Kinshasa

Kinshasa

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Kinshasa is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a state located in Central Africa. It is the second largest country in Africa by area and the eleventh largest in the world...

. The city is located on the Congo River
Congo River
The Congo River is a river in Africa, and is the deepest river in the world, with measured depths in excess of . It is the second largest river in the world by volume of water discharged, though it has only one-fifth the volume of the world's largest river, the Amazon...

.

Once a site of fishing villages, Kinshasa is now an urban area with a population of over 10 million inhabitants. It faces the capital of the neighbouring Republic of Congo, Brazzaville
Brazzaville
-Transport:The city is home to Maya-Maya Airport and a railway station on the Congo-Ocean Railway. It is also an important river port, with ferries sailing to Kinshasa and to Bangui via Impfondo...

 which can be seen in the distance across the wide Congo River
Congo River
The Congo River is a river in Africa, and is the deepest river in the world, with measured depths in excess of . It is the second largest river in the world by volume of water discharged, though it has only one-fifth the volume of the world's largest river, the Amazon...

. Because the administrative boundaries cover such a vast area, over 60% of the city's land is rural in nature, and the urban area only occupies a small section in the far western end of the province.

Kinshasa holds the status of the third largest city in Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

, after Cairo
Cairo
Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

 and Lagos
Lagos
Lagos is a port and the most populous conurbation in Nigeria. With a population of 7,937,932, it is currently the third most populous city in Africa after Cairo and Kinshasa, and currently estimated to be the second fastest growing city in Africa...

. Although it has no significant native French speaking population, it is the largest officially francophone
Francophone
The adjective francophone means French-speaking, typically as primary language, whether referring to individuals, groups, or places. Often, the word is used as a noun to describe a natively French-speaking person....

 city in the world, before Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 and Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, inasmuch as French is the language of government and commerce, and is used as a lingua franca
Lingua franca
A lingua franca is a language systematically used to make communication possible between people not sharing a mother tongue, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both mother tongues.-Characteristics:"Lingua franca" is a functionally defined term, independent of the linguistic...

. If current demographic trends continue, Kinshasa will surpass Paris in population before 2020.

Residents of Kinshasa are known as Kinois (French) or Kinshasans (English).

History



The city was founded as a trading post by Henry Morton Stanley
Henry Morton Stanley
Sir Henry Morton Stanley, GCB, born John Rowlands , was a Welsh journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. Upon finding Livingstone, Stanley allegedly uttered the now-famous greeting, "Dr...

 in 1881 and named Léopoldville in honor of King Leopold II of Belgium
Leopold II of Belgium
Leopold II was the second king of the Belgians. Born in Brussels the second son of Leopold I and Louise-Marie of Orléans, he succeeded his father to the throne on 17 December 1865 and remained king until his death.Leopold is chiefly remembered as the founder and sole owner of the Congo Free...

, who controlled the vast territory that is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, not as a colony but as a private property. The post flourished as the first navigable port on the Congo River above Livingstone Falls
Livingstone Falls
Livingstone Falls — named for the explorer David Livingstone — are a succession of enormous rapids on the lower course of the Congo River in west equatorial Africa, downstream from Malebo Pool in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.-Description:Livingstone Falls consist of a series of rapids...

, a series of rapids over 300 kilometres (186.4 mi) below Leopoldville. At first, all goods arriving by sea or being sent by sea had to be carried by porters between Léopoldville and Matadi
Matadi
Matadi is the chief sea port of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the capital of the Bas-Congo province. It has a population of 245,862 . Matadi is situated on the left bank of the Congo River from the mouth and below the last navigable point before rapids make the river impassable for a...

, the port below the rapids and 150 km (93 mi) from the coast. The completion of the Matadi-Kinshasa
Matadi-Kinshasa Railway
The Matadi-Kinshasa Railway is a railway line in Bas-Congo Province between the port of Matadi and Kinshasa, the capital of Democratic Republic of the Congo.The Matadi-Kinshasa Railway was built from 1890 to 1898...

 portage railway
Portage railway
A portage railway is a short and possibly isolated section of railway used to bypass a section of unnavigable river or between two water bodies which are not directly connected...

 in 1898 provided a faster and more efficient alternative route around the rapids and sparked the rapid development of Léopoldville. By 1920, the city was elevated to capital of the Belgian Congo
Belgian Congo
The Belgian Congo was the formal title of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo between King Leopold II's formal relinquishment of his personal control over the state to Belgium on 15 November 1908, and Congolese independence on 30 June 1960.-Congo Free State, 1884–1908:Until the latter...

, replacing the town of Boma in the Congo estuary
Estuary
An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea....

.

In 1965, Mobutu Sese Seko
Mobutu Sese Seko
Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga , commonly known as Mobutu or Mobutu Sese Seko , born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1965 to 1997...

 seized power in the Congo in his second coup and initiated a policy of "Africanizing" the names of people and places in the country. In 1966, Léopoldville was renamed Kinshasa for a village named Kinchassa that once stood near the site. The city grew rapidly under Mobutu, drawing people from across the country who came in search of their fortunes or to escape ethnic strife elsewhere. This inevitably brought about a change to the city's ethnic and linguistic composition as well. Although it is situated in territory that traditionally belongs to the Bateke
Bateke
The Bateke are a Central African ethnic group that speak the Teke languages. Its population is situated mainly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo and with a minority in Gabon...

 and Bahumbu people, the lingua franca
Lingua franca
A lingua franca is a language systematically used to make communication possible between people not sharing a mother tongue, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both mother tongues.-Characteristics:"Lingua franca" is a functionally defined term, independent of the linguistic...

in Kinshasa today is Lingala.

In 1974, Kinshasa hosted 'The Rumble in the Jungle
The Rumble in the Jungle
The Rumble in the Jungle was a historic boxing event that took place on October 30, 1974, in the Mai 20 Stadium in Kinshasa, Zaire . It pitted then world Heavyweight champion George Foreman against former world champion and challenger Muhammad Ali...

' boxing
Boxing
Boxing, also called pugilism, is a combat sport in which two people fight each other using their fists. Boxing is supervised by a referee over a series of between one to three minute intervals called rounds...

 match between Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali is an American former professional boxer, philanthropist and social activist...

 and George Foreman
George Foreman
George Edward Foreman is an American two-time former World Heavyweight Boxing Champion, Olympic gold medalist, ordained Baptist minister, author and successful entrepreneur...

, in which Ali defeated Foreman to regain the World Heavyweight title.

Kinshasa suffered greatly due to Mobutu's excesses, mass corruption, nepotism and the civil war that led to his downfall. Nevertheless, it is still a major cultural and intellectual center for Central Africa, with a flourishing community of musicians and artists. It is also the country's major industrial center, processing many of the natural products brought from the interior. The city has recently had to fend off rioting soldiers who were protesting the government's failure to pay them.

Kinshasa had the earliest documented HIV-1 infection, which dates from 1959 and was discovered in the preserved blood sample of a local man (see AIDS origin
AIDS origin
AIDS is caused by the Human immunodeficiency virus , which originated in non-human primates in Sub-Saharan Africa and was transferred to humans during the late 19th or early 20th century....

).

Administration


Kinshasa is both a city (ville in French) and a province (province in French), one of the 11 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
There are currently ten provinces and one city-province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo:* An Ituri Interim Administration also exists in the Ituri region of Orientale province- Proposed provinces :...

. Its status is thus similar to Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 which is both a city and one of the 101 departments of France.

Administrative divisions


The ville-province (city-province) of Kinshasa is divided into four districts which are further divided into 24 communes (municipalities). The commune of Kinshasa
Kinshasa (commune)
Kinshasa is a municipality in the Lukunga district of the city of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.It is situated in the north of the city, south of Gombe and the Boulevard du 30 Juin...

 gave its name to the whole city, but the city's commercial and administrative heart is the commune of Gombe.
Districts and communes of Kinshasa
Funa
Funa District
Funa is one of the four districts that make up the capital city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo .It includes the communes of Bandalungwa, Bumbu, Kalamu, Kasa-Vubu, Makala, Ngiri-Ngiri and Selembao.-References:...

 district
Lukunga
Lukunga District
Lukunga is one of the four districts that make up the capital city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo .It includes the communes of Barumbu, Gombe, Kinshasa, Kintambo, Lingwala, Mont Ngafula and Ngaliema....

 district
Mont Amba
Mont Amba District
Mont Amba is one of the four districts that make up the capital city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo .It includes the communes of Kisenso, Lemba, Limete, Matete and Ngaba....

 district
Tshangu
Tshangu District
Tshangu is one of the four districts that make up the capital city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo .It includes the communes of Kimbanseke, Maluku, Masina, Ndjili and Nsele....

 district
Bandalungwa
Bandalungwa
Bandalungwa is a municipality in the Funa district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.Its northern portion is occupied by the military barracks of Kokolo, whose buildings prominently display traditional Flemish architecture. The barracks is separated from...

 
Barumbu
Barumbu
Barumbu is a municipality in the Lukunga district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.It is situated in the north of Kinshasa, south of Gombe and the Boulevard du 30 Juin...

 
Kisenso
Kisenso
Kisenso is a municipality in the Mont Amba district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo....

 (Kinsenso)
Kimbanseke
Kimbanseke
Kimbanseke is a municipality in the Tshangu district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.It is situated in the southeast of Kinshasa. Settlement in this hilled area is relatively new.- External links :*...

Bumbu
Bumbu
Bumbu is a municipality in the Funa district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.The town is in the hilled southern portion of Kinshasa and settlement there is relatively new. It lies in the vicinity of the Kasa-Vubu and Kalamu boulevards.-Demographics:...

 
Gombe (La Gombe) Lemba
Lemba, Kinshasa
Lemba is a municipality in the Mont Amba district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo....

 
Maluku
Maluku, Kinshasa
Maluku is a municipality in the Tshangu district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo....

Kalamu  Kinshasa
Kinshasa (commune)
Kinshasa is a municipality in the Lukunga district of the city of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.It is situated in the north of the city, south of Gombe and the Boulevard du 30 Juin...

 
Limete
Limete
Limete is a municipality in the Mont Amba district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo....

 
Masina
Kasa-Vubu  Kintambo
Kintambo
Kintambo is a municipality in the Lukunga district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.It is situated in the northwest of the city of Kinshasa, at the junction of Boulevard du 30 Juin , Avenue Kasa-Vubu and Route de Matadi.-Demographics:...

 
Matete
Matete
Matete is a municipality in the Mont Amba district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo....

 
Ndjili (N'Djili)
Makala
Makala
Makala is a municipality in the Funa district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.- Demographics :...

 
Lingwala
Lingwala
Lingwala is a municipality in the Lukunga district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.It is situated in northern Kinshasa, south of Gombe and Boulevard du 30 Juin.-Demographics:...

 
Ngaba
Ngaba
Ngaba is a municipality in the Mont Amba district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.It is situated in the south of Kinshasa. Settlement in this hilled area is relatively new....

 
Nsele
Nsele
Nsele or N'Sele is a municipality in the Tshangu district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo....

 (N'Sele)
Ngiri-Ngiri
Ngiri-Ngiri
Ngiri-Ngiri is a municipality in the Funa district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.It is situated in the south of Kinshasa. Ngiri-Ngiri is one of the new settlements, located at the foot of the Kalamu and Kasa-Vubu hills to the south of the province.-...

 
Mont Ngafula
Mont Ngafula
Mont Ngafula is a municipality in the Lukunga district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.It is in the hilly southern area of Kinshasa and is intersected by the Lukaya River valley in its southern portion....

 
Selembao
Selembao
Selembao is a municipality in the Funa district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.It is situated in the south of Kinshasa. Selembao is one of the new settlements, located near the Kalamu and Kasa-Vubu hills....

 
Ngaliema
Ngaliema
Ngaliema is a municipality in the Lukunga district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.-Location:Ngaliema is situated in the west of Kinshasa...

 


Geography



Kinshasa is a city of sharp contrasts, with affluent residential and commercial areas and three universities coexisting side by side with sprawling slums.

It is located along the south bank of the Congo River
Congo River
The Congo River is a river in Africa, and is the deepest river in the world, with measured depths in excess of . It is the second largest river in the world by volume of water discharged, though it has only one-fifth the volume of the world's largest river, the Amazon...

, directly opposite the city of Brazzaville
Brazzaville
-Transport:The city is home to Maya-Maya Airport and a railway station on the Congo-Ocean Railway. It is also an important river port, with ferries sailing to Kinshasa and to Bangui via Impfondo...

, capital of the Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
The Republic of the Congo , sometimes known locally as Congo-Brazzaville, is a state in Central Africa. It is bordered by Gabon, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo , the Angolan exclave province of Cabinda, and the Gulf of Guinea.The region was dominated by...

. This is the only place in the world where two national capital cities are facing one another and in sight of each other on opposite banks of a river.

The Congo river is the second longest river in Africa after the Nile
Nile
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in North Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. It is long. It runs through the ten countries of Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Egypt.The Nile has two major...

, and is the largest in terms of discharge
Discharge (hydrology)
In hydrology, discharge is the volume rate of water flow, including any suspended solids , dissolved chemical species and/or biologic material , which is transported through a given cross-sectional area...

. As a waterway
Waterway
A waterway is any navigable body of water. Waterways can include rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, and canals. In order for a waterway to be navigable, it must meet several criteria:...

 it provides a means of transport for much of the Congo basin, being navigable for large river barges between Kinshasa and Kisangani
Kisangani
Kisangani is the capital of Orientale Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is the 3rd largest urbanized city in the country and the largest of the cities that lie in the tropical woodlands of the Congo....

, and many of its tributaries are navigable too. The river is an important source of hydroelectric power, and downstream of Kinshasa it has the potential to generate power equivalent to the usage of roughly half of Africa's population.

Climate


Under the Koppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

, Kinshasa has a Tropical wet and dry climate. It features a lengthy rainy season which spans from October through May and a relatively short dry season which runs between June and September. Due to fact that Kinshasa lies south of the equator
Equator
An equator is the intersection of a sphere's surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere's axis of rotation and containing the sphere's center of mass....

, its dry season begins around its "winter" solstice, which is in June. This is in contrast to African cities further north featuring this climate where the dry season typically begins around January. Kinshasa's dry season is slightly cooler than its wet season, though temperatures remain relatively constant throughout the year.

Buildings and institutions


Major areas of the city include the Cité de l'OUA, home to the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the second institution in the central executive branch of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the first institution being the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, who has the title of head of state.- Description :Under the...

, quartier Matonge, known regionally for its nightlife, L'ONATRA, the impressive building of the Ministry of Transport and the residential area of Gombe
La Gombe (Kinshasa)
Gombe is a municipality in the Lukunga district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.It is also known as La Gombe and was formerly known as Kalina...

.

Notable features of the city include the SOZACOM Building and Hotel Memling skyscrapers, the central market, the Kinshasa Museum and the Kinshasa Fine Arts Academy. The Boulevard du 30 Juin
Boulevard du 30 Juin
The Boulevard du 30 Juin is a major 5‑km street in Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is the city's main transport artery, connecting the southern area of La Gombe with Kintambo and the Ngaliema to the west.The street was renamed from Boulevard Albert I to Boulevard du...

 (Boulevard of the 30 June) links the main areas of the city. Kinshasa is home to the country's national stadium, the Stade des Martyrs
Stade des Martyrs
Stade des Martyrs of Pentecost, also known as simply Stade des Martyrs and formerly known as Stade Kamanyola is a national stadium located in the town of Lingwala in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo...

 (Stadium of the Martyrs).

Industries


Marsavco Sarl Biggest FMCG Manufacturing Company located in center of town (Gombe) in Kinshasa.

There are many other industries such as Nova Products, CongoFuture, AngelCosmetics, Cobra, Ghandour Industries Congo, Shalina Group, Beltexco, Graphics System, Femco, Sajico and BCDC Bank, Trust Merchant Bank
Trust Merchant Bank
Trust Merchant Bank or TMB, is an independent commercial bank based in the Democratic Republic of Congo , with its headquarters located in Lubumbashi. The bank began operations in 2004...

 located in the heart of the city as well as court reporting.

Crime


In 2004, Kinshasa was rated as one of Africa's most dangerous cities in terms of crime. Since the Second Congo War
Second Congo War
The Second Congo War, also known as Coltan War and the Great War of Africa, began in August 1998 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo , and officially ended in July 2003 when the Transitional Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo took power; however, hostilities continue to this...

, the city has been striving to recover from disorder, with many gangs hailing from Kinshasa's slums. Muggings, robberies, rape, kidnapping and gang violence are common. Kinshasa’s homicide rate is estimated to be as high as 112 homicides per 100,000.

Street children


Street children, often orphaned, are subject to abuse by the police and military. Of the estimated 20,000 children – up to the age of eighteen – living rough in Kinshasa's street, almost a quarter are beggars, some are street vendors and about a third have some kind of employment. Some are there as fallout from the times of war, others are accused of witchcraft and have become outcasts.

Police regularly round up street children, to an uncertain fate; there are recorded incidents of children being shot dead by police for minor misdemeanours.

Education


Kinshasa is home to several higher-level education institutes, covering a wide range of specialities, from civil engineering to nursing and journalism. The city is also home to three large universities and an arts school:
  • Prins van Luik School / Lycée Prince de Liège
  • University of Kinshasa
    University of Kinshasa
    The University of Kinshasa , was one of three universities, along with University of Kisangani and University of Lubumbashi, created following the division of the National University of Zaire...

  • Congo Protestant University
  • National Pedagogy University
  • Allhadeff School
  • Centre for Health Training (CEFA)

Medicine


There are twenty hospitals in Kinshasa, plus various medical centres and polyclinics. In 1997, Dikembe Mutombo
Dikembe Mutombo
Dikembe Mutombo Mpolondo Mukamba Jean-Jacques Wamutombo , commonly referred to as Dikembe Mutombo, is a retired Congolese American professional basketball player who last played for the Houston Rockets of the NBA...

 built a 300-bed hospital near his home town of Kinshasa.
Since 1991, Monkole Hospital is working as a non-for profit health institution collaborating with the Health Department as district hospital in Kinshasa. Directed by Pr Léon Tshilolo, paediatrician and haematologist, Monkole Hospital is opening a new 150-bed building in 2012 with improved clinical services as laboratory, diagnostic radiology, intensive care, neonatal unit, family medicine, emergencies unit and a larger surgical area.

Media



Kinshasa is home to a large number of media outlets, including multiple radio and television stations that broadcast to nearly the entire country, including state-run Radio-Television Nationale Congolaise (RTNC) and privately-run Digital Congo and Raga TV. The private channel RTGA is also based in Kinshasa.

Several national radio stations, including La Voix du Congo, which is operated by RTNC, MONUC-backed Radio Okapi
Radio Okapi
Radio Okapi is a radio network that operates in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. On an annual budget of US$4.5 million, a staff of 200 provide news and information to the entire urban population of the DRC.-History:...

 and Raga FM are based in Kinshasa, as well as numerous local stations. The BBC is also available in Kinshasa on 92.6 FM.

The state-controlled Agence Congolaise de Presse news agency is based in Kinshasa, as well as several daily and weekly newspapers and news websites, including L'Observateur- daily, L'Avenir- daily, Phare, Le Potentiel
Le Potentiel
Le Potentiel is a Democratic Republic of the Congo daily newspaper published by award-winning journalist Modeste Mutinga. The Committee to Protect Journalists described it as "the only independent daily newspaper in the war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo"...

 and Le Soft.

Most of the media uses French and Lingala to a large extent; very few use the other national languages.

Language


The official language of The Democratic Republic of the Congo, of which Kinshasa is the capital, is French. Kinshasa is the second largest officially Francophone city in the world
although Lingala is widely used as a spoken language. French is the language of street signs, posters, newspapers, government documents, schools; it dominates plays, television, and the press, and it is used in vertical relationships among people of uneven rank; people of equal rank, however, speak the Congolese languages (Kikongo, Lingala, Tshiluba or Swahili) among themselves. Thus, while the culture is dominated by the Francophonie, a complex multi-lingualism is present in Kinshasa.

Transport



Internal transport


Several private companies whose Urban Transport Company (STUC) and the Public City train (12 cars in 2002) serves the city. The bus lines are:
  • Gare centrale – Kingasani (municipality of Kimbanseke
    Kimbanseke
    Kimbanseke is a municipality in the Tshangu district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.It is situated in the southeast of Kinshasa. Settlement in this hilled area is relatively new.- External links :*...

    , reopened in September 2005);
  • Kingasani – Marché central
  • Matete – Royale (reopened in June 2006);
  • Matete – UPN (reopened in June 2006);
  • Rond-point Ngaba – UPN (reopened in June 2006).
  • Rond-point Victoire – clinique Ngliema (opened in March 2007)


Other companies also provide public transport: Urbaco, Tshatu Trans, Socogetra, Gesac and MB Sprl. The city bus carries a maximum of 67,000 passengers per day. Several companies operate taxis and taxi-buses. The majority (95.8%) of transport is provided by individuals.

The city is considering the creation of a tramway in collaboration with public transport in Brussels (STIB), whose work could start in 2009 and would be completed around 2012–2015. The issue of electricity remains suspended.

Rail


The ONATRA operates three lines of urban railways linking the town centre device, which goes to Bas-Congo.
  • The main line linking the Central Station to the N'djili Airport has 9 stations: Central Station, Ndolo, Amicongo, Uzam, Masina / Petro-Congo, Masina wireless Masina / Mapela, Masina / Neighborhood III, Masina / Siforco Camp Badara and Ndjili airport.
  • The second line connects the Central Station in Kasangulu
    Kasangulu
    Kasangulu is a town in Bas-Congo Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo....

     in Bas-Congo
    Bas-Congo
    Bas-Congo is one of the eleven provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is the only province with a coastline and it borders Bandundu province to the east and Kinshasa to the northeast...

    , through Matete
    Matete
    Matete is a municipality in the Mont Amba district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo....

    , Riflart and Kimwenza
    Kimwenza
    Kimwenza is a community in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the Mont Ngafula commune in the south of the capital, Kinshasa.-Location:Kimwenza is on a plateau above the main city of Kinshasa.It is near to the Petites Chutes de la Lukaya....

    .
  • The third line at the Central Station Kinsuka-pumping in the town of Ngaliema
    Ngaliema
    Ngaliema is a municipality in the Lukunga district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.-Location:Ngaliema is situated in the west of Kinshasa...

    .


In 2007, the internal rail network is being renovated with the help of Belgium. This would serve Kintambo
Kintambo
Kintambo is a municipality in the Lukunga district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.It is situated in the northwest of the city of Kinshasa, at the junction of Boulevard du 30 Juin , Avenue Kasa-Vubu and Route de Matadi.-Demographics:...

, Ndolo, Limete
Limete
Limete is a municipality in the Mont Amba district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo....

, Lemba
Lemba
The Lemba or 'wa-Remba' are a southern African ethnic group to be found in Zimbabwe and South Africa with some little known branches in Mozambique and Malawi. According to Parfitt they are thought to number 70,000...

, Kasangulu
Kasangulu
Kasangulu is a town in Bas-Congo Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo....

, Gombe
Gombe, Nigeria
Gombe is a city in northeastern Nigeria . It is the capital city of Gombe State and has an estimated population of 261,536. The city is the headquarters of the Gombe Emirate, a traditional state that covers most of Gombe State...

, Ndjili
Ndjili (Kinshasa)
Ndjili or N'Djili is a municipality in the Tshangu district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.It is named after the Ndjili River, which forms its western boundary.- Demographics :- Transport :...

 and Masina.

External transport



Kinshasa is the major river port of the Congo. The port, called 'Le Beach Ngobila' extends for about 7 km (4 mi) along the river, comprising scores of quays and jetties
Jetty
A jetty is any of a variety of structures used in river, dock, and maritime works that are generally carried out in pairs from river banks, or in continuation of river channels at their outlets into deep water; or out into docks, and outside their entrances; or for forming basins along the...

 with hundreds of boats and barges tied up. Ferries cross the river to Brazzaville
Brazzaville
-Transport:The city is home to Maya-Maya Airport and a railway station on the Congo-Ocean Railway. It is also an important river port, with ferries sailing to Kinshasa and to Bangui via Impfondo...

, a distance of about 4 km (2 mi). River transport also connects to dozens of ports upstream, such as Kisangani
Kisangani
Kisangani is the capital of Orientale Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is the 3rd largest urbanized city in the country and the largest of the cities that lie in the tropical woodlands of the Congo....

 and Bangui
Bangui
-Law and government:Bangui is an autonomous commune of the Central African Republic. With an area of 67 km², it is by far the smallest high-level administrative division of the CAR in area but the highest in population...

.

There are road and rail
Matadi-Kinshasa Railway
The Matadi-Kinshasa Railway is a railway line in Bas-Congo Province between the port of Matadi and Kinshasa, the capital of Democratic Republic of the Congo.The Matadi-Kinshasa Railway was built from 1890 to 1898...

 links to Matadi
Matadi
Matadi is the chief sea port of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the capital of the Bas-Congo province. It has a population of 245,862 . Matadi is situated on the left bank of the Congo River from the mouth and below the last navigable point before rapids make the river impassable for a...

, the sea port in the Congo estuary 150 km (93 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean.

There are no rail links from Kinshasa further inland, and road connections to much of the rest of the country are few and in poor condition.

The city has two airports: N'djili Airport is the main airport with connections to other African countries as well as to Brussels, Paris and some other destinations. N'Dolo Airport
N'Dolo Airport
N'Dolo Airport , also known as Ndolo Airport, is a secondary airport in the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, located in the commune of Barumbu near the city center....

, located close to the city center, is used for domestic flights only with small turboprop aircraft.

Lola ya Bonobo



Founded by Claudine André
Claudine André
Claudine André, , is a Belgian conservationist. She founded Lola ya bonobo in 1994, which is a bonobo sanctuary, just south of Kinshasa, at Mont Ngafula, in the Lukaya Valley, Democratic Republic of Congo.The aim of the sanctuary is to collect young bonobos, most having been orphaned due to the...

 in 1994, Lola ya Bonobo is the world's only sanctuary for orphaned bonobo
Bonobo
The bonobo , Pan paniscus, previously called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is a great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan. The other species in genus Pan is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee...

s. Since 2002, the sanctuary has been located at Les Petites Chutes de la Lukaya, just outside of Kinshasa Lola ya Bonobo means 'paradise for bonobos' in Lingala, the main language of Kinshasa. In 2008, Lola ya Bonobo was home to 60 bonobos who live in 30 hectares of primary forest.

Although the bonobos are captive, they live in an environment similar to the wild. They can forage among dozens of edible plants and fruiting trees, compete for mating opportunities, and learn to avoid dangers such as stepping on venomous snakes just as they would in the wild. As a result, the bonobos at Lola ya Bonobo sanctuary, living in their forested microcosm, show all the naturally occurring behaviors observed in wild bonobos and also display some behaviors, such as tool use, that have not been observed in the wild.

The sanctuary protects wild bonobos because it allows for the enforcement of domestic and international conservation laws aimed at preventing the trade in live bonobos. The sanctuary also acts as a mouth piece for conservation efforts in DRC by educating thousands of Congolese visitors each year about the value of Congo's natural history, in particular the bonobo – their unique Congolese inheritance.

Kinshasans


  • David Norris
    David Norris
    David Norris may refer to:*David Norris , Irish Senator, civil rights activist and James Joyce scholar*David Norris , British admiral...

    , scholar and politician, 2011 election candidate for President of Ireland
    Ireland
    Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

  • D. J. Mbenga, professional basketball player for the Los Angeles Lakers
    Los Angeles Lakers
    The Los Angeles Lakers are an American professional basketball team based in Los Angeles, California. They play in the Pacific Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association...

     in the US National Basketball Association
    National Basketball Association
    The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

    .
  • Christian Eyenga
    Christian Eyenga
    Christian Eyenga Moenge is a Congolese professional basketball player with Joventut Badalona of the Liga ACB. In June 2009, Eyenga was drafted by the Cleveland Cavaliers of the National Basketball Association with the 30th pick in that year's NBA Draft. When drafted, he played for the Spanish...

    , professional basketball player and 2009 first round draft choice for the Cleveland Cavaliers
    Cleveland Cavaliers
    The Cleveland Cavaliers are a professional basketball team based in Cleveland, Ohio. They began playing in the National Basketball Association in 1970 as an expansion team...

     in the US National Basketball Association
    National Basketball Association
    The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

    .
  • Dikembe Mutombo
    Dikembe Mutombo
    Dikembe Mutombo Mpolondo Mukamba Jean-Jacques Wamutombo , commonly referred to as Dikembe Mutombo, is a retired Congolese American professional basketball player who last played for the Houston Rockets of the NBA...

    , retired professional basketball player, and the 2nd most prolific shot blocker of all-time in the National Basketball Association
    National Basketball Association
    The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

    , second only to Hakeem Olajuwon
    Hakeem Olajuwon
    Hakeem Abdul Olajuwon is a retired Nigerian-American professional basketball player. From 1984 to 2002, he played the center position in the National Basketball Association for the Houston Rockets and Toronto Raptors. He led the Rockets to back-to-back NBA championships in 1994 and 1995. In 2008,...

    .
  • Jimmy Omonga
    Jimmy Omonga
    Jimmy Omonga is a singer and songwriter from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. With his debut album "Destin" , he became within a few months one of Congo's new popular singers, known for his characteristic and unique voice; clear and ringing in its upper reaches, with soulful low...

    , singer-songwriter.
  • Ya Kid K
    Ya Kid K
    Ya Kid K. is a Congolese-Belgian hip hop artist. Her sister, Karoline 'Leki' Kamosi, is an R&B singer.-Biography:...

    , hip-hop artist.
  • Guylain Ndumbu-Nsungu
    Guylain Ndumbu-Nsungu
    Guylain Ndumbu-Nsungu is a Congolese professional footballer, formerly an under-21 international.He has played for Amiens SC, Sheffield Wednesday, Preston North End, Colchester United, Cardiff City, Gillingham, Bradford City and had two spells at Darlington.-Career:Ndumbu-Nsungu started his...

    , former Sheffield Wednesday
    Sheffield Wednesday F.C.
    Sheffield Wednesday Football Club are a football club based in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, who are currently competing in the Football League One in the 2011-12 season, in England. Sheffield Wednesday are one of the oldest professional clubs in the world and the fourth oldest in the...

     football player.
  • Leki
    Leki
    Leki is the first female urban/R&B-pop star to rise out of Belgium. She is known for many hits including "Breakin' Out", "Spread my wings", "Over the Rainbow", and "Love me another day". She is also a TV presenter on VTM....

    , R&B artist.
  • Claude Makélélé
    Claude Makélélé
    Claude Makélelé Sinda is a retired football player who used to play as a defensive midfielder for Paris Saint-Germain in Ligue 1. Prior to joining Paris Saint-Germain, Makélélé played for Nantes, Olympique de Marseille, Celta Vigo, Real Madrid and Chelsea...

    , professional football player for Paris Saint-Germain in the French Ligue 1
    Ligue 1
    Ligue 1 , is the French professional league for association football clubs. It is the country's primary football competition and serves as the top division of the French football league system. Ligue 1 is one of two divisions making up the Ligue de Football Professionnel, the other being Ligue 2....

    .
  • Steve Mandanda
    Steve Mandanda
    Steve Mandanda is a French international footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for French club Olympique de Marseille in Ligue 1. He currently serves as first-choice captain of Marseille...

    , professional footballer who plays for Marseille
    Olympique de Marseille
    Olympique de Marseille is a French association football club based in Marseille. Founded in 1899, the club plays in Ligue 1 and have spent most of its history in the top tier of French football. Marseille have been French champions nine times and have won the Coupe de France a record ten times. In...

     and the France national football team
    France national football team
    The France national football team represents the nation of France in international football. It is fielded by the French Football Federation , the governing body of football in France, and competes as a member of UEFA, which encompasses the countries of Europe...

    .
  • Ariza Makukula
    Ariza Makukula
    Ariza Makukula is a Portuguese footballer of Congolese descent who plays for Manisaspor in Turkey, as a centre forward.-Club career:...

    , naturalized Portuguese professional football player for Kayserispor
    Kayserispor
    Kayserispor is a professional Turkish football club located in the city of Kayseri. Formed in 1966, Kayserispor are nicknamed Anadolu Yıldızı . The club colours are red and yellow, and the club play their home matches at Kadir Has Stadium.The club have won one Türkiye Kupası, in 2008...

     in the Turkish Süper Lig, on loan from Sport Lisboa e Benfica of the Portuguese Liga
    Portuguese Liga
    The Primeira Liga , formerly called Primeira Divisão, currently named Liga ZON Sagres after their main sponsors, is the top professional association football division of the Portuguese football league system...

    .
  • José Bosingwa
    José Bosingwa
    José Bosingwa da Silva , known as Bosingwa, is a Portuguese footballer who plays for Chelsea in the Premier League, as a right defender.-Early years:...

    , naturalized Portuguese football player for Chelsea
    Chelsea F.C.
    Chelsea Football Club are an English football club based in West London. Founded in 1905, they play in the Premier League and have spent most of their history in the top tier of English football. Chelsea have been English champions four times, FA Cup winners six times and League Cup winners four...

     of the Premier League in England.
  • André Action Diakité Jackson
    André A. Jackson
    André Action Diakité Jackson , , more commonly known by his African clan name "M’Zée Fula-Ngenge" , is a diamond industrialist and head of JFPI Corporation, Africa's largest holding company....

     or M’zée Fula-Ngenge
    André A. Jackson
    André Action Diakité Jackson , , more commonly known by his African clan name "M’Zée Fula-Ngenge" , is a diamond industrialist and head of JFPI Corporation, Africa's largest holding company....

    , diamond mogul.
  • Leroy Lita
    Leroy Lita
    Leroy Halirou Bohari Lita , is a Congolese-born English footballer who plays for Swansea City. Lita was a product of the Chelsea youth system. He failed to play for Chelsea, and moved to Bristol City and Reading, where his form helped him earn a place with the England under-21 side...

    , professional football player for Welsh
    Wales
    Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west. It has a population of three million, and a total area of 20,779 km²...

     club Swansea City
    Swansea City A.F.C.
    Swansea City Association Football Club are a Welsh professional football club based in Swansea, Wales. One of the most successful clubs in Welsh football, it has won 10 Welsh Cups and led the English Football League First Division in December 1981, before finishing the season in 6th position...

     in the English Premier League.
  • Fabrice Muamba
    Fabrice Muamba
    Fabrice Ndala Muamba is a footballer who plays for Bolton Wanderers as a midfielder in the Premier League. He previously played for Arsenal and Birmingham City. At international level, he has represented England at under-21 level....

    , professional football player player for Bolton Wanderers
    Bolton Wanderers F.C.
    Bolton Wanderers Football Club is an English professional association football club based in the area of Horwich in the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, Greater Manchester. They began their current spell in the Premier League in 2001....

     in the Premier League.
  • Odette Krempin
    Odette Krempin
    Odette Maniema Krempin is an African entrepreneur,socialite and, honorary consul of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Frankfurt am Main....

    , fashion designer.
  • Tim Biakabutuka
    Tim Biakabutuka
    Tshimanga "Tim" Biakabutuka is a former American football running back for the Carolina Panthers of the NFL from 1996 to 2001.-College career at Michigan:...

    , former professional American football
    American football
    American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

     player.
  • Kaysha
    Kaysha
    Kaysha, born Edward Mokolo Jr. on January 22, 1974 in Kinshasa, is a singer/rapper and producer that works on places like the West indies, South America and Africa. He was born in the Democratic Republic of Congo but immigrated to France with his parents at the age of seven...

    , hip-hop artist.
  • Kazenga LuaLua
    Kazenga LuaLua
    Kazenga LuaLua is a Congolese-English footballer who plays as a winger for Football League Championship club Brighton & Hove Albion. He is the younger brother of Blackpool striker Lomana LuaLua. It is a common misconception that they are cousins but the matter was cleared up by Lomana LuaLua...

    ,professional football player for Newcastle United
    Newcastle United F.C.
    Newcastle United Football Club is an English professional association football club based in Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear. The club was founded in 1892 by the merger of Newcastle East End and Newcastle West End, and has played at its current home ground, St James' Park, since the merger...

    .
  • Lomana LuaLua
    Lomana LuaLua
    Lomana Trésor LuaLua is a Congolese footballer who plays for Blackpool, and the Congo DR national football team.LuaLua was born in Kinshasa, but moved to England at a young age. After impressing in a college football match, he signed for Colchester United. There, he scored a total of 21 goals in...

    , professional football player for Al-Arabi in Qatar.
  • Mwamba Kazadi
    Mwamba Kazadi
    Robert Kazadi Mwamba is a retired Goalkeeper who played for TP Mazembe and Zaire at the 1974 FIFA World Cup, In a group game involving the Leopards and Yugoslavia...

    , former professional football player player who won the 1973 "African Footballer of the Year
    African Footballer of the Year
    The African Footballer of the Year award, presented to the best African football player each year, has been conferred by the Confederation of African Football since 1992. An earlier African Footballer of the Year Golden Ball award was given out between 1970 and 1994 by France Football magazine...

    " award.
  • Peguy Luyindula
    Péguy Luyindula
    Péguy Luyindula in Kinshasa is a French football striker. He currently plays for Paris Saint-Germain, in the French League.-Early career:...

    , professional football player player for Paris Saint-Germain in the Ligue 1.
  • Hérita Ilunga
    Hérita Ilunga
    Hérita N'Kongolo Ilunga is a Congolese footballer who plays for Doncaster Rovers in the Npower Championship, on loan from West Ham United.-Early career:...

    , professional football player player for West Ham United
    West Ham United F.C.
    West Ham United Football Club is an English professional football club based in Upton Park, Newham, East London. They play in The Football League Championship. The club was founded in 1895 as Thames Ironworks FC and reformed in 1900 as West Ham United. In 1904 the club relocated to their current...

     in the Premier League.
  • Gary Kikaya
    Gary Kikaya
    Gary Kikaya is an athlete competing internationally for the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the 400 metres. He was born in Lubumbashi....

    , Olympic 400 metre runner
  • Patrick Kabongo
    Patrick Kabongo
    Watshidimba "Patrick" Kabongo is an Offensive lineman for the Edmonton Eskimos of the Canadian Football League. He also played Defensive Tackle for the University of Nebraska.-External links:***...

    , professional football player for the Edmonton Eskimos
    Edmonton Eskimos
    The Edmonton Eskimos are a Canadian football team based in Edmonton, Alberta. They currently play in the West Division of the Canadian Football League . Edmonton is currently the third-youngest franchise in the CFL, although there were clubs with the name Edmonton Eskimos as early as 1895...

     of the Canadian Football League
    Canadian Football League
    The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....

    .
  • Merveille Lukeba
    Merveille Lukeba
    Merveille Lukeba is a Congo born, British actor, best known for his role as Thomas Tomone in double BAFTA-winning E4 teen drama Skins.Born in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, he was raised in Woolwich, southeast London....

    , professional actor for the series Skins
    Skins (TV series)
    Skins is a BAFTA award-winning British teen drama that follows a group of teenagers in Bristol, South West England, through the two years of college. The controversial plot line explores issues such as dysfunctional families, mental illness , adolescent sexuality, substance abuse and death...

    on E4
  • Mohombi
    Mohombi
    Mohombi Nzasi Moupondo , known professionally as Mohombi, is a Swedish-Congolese R&B singer-songwriter and dancer. He grew up in one of Stockholm's suburbs called Norsborg, Stockholm. Mohombi is RedOne's first signing to 2101 Records in joint venture with Universal Music Group...

    , Pop, Hip Hop artist
  • Youssouf Mulumbu, professional footballer for West Bromwich Albion
  • Danny Mwanga
    Danny Mwanga
    Jean-Marie Daniel "Danny" Mwanga is a Congolese-American footballer who currently plays for Philadelphia Union in Major League Soccer.-Youth:...

    , professional footballer for the Philadelphia Union
  • Blaise Nkufo, professional footballer for Switzerland
    Switzerland national football team
    The Swiss national football team is the national football team of Switzerland...

  • Didier Tsonga, former handball player
  • Gabriel Zakuani
    Gabriel Zakuani
    Gabriel Zakuani is a Congolese professional footballer. He currently plays for Peterborough United.-Leyton Orient:...

    , professional football player for Peterborough United of The Football League
    The Football League
    The Football League, also known as the npower Football League for sponsorship reasons, is a league competition featuring professional association football clubs from England and Wales. Founded in 1888, it is the oldest such competition in world football...

     in England.
  • Steve Zakuani
    Steve Zakuani
    Steve Zakuani is a Congolese footballer who currently plays for Seattle Sounders FC in Major League Soccer. Born in Zaire , Zakuani grew up in London before attending the University of Akron on a soccer scholarship...

    , professional football player player for the Seattle Sounders
    Seattle Sounders FC
    Seattle Sounders FC is an American professional soccer club based in Seattle, Washington. The club competes in Major League Soccer , the top professional soccer league in the United States and Canada. Sounders FC was established in November 2007 as a MLS expansion team, making it the 15th team in...

     of Major League Soccer
    Major League Soccer
    Major League Soccer is a professional soccer league based in the United States and sanctioned by the United States Soccer Federation . The league is composed of 19 teams — 16 in the U.S. and 3 in Canada...

     in The United States.


Sister cities

Bologna
Bologna
Bologna is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna, in the Po Valley of Northern Italy. The city lies between the Po River and the Apennine Mountains, more specifically, between the Reno River and the Savena River. Bologna is a lively and cosmopolitan Italian college city, with spectacular history,...

 (Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

) starts soon Brazzaville
Brazzaville
-Transport:The city is home to Maya-Maya Airport and a railway station on the Congo-Ocean Railway. It is also an important river port, with ferries sailing to Kinshasa and to Bangui via Impfondo...

 (Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
The Republic of the Congo , sometimes known locally as Congo-Brazzaville, is a state in Central Africa. It is bordered by Gabon, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo , the Angolan exclave province of Cabinda, and the Gulf of Guinea.The region was dominated by...

) Brussels
Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

 (Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

) since 2002 Dakar
Dakar
Dakar is the capital city and largest city of Senegal. It is located on the Cap-Vert Peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city on the African mainland...

 (Senegal
Senegal
Senegal , officially the Republic of Senegal , is a country in western Africa. It owes its name to the Sénégal River that borders it to the east and north...

) Ankara
Ankara
Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. The city has a mean elevation of , and as of 2010 the metropolitan area in the entire Ankara Province had a population of 4.4 million....

 (Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

)

See also




External links



Maps