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Four Chaplains

Four Chaplains

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The Four Chaplains, also sometimes referred to as the "Immortal Chaplains," were four United States Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

 chaplains who gave their lives to save other civilian and military personnel during the sinking of the troop ship USAT Dorchester
USAT Dorchester
USAT Dorchester was a United States Army Transport ship that was sunk by a torpedo from a German U-boat on February 3, 1943, during World War II...

 during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. They helped other soldiers board lifeboats and gave up their own life jackets
Personal flotation device
A personal flotation device is a device designed to assist a wearer, either conscious or unconscious, to keep afloat.Devices designed and approved by authorities for use by...

 when the supply ran out. The chaplains joined arms, said prayers, and sang hymns as they went down with the ship.

The men

The four men were relatively new chaplains, who all held the rank
Military rank
Military rank is a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces or civil institutions organized along military lines. Usually, uniforms denote the bearer's rank by particular insignia affixed to the uniforms...

 of lieutenant
First Lieutenant
First lieutenant is a military rank and, in some forces, an appointment.The rank of lieutenant has different meanings in different military formations , but the majority of cases it is common for it to be sub-divided into a senior and junior rank...

. They included Methodist
Methodism is a movement of Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations, claiming a total of approximately seventy million adherents worldwide. The movement traces its roots to John Wesley's evangelistic revival movement within Anglicanism. His younger brother...

 minister the Reverend George L. Fox
George L. Fox
George L. Fox was a Methodist minister and a lieutenant in the United States Army. He was one of the Four Chaplains who gave their lives to save other soldiers during the sinking of the USAT Dorchester during World War II.-Life:George L. Fox was born in Lewistown, Pennsylvania in 1900, one of five...

, Rabbi
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah. This title derives from the Hebrew word רבי , meaning "My Master" , which is the way a student would address a master of Torah...

 Alexander D. Goode
Alexander D. Goode
Alexander D. Goode was a rabbi and a lieutenant in the United States Army. He was one of the Four Chaplains who gave their lives to save other soldiers during the sinking of the USAT Dorchester during World War II...

, Roman Catholic priest
Priesthood (Catholic Church)
The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church include the orders of bishops, deacons and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. The ordained priesthood and common priesthood are different in function and essence....

 the Reverend John P. Washington
John P. Washington
John P. Washington was a Roman Catholic priest and a lieutenant in the United States Army. He was one of the Four Chaplains who gave their lives to save other soldiers during the sinking of the USAT Dorchester during World War II.-Life:Born as one of seven children to Irish immigrants Frank and...

, and Reformed Church in America
Reformed Church in America
The Reformed Church in America is a mainline Reformed Protestant denomination in Canada and the United States. It has about 170,000 members, with the total declining in recent decades. From its beginning in 1628 until 1819, it was the North American branch of the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1819, it...

 minister the Reverend Clark V. Poling
Clark V. Poling
Clark V. Poling was a minister in the Reformed Church in America and a lieutenant in the United States Army. He was one of the Four Chaplains who gave their lives to save other soldiers during the sinking of the USAT Dorchester during World War II.-Life:Poling was born in Columbus, Ohio to Daniel A...

. Their backgrounds, personalities, and faiths were different, although Goode, Poling and Washington had all served as leaders in the Boy Scouts of America
Boy Scouts of America
The Boy Scouts of America is one of the largest youth organizations in the United States, with over 4.5 million youth members in its age-related divisions...

. They would meet at the Army Chaplains School at Harvard University, where they would prepare for assignments in the European theater, sailing on board USAT Dorchester to report to their new assignments.

George L. Fox

George L. Fox was born March 15, 1900 in Lewistown, Pennsylvania, the eldest of 8 children. When he was 17, he left school and lied about his age in order to join the Army to serve in World War I. He joined the ambulance corps in 1917, assigned to Camp Newton D. Baker
Camp Newton D. Baker
Camp Newton D. Baker was a United States Army post located near El Paso, Texas. The post was in operation from 1916 to 1920. It was used as a mobilization center for border patrols and as a Signal Corps training center. The post was named after Secretary of War Newton D. Baker....

 in Texas. On December 3, 1917, George embarked from Camp Merritt, New Jersey, and boarded the US Huron en route to France. As a medical corps assistant, he was highly decorated for bravery and was awarded the Silver Star
Silver Star
The Silver Star is the third-highest combat military decoration that can be awarded to a member of any branch of the United States armed forces for valor in the face of the enemy....

, Purple Heart
Purple Heart
The Purple Heart is a United States military decoration awarded in the name of the President to those who have been wounded or killed while serving on or after April 5, 1917 with the U.S. military. The National Purple Heart Hall of Honor is located in New Windsor, New York...

 and the French Croix de Guerre
Croix de guerre
The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of France. It was first created in 1915 and consists of a square-cross medal on two crossed swords, hanging from a ribbon with various degree pins. The decoration was awarded during World War I, again in World War II, and in other conflicts...

. Upon his discharge, he returned home to Altoona, where he completed High School. He entered Moody Institute in Illinois in 1923. He and Isadore G. Hurlbut, of Vermont were married in 1923, when he began his religious career as an itinerant preacher in the Methodist faith. He later graduated from Illinois Wesleyean University in Bloomington, served as a student pupil in Rye, New Hampshire, and then studied at the Boston University School of Theology, where he was ordained a Methodist minister on June 10, 1934. He served parishes in Union Village and Gilman, Vermont, and was appointed state chaplain and historian for the American Legion in Vermont.

In 1942, Fox volunteered to serve as an Army Chaplain, accepting his appointment July 24, 1942. He began active duty August 8, 1942, the same day his son Wyatt enlisted in the Marine Corps. After Army Chaplains school at Harvard, he reported to the 411th Coast Artillery Battalion at Camp Davis. He was then united with Chaplains Goode, Poling and Washington at Camp Myles Standish in Taunton, Massachusetts, where they prepared to depart for Europe on board the USAT Dorchester.

Alexander D. Goode

Rabbi Alexander D. Goode was born in Brooklyn, New York on May 10, 1911, the son of Rabbi Hyman Goodekowitz. He was raised in Washington, D.C., attending Eastern High School, eventually deciding to follow his father's footsteps by studying for the rabbinate himself, at Hebrew Union College
Hebrew Union College
The Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion is the oldest extant Jewish seminary in the Americas and the main seminary for training rabbis, cantors, educators and communal workers in Reform Judaism.HUC-JIR has campuses in Cincinnati, New York, Los Angeles and Jerusalem.The Jerusalem...

 (HUC), where he graduated with a B.H. degree in 1937. He later received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
The Johns Hopkins University, commonly referred to as Johns Hopkins, JHU, or simply Hopkins, is a private research university based in Baltimore, Maryland, United States...

 in 1940. While studying for the rabbinate at HUC, he worked at the Washington Hebrew Congregation
Washington Hebrew Congregation
The Washington Hebrew Congregation is a Jewish congregation formed on April 25, 1852, in Washington, D.C., by twenty-one members.Solomon Pribram was elected the first president. By 1854, there were forty-two members...

 during summer breaks.

He originally applied to become a Navy chaplain in January 1941, but was not accepted. After Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor, known to Hawaiians as Puuloa, is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands is a United States Navy deep-water naval base. It is also the headquarters of the U.S. Pacific Fleet...

 was attacked in 1941, he applied to the Army, receiving his appointment as a chaplain on July 21, 1942. Chaplain Goode went on active duty on August 9, 1942 and he was selected for the Chaplains School at Harvard. He had courses in map reading, first aid, law, and chemical warfare. Chaplain Goode was then assigned to the 333rd Airbase Squadron in Goldsboro, North Carolina. In October 1942, he was transferred to Camp Myles Standish in Taunton, Massachusetts and reunited with Chaplains Fox, Poling and Washington, who were classmates at Harvard.

Clark V. Poling

Clark V. Poling was born August 7, 1910 in Columbus, Ohio, the son of Evangelical Minister Dan Poling, who was rebaptized in 1936 as a Baptist minister. Clark Poling studied at Yale University's Divinity School in New Haven, Connecticut and graduated with his B.D. degree in 1936. He was ordained in the Reformed Church in America, and served first in the First Church of Christ, New London, Connecticut, and then as Pastor of the First Reformed Church in Schenectady, New York. He married Betty Jung.

With the outbreak of World War II, Poling decided to enter the Army, wanting to face the same danger as others. His father, who had served as a World War I chaplain, told him chaplains risk and give their lives, too -- and with that knowledge, he applied to serve as an Army Chaplain, accepting an appointment on June 10, 1942 as a chaplain with the 131st Quartermaster Truck Regiment, reporting to Camp Shelby, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, on June 25. Later he reported to Army Chaplains School at Harvard where he would meet Chaplains Fox, Goode, and Washington.

John P. Washington

John P. Washington was born in Newark, New Jersey on July 18, 1908. He studied at Seton Hall in South Orange, New Jersey to complete his high school and college courses in preparation for the Catholic priesthood. He graduated in 1931 with an A.B. degree, entering Immaculate Conception Seminary in Darlington, New Jersey, where he received his minor orders on May 26, 1933. He served as a subdeacon at all the solemn masses, and later became a deacon on December 25, 1934. He was elected prefect of his class and was ordained a priest on June 15, 1935.

Father Washington's first parish was at St. Genevieve's in Elizabeth, New Jersey, later serving at St. Venantius for a year. In 1938, he was assigned to St. Stephen's in Arlington, New Jersey. Shortly after the Pearl Harbor attack of December 7, 1941, he received his appointment as a chaplain in the United States Army, reporting for active duty May 9, 1942. He was named Chief of the Chaplains Reserve Pool, in Ft. Benjamin Harrison, Indiana, and in June 1942, he was assigned to the 76th Infantry Division in Ft. George Meade, Maryland. In November 1942, he reported to Camp Myles Standish in Taunton, Massachusetts and met Chaplains Fox, Goode and Poling at Chaplains School at Harvard.

The ship

The Dorchester was a 5,649 ton civilian cruise ship
Ocean liner
An ocean liner is a ship designed to transport people from one seaport to another along regular long-distance maritime routes according to a schedule. Liners may also carry cargo or mail, and may sometimes be used for other purposes .Cargo vessels running to a schedule are sometimes referred to as...

, 368 feet long with a 52-foot beam and a single funnel, originally built in 1926 by Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, for the Merchants and Miners Line, operating ships from Baltimore to Florida, carrying both freight and passengers. It was the third of four liners being built for the Line.

The ship was converted for military service in World War II as a troop transport
A troopship is a ship used to carry soldiers, either in peacetime or wartime...

, and renamed United States Army Transport (USAT) Dorchester. The conversion was done in New York by the Atlantic, Gulf, and West Indies (AGWI) SS Company, and included additional lifeboats and liferafts; guns (a 3 inch 50 caliber gun forward, and a 4 inch 50 caliber gun aft, in addition to four 20mm guns); and changes to the large windows in the pilot house so that they would be reduced to slits to afford more protection. A liner designed for 314 passengers and 90 crew would now be able to carry slightly more than 900 passengers and crew.

The story

The Dorchester left New York on January 23, 1943, en route to Greenland, carrying the four chaplains and approximately 900 others, as part of a convoy of three ships (SG-19 convoy). Most of the military personnel were not told the ship's ultimate destination. The convoy was escorted by Coast Guard Cutters Tampa, Escanaba, and Comanche.
The ship's captain, Hans J. Danielsen, had been alerted that Coast Guard sonar had detected a submarine. Because German U-boats were monitoring sea lanes and had attacked and sunk ships earlier during the war, Captain Danielsen had the ship's crew on a state of high alert even before he received that information, ordering the men to sleep in their clothing and keep their life jackets on. "Many soldiers sleeping deep in the ship's hold disregarded the order because of the engine's heat. Others ignored it because the life jackets were uncomfortable."

During the early morning hours of February 3, 1943, at 12:55 a.m., the vessel was torpedoed by the German submarine U-223
U-boat is the anglicized version of the German word U-Boot , itself an abbreviation of Unterseeboot , and refers to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in World War I and World War II...

 off Newfoundland
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the easternmost province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it incorporates the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador with a combined area of . As of April 2011, the province's estimated population is 508,400...

 in the North Atlantic.

The torpedo knocked out the Dorchesters electrical system, leaving the ship dark. Panic set in among the men on board, many of them trapped below decks. The chaplains sought to calm the men and organize an orderly evacuation of the ship, and helped guide wounded men to safety. As life jackets were passed out to the men, the supply ran out before each man had one. The chaplains removed their own life jackets and gave them to others. They helped as many men as they could into lifeboats, and then linked arms and, saying prayers and singing hymns, went down with the ship.
According to some reports, survivors could hear different languages mixed in the prayers of the chaplains, including Hebrew Jewish prayers and Latin Catholic prayers.

In all, 230 of the 904 men aboard the ship were rescued. Life jackets offered little protection from hypothermia
Hypothermia is a condition in which core temperature drops below the required temperature for normal metabolism and body functions which is defined as . Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of through biologic homeostasis or thermoregulation...

, which killed most men in the water. The water temperature was 34 °F (1.1 °C) and the air temperature was 36 °F (2.2 °C). By the time additional rescue ships arrived, "...hundreds of dead bodies were seen floating on the water, kept up by their life jackets."

In film

  • The two-hour documentary No Greater Love tells the story, including interviews with survivors, rescuers, and naval historians.
  • The 60-minute TV documentary The Four Chaplains: Sacrifice at Sea was produced in 2004.
  • A feature film tentatively titled Lifeboat 13 is reportedly being considered for production, as of 2008.

In print

  • The book "Sea of Glory:The Magnificent Story of the Four Chaplains," written by Francis Beauchesne Thornton, was published by Prentice Hall in 1955.
  • The book "No Greater Glory: The Four Immortal Chaplains and the Sinking of the Dorchester in World War II," written by Dan Kurzman, was published by Random House in 2004.
  • "Sea of Glory: Based on the True WW II Story of the Four Chaplains and the U.S.A.T. Dorchester," written by Ken Wales and David Poling, is a 2006 book published by B&H Publishing Group. As the title indicates, it is "based on" the story, not an actual factual account.
  • The story of the Four Chaplains was also printed in the form of a comic book, "Chaplains at War," "The Living Bible #3," 1946.

In music

  • A musical composition entitled "The Light Eternal," written by James Swearingen
    James Swearingen
    James Swearingen is an American composer and arranger. He holds a Masters Degree from Ohio State University and a Bachelors Degree from Bowling Green State University and is currently Professor of Music, Department Chair of Music Education at Capital University, Columbus, Ohio.The music he writes...

     in 1992, tells the story of the Four Chaplains through music.

In art

In addition to the stained glass windows recalling the chaplains and their heroism, paintings include
  • Four Chaplains, 1943, by Alton Tobey
  • "A Moment of Peace," Ft. Jackson, South Carolina, painted by Steven Carter.
  • The Four Chaplains, Chapel of Four Chaplains.
  • "The Four Chaplains," by Art Seidan (the four, pictured at the rail of the ship).
  • Four chaplains mural, by artist Connie Burns Watkins, commissioned by the Rotary Club of New York, Pennsylvania.
  • Four Chaplains mural, painted by Dean Fausett, at entrance to Joseph "Ziggy" Kahn Gymnasium, Jewish Community Center
    Jewish Community Center
    A Jewish Community Center or Jewish Community Centre is a general recreational, social and fraternal organization serving the Jewish community in a number of cities...

     Irene Kaufman Building, Squirrel Hill, Pennsylvania.
  • "Four Chaplains mural", painted by Connie Burns Watkins, in York, Pennsylvania.


On December 19, 1944, all four chaplains were posthumously awarded the Purple Heart
Purple Heart
The Purple Heart is a United States military decoration awarded in the name of the President to those who have been wounded or killed while serving on or after April 5, 1917 with the U.S. military. The National Purple Heart Hall of Honor is located in New Windsor, New York...

 and the Distinguished Service Cross
Distinguished Service Cross (United States)
The Distinguished Service Cross is the second highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of the United States Army, for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. Actions that merit the Distinguished Service Cross must be of such a high degree...


Congress also attempted to confer the Medal of Honor on each of the four chaplains, but the stringent requirements for that medal required heroism performed "under fire," and the bravery and ultimate sacrifice of these men did not technically qualify, since their actions took place after the torpedo attack. Therefore, members of Congress decided to authorize a special medal intended to have the same weight and importance as the Medal of Honor. This new award, the Chaplain's Medal for Heroism
Chaplain's Medal for Heroism
The Chaplain's Medal for Heroism is a decoration of the United States Congress which was authorized by an act of Congress on July 14, 1960. Also known as the Chaplain's Medal of Honor and the Four Chaplains' Medal, the decoration commemorates the actions of the Four Chaplains who gave their lives...

, was officially established by a unanimous act of Congress on July 14, 1960, through Public law 86-656 of the 86th Congress. The medals were presented posthumously to the next of kin of each of the Four Chaplains by Secretary of the Army Wilber M. Brucker at Ft. Myer, Virginia on January 18, 1961. As of 2011, it has never been awarded to any chaplain other than the four who died when the Dorchester sank.

In 2006, National Executive Committee of The American Legion, at the Legion's 88th National Convention in Salt Lake City, passed a resolution urging Congress to revisit the issue of awards, and award the Medal of Honor to Fox, Goode, Poling and Washington.

Four Chaplains Day

In 1988, February 3 was established by a unanimous act of Congress
Act of Congress
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by government with a legislature named "Congress," such as the United States Congress or the Congress of the Philippines....

 as an annual "Four Chaplains Day." Some state or city officials commemorate the day with official proclamations, sometimes including the order that flags fly at half-mast in memory of the fallen chaplains. In some cases, official proclamations establish observances at other times: for example, North Dakota legislation requests that the Governor issue an annual proclamation establishing the first Sunday in February as "Four Chaplains Sunday."

The day is also observed as a feast day on the liturgical of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America
Calendar of saints (Episcopal Church in the United States of America)
The veneration of saints in the Episcopal Church is a continuation of an ancient tradition from the early Church which honors important people of the Christian faith. The usage of the term "saint" is similar to Roman Catholic and Orthodox traditions. Those in the Anglo-Catholic tradition may...


U.S. postage stamp

The chaplains were honored with a commemorative stamp
Commemorative stamp
A commemorative stamp is a postage stamp, often issued on a significant date such as an anniversary, to honor or commemorate a place, event or person. The subject of the commemorative stamp is usually spelled out in print, unlike definitive stamps which normally depict the subject along with the...

 that was issued in 1948, and was designed by Louis Schwimmer, the head of the Art Department of the New York branch of the U.S. Post Office Department (now called the USPS). This stamp is highly unusual, in that U.S. stamps were not normally issued in someone's honor until, at least at that time, at least 10 years after his or her death.

The stamp went through three revisions before the final design was chosen. None of the names of the chaplains were included on the stamp, nor were their faiths (although the faiths had been listed on one of the earlier designs): instead, the words on the stamp were "These Immortal Chaplains...Interfaith in Action." Another phrase included in an earlier design that was not part of the final stamp was "died to save men of all faiths."

Chapel of Four Chaplains

The Chapel of the Four Chaplains was dedicated on February 3, 1951, by President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman was the 33rd President of the United States . As President Franklin D. Roosevelt's third vice president and the 34th Vice President of the United States , he succeeded to the presidency on April 12, 1945, when President Roosevelt died less than three months after beginning his...

 to honor these chaplains of different faiths in the basement of Grace Baptist church in Philadelphia. In 1974, that congregation moved to Blue Bell
Blue Bell, Pennsylvania
Blue Bell is a census-designated place in Whitpain Township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 6,067....

, and sold the building to Temple University
Temple University
Temple University is a comprehensive public research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Originally founded in 1884 by Dr. Russell Conwell, Temple University is among the nation's largest providers of professional education and prepares the largest body of professional...

. Today Temple University
Temple University
Temple University is a comprehensive public research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Originally founded in 1884 by Dr. Russell Conwell, Temple University is among the nation's largest providers of professional education and prepares the largest body of professional...

 is renovating that building.

In his dedication speech, the President said, “This interfaith shrine... will stand through long generations to teach Americans that as men can die heroically as brothers so should they live together in mutual faith and goodwill.”

The Chapel dedication included a reminder that the interfaith team represented by the Four Chaplains was unusual. Although the Chapel was dedicated as an All-Faiths Chapel, no Catholic priest took part in the dedication ceremony, because, as Msgr. Thomas McCarthy of the National Catholic Welfare Conference explained to Time magazine, "canon law forbids joint worship."

In addition to supporting work that exemplifies the idea of Interfaith in Action, recalling the story of the Four Chaplains, the Chapel presents awards to individuals whose work reflects interfaith goals. 1984 was the first time that the award went to a military chaplain team composed of a rabbi, priest, and minister, recalling in a special way the four chaplains themselves, when the Rabbi Louis Parris Hall of Heroes Gold Medallion was presented to Rabbi Arnold Resnicoff
Arnold Resnicoff
Arnold E. Resnicoff is an American Conservative rabbi, a decorated retired military officer and military chaplain, and a consultant on leadership, values, and interreligious affairs to military and civilian leaders...

; Catholic Priest Fr. George Pucciarelli; and Protestant Minister Danny Wheeler—the three chaplains present at the scene of the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing
1983 Beirut barracks bombing
The Beirut Barracks Bombing occurred during the Lebanese Civil War, when two truck bombs struck separate buildings housing United States and French military forces—members of the Multinational Force in Lebanon—killing 299 American and French servicemen...

. The story of these three United States Navy Chaplains was itself memorialized in a Presidential speech (video version) (text version) by President Ronald Reagan, on April 12, 1984.

Memorial foundations

  • The Four Chaplains Memorial Foundation, the only 501(c)(3) charity related to the Four Chaplains' legacy, is housed at the former U.S. Naval Chapel located at the former South Philadelphia Navy Yard. Its official mission statement is "to further the cause of 'unity without uniformity' by encouraging goodwill and cooperation among all people. The organization achieves its mission by advocating for and honoring people whose deeds symbolize the legacy of the Four Chaplains aboard the U.S.A.T. Dorchester in 1943." In addition to its other goals and objectives, it supports memorial services that honor the memory of the chaplains and tell their story by publishing Guidelines for Four Chaplains Interfaith Memorial Services. Additionally, it sponsors an "Emergency Chaplains Corps" to provide support for first responders in disaster situations, and scholarship competitions for graduating high school seniors, focusing on the values of "inclusion, cooperation, and unity" exemplified by the Four Chaplains story. The competitions include a National Art Scholarship contest, a National Essay Scholarship contest, and a National Project Lifesaver Scholarship contest.
  • The Immortal Chaplains Foundation was incorporated in October 1997 as a Minnesota non-profit corporation. The original concept for the Foundation was from David Fox, nephew of Chaplain George Fox, and Rosalie Goode Fried, the daughter of Chaplain Alexander Goode. The organization's goal is "to honor individuals, both past and present, whose lives exemplify the compassion of the four 'Immortal Chaplains' and who have risked all to protect others of different faith or ethnicity." The group presents an annual "Prize for Humanity," "to broaden national and international awareness of the legacy of the four 'Immortal Chaplains,'" "to inspire youth to the values of the four 'Immortal Chaplains,'" and "to find new partners and ways to tell this story and preserve the legacy." At the 1999 Award Ceremony, held in Minnesota, South African Bishop Desmond Tutu
    Desmond Tutu
    Desmond Mpilo Tutu is a South African activist and retired Anglican bishop who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid...

     helped present Prizes for Humanity that included posthumous awards for Amy Biehl
    Amy Biehl
    Amy Elizabeth Biehl was a white American graduate of Stanford University and an Anti-Apartheid activist in South Africa...

    , an American Stanford University
    Stanford University
    The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly referred to as Stanford University or Stanford, is a private research university on an campus located near Palo Alto, California. It is situated in the northwestern Santa Clara Valley on the San Francisco Peninsula, approximately northwest of San...

     student and Fulbright scholar
    Fulbright Program
    The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright-Hays Program, is a program of competitive, merit-based grants for international educational exchange for students, scholars, teachers, professionals, scientists and artists, founded by United States Senator J. William Fulbright in 1946. Under the...

     who was stabbed to death in South Africa while working to establish a Legal Education Center; and Charles W. David, an African-American Coastguardsman on board the Coastguard cutter "Commanche," who rescued many of the Dorchester survivors, later dying from pneumonia as a result of his efforts. Unfortunately, the establishment of the Immortal Chaplains Foundation included some controversy, when The Chapel of Four Chaplains sued Fox to prevent him and his new group from using the phrase "The Four Chaplains" or the image of them that appeared on the U.S. postage stamp.

Chapels and sanctuaries

  • Immortal Chaplains Memorial Sanctuary - On the Queen Mary in Long Beach, California, and operated by The Immortal Chaplains Foundation. The foundation was founded by the chaplains' families and survivors of the Dorchester tragedy, including 3 survivors of U-boat 223, which sank the Dorchester on February 3, 1943. The Queen Mary transported these men to the USA as POWs one year after the sinking of the Dorchester.
  • The chapel at the Pittsburgh International Airport
    Pittsburgh International Airport
    Pittsburgh International Airport , formerly Greater Pittsburgh Airport, Greater Pittsburgh International Airport and commonly referred to as Pittsburgh International, is a joint civil–military international airport located in the Pittsburgh suburb of Findlay Township, approximately west of...

     was dedicated to the four chaplains in 1994.
  • Fort Lewis
    Fort Lewis
    Joint Base Lewis-McChord is a United States military facility located south-southwest of Tacoma, Washington. The facility is under the jurisdiction of the United States Army Joint Base Garrison, Joint Base Lewis-McChord....

    , Washington, Four Chaplains' Memorial Chapel & Family Life Center.
  • Chapel at Camp Tuckahoe
    Camp Tuckahoe
    The New Birth of Freedom Council is a council of the Boy Scouts of America serving South-Central Pennsylvania. The council was formed by a merger of York-Adams Area Council and Keystone Area Council on April 1, 2010.-Organization:...

    , Boy Scouts of America, in York County, Pennsylvania
    York County, Pennsylvania
    York County is a county in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. As of 2010, the population was 434,972. It is in the Susquehanna Valley, a large fertile agricultural region in South Central Pennsylvania....

    , dedicated in memory of Chaplain Goode.

Stained glass windows

  • United States Pentagon, A Ring.
  • Ft. Bliss, Texas, in U.S. Army Sergeant Majors Academy "Four Chaplains Classroom."
  • Ft Snelling, Minnesota, Chapel of Immortal Chaplains
  • National Cathedral, Washington, D.C, Heroes Chapel Window
  • Post Chapel at West Point.
  • Memorial Chapel, United States Army War College, Carlyle Barracks, Pennsylvania.

Sculptures and plaques

  • Four Chaplains Memorial, resembling a flying white bird at the top of the National Memorial Park entrance driveway, Washington, D.C., by abstract expressionist, Constantino Nivola.
  • Memorial created by sculptor Carlton W. Angell
    Carlton W. Angell
    Carleton W. Angell was an American sculptor. He was born in Belding, Michigan and died in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He is buried in Washtenong Memorial Gardens near the World War I Veterans Memorial, under a plaque designed by noted artist, Stanley Kellogg.-Career:Angell studied sculpture at the...

     was dedicated to the Four Chaplains in Ann Arbor, Michigan
    Ann Arbor, Michigan
    Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County. The 2010 census places the population at 113,934, making it the sixth largest city in Michigan. The Ann Arbor Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 344,791 as of 2010...

     in 1954.
  • Memorial plaque at Belmont Park
    Belmont Park
    Belmont Park is a major thoroughbred horse-racing facility located in Elmont in the Town of Hempstead in Nassau County, New York, on Long Island adjoining New York City. It first opened on May 4, 1905...

     Racecourse in Elmont, New York
    Elmont, New York
    Elmont is an unincorporated census-designated place located in the northwest corner of the Town of Hempstead in Nassau County, New York, along its border with the borough of Queens in New York City...

    . It is located behind the clubhouse section of the grandstand. It is bolted onto a rock on the walkway leading to the racing secretary's office.
  • Memorial, public park, Dorchester, Wisconsin
    Dorchester, Wisconsin
    Dorchester is a village in Clark and Marathon counties in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, along the 45th parallel. It is part of the Wausau, Wisconsin Metropolitan Statistical Area...

  • Memorial plaque ("The Four Chaplains Marker"), Kingwood Memorial Park, Ohio.
  • St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Hebron, Maryland: memorial set up inside of the church.

  • Plaque, Rhode Island State House
    Rhode Island State House
    The Rhode Island State House is the capitol of the U.S. state of Rhode Island. It is located on the border of the Downtown and Smith Hill sections of the state capital city of Providence...

    , commemorating the Four Chaplains and a Rhode Island
    Rhode Island
    The state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, more commonly referred to as Rhode Island , is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest U.S. state by area...

     native, Walter McHugh, a Coast Guard member who also lost his life on the Dorchester.
  • Four Chaplains Memorial, Ft. Wadsworth, Staten Island, New York.
  • Four Chaplains Monument, Bottineau, North Dakota.
  • Four Chaplains Monument, Arbor Crest Cemetery, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
  • Memorial, Huntington Park, Newport News, Virginia.
  • Memorial sculpture, Washington Park Cemetery, Indiana.
  • Memorial outside American Legion Post 61, Sterling St., Watertown, NY.

Miscellaneous remembrances

  • The Four Chaplains Memorial Viaduct, spanning the Tuscarawas River
    Tuscarawas River
    The Tuscarawas River is a principal tributary of the Muskingum River, 129.9 miles long, in northeastern Ohio in the United States...

     in Massillon, Ohio
    Massillon, Ohio
    Massillon is a city located in Stark County in the U.S. state of Ohio, approximately 8 miles to the west of Canton, Ohio, 20 miles south of Akron, Ohio, and 50 miles south of Cleveland, Ohio. The population was 32,149 at the 2010 census....

    , was built in 1949 and refurbished in 1993. It is part of the old Lincoln Highway
    Lincoln Highway
    The Lincoln Highway was the first road across the United States of America.Conceived and promoted by entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher, the Lincoln Highway spanned coast-to-coast from Times Square in New York City to Lincoln Park in San Francisco, originally through 13 states: New York, New Jersey,...

    . A memorial plaque can be found on the eastern end.
  • "Field of the Four Chaplains" at Fort Benning, Georgia.
  • The 23rd Degree of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (Northern Jurisdiction) is based on the Four Chaplains incident, teaching "that faith in God will find expression in love for our fellow man, even to the ultimate personal sacrifice".
  • Alexander D. Goode Elementary School in York, Pennsylvania
    York, Pennsylvania
    York, known as the White Rose City , is a city located in York County, Pennsylvania, United States which is in the South Central region of the state. The population within the city limits was 43,718 at the 2010 census, which was a 7.0% increase from the 2000 count of 40,862...

    . Students honor the four Chaplains annually.
  • Four Chaplains Memorial Swimming Pool, Veterans Hospital, Bronx, New York.

Ceremonies and services

Ceremonies and services are held each year on or around the Feb 3 "Four Chaplains Day" by numerous military and civilian groups and organizations. Civitan International, a worldwide volunteer association of service clubs, holds an interfaith Clergy Appreciation Week every year. The event honors the sacrifice of the Four Chaplains by encouraging citizens to thank the clergy that serve their communities. The First Parish Church (Unitarian Universalist) in Dorchester, Massachusetts, hosts an ecumenical "Service of the Four Chaplains" each January. The American Legion
American Legion
The American Legion is a mutual-aid organization of veterans of the United States armed forces chartered by the United States Congress. It was founded to benefit those veterans who served during a wartime period as defined by Congress...

 commemorates the day through services and programs at many posts throughout the nation.

On February 14, 2002, as part of the annual award of the Immortal Chaplains Prize for Humanity, a special reconciliation meeting took place between survivors of both the American and German sides of the sinking of the Dorchester. Kurt Röser and Gerhard Buske, who had been part of the crew of the German U-boat that had torpedoed the Dorchester met with three Dorchester survivors, Ben Epstein, Walter Miller, and David Labadie, as well as Dick Swanson, who had been on board the Coast Guard Cutter Comanche, escorting the Dorchester's convoy.

On February 3, 2011, the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library of the United States Congress, de facto national library of the United States, and the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. Located in three buildings in Washington, D.C., it is the largest library in the world by shelf space and...

 Veterans History Project
Veterans History Project of the Library of Congress American Folklife Center
The United States Congress created the Veterans History Project in 2000. The authorizing legislation , sponsored by Representatives Ron Kind, Amo Houghton, and Steny Hoyer in the U.S. House of Representatives and Senators Max Cleland and Chuck Hagel in the U.S...

 and the United States Navy Memorial
United States Navy Memorial
The United States Navy Memorial on Pennsylvania Avenue NW between 7th Street Northwest and 9th Street Northwest in Washington, D.C., honors those who have served or are currently serving in the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, and the Merchant Marine....

 co-hosted a special program at the Memorial, in Washington, D.C.

The Jewish Chaplains Monument at Arlington National Cemetery's Chaplains' Hill was dedicated on October 24, 2011. The monument honors 14 Jewish chaplains who died during their military service. The monument is a granite upright with a bronze plaque, similar to the three other monuments at the site honoring Catholic, Protestant and World War I chaplains. Rabbi Goode's name is the first listed on the plaque. The Jewish Chaplains Monument was approved by the United States Congress in May 2011, and the monument itself, designed by Debora Jackson of Long Island, New York, was reviewed and approved by the U.S. Fine Arts Commission on June 16, 2011. The dedication ceremony was held in Arlington's Memorial Amphitheater. The ceremony was attended by Ernie Heaton, who survived the Dorchester sinking, and Richard Swanson who was on the Coast Guard rescue team.

External links