Lucien Bouchard
Lucien Bouchard, is a Canadian lawyer, diplomat, politician
A politician, political leader, or political figure is an individual who is involved in influencing public policy and decision making...

 and former Minister of the Environment of the Canadian Federal Government
Government of Canada
The Government of Canada, formally Her Majesty's Government, is the system whereby the federation of Canada is administered by a common authority; in Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or specifically the Queen-in-Council...

. He was the Leader of Opposition
Leader of the Opposition (Canada)
The Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition , or simply the Leader of the Opposition is the leader of Canada's Official Opposition, the party with the most seats in the House of Commons that is not a member of the government...

 in the Canadian House of Commons
Canadian House of Commons
The House of Commons of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign and the Senate. The House of Commons is a democratically elected body, consisting of 308 members known as Members of Parliament...

 from 1993 to 1996, and the 27th Premier of Quebec
Premier of Quebec
The Premier of Quebec is the first minister of the Canadian province of Quebec. The Premier is the province's head of government and his title is Premier and President of the Executive Council....

 from January 29, 1996 to March 8, 2001. He became a central figure for the "Yes" side in the 1995 Quebec referendum
1995 Quebec referendum
The 1995 Quebec referendum was the second referendum to ask voters in the Canadian province of Quebec whether Quebec should secede from Canada and become an independent state, through the question:...


He is a recipient of the title of Commander of the Légion d'Honneur
Légion d'honneur
The Legion of Honour, or in full the National Order of the Legion of Honour is a French order established by Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of the Consulat which succeeded to the First Republic, on 19 May 1802...


Early life

Bouchard was born in Saint-Cœur-de-Marie, Québec, the son of Alice (née Simard) and Philippe Bouchard. His brother is a historian Gérard Bouchard
Gérard Bouchard
Gérard Bouchard is a historian, sociologist and writer from Quebec, Canada, affiliated with the Université du Québec à Chicoutimi. Born in Jonquière, Quebec, he obtained his master's degree in sociology from Université Laval in 1968 and later obtained his PhD degree in history from the University...

. Lucien Bouchard graduated from Jonquière Classical College in 1959, and obtained a Bachelor's degree in social science and a law degree at Université Laval
Université Laval
Laval University is the oldest centre of education in Canada and was the first institution in North America to offer higher education in French...

 in 1964. He was called to the Quebec bar
Barreau du Quebec
The Bar of Quebec is the provincial law society for lawyers in Quebec, Canada...

 later that year.

He practised law in Chicoutimi
Chicoutimi, Quebec
Chicoutimi is one of the three boroughs of Saguenay, Quebec, Canada, and was a separate city in its own right until 2002. Chicoutimi had a population of 59,764 in the Canada 2001 Census, the last census in which Chicoutimi was counted as a separate city....

 until 1985, while being given many charges as a public servant over the years: president of the arbitration committee for the education sector (1970 to 1976), prosecutor in chief for the commission for labour and industry (Cliche commission, 1974-75), co-president of the study commission on the public and parapublic sectors (Martin-Bouchard commission — 1975). From then, he acted as a coordinator or member of many special teams on behalf of Quebec's government
Government of Quebec
The Government of Quebec refers to the provincial government of the province of Quebec. Its powers and structure are set out in the Constitution Act, 1867....

 in the trade union
Trade union
A trade union, trades union or labor union is an organization of workers that have banded together to achieve common goals such as better working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with...

 negotiations for the public sector.

Early years in politics and diplomacy

Bouchard's relationship with politics is a complex one, as he affiliated himself over the years with various political parties
Political party
A political party is a political organization that typically seeks to influence government policy, usually by nominating their own candidates and trying to seat them in political office. Parties participate in electoral campaigns, educational outreach or protest actions...

 with highly diverging ideologies
An ideology is a set of ideas that constitutes one's goals, expectations, and actions. An ideology can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, as a way of looking at things , as in common sense and several philosophical tendencies , or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to...

, going as far as founding one, the Bloc Québécois
Bloc Québécois
The Bloc Québécois is a federal political party in Canada devoted to the protection of Quebec's interests in the House of Commons of Canada, and the promotion of Quebec sovereignty. The Bloc was originally a party made of Quebec nationalists who defected from the federal Progressive Conservative...


Bouchard has been a Quebec nationalist
Quebec nationalism
Quebec nationalism is a nationalist movement in the Canadian province of Quebec .-1534–1774:Canada was first a french colony. Jacques Cartier claimed it for France in 1534, and permanent French settlement began in 1608. It was part of New France, which constituted all French colonies in North America...

 during his entire political career. Contrary to popular belief, during the 1970 Quebec general election
Quebec general election, 1970
The Quebec general election of 1970 was held on April 29, 1970 to elect members of the National Assembly of Quebec, Canada. The former Legislative Assembly had been renamed the "National Assembly" in 1968...

, he did not work for the federalist Liberal Party of Quebec
Parti libéral du Québec
The Quebec Liberal Party is a centre-right political party in Quebec. It has been independent of the federal Liberal Party of Canada since 1955....

; but, was deeply shaken by the events of Quebec's October Crisis
October Crisis
The October Crisis was a series of events triggered by two kidnappings of government officials by members of the Front de libération du Québec during October 1970 in the province of Quebec, mainly in the Montreal metropolitan area.The circumstances ultimately culminated in the only peacetime use...

, especially by Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Canada
The Prime Minister of Canada is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus head of government for Canada, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or viceroy on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution...

 Pierre Trudeau
Pierre Trudeau
Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau, , usually known as Pierre Trudeau or Pierre Elliott Trudeau, was the 15th Prime Minister of Canada from April 20, 1968 to June 4, 1979, and again from March 3, 1980 to June 30, 1984.Trudeau began his political career campaigning for socialist ideals,...

's imposition of the War Measures Act
War Measures Act
The War Measures Act was a Canadian statute that allowed the government to assume sweeping emergency powers in the event of "war, invasion or insurrection, real or apprehended"...

 requested by then Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa
Robert Bourassa
Jean-Robert Bourassa, was a politician in Quebec, Canada. He served as the 22nd Premier of Quebec in two different mandates, first from May 12, 1970, to November 25, 1976, and then from December 12, 1985, to January 11, 1994, serving a total of just under 15 years as Provincial Premier.-Early...


Bouchard worked with the "Yes" side during the 1980 Quebec referendum
1980 Quebec referendum
The 1980 Quebec referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the place of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty. The referendum was called by Quebec's Parti Québécois government, which strongly favoured secession from Canada...

 on sovereignty. In 1984 Brian Mulroney
Brian Mulroney
Martin Brian Mulroney, was the 18th Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. His tenure as Prime Minister was marked by the introduction of major economic reforms, such as the Canada-U.S...

, Bouchard's close friend from his law school days at Université Laval, became Canadian Prime Minister. Mulroney would go on to ask Bouchard to serve in various official capacities, including (in 1985) as Canadian ambassador to France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

. In 1988, Bouchard returned to Canada to serve as Mulroney's Quebec lieutenant
Quebec lieutenant
In Canadian politics, a Quebec lieutenant is a politician, from Quebec, usually a francophone and most often a Member of Parliament or at least a current or former candidate for Parliament, who is selected by a senior politician such as the Prime Minister or the leader of a national federal party,...

, and was elected as a Progressive Conservative
Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada was a Canadian political party with a centre-right stance on economic issues and, after the 1970s, a centrist stance on social issues....

 from a Saguenay
Saguenay River
The Saguenay River is a major river of Quebec, Canada.It drains Lac Saint-Jean in the Laurentian Highlands, leaving at Alma and running east, and passes the city of Saguenay. It drains into the Saint Lawrence River at Tadoussac....

-area riding. He was immediately named to Cabinet as Secretary of State and later Minister of the Environment.

While still a strong Quebec nationalist, he believed that Mulroney's Meech Lake Accord
Meech Lake Accord
The Meech Lake Accord was a package of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and ten provincial premiers. It was intended to persuade the government of the Province of Quebec to endorse the 1982 Canadian Constitution and increase...

 was sufficient to placate nationalist feelings and keep Quebec in Confederation. However, after a commission headed by Jean Charest
Jean Charest
John James "Jean" Charest, PC, MNA is a Canadian politician who has been the 29th Premier of Quebec since 2003. He was leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1993 to 1998 and has been leader of the Quebec Liberal Party since 1998....

 recommended some changes to the Accord, Bouchard left the Progressive Conservatives in May 1990, feeling that the spirit and objectives of Meech were being diluted. Mulroney rejected his reasoning, later commenting that his most regrettable and costly error as Prime Minister was having trusted Bouchard.

Bouchard sat as an independent for a few months. After the failure of the Meech Lake Accord, Bouchard formed the sovereigntist Bloc Québécois
Bloc Québécois
The Bloc Québécois is a federal political party in Canada devoted to the protection of Quebec's interests in the House of Commons of Canada, and the promotion of Quebec sovereignty. The Bloc was originally a party made of Quebec nationalists who defected from the federal Progressive Conservative...

 with five former Tories and two former Liberals.

The Parti Québécois
Parti Québécois
The Parti Québécois is a centre-left political party that advocates national sovereignty for the province of Quebec and secession from Canada. The Party traditionally has support from the labour movement. Unlike many other social-democratic parties, its ties with the labour movement are informal...

 campaigned for the Bloc in the 1993 federal election
Canadian federal election, 1993
The Canadian federal election of 1993 was held on October 25 of that year to elect members to the Canadian House of Commons of the 35th Parliament of Canada. Fourteen parties competed for the 295 seats in the House at that time...

 in order to prepare Quebec for sovereignty, according to the Three Periods strategy
The Three Periods
The Three Periods is a Quebec sovereigntist strategy. Before the 1993 federal election in Canada, Parti Québécois leader Jacques Parizeau evoked a strategy for attainment of Quebec independence called the Three Periods. The strategy is partly inspired by the three periods of play in ice hockey...

 of PQ leader Jacques Parizeau
Jacques Parizeau
Jacques Parizeau, is an economist and noted Quebec sovereignist who was the 26th Premier of the Canadian province of Quebec from September 26, 1994 to January 29, 1996.-Early life and career:...

. In this election, the Bloc Québécois won 54 out of 75 ridings in Quebec, the second most populous province in Canada. Despite only running candidates in Quebec, the Bloc's strong showing was enough to win the second greatest number of seats in the country's federal election. Bouchard became the first separatist leader of the Opposition
Leader of the Opposition (Canada)
The Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition , or simply the Leader of the Opposition is the leader of Canada's Official Opposition, the party with the most seats in the House of Commons that is not a member of the government...

 in the history of Canada.

Bouchard was still serving in that capacity in Ottawa, and working closely with the provincial Parti Québécois
Parti Québécois
The Parti Québécois is a centre-left political party that advocates national sovereignty for the province of Quebec and secession from Canada. The Party traditionally has support from the labour movement. Unlike many other social-democratic parties, its ties with the labour movement are informal...

 to bring about the independence of Quebec, when he lost a leg to necrotizing fasciitis
Necrotizing fasciitis
Necrotizing fasciitis , commonly known as flesh-eating disease or Flesh-eating bacteria syndrome, is a rare infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues, easily spreading across the fascial plane within the subcutaneous tissue.Necrotizing fasciitis is a quickly progressing and...

 ("flesh-eating disease") in December 1994.

Referendum on sovereignty

In 1995, Bouchard signed, as Bloc leader, a tripartite agreement with Parti Québécois leader Jacques Parizeau and Action démocratique
Action démocratique du Québec
The Action démocratique du Québec, commonly referred to as the ADQ is a centre-right political party in Quebec, Canada. On the sovereignty question, it defines itself as autonomist, and has support from both soft nationalists and federalists....

 leader Mario Dumont
Mario Dumont
Mario Dumont is a television personality and former politician in the province of Quebec. He was a Member of the National Assembly of Quebec , and the leader of the Action démocratique du Québec , from 1994 to 2009...

, which mapped the way to the referendum
1995 Quebec referendum
The 1995 Quebec referendum was the second referendum to ask voters in the Canadian province of Quebec whether Quebec should secede from Canada and become an independent state, through the question:...

 on independence. He was instrumental in convincing Parizeau to include a plan of association with Canada in the referendum question. He campaigned with the other two leaders for the "Yes" side. Quebec premier Jacques Parizeau first led the "Yes" campaign but, as support for sovereignty began to plateau, Bouchard was given the official leadership. The referendum was extremely narrowly defeated by a majority vote of 50.58% to 49.42%.

Premier of Quebec

After the Yes side lost the 1995 referendum, Parizeau resigned as Quebec premier. Bouchard resigned his seat in Parliament in 1996, and became the leader of the Parti Québécois and premier of Quebec. On the matter of sovereignty, while in office, he stated that no new referendum would be held, at least for the time being. A main concern of the Bouchard government, considered part of the necessary "conditions gagnantes" ("winning conditions" for the feasibility of a new referendum on sovereignty), was economic recovery through the achievement of "zero deficit". Long-term Keynesian policies resulting from the "Quebec model", developed by both PQ governments in the past and the previous Liberal government had left a substantial deficit in the provincial budget.


Bouchard retired from politics in 2001, and was replaced as Quebec premier by Bernard Landry
Bernard Landry
Bernard Landry, is a Quebec lawyer, teacher, politician, who served as the 28th Premier of Quebec , leader of the Opposition and leader of the Parti Québécois .-Personal:...

. He stated that his relative failure to revive the sovereignist flame was a cause of his departure, something for which he took responsibility. Others have speculated that the Michaud Affair
Michaud Affair
The Michaud Affair was a political controversy in Quebec that began in 2000. It revolved around the comments of Parti Québécois supporter Yves Michaud, those of the Quebec Jewish community and the subsequent censure motion from the National Assembly of Quebec members of parliament.-CKAC...

, regarding allegedly anti-Semitic comments by Parti Québécois candidate Yves Michaud
Yves Michaud
Yves Michaud is a prominent Quebec public figure, a sovereignist and pur et dur supporter of the Parti Québécois.-Background:...

, was another factor favouring Bouchard's departure.

He returned to practising law by becoming a partner at Davies Ward Phillips & Vineberg
Davies Ward Phillips & Vineberg
Davies Ward Phillips & Vineberg LLP is an integrated firm of more than 240 lawyers with offices in Toronto, Montreal, and New York. It is one of the Toronto law firms known as the Seven Sisters. Davies focuses on business law and is consistently at the heart of large and complex commercial and...

, where he specializes in commercial and corporate law. He served as a negotiator in high-profile labour and commercial disputes, most recently for Olymel and the Société des alcools du Québec (Quebec Liquor Board) during a strike that lasted six months. He is chairman of the Montreal Symphony Orchestra
Montreal Symphony Orchestra
Orchestre symphonique de Montréal is a symphony orchestra based in Montréal, Québec, Canada, with Montréal's Place des Arts as its home.-History:...

 and sits on the board of Transcontinental G.T.C. Limited, Saputo Inc., Groupe BMTC and Groupe Conseil Dessau-Soprin. In April 2004, he helped launch the Centre for International Studies of the Université de Montréal
Université de Montréal
The Université de Montréal is a public francophone research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It comprises thirteen faculties, more than sixty departments and two affiliated schools: the École Polytechnique and HEC Montréal...

 (CÉRIUM), of which he is a board member.

He is now President of the Quebec Oil and Gas Association.

Personal life

He separated from his second wife, Audrey Best (1960-2011), a Côte d'Azur
French Riviera
The Côte d'Azur, pronounced , often known in English as the French Riviera , is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France, also including the sovereign state of Monaco...

-born California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

-reared airline stewardess, who later became a lawyer, whom he met on an international flight. She was the daughter of James Best, a U.S. Navy officer, and his French wife, Marie-Josée Massay.

Lucien and Audrey Bouchard had two sons, Alexandre and Simon, who hold dual Canadian-United States citizenship. Audrey Best held dual United States-France citizenship. She died on January 25, 2011, aged 50, from breast cancer
Breast cancer
Breast cancer is cancer originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. Cancers originating from ducts are known as ductal carcinomas; those originating from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas...

He has 2 children from his first marriage.

"Pour un Québec lucide"

On October 19, 2005, Bouchard and eleven other Quebecers of different backgrounds and political aspirations published a manifesto entitled "Pour un Québec lucide
Pour un Québec lucide
Pour un Québec lucide is a manifesto signed by 12 prominent Quebecers, including former premier Lucien Bouchard. Published on October 19, 2005, the manifesto tackled issues facing modern Quebec, highlighting Quebec's fiscal problems and promoting unpopular solutions including raising university...

" ("For a clear-eyed vision of Quebec"). The manifesto warned Quebec's aging population about the challenges the future poses, demographically, economically and culturally. It made a certain impression on the Parti Québécois leadership race of 2005
Parti Québécois leadership election, 2005
The Parti Québécois leadership election of 2005 was held from November 13 to November 15, 2005 to elect the new leader of the Parti Québécois, the main sovereigntist and social democratic political party in Quebec, Canada....

, getting mixed reactions. It was well received in other quarters, garnering praise on the editorial page of The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail is a nationally distributed Canadian newspaper, based in Toronto and printed in six cities across the country. With a weekly readership of approximately 1 million, it is Canada's largest-circulation national newspaper and second-largest daily newspaper after the Toronto Star...


On October 16, 2006, Bouchard declared to TVA news reporter Paul Larocque, that the population of the province is not working enough and that it should be more productive in order to produce more resources for the population. He also added that his generation had contracted 75% of the province's current debt and that the future generations should not be handling the burden of paying for the previous ones.


Not long before the 1995 referendum, Bouchard drew considerable ire when he said on October 14, 1995, "We're one of the white races that has the fewest children." Liza Frulla
Liza Frulla
Liza Frulla, PC , also formerly known as Liza Frulla-Hébert, is a former Canadian politician. She was a Quebec Liberal Party MNA in the National Assembly of Quebec from 1989 to 1998, and a Liberal Member of Parliament from 2002 to 2006.From 1974 to 1976, she worked for the public affairs service...

, former Quebec culture minister commented, "We were shocked and hurt by Mr. Bouchard's various comments over the weekend. … He is insulting our intelligence."

He also refused funding to the Montreal Expos
Montreal Expos
The Montreal Expos were a Major League Baseball team located in Montreal, Quebec from 1969 through 2004, holding the first MLB franchise awarded outside the United States. After the 2004 season, MLB moved the Expos to Washington, D.C. and renamed them the Nationals.Named after the Expo 67 World's...

 to build a proposed Labatt Field. The stadium reportedly would have played a major role in helping the Expos stay in Montreal.


His government implemented some controversial policies, including cuts to the province's health care
Health care
Health care is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. Health care is delivered by practitioners in medicine, chiropractic, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, allied health, and other care providers...

 spending in order to balance the deficit provincial budget, and the amalgamation of Quebec's larger cities undertaken by his successor Bernard Landry
Bernard Landry
Bernard Landry, is a Quebec lawyer, teacher, politician, who served as the 28th Premier of Quebec , leader of the Opposition and leader of the Parti Québécois .-Personal:...

. Other aspects of his legacy include the creation of a low-cost, universal public daycare system, the birth of Emploi Québec, and achieving a balanced budget. He is remembered for his sometimes "short fuse" when provoked and his unforgiving demands for excellence in those he worked with, but also for his charm and eloquence, and was appreciated as a formidable foe by his political adversaries. Bouchard has stated that he will not return to politics.


  • More than ever, it will be imperative to remind all that the sovereignist way is one of generosity, of tolerance, and openness.
    • "Plus que jamais, il faudra rappeler que la démarche souverainiste en est une de générosité, de tolérance, et d'ouverture."

  • The people of Quebec possess all the assets to achieve an enviable place in the concert of nations (i.e., the international community). At the only condition of repatriating all of its public resources, rather than dispersing them on two conflicting fronts.
    • "Le peuple québécois possède tous les atouts pour se tailler une place enviable dans le concert des nations. À la seule condition de rapatrier toutes ses ressources publiques, plutôt que de les disperser sur deux fronts conflictuels."

  • Interview with TVA reporter Paul Larocque on October 16, 2006:
  • There is a certain distress, a certain stagnation [in Quebec]. It is a comfort which is dangerous, because it holds the future for us which will not be comfortable and which will be very very difficult. (…) Quebec's great project of tomorrow needs to be conceived.
    • "Il y a un certain désarroi, un certain sur-place [au Québec]. C'est un confort qui est dangereux, parce qu'il nous réserve des lendemains qui ne seront pas confortables, qui vont être très très difficiles. (…) Le grand projet du Québec de demain, il faut le concevoir."

  • During the referendum campaign, October 14, 1995:
  • There is something magical about a Yes vote. With a wave of our magic wand, we will stir up a feeling of solidarity among Quebecers.
    • "Le oui a quelque chose de magique. D'un coup de baguette, nous allons provoquer la solidarité des Québécois."

Elections as party leader

He won the 1998 election
Quebec general election, 1998
The Quebec general election of 1998 was held on November 30, 1998, to elect members of the National Assembly of the Province of Quebec, Canada. The incumbent Parti Québécois, led by Lucien Bouchard, won re-election, defeating the Quebec Liberal Party, led by Jean Charest.After the narrow defeat of...

 and resigned in 2001.


  • Member of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada
    Queen's Privy Council for Canada
    The Queen's Privy Council for Canada ), sometimes called Her Majesty's Privy Council for Canada or simply the Privy Council, is the full group of personal consultants to the monarch of Canada on state and constitutional affairs, though responsible government requires the sovereign or her viceroy,...

  • 125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal
    125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal
    The 125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal is a commemorative medal struck by the Royal Canadian Mint celebrating the 125th anniversary of the Confederation of Canada...

  • Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal
    Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal
    The Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal was a commemorative medal created in 2002 to mark the 50th anniversary of the accession to the throne of Queen Elizabeth II...

  • Commander of the Legion of Honour (2002)
  • Grand Commander of the National Order of Quebec
    National Order of Quebec
    The National Order of Quebec, termed officially in French as l'Ordre national du Québec, and in English abbreviation as the Order of Quebec, is a civilian honour for merit in the Canadian province of Quebec...


See also

  • List of Quebec premiers
  • Nicknames of Quebec premiers
  • Quebec sovereignty movement
    Quebec sovereignty movement
    The Quebec sovereignty movement refers to both the political movement and the ideology of values, concepts and ideas that promote the secession of the province of Quebec from the rest of Canada...

  • History of Quebec
    History of Quebec
    Quebec has played a special role in Canadian history; it is the site where French settlers founded the colony of Canada in the 17th and 18th centuries.-Paleoindian Era :...

  • Politics of Quebec
    Politics of Quebec
    The politics of Quebec are centred on a provincial government resembling that of the other Canadian provinces, namely a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. The capital of the province is Quebec City, where the Lieutenant Governor, Premier, the legislature, and cabinet reside.The...

  • Politics of Canada
    Politics of Canada
    The politics of Canada function within a framework of parliamentary democracy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. Canada is a constitutional monarchy, in which the Monarch is head of state...

In English

  • Marsh, James (2008) "Bouchard, Lucien", The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation
  • Martin, Lawrence (1997). The Antagonist: Lucien Bouchard and the Politics of Delusion, Toronto: Viking
  • Cornellier, Manon (1995). The Bloc, Toronto: James Lorimer & Co. [translated by Robert Chodos, Simon Horn and Wanda Taylor]
  • Bouchard, Lucien (1994). On the Record, Toronto: Stoddart [translated by Dominique Clift]

In French


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