Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam

Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam

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The Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (Assembly of Islamic Clergy, or JUI) is a political party in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. It formed a combined government in national elections in 2002 and 2008. The party has split into two separate parties: one is led by Maulana Fazal-ur-Rehman and is known as "Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (Fazlur Rehman)", or "JUI-F", while the other is led by Maulana Sami ul Haq
Maulana Sami ul Haq
Maulana Sami ul Haq is a Pakistani religious leader and a politician. He is known for his close ties to the Taliban and has been referred to as the "Father of the Taliban"...

 and is known as "Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (Sami ul Haq)" or "JUI-S".

Background


JUI is a Deobandi
Deobandi
Deobandi is a movement of Sunni Islam. The movement began at Darul Uloom Deoband in Deoband, India, where its foundation was laid on 30 May 1866.-History:...

 (Sunni/Hanafi) organization, part of the Deobandi Muslim movement. The JUI formed when members broke from the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
Jamiat Ulema-I-Hind or is one of the leading Islamic organizations in India. It was founded in 1919 by Abdul Mohasim Sajjad, Qazi Hussain Ahmed, Ahmed Saeed Dehlvi, and Abdul Bari Firangi Mehli...

 in 1945 after that organization backed the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

 against the Muslim League's lobby for a separate Pakistan. The first president of the JUI was Allamah Shabbir Ahmad Usmani.

The JUI remained a predominantly religious organization with limited political activity until it was revived by Maulana
Maulana
Mawlānā is an Arabic word literally meaning "our lord" or "our master" ....

 Mufti Mahmood as a vehicle to oppose the modernization
Modernization
In the social sciences, modernization or modernisation refers to a model of an evolutionary transition from a 'pre-modern' or 'traditional' to a 'modern' society. The teleology of modernization is described in social evolutionism theories, existing as a template that has been generally followed by...

 policies of then President of Pakistan
President of Pakistan
The President of Pakistan is the head of state, as well as figurehead, of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Recently passed an XVIII Amendment , Pakistan has a parliamentary democratic system of government. According to the Constitution, the President is chosen by the Electoral College to serve a...

, General Ayub Khan. Following the collapse of the Khan regime in the late 1960s, the JUI participated in Pakistan's first general elections
Pakistani general election, 1970
General elections were held for the first time in Pakistan in on 7 December 1970, although the polls in East Pakistan, originally scheduled for October, were delayed by disastrous floods and rescheduled for later in December and January 1971....

 in 1970.

JUI is working continuously to convert the law of the country according to its concept of Islam.

Ideologically, JUI is regarded as uncompromisingly rigid, insisting on strict enforcement of traditional Islamic law
Sharia
Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

. JUI helped establish thousands of madrasah
Madrasah
Madrasah is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious...

s in Pakistan, more than any other religious movement.

Currently in Pakistan, it has two wings: that of Maulana Sami-ul Haq (JUI-S) and that of Maulana Fazal-ur-Rehman (JUI-F). Both are members of the National Assembly of Pakistan
National Assembly of Pakistan
The National Assembly of Pakistan is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also compromises the President of Pakistan and Senate . The National Assembly and the Senate both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad...

 and part of the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal is a coalition of Islamist parties that was formed in 2002 to electorally challenge the Pakistan Parliament's incumbent parties...

 coalition.

Election victories


The JUI is part of the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal is a coalition of Islamist parties that was formed in 2002 to electorally challenge the Pakistan Parliament's incumbent parties...

 (MMA), an alliance of religious parties that won 11.3% of the popular vote and 53 out of 272 elected members in the 2002 elections
Pakistani general election, 2002
General elections were held in Pakistan on 10 October 2002 during the military regime of Pervez Musharraf.-Parties and candidates:More than 70 parties, contested the election, the main parties were the Peoples Party Parliamentarians, Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz Group, Muttahida Quami Movement ,...

.

In the 2008 Pakistani general election
Pakistani general election, 2008
A general election was held in Pakistan on 18 February 2008, after being postponed from 8 January 2008. The original date was intended to elect members of the National Assembly of Pakistan, the lower house of the Majlis-e-Shoora...

, only the JUI-F participated because the other major component party of the MMA, the Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
This article is about Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan. For other organizations of similar name see Jamaat-e-Islami The Jamaat-e-Islami , is a Pro-Muslim political party in Pakistan...

, boycotted the elections to protest issues of the eligibility of President Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf , is a retired four-star general who served as the 13th Chief of Army Staff and tenth President of Pakistan as well as tenth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. Musharraf headed and led an administrative military government from October 1999 till August 2007. He ruled...

 and the restoration of the judiciary
2007 Pakistani state of emergency
A state of emergency was declared by Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf on November 3, 2007, and lasted until December 15, 2007,during which time the constitution of Pakistan was suspended....

.

Unlike the 2002 elections when the MMA swept national and provincial assemblies, in 2008 the JUI-F only won 6 general seats in the National Assembly, which garnered them 1 additional seat in the Women Reserved section, raising the total to 7 NA seats. In the provincial assemblies, it won 14 seats in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly, but could only muster 2 seats in the 371-seat Punjab Assembly. The party received strong support in Pakistan's western regions.