President of Pakistan

President of Pakistan

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The President of Pakistan (Urdū
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

: صدر مملیكت 'Sadr-e-Mumlikat') is the head of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

, as well as figurehead
Figurehead
A figurehead is a carved wooden decoration found at the prow of ships largely made between the 16th and 19th century.-History:Although earlier ships had often had some form of bow ornamentation A figurehead is a carved wooden decoration found at the prow of ships largely made between the 16th and...

, of the Islamic Republic
Islamic republic
Islamic republic is the name given to several states in the Muslim world including the Islamic Republics of Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Mauritania. Pakistan adopted the title under the constitution of 1956. Mauritania adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran adopted it after the 1979 Iranian...

 of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. Recently passed an XVIII Amendment (Eighteenth Amendment)
Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan
Amendment XVIII of the Constitution of Pakistan, was passed by the National Assembly of Pakistan on April 8, 2010, removing the power of the President of Pakistan to dissolve the Parliament unilaterally, turning Pakistan from a semi-presidential to a parliamentary republic, and renaming...

, Pakistan has a parliamentary
Parliamentary republic
A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a type of republic which operates under a parliamentary system of government - meaning a system with no clear-cut separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches. There are a number of variations of...

 democratic system
Parliamentary system
A parliamentary system is a system of government in which the ministers of the executive branch get their democratic legitimacy from the legislature and are accountable to that body, such that the executive and legislative branches are intertwined....

 of government. According to the Constitution
Constitution of Pakistan
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is the supreme law of Pakistan. Known as the Constitution of 1973, it was drafted by the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and, following additions by the opposition parties, was approved by the legislative assembly on April 10, 1973...

, the President
President
A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

 is chosen by the Electoral College
Electoral College of Pakistan
The President of Pakistan is chosen by an electoral college, in Pakistan. According to article 41 of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan, this electoral college consists of the Senate, the National Assembly of Pakistan, and the Members of the Provincial Assemblies. Members of the National Assembly...

 to serve a five-year term. The electoral college comprises the Senate
Senate of Pakistan
The Senate of Pakistan is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. Elections are held every three years for one half of the senate and each senator has a term of six years...

, National Assembly
National Assembly of Pakistan
The National Assembly of Pakistan is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also compromises the President of Pakistan and Senate . The National Assembly and the Senate both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad...

, and the provincial assemblies. The president may be re-elected but may not serve for more than two consecutive terms. The president may also be impeached
Impeachment
Impeachment is a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as other punishment....

 and subsequently removed from office by a two-thirds vote by Parliament
Majlis-e-Shoora
The Parliament of Pakistan, officially termed the Majlis-e-Shoora ; is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan. It is a bicameral federal legislature that consists of the Senate and the National Assembly, the upper and lower houses, respectively...

.

The position of president in Pakistan is traditionally one of a figurehead with actual central chief executive powers lying with the Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

 who led the appointments of many important government offices. However, at various times in history, often related with military coups
Coup d'état
A coup d'état state, literally: strike/blow of state)—also known as a coup, putsch, and overthrow—is the sudden, extrajudicial deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military—to replace the deposed government with another body; either...

 and the subsequent return of civilian governments, changes in the constitution have altered the powers and privileges associated with the office of the president. Under the XVII Amendment (Seventeenth Amendment) of the Constitution of Pakistan
Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan
The Constitution Act, 2003 was an amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan passed in December 2003, after over a year of political wrangling between supporters and opponents of Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf....

, the XVII gave the president reserve power
Reserve power
In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government. Unlike a presidential system of government, the head of state is generally constrained by the cabinet or the...

s - subject to Supreme Court
Supreme Court of Pakistan
The Supreme Court is the apex court in Pakistan's judicial hierarchy, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. The Supreme Court has a permanent seat in Islamabad. It has number of Branch Registries where cases are heard. It has a number of de jure powers which are outlined in the...

 approval or veto
Veto
A veto, Latin for "I forbid", is the power of an officer of the state to unilaterally stop an official action, especially enactment of a piece of legislation...

 - to dissolve the National Assembly, triggering new elections, and thereby to dismiss the Prime Minister. This act drafted and passed by General Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf , is a retired four-star general who served as the 13th Chief of Army Staff and tenth President of Pakistan as well as tenth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. Musharraf headed and led an administrative military government from October 1999 till August 2007. He ruled...

 and his government, politically enhanced the powers of President and put the country's system to semi-presidential system
Semi-presidential system
The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a president and a prime minister are both active participants in the day-to-day administration of the state...

.

However, in 2010, with the successful and unanimous passing of Amendment XVIII (the Eighteenth Amendment) of the Constitution of Pakistan
Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan
Amendment XVIII of the Constitution of Pakistan, was passed by the National Assembly of Pakistan on April 8, 2010, removing the power of the President of Pakistan to dissolve the Parliament unilaterally, turning Pakistan from a semi-presidential to a parliamentary republic, and renaming...

, the revers powers of President, and to dissolve the National Assembly, triggering new elections, and thereby to dismiss the Prime Minister— has been reverted by XVIII Amendment. The XVIII Amendment also put the country to the road to parliamentary democratic system. The current constitution allows President as figurehead with central and chief executive powers lays with the Prime minister. The President is the Chairman of the National Security Council
National Security Council of Pakistan
The Prime minister Secretariat National Security Council is a consultative body that is chaired by the President of Pakistan and Prime minister of Pakistan. It is a principal forum that is mandated for considering national security and foreign policy matters with the senior national security...

, with Prime minister as Vice-Chairman of the National Security Council. The President is also civilian Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Armed Forces, under advised and recommendation received by the Prime minister whose confirmation is also required, appoints the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee as well as Chiefs of the Army, Navy
Chief of Naval Staff (Pakistan)
The Chief of the Naval Staff, abbreviated as CNS, is the highest ranking officer in the Pakistani Navy unless a 4-star naval officer is appointed as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. The current Chief of the Naval Staff is Admiral Asif Sandila who commands the Navy. The CNS reports...

, Air Force
Chief of Air Staff (Pakistan)
The Chief of the Air Staff of the Pakistan Air Force, abbreviated as CAS, is typically the highest ranking 4-star rank officer in the Pakistan Air Force, unless a four-star officer is appointed as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. The CAS is a senior and permanent member of the...

 and Colonel-Commandant Marines
Pakistan Marines
The Pakistani Marines , are the Marine Corps and amphibious corps service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. The Pakistani Marines are a special military operations service branch of the Pakistani Navy and part of Pakistani Armed Forces, responsible for providing force projection from the sea,...

. The Official residence
Official residence
An official residence is the residence at which heads of state, heads of government, gubernatorial or other senior figures officially reside...

 and the Principal workplace of the President is the Presidency
Aiwan-e-Sadr
The Aiwan-e-Sadr or Presidency is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of Pakistan.The first President who used it was Ghulam Ishaq Khan, in 1988...

 in Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

.

History of the Presidency in Pakistan



East and West-Pakistan is the best


Following the successful imposition of the 1956 constitution
Constitution of Pakistan of 1956
The Constitution of 1956 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from March 1956 until the Revolution of October 1958.-Origins:Pakistan became independent of the United Kingdom in 1947. Under Section 8 of the Indian Independence Act, 1947, the Government of India Act, 1935 became, with certain...

, the office of Governor-General
Governor-General of Pakistan
The Governor-General of Pakistan was the representative in Pakistan of the Crown from the country's independence in 1947. When Pakistan was proclaimed a republic in 1956 the connection with the British monarchy ended, and the office of Governor-General was abolished.-History:Pakistan gained...

 was replaced with the President. The 1956 constitution provided Pakistan the parliamentary system, and Major-General (retired) Iskander Ali Mirza became country's first president, who was also at that time was the last Governor General. In 1958, Mirza abrogated the constitution and declared martial law
Martial law
Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis— only temporary—when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively , when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law...

, later suspend the constitution. Mirza appointed Army Commander-in-Chief General Ayub Khan as the first Chief Martial Law Administrator
Chief Martial Law Administrator
The office of the Chief Martial Law Administrator was a senior government post created in countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia that gave considerable executive authority and powers to the holder of the post to enforce martial law in the country. This office has been used mostly by...

 to impose the martial law. A few weeks later, Mirza was overthrown in a bloodless coup d'état
1958 Pakistani coup d'état
The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état refers to the events between October 7, when the President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution of Pakistan and declared martial law, and October 27, when Mirza himself was deposed by Gen. Ayub Khan, the Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistani Army...

 by General Ayub Khan, who then declared himself President. In 1962, the new constitution
Constitution of Pakistan of 1962
The Constitution of 1962 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from June 1962 until martial law was declared in March 1969. It was eventually replaced by the current Constitution of 1973.-Origins:...

 was revised and, the President's law drafting team made extension towards the constitution, and drove the country to became the Presidential republic, with Khan became the presidential ruler of Pakistan. The constitution also stipulated that the President should be elected by the people of Pakistan, and the calls of elections began to take place. Pressured and international calls forced President Khan to held the presidential elections therefore, elections
Pakistani presidential election, 1965
Presidential elections were held in Pakistan on 2 January 1965. The vote was held amongst the 80,000 "basic democrats", who were members of the urban and regional councils....

 were held in 1965. He faced a fierce opposition from sister of founder of Pakistan, dr. Fatima Jinnah
Fatima Jinnah
Fatima Jinnah , was one of the figurative and pioneering woman figure in Pakistan Movement and was the younger sister of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan. An active political figure in the movement for independence from the British Raj, she is commonly known in Pakistan as Khātūn-e...

, who managed to have support from all over the Pakistan.

Presidential system


Khan rigged the elections to defeated dr. Fatima Jinnah
Fatima Jinnah
Fatima Jinnah , was one of the figurative and pioneering woman figure in Pakistan Movement and was the younger sister of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan. An active political figure in the movement for independence from the British Raj, she is commonly known in Pakistan as Khātūn-e...

, and used the Corps of Military Police
Pakistan Army
The Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan...

 to crush the Urdu-speaking class who had been supportive towards the Jinnah. After this actions, Khan appointed the active duty officers in his presidency while he too was actively serving in the Army. After the 1965 fall war
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. This conflict became known as the Second Kashmir War fought by India and Pakistan over the disputed region of Kashmir, the first having been fought in 1947...

 with India, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

 and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was a Bengali nationalist politician and the founder of Bangladesh. He headed the Awami League, served as the first President of Bangladesh and later became its Prime Minister. He headed the Awami League, served as the first President of Bangladesh and later became its...

 increased the pressure on Khan, who widely believed that the elections were rigged, to step down. Both tapped the anti-Ayub wave in Pakistan, spontaneous and wide demonstration weakened the Military President. Soon Khan suffered an fierce attack of paralysis
Paralysis
Paralysis is loss of muscle function for one or more muscles. Paralysis can be accompanied by a loss of feeling in the affected area if there is sensory damage as well as motor. A study conducted by the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation, suggests that about 1 in 50 people have been diagnosed...

 and was unable to governed the country. Therefore, in 1969, Khan surrendered his power to his younger brother and Army Commander-in-Chief General Yahya Khan
Yahya Khan
General Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan Qizilbash, H.Pk, HJ, S.Pk, psc was the third President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan...

 who imposed the martial law, suspended the presidential constitution and became the military President and Chief Martial Law Administrator as well. However, calls for elections continued, the new military president promised to hold the elections in 1970. After the 1970 general elections
Pakistani general election, 1970
General elections were held for the first time in Pakistan in on 7 December 1970, although the polls in East Pakistan, originally scheduled for October, were delayed by disastrous floods and rescheduled for later in December and January 1971....

, General Khan illegally appointed Nurul Amin
Nurul Amin
Nurul Amin , was a prominent Bengali leader of Pakistan's Muslim League who served as the 8th Prime Minister of Pakistan, and the only first and the last Vice President of Pakistan from 1970 till 1971...

 as Vice-President of Pakistan and later gave the office of Prime minister secretariat
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

. Khan refused to leave the presidency and appoint Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

 as Vice-Prime minister and Mujib as Vice-President. Both Bhutto and Mujib refused to take these office, as these post were created illegally. Pressured and angered, Khan launched the military operations and ordered the arrests of Bhutto and Mujib at once. Khan soon faced a fierce war
Bangladesh Liberation War
The Bangladesh Liberation War was an armed conflict pitting East Pakistan and India against West Pakistan. The war resulted in the secession of East Pakistan, which became the independent nation of Bangladesh....

 in East Pakistan later another war
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. Indian, Bangladeshi and international sources consider the beginning of the war to be Operation Chengiz Khan, Pakistan's December 3, 1971 pre-emptive strike on 11 Indian airbases...

 in West Pakistan which ended his reign.

Parliamentary System



Isolated and devastated with the fall of United Pakistan, Khan stepped down after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. Indian, Bangladeshi and international sources consider the beginning of the war to be Operation Chengiz Khan, Pakistan's December 3, 1971 pre-emptive strike on 11 Indian airbases...

 and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto became the new President and first civilian chief martial law administrator. Bhutto made a move to put the country to the road to Parliamentary democracy as he approached to all of the political parties in Pakistan. In 1973, Bhutto made a breakthrough and presided the imposition of 1973 constitution. Imposition of this new constitution is considered Bhutto's and Pakistan's one of the landmark history, because this constitution reduced the presidency to a figurehead
Figurehead
A figurehead is a carved wooden decoration found at the prow of ships largely made between the 16th and 19th century.-History:Although earlier ships had often had some form of bow ornamentation A figurehead is a carved wooden decoration found at the prow of ships largely made between the 16th and...

, giving central executive powers to the Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto stepped down as President and became Prime Minister and took the control over the democratic country, symbolizing the transition. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was henceforth elected by legislative assembly members, not by popular vote. Popular vote would be used to directly elect the members of the National Assembly, including the Prime Minister.

Presidential system


On 5 July 1977, after unable to solve the civil unrest caused during the 1977 parliamentary elections
Pakistani general election, 1977
General elections were held in Pakistan on 7 March 1977. The result was a victory for the Pakistan People's Party, which won 155 of the 200 elected seats, including 19 that were uncontested as the Pakistan National Alliance boycotted the Balochistan elections due to ongoing military...

, the elected and populous Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was toppled by General Zia-ul-Haq in a military coup
Operation Fair Play
Operation Fairplay was the code-name for the coup d'etat conducted at midnight on July 4, 1977 by the Pakistan Army's 111th Infantry Brigade led by Chief of Army Staff General Zia-ul-Haq against the elected civilian government of then-Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.-1977 election:The coup was...

, who declared himself third Chief Martial Law Administrator (CMLA). General Zia suspended the constitution and enforced the martial law. General Zia refused to hold the elections, but due to international pressure, Zia held the referendum
Pakistani Islamisation programme referendum, 1984
A referendum on the Islamisation policy of President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was held in Pakistan on 19 December 1984. Voters were asked whether they supported Zia-ul-Haq's proposals for amending several laws in accordance with the Koran and Sunnah, whether they wanted this process to continue, and...

 and claimed to have won this referendum. Soon after he became President, the office of presidency again became the premier position in the Pakistan government, initially he disbanded the office of Prime minister. General Zia-ul-Haq introduced military-civil lawyers the VIII Amendment (Eighth Amendment) to the Constitution of Pakistan
Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan
The VIII Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, was short-time amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, which was passed by the Majlis-e-Shoora, in the absence of elected Parliament of Pakistan, in 1985. The VIII Amendment was drafted and later enforced by the joint Technocratic-Military...

, which gave reserve power
Reserve power
In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government. Unlike a presidential system of government, the head of state is generally constrained by the cabinet or the...

s to the President's office. General Zia also held the non-political 1985 elections
Pakistani general election, 1985
General elections were held in Pakistan on 28 February 1985. Around 1,300 candidates contested the election, which was held on a non-party basis. Voter turnout was 52.93%.-Results:...

 and re-established the office of Prime minister. The Military President hand-picked the Prime minister but faced a fierce opposition from the elected Prime minister who was calling for the return of parliamentary democracy. General Zia used his reserve powers given by XVIII Amendment and called for new elections in 1988. Following the mysterious deathof Zia-ul-Haq in 1988, new elections
Pakistani general election, 1988
General elections were held in Pakistan on 16 November 1988 to elect the National Assembly of Pakistan. The result was a victory for the Pakistan People's Party, which won 94 of the 207 seats...

 were held, and the the Prime minister office regained leadership of the country.

Semi-Presidential system


The new civilian President Ghulam Ishaq Khan
Ghulam Ishaq Khan
Ghulam Ishaq Khan , abbreviated as GIK, was the seventh President of Pakistan from August 17, 1988 until July 18, 1993 and a career statesman from the start to the end of cold war...

 made new amendments, putting the country to Semi-presidential system
Semi-presidential system
The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a president and a prime minister are both active participants in the day-to-day administration of the state...

, and repeatedly dismissed the governments of Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto was a democratic socialist who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from 1988 until 1990 and 1993 until 1996....

 and Nawaz Sharif
Nawaz Sharif
Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif is a Pakistani conservative politician and steel magnate who served as 12th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from November 1990 to July 1993, and from February 1997 to October 12, 1999...

 on nepotism and corruption. Soon, he was forced to resigned and kicked out of the office due to public pressure. After the 1993 elections
Pakistani general election, 1993
General elections were held in Pakistan on 6 October 1993. The election took place after both the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and President Ghulam Ishaq Khan resigned to resolve a power struggle between them. Although the Pakistan Muslim League won the largest number of votes, the Pakistan Peoples...

, Benazir Bhutto enjoyed the complete powers of Prime minister but was dismissed shortly after her own-handpicked President used the VIII Amendment.

Parliamentary System


In 1997, Nawaz Sharif secured both electoral and landslide victory on 1997 parliamentary elections
Pakistani general election, 1997
A general election was held in Pakistan on 3 February 1997 to elect the National Assembly of Pakistan and the four provincial assemblies. The election took place after the previous Pakistan Peoples Party government of Benazir Bhutto was dismissed by President Farooq Leghari for alleged corruption...

, receiving the 2/3 majority in the Parliament. Due to his majority, Parliament successfully passed the XIII Amendment (13th Amendment) to the Constitution of Pakistan
Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan
The XIII Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan was a short-time amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, adopted by the elected Parliament of Pakistan in 1997 by the government of people elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif...

 and XIV Amendment (14th Amendment) to the Constitution of Pakistan
Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan
The Constitution Act, 1997 was an amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan passed in 1997, during the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, leader of the Pakistan Muslim League party. It subjected Members of Parliament to very strict party discipline...

, successfully putting the country road back to Parliamentary democratic system. For the first time in the history of Pakistan, the office of Prime minister and Prime minister itself rose to became country's one of the powerful prime minister since its independence in 1947.

Semi-Presidential system


However, the 1999 coup of General Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf , is a retired four-star general who served as the 13th Chief of Army Staff and tenth President of Pakistan as well as tenth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. Musharraf headed and led an administrative military government from October 1999 till August 2007. He ruled...

 brought executive powers back to the President's office. Musharraf did not suspend the constitution, but managed to passed the PCO order, 1999
Provisional Constitutional Order
A Provisional Constitutional Order, or PCO, is an extra-constitutional order that suspends either wholly or partially the Constitution of Pakistan...

 and the LFO, 2002, allowing the president to make extensive changes in the constitution. In 2002, non-party national and provincial elections
Pakistani general election, 2002
General elections were held in Pakistan on 10 October 2002 during the military regime of Pervez Musharraf.-Parties and candidates:More than 70 parties, contested the election, the main parties were the Peoples Party Parliamentarians, Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz Group, Muttahida Quami Movement ,...

 were held in 2002. In December 2003, the XVII Amendment (17th Amendment) to the Constitution of Pakistan
Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan
The Constitution Act, 2003 was an amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan passed in December 2003, after over a year of political wrangling between supporters and opponents of Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf....

 fully restored the President's powers, but made the exercise of those powers subject to approval or veto within 30 days. In January 2004, the Electoral College of Pakistan gave Musharraf a vote of confidence, as result of which he was, according to the Constitution, "deemed to be unintelligent".

Fall of presidential system


In 2007, just before the expiration of his term, General Musharraf declared a state emergency and de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

martial law
Martial law
Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis— only temporary—when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively , when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law...

 on 3 November 2007, and purged the judiciary of all independent-minded judges, in particular Chief Justice Iftikhar Mohammad Chaudry, who were against him holding the offices of President and army chief together. Earlier in a presidential election, Musharraf was able to secure 57% of votes largely due to his supporters, and massive resignations of opposition members from the assemblies, on which a decision was pending by the superior court. After the emergency the newly constituted courts under Provisional Constitutional Order
Provisional Constitutional Order
A Provisional Constitutional Order, or PCO, is an extra-constitutional order that suspends either wholly or partially the Constitution of Pakistan...

 issued by Musharraf as army chief, validated the presidential election and declared Musharraf the winner, who in turn took oath for another five years term as President of Pakistan.

Some constitutional experts still dispute the validity of his election according to the constitution of Pakistan. However, this became more academic when Musharraf announced them unintelligent as well and then announced his resignation (with immediate effect) in a public broadcast on 18 August 2008. In accordance with the Pakistani constitution, the Chairman of the Senate took over as Acting President, but a permanent successor would have to be elected within 30 days by the Electoral College. The Electoral College comprises the combined membership of the Senate, the National Assembly and the four Provincial Assemblies. Pakistan's Election Commission on 22 August announced that Presidential elections will be held on 6 September, and the nomination papers can be filed from 26 August.

On 6 September 2008 Asif Ali Zardari
Asif Ali Zardari
Asif Ali Zardari is the 11th and current President of Pakistan and the Co-Chairman of the ruling Pakistan Peoples Party . He is also the widower of Benazir Bhutto, who served two nonconsecutive terms as Prime Minister....

 was elected Pakistan's 13th President since 1956. Chief election commissioner Qazi Mohammad Farooq announced that "Asif Ali Zardari secured 281 votes out of the 426 valid votes polled in the parliament". His two main opponents were Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui
Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui
Chief Justice Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui or Saeed-uz-zaman Siddiqui in Lukhnow, British India; is a Pakistani Jurist and legislator who formerly served as the Chief Justice of Pakistan at the Supreme Court of Pakistan...

, a former judge nominated by Nawaz Sharif
Nawaz Sharif
Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif is a Pakistani conservative politician and steel magnate who served as 12th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from November 1990 to July 1993, and from February 1997 to October 12, 1999...

's Pakistan Muslim League
Pakistan Muslim League
The Pakistan Muslim League was founded in 1962, as a successor to the previously disbanded Muslim League in Pakistan. Unlike the original PML which ended in 1958 when General Ayub Khan banned all political parties, each subsequent Muslim League was in some way propped by the military dictators of...

 (Nawaz) (PML-N), and Mushahid Hussain Sayed, who was nominated by the Pakistan Muslim League
Pakistan Muslim League
The Pakistan Muslim League was founded in 1962, as a successor to the previously disbanded Muslim League in Pakistan. Unlike the original PML which ended in 1958 when General Ayub Khan banned all political parties, each subsequent Muslim League was in some way propped by the military dictators of...

 that backed Musharraf. In Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

, Zardari had 62 of the 65 electoral votes while his 2 main opponents got no electoral votes; in North West Frontier Province Zardari got 56 votes against 5 by Siddiqui and one by Hussain; in Baluchistan, 59 votes while Siddiqui and Hussain got 2 each. BBC
BBC
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

 reported that Zardari "won 459 votes, far more than the 352 votes that would have guaranteed him victory." The New York Times
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper founded and continuously published in New York City since 1851. The New York Times has won 106 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of any news organization...

said that Zardari would be sworn in "as soon as Saturday night or as late as Monday or Tuesday, diplomats and officials said." The election was overshadowed by the death of 12 people, after a suicide
Suicide
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death. Suicide is often committed out of despair or attributed to some underlying mental disorder, such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, alcoholism, or drug abuse...

 car bomber blasted a security checkpoint on the outskirts of Peshawar
Peshawar
Peshawar is the capital of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and the administrative center and central economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan....

.

Back to Parliamentary system


On 9 September 2008, Asif Ali Zardari
Asif Ali Zardari
Asif Ali Zardari is the 11th and current President of Pakistan and the Co-Chairman of the ruling Pakistan Peoples Party . He is also the widower of Benazir Bhutto, who served two nonconsecutive terms as Prime Minister....

 was sworn in as President of Pakistan. Zardari took the oath from the Chief Justice of Pakistan, Abdul Hameed Dogar. The conservative Pakistan Muslim League (N)
Pakistan Muslim League (N)
The Pakistan Muslim League is a conservative political party in Pakistan, affiliated with Western conservatism...

 and the ruling party Pakistan Peoples Party
Pakistan Peoples Party
The Pakistan Peoples Party , is a democratic socialist political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist International. Pakistan People's Party is the largest political party of Pakistan...

's members began to call to impose the constitution of 1973 in its real picture as it was in 1973. The religious conservative MMA
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal is a coalition of Islamist parties that was formed in 2002 to electorally challenge the Pakistan Parliament's incumbent parties...

, the leftist socialist Awami National Party
Awami National Party
The Awami National Party is an Pashtun nationalist, socialist, centre-left political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist International...

, the liberal-seculars MQM
Muttahida Qaumi Movement
Muttahida Qaumi Movement generally known as MQM, is a liberal-secular political party of Pakistan. It is generally known as a party which holds immense mobilizing potential in province of Sindh...

 joined hands with the Pakistan Muslim League to drive the country back to parliamentary system of 1997. In 2010, the Parliament unanimously and with heavy majority, passed the XVIII Amendment (18th Amendment) to the Constitution of Pakistan
Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan
Amendment XVIII of the Constitution of Pakistan, was passed by the National Assembly of Pakistan on April 8, 2010, removing the power of the President of Pakistan to dissolve the Parliament unilaterally, turning Pakistan from a semi-presidential to a parliamentary republic, and renaming...

, reducing and dissolving all of the presidential powers, and turning Pakistan from a semi-presidential to a parliamentary republic. The package countered and successfully reverted and dissolved the sweeping powers amassed by the Presidency under former Presidents General Pervez Musharraf and General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq and to ease political instability in Pakistan.

Line of succession to President of Pakistan


Pakistan has a parliamentary system of government that has been modified several times since its inception.

Article 49 of the Constitution
Constitution of Pakistan
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is the supreme law of Pakistan. Known as the Constitution of 1973, it was drafted by the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and, following additions by the opposition parties, was approved by the legislative assembly on April 10, 1973...

 discusses the possibility of an acting president.
The constitution does not allow for a Vice President, but the Chairman
Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan
The current Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan is Farooq Naek since 12 March, 2009.The first Chairman of the Senate was Justice Khan Habibullah Khan Marwat.-History:...

 of the Senate
Senate of Pakistan
The Senate of Pakistan is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. Elections are held every three years for one half of the senate and each senator has a term of six years...

 can act as an 'Acting President' in absence of President or if President's office stands vacant.

List of Presidents of Pakistan


The head of state of Pakistan before 1956 was the British Monarch. For the Governors-General who represented them from 1947 to 1956, see Governor-General of Pakistan
Governor-General of Pakistan
The Governor-General of Pakistan was the representative in Pakistan of the Crown from the country's independence in 1947. When Pakistan was proclaimed a republic in 1956 the connection with the British monarchy ended, and the office of Governor-General was abolished.-History:Pakistan gained...

.

See also


  • Pakistan
    Pakistan
    Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

  • Prime Minister of Pakistan
    Prime Minister of Pakistan
    The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

  • Chief Justice of Pakistan
  • Chief Justice of the Federal Shariat Court
  • Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army
    Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army
    The Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan Army, shortly abbreviated as COAS, is the highest staff post in the Pakistan Army, held by the senior 4-star rank officer. It is the highest and most prestigious 4-star assignment, unless the 4-star officer is appointed as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of...

  • Constitution of Pakistan
    Constitution of Pakistan
    The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is the supreme law of Pakistan. Known as the Constitution of 1973, it was drafted by the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and, following additions by the opposition parties, was approved by the legislative assembly on April 10, 1973...

  • Foreign Minister of Pakistan
    Foreign Minister of Pakistan
    The Foreign Minister of Pakistan heads the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The current Foreign Minister is Hina Rabbani Khar who took office as Minister of State for Foreign Affairs on 11 February 2011, and as full Minister of Foreign Affairs on 20 July, 2011...

  • Finance Minister of Pakistan
    Finance Minister of Pakistan
    The Finance Minister of Pakistan heads the Ministry of Finance and serves in the Prime Minister's cabinet. The Minister is required to be a member of the Parliament.The current finance minister is Abdul Hafeez Shaikh...

  • Interior Minister of Pakistan
  • Defence Minister of Pakistan
    Defence Minister of Pakistan
    The Defence Minister of Pakistan heads the Ministry of Defence, under which serve the three armed forces of the country, Pakistan Army, Pakistan Air Force, and Pakistan Navy...


External links