Early life and military career:...

     Shaheed NH (1943–December 6, 1971), 6 FF
  • Sawar Muhammad Hussain
    Muhammad Hussain
    Muhammad Hussain is the name of:*Muhammad Hussain Najafi , Pakistani Twelver Shia Muslim Grand Ayatollah*Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah , Lebanese Twelver Shia Muslim Grand Ayatollah...

     Shaheed NH (1949–December 10, 1971), 20 Lancers
  • Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfuz
    Muhammad Mahfuz
    Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfuz Shaheed was born in Jat family of Pind Malikan in Rawalpindi District on October 25, 1944. Muhammad Mahfuz joined Pakistan Army on October 25, 1962 as an infantry soldier.-Incident leading to Martyrdom :...

     Shaheed NH (1944–December 17, 1971)
  • A. R. Hye
    A. R. Hye
    Abdur Rahman Hye ; December 17, 1919 — September 18, 2008) was a Pakistani architect and a pioneer of institutional architecture in Pakistan. He was popularly known as "A.R. Hye".-Early life and training:...

    , architect
  • Alam Lohar
    Alam Lohar
    Muhammad Alam Lohar was a prominent Punjabi folk music singer of Pakistan.He died in 1979 in an accident. He is also credited with popularizing the term and song Jugni.-Early life:...

    , (Late)folk singer (legendary singer of punjab)
  • Arif Lohar
    Arif Lohar
    Arif Lohar is a Pakistani folk singer. He usually sings with native musical instrument resembling tongs . His folk music is representative of traditional folk heritage of the Punjab...

    , folk singer (Son of Alam Lohar)
  • Abdul Kardar
    Abdul Kardar
    Abdul Hafeez Kardar or Abdul Kardar was an international cricketer, who is one of the only three players to have played Test cricket for both India and Pakistan; the other two being Amir Elahi and Gul Mohammad...

    , cricketer
  • Dr, Abdus Salam
    Abdus Salam
    Mohammad Abdus Salam, NI, SPk Mohammad Abdus Salam, NI, SPk Mohammad Abdus Salam, NI, SPk (Urdu: محمد عبد السلام, pronounced , (January 29, 1926– November 21, 1996) was a Pakistani theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his work on the electroweak unification of the...

    , physicist and Nobel Prize winner
  • Inzamam-ul-Haq
    Inzamam-ul-Haq
    Inzamam-ul-Haq , also known as Inzamam, nicknamed Inzy, is a former Pakistan international cricketer who was national captain between 2003 and 2007. He is a right-handed batsman who has been regarded as one of the greatest batsmen of his era...

    , cricketer
  • Imran Khan
    Imran Khan
    Imran Khan Niazi is a Pakistani politician and former Pakistani cricketer, playing international cricket for two decades in the late twentieth century. After retiring, he entered politics...

    , cricketer, politician and philanthropist
  • Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan
    Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan
    Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan was a senior political figure in Pakistan. He was an ethnic Pathan. His ancestors migrated from Afghanistan to the present day Punjab...

    , politician
  • Zulfiqar Ali Khosa, President of Pakistan Muslim League (N) Punjab
  • Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, World renowned & Iconic singer of Pakistan, musician,Qawal.
  • Mian Mir
    Mian Mir
    Baba Sain Mir Mohammed Sahib , popularly known as Mian Mir, was a famous Sufi saint who resided in Lahore, specifically in the town of Dharampura . He belonged to the Qadiri order of Sufism. He is famous for being a spiritual instructor of Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan...

    , saint revered by Sikhs and Muslims
  • Sultan Rahi
    Sultan Rahi
    Sultan Muhammad , popularly known as Sultan Rahi, in a Muslim family of Saharanpur, was a notable Pakistani film actor who was prominent in Pakistan in Punjabi films during the 1970s and 1980s. He was mostly popular among people in Punjab, Pakistan and among Sikh and Punjabi community of India...

    ,(late) actor
  • Rangeela
    Saeed Khan Rangeela
    Saeed Khan Rangeela was a Pakistani Lollywood actor, singer and director.His birthname was Mohammad Saeed Khan and he was born in Nangarhar, Afghanistan...

    , actor, comedian
  • Nawaz Sharif
    Nawaz Sharif
    Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif is a Pakistani conservative politician and steel magnate who served as 12th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from November 1990 to July 1993, and from February 1997 to October 12, 1999...

    , ex Prime Minister, major opposition leader
  • Shahbaz Sharif
    Shahbaz Sharif
    Mian Muhammad Shahbaz Sharif is a well-known conservative Pakistani politician and currently President of Pakistan Muslim League . He is the brother of Nawaz Sharif, former Prime Minister of Pakistan. He is the chief minister of Pakistan's most populous province Punjab since 2008...

    , Chief Minister of Punjab province
  • Abdul Latif Khalid Cheema
    Abdul Latif Khalid Cheema
    Abdul Latif Khalid Cheema is Secretary General of Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam and Central convener of Muttahida Tehreek-e-Khatme Nabuwwat Rabitta Committee. He is also the head of Darul Uloom Khatm-e-Nubuwwat in Chichawatni...

     (Politician, Religious figure, Secretary General of Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam)
  • Waqar Younis
    Waqar Younis
    Waqar Younis Maitla is a former Pakistani right arm fast bowler in cricket and widely regarded as one of the greatest fast bowlers of all time...

    , cricketer and sports presenter
  • Javed Hashmi
    Javed Hashmi
    Makhdoom Muhammad Javed Hashmi is a Pakistani political scientist, geostrategist, statesman, and the central public figure of the PML...

    , politician PML(N)
  • Shah Mehmood Qureshi
    Shah Mehmood Qureshi
    Makhdoom Shah Mehmood Hussain Qureshi is well-known Politician in Pakistan. He was the Foreign Minister of Pakistan in the coalition government of PPP, Muttahida Quami Movement[MQM], ANP and JUI-F formed after the 2008 general elections. He was a senior leader of Pakistan Peoples Party, where...

    , politician PPP
  • Mirza Aziz Akbar Baig
    Mirza Aziz Akbar Baig
    Mirza Aziz Akbar Baig was born on 6 November 1938 in Multan, Pakistan. He is a lawyer of the Supreme Court of Pakistan.-Education:He graduated in 1960 from Government Emerson College, Multan...

    , lawyer, former Vice Chairman of Pakistan Bar Council
    Pakistan Bar Council
    Pakistan Bar Council was established by the Parliament in 1973 under the Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils Act. It is the highest elected body of lawyers. it has twenty members elected throughout the country representing each province. The Members of the Pakistan Bar Council are elected on the...

  • Ishaq Khan Khakwani
    Ishaq Khan Khakwani
    Ishaq Khan Khakwani was born in Multan, Punjab province of Pakistan in April 1949. The former Minister of State for Information Technology and Telecommunications Division and Railways.-School and College:...

    , politician
  • Salman Butt
    Salman Butt
    Salman Butt is a former Pakistani cricketer who was a regular Test and ODI left-handed opening batsman. He made his Test debut on 3 September 2003 in the third Test against Bangladesh, and a year later made his ODI debut against West Indies on 22 September 2004. He was appointed captain of the...

    , cricketer
  • Ahsan Iqbal
    Ahsan Iqbal
    -External links:* * *...

    , politician PML(N)
  • Khawaja Muhammad Asif
    Khawaja Muhammad Asif
    Khawaja Muhammad Asif , is a Pakistani lawmaker and politician of the center-right conservative democratic party PML-N. Khawaja Muhammad Asif previously served as the Pakistani Minister for Petroleum and Natural Resources, with additional portfolio of Sports Ministry in the PM Yousaf Raza Gillani...

    , politician PML(N)
  • Atif Aslam
    Atif Aslam
    Atif Aslam is a Pakistani pop singer. He is widely recognized in South Asia and has given several hit songs such as Aadat, Woh Lamhe, Tere Bin, Bakhuda Tumhi Ho, Pehli Nazar Mein, Tera Hone Laga Hoon, Tu Jaane Na, Tere Liye. He is one of the most popular South Asian celebrity on Facebook with...

    , Young and talented singer famous in Pakistan also in India
  • Rae Ahmed Nawaz Khan Kharal
    Rae Ahmed Nawaz Khan Kharal
    Rai Ahmed Khan Kharal was one of the greatest freedom fighters in the Indian rebellion of 1857.He was a resident of Neeli Bar's famous town Gogera, District Sahiwal. He started his rebellion in a wide area of Punjab, Pakistan covering Ganji Bar, Neeli Bar and Sandal Bar area...

  • Yousaf Raza Gillani
    Yousaf Raza Gillani
    Yousuf Raza Gilani is the current prime minister of Islamic Republic of Pakistan. He was nominated as Prime Minister by the PPP, with the support of its coalition partners, Pakistan Muslim League , Awami National Party, Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam and Muttahida Qaumi Movement, on 22 March 2008...

    , currently Prime Minister of Pakistan
  • Shahnaz Sheikh
    Shahnaz Sheikh
    Shahnaz Sheikh is a famous hockey player from Pakistan. He was born at Sialkot, Pakistan.A forward, Shahnaz Sheikh played between 1969 and 1978, he was capped 68 times and scored 45 goals. He won Silver in the 1972 Olympics and Bronze in the 1976 Olympics . Shahnaz won 1971 World Cup and was...

    , hockey player
  • Samiullah, hockey player
  • Muhammad Rafiq Tarar
    Muhammad Rafiq Tarar
    Judge Muhammad Rafiq Tarar was the ninth President of Pakistan from January 1, 1998 until June 20, 2001 and before that Supreme Court of Pakistan judge and Chief Justice of Lahore High Court....

    , former President of Pakistan
  • Shaheed Bhagat Singh, revolutionary (1907–1931)
  • General Zia-ul-Haq, former Army Chief of Staff and former military dictator (1977–1988)
  • Manmohan Singh
    Manmohan Singh
    Manmohan Singh is the 13th and current Prime Minister of India. He is the only Prime Minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to return to power after completing a full five-year term. A Sikh, he is the first non-Hindu to occupy the office. Singh is also the 7th Prime Minister belonging to the Indian...

    , current Prime Minister of India
  • Chaudhry Muhammad Sarwar Khan
    Chaudhry Muhammad Sarwar Khan
    Ch.Muhammad Sarwar Khan was a renowned and longest serving Parliamentarian in the history of Pakistan. He served in Provincial Assembly of the Punjab and National Assembly of Pakistan from 1951 to 1999. The first direct elections held in Pakistan after independence were for the Provincial...

    , former Chairman Parliamentary Special Committee on Kashmir
  • AllamaTahir-ul-Qadri
    Tahir-ul-Qadri
    Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri is a Pakistani Sufi scholar and former professor of international constitutional law at the University of the Punjab....

    , scholar, politician, orator
  • Shoaib Malik
    Shoaib Malik
    Shoaib Malik is a Pakistani cricket player and former captain. He made his One-Day International debut in 1999 against the West Indies and his Test debut in 2001 against Bangladesh. He has taken over 100 ODI wickets, and has a batting average in the mid 30s in both Test and ODI cricket...

    , cricketer
  • Noor Jehan
    Noor Jehan
    Noorjehan or Noorjehan was the adopted stage name for Allah Wasai who was a legendary singer and actress in British India and Pakistan. Her career spanned seven decades...

    ,(late) World renowned singer, Affectionately called (Malika-i-Tarranum) means "queen of music",actress

See also


  • Saraikistan
    Saraikistan
    'South Punjab is the southernmost region of Pakistan's Punjab province. The districts of Bahawalpur, Multan, Rahim Yar Khan and D. G. Khan are geographically regarded as components of the region...

  • Saraiki people
    Saraiki people
    The Saraiki people or Multani people are an ethnic group from the central and south-eastern areas of Pakistan, especially the former princely state of Bahawalpur and the districts of Multan, Lodhran, Vehari, Khanewal, Rahim Yar Khan, Rajanpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh,...

  • Saraiki culture
    Saraiki culture
    Saraiki culture is the culture of the Saraiki speaking people residing in Pakistan and outside Pakistan. The region where Saraiki is spoken in Pakistan is part of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization and has been centre of culture and trade in Indian Sub-continent...

  • Butter village
  • Punjab Bar Council
    Punjab Bar Council
    The Punjab Bar Council is a supreme statutory & Deliberative assembly of lawyers in Punjab for safeguarding the rights, interests and privileges of practicing lawyers, regulating their conduct and helping in the administration of justice and it is also 1st biggest Bar Council of Pakistan...

  • Malik Allahyar Khan
    Malik Allahyar Khan
    -Early life:He was born on June 2, 1927 in Khunda, a small village in Attock District. His father, Malik Khaki Jan, was a landlord of the area given the title of Khan Bahadur by the British government. His mother, Bibi Beherawar Sultan, was the daughter of a Muslim Barrister from N.W.F.P Mufti Fida...

  • Anjuman Muzareen Punjab
    Anjuman Muzareen Punjab
    AMP, translated into English as the Tenants Association Punjab is a revolutionary movement of peasants, workers and tenants working on government land in the Pakistani side of the Punjab, organised against government repression...

  • Kakazai
    Kakazai
    The Kakazai , also known as Loye Mamund , are a Pashtun tribe originally from the Laghman province of Afghanistan.They came to South Asia during Afghan invasions such as those of Mahmud of Ghazni, settling in various regions....

  • Balochistan
    Balochistan
    Balochistan or Baluchistan is a region which covers parts of Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. It can also refer to one of several modern and historical territories within that region:...

  • Rajputs
  • Aheer
    Aheer
    Aheer is a Jat tribe found mainly in the western districts of Punjab and Sindh in Pakistan. -History and origin:The tribe is also known as Heer or Purewal depending on the dialect of the speaker. Those that tend to speak dialects of Lahanda, such as Seraiki or Pothari tend to refer to themselves...

  • Saini
    Saini
    Saini is a Rajput descent caste of India. Sainis, also known as Shoorsaini in Puranic literature, are now found by their original name only in Punjab and in the neighboring states of Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh...

  • Hindu and Buddhist architectural heritage of Pakistan
    Hindu and Buddhist architectural heritage of Pakistan
    The Hindu and Buddhist architectural heritage of Pakistan is part of a long history of settlement and civilization in Pakistan. The Indus Valley civilization collapsed in the middle of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Vedic Civilisation, which extended over much of northern India...

  • History of the Punjab
    History of the Punjab
    The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah Suri , which mentions the construction of a fort by "Sher Khan of Punjab". The first mentioning of the Sanskrit equivalent of 'Punjab', however, occurs in the great epic, the Mahabharata...

  • Punjab region
    Punjab region
    The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

  • Punjab, India
    Punjab (India)
    Punjab ) is a state in the northwest of the Republic of India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. The state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast and Rajasthan to the southwest as well as the Pakistani province of Punjab to the...

  • Punjabi people
    Punjabi people
    The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

  • Punjabi culture
    Punjabi Culture
    Punjabi Culture is the culture of the Punjab region. It is one of the oldest in world history, dating from ancient antiquity to the modern era. The Punjabi culture is the culture of the Punjabi people who are now distributed throughout the world. The scope, history, sophistication and complexity of...

  • Kotli Loharan West
    Kotli Loharan West
    Kotli Loharan is a town in Sialkot District, Pakistan. Factories there used to manufacture mine-laying machines, hydraulic jacks and instruments for F-86 aircraft engine maintenance for the Pakistan Army. A rural hospital, a veterinary hospital, boys and girls colleges, schools and roads have...

  • Jhelum
    Jhelum
    Jhelum or Jehlum may refer to:* Jhelum, a city in Pakistan on the banks of the Jhelum River* Jhelum District, an administrative division in Punjab, Pakistan surrounding the city of Jhelum...

    , Pakistan


External links