Ann Arbor, Michigan

Ann Arbor, Michigan

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Encyclopedia
Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of Michigan
Michigan
Michigan is a U.S. state located in the Great Lakes Region of the United States of America. The name Michigan is the French form of the Ojibwa word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake"....

 and the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Washtenaw County
Washtenaw County, Michigan
Washtenaw County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 344,791. Its county seat is Ann Arbor. The United States Office of Management and Budget defines the county as part of the Detroit–Warren–Flint Combined Statistical Area...

. The 2010 census places the population at 113,934, making it the sixth largest city in Michigan. The Ann Arbor Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) had a population of 344,791 as of 2010. The city is also part of the larger Detroit – Ann Arbor – Flint, MI
Metro Detroit
The Detroit metropolitan area, often referred to as Metro Detroit, is the metropolitan area located in Southeast Michigan centered on the city of Detroit which shares an international border with Windsor, Ontario. The Detroit metropolitan area is the second largest U.S. metropolitan area...

 CSA
Combined Statistical Area
The United States Office of Management and Budget defines micropolitan and metropolitan statistical areas. Metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas consist of one or more counties...

.

Ann Arbor was founded in 1824, with one theory stating that it is named after the spouses of the city's founders and for the stands of trees in the area. The University of Michigan
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan in the United States. It is the state's oldest university and the flagship campus of the University of Michigan...

 moved from Detroit to Ann Arbor in 1837, and the city showed steady growth throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, with a decline during the Depression of 1873
Long Depression
The Long Depression was a worldwide economic crisis, felt most heavily in Europe and the United States, which had been experiencing strong economic growth fueled by the Second Industrial Revolution in the decade following the American Civil War. At the time, the episode was labeled the Great...

. During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as an important center for liberal politics. Ann Arbor also became a focal-point for left-wing activism and served as a hub for the civil-rights movement and anti-Vietnam War movement, as well as the student movement.

Today, Ann Arbor is home to the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan in the United States. It is the state's oldest university and the flagship campus of the University of Michigan...

, which is the dominant institution of higher learning in the city. The university shapes Ann Arbor's economy significantly as it employs about 30,000 workers, including about 12,000 in the medical center
University of Michigan Health System
The University of Michigan Health System is the wholly owned academic medical center of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. UMHS includes the U-M Medical School, with its Faculty Group Practice and many research laboratories; the U-M Hospitals and Health Centers, which includes University...

. The city's economy is also centered on high technology, with several companies drawn to the area by the university's research and development money, and by its graduates. Ann Arbor has increasingly found itself grappling with the effects of sharply rising land values and gentrification
Gentrification
Gentrification and urban gentrification refer to the changes that result when wealthier people acquire or rent property in low income and working class communities. Urban gentrification is associated with movement. Consequent to gentrification, the average income increases and average family size...

, as well as urban sprawl
Urban sprawl
Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density and auto-dependent development on rural land, high segregation of uses Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a...

 stretching far into the outlying countryside.

History



Ann Arbor was founded in 1824 by land speculators John Allen
John Allen (pioneer)
John Allen was an American pioneer and a co-founder, along with Elisha Rumsey, of the U.S. city of Ann Arbor, Michigan.-Early life:...

 and Elisha Rumsey
Elisha Rumsey
Elisha Walker Rumsey was an American pioneer and co-founder of the U.S. city of Ann Arbor. He and John Allen founded Ann Arbor in 1824.-Early life:...

. On May 25, 1824, the town plat
Plat
A plat in the U.S. is a map, drawn to scale, showing the divisions of a piece of land. Other English-speaking countries generally call such documents a cadastral map or plan....

 was registered with Wayne County as "Annsarbour"; this represents the earliest known use of the town's name. There are various accounts concerning the origin of the settlement's name; one states that Allen and Rumsey decided to name it for their wives, both named Ann, and for the stands of burr oak
Bur oak
Quercus macrocarpa, the Bur Oak, sometimes spelled Burr Oak, is a species of oak in the white oak section Quercus sect. Quercus, native to North America in the eastern and midwestern United States and south-central Canada...

 in the 640 acres (259 ha) of land they purchased for $800 from the federal government at $1.25 per acre. Regional Michigan Ojibwa
Ojibwa
The Ojibwe or Chippewa are among the largest groups of Native Americans–First Nations north of Mexico. They are divided between Canada and the United States. In Canada, they are the third-largest population among First Nations, surpassed only by Cree and Inuit...

 named the settlement kaw-goosh-kaw-nick, after the sound of Allen's sawmill
Sawmill
A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards.-Sawmill process:A sawmill's basic operation is much like those of hundreds of years ago; a log enters on one end and dimensional lumber exits on the other end....

.
Ann Arbor became the seat of Washtenaw County in 1827, and was incorporated as a village in 1833. The Ann Arbor Land Company, a group of speculators, set aside 40 acres (16.2 ha) of undeveloped land and offered it to the state of Michigan as the site of the state capital, but lost the bid to Lansing
Lansing, Michigan
Lansing is the capital of the U.S. state of Michigan. It is located mostly in Ingham County, although small portions of the city extend into Eaton County. The 2010 Census places the city's population at 114,297, making it the fifth largest city in Michigan...

. In 1837, the property was accepted instead as the site of the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan in the United States. It is the state's oldest university and the flagship campus of the University of Michigan...

, which moved from Detroit.

Since the university's establishment in the city in 1837, the history of both the University of Michigan and Ann Arbor are closely linked. The town became a regional transportation hub in 1839 with the arrival of the Michigan Central Railroad
Michigan Central Railroad
The Michigan Central Railroad was originally incorporated in 1846 to establish rail service between Detroit, Michigan and St. Joseph, Michigan. The railroad later operated in the states of Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois in the United States, and the province of Ontario in Canada...

, and a north—south railway connecting Ann Arbor to Toledo
Toledo, Ohio
Toledo is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Lucas County. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, on the western end of Lake Erie, and borders the State of Michigan...

 and other markets to the south was established in 1878. Throughout 1840s and the 1850s settlers continued to come to Ann Arbor. While the earlier settlers were primarily of British ancestry, the newer settlers also consisted of Germans, Irish, and African-Americans. In 1851, Ann Arbor was chartered as a city, though the city showed a drop in population during the Depression of 1873
Long Depression
The Long Depression was a worldwide economic crisis, felt most heavily in Europe and the United States, which had been experiencing strong economic growth fueled by the Second Industrial Revolution in the decade following the American Civil War. At the time, the episode was labeled the Great...

. It was not until the early 1880s that Ann Arbor again saw robust growth, with new immigrants coming from Greece, Italy, Russia, and Poland. Ann Arbor saw increased growth in manufacturing, particularly in milling
Mill (grinding)
A grinding mill is a unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces. There are many different types of grinding mills and many types of materials processed in them. Historically mills were powered by hand , working animal , wind or water...

. Ann Arbor's Jewish
American Jews
American Jews, also known as Jewish Americans, are American citizens of the Jewish faith or Jewish ethnicity. The Jewish community in the United States is composed predominantly of Ashkenazi Jews who emigrated from Central and Eastern Europe, and their U.S.-born descendants...

 community also grew after the turn of the 20th century, and its first and oldest synagogue
Synagogue
A synagogue is a Jewish house of prayer. This use of the Greek term synagogue originates in the Septuagint where it sometimes translates the Hebrew word for assembly, kahal...

, Beth Israel Congregation
Beth Israel Congregation (Ann Arbor, Michigan)
Beth Israel Congregation is an egalitarian Conservative synagogue located at 2000 Washtenaw Avenue in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Established in 1916, Beth Israel is the oldest synagogue in Ann Arbor, and currently has 480 member households....

, was established in 1916.


During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as an important center for liberal politics. Ann Arbor also became a locus for left-wing activism and served as a hub for the civil-rights movement and anti-Vietnam War movement, as well as the student movement. The first major meetings of the national left-wing campus group Students for a Democratic Society
Students for a Democratic Society (1960 organization)
Students for a Democratic Society was a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main iconic representations of the country's New Left. The organization developed and expanded rapidly in the mid-1960s before dissolving at its last convention in 1969...

 took place in Ann Arbor in 1960; in 1965, the city was home to the first U.S. teach-in
Teach-in
A teach-in is similar to a general educational forum on any complicated issue, usually an issue involving current political affairs. The main difference between a teach-in and a seminar is the refusal to limit the discussion to a specific frame of time or an academic scope of the topic. Teach-ins...

 against the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

. During the ensuing 15 years, many countercultural
Counterculture
Counterculture is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition. Counterculture can also be described as a group whose behavior...

 and New Left
New Left
The New Left was a term used mainly in the United Kingdom and United States in reference to activists, educators, agitators and others in the 1960s and 1970s who sought to implement a broad range of reforms, in contrast to earlier leftist or Marxist movements that had taken a more vanguardist...

 enterprises sprang up and developed large constituencies within the city. These influences washed into municipal politics during the early and mid-1970s when three members of the Human Rights Party (HRP) won city council seats on the strength of the student vote. During their time on the council, HRP representatives fought for measures including pioneering antidiscrimination
Civil rights
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from unwarranted infringement by governments and private organizations, and ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the state without discrimination or repression.Civil rights include...

 ordinances, measures decriminalizing marijuana possession, and a rent-control
Rent control
Rent control refers to laws or ordinances that set price controls on the renting of residential housing. It functions as a price ceiling.Rent control exists in approximately 40 countries around the world...

 ordinance; many of these remain in effect in modified form. Alongside these liberal and left-wing efforts, a small group of conservative institutions were born in Ann Arbor. These include Word of God
Word of God (community)
The Word of God is an ecumenical, charismatic, missionary Christian community that started in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It is composed of Christians from many different church backgrounds. The Word of God began in 1967 as an evangelistic outreach to students at The University of Michigan...

 (established in 1967), a charismatic
Charismatic movement
The term charismatic movement is used in varying senses to describe 20th century developments in various Christian denominations. It describes an ongoing international, cross-denominational/non-denominational Christian movement in which individual, historically mainstream congregations adopt...

 inter-denominational movement; and the Thomas More Law Center
Thomas More Law Center
The Thomas More Law Center is a prominent conservative Christian, not-for-profit law center based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and is active throughout the United States. Its stated goals are defending the religious freedom of Christians, restoring "time honored values" and protecting the sanctity of...

 (established in 1999), a religious-conservative advocacy group.

Following a 1956 vote the city of East Ann Arbor merged with Ann Arbor to encompass the eastern sections of the city.

In the past several decades, Ann Arbor has grappled with the effects of sharply rising land values, gentrification
Gentrification
Gentrification and urban gentrification refer to the changes that result when wealthier people acquire or rent property in low income and working class communities. Urban gentrification is associated with movement. Consequent to gentrification, the average income increases and average family size...

, and urban sprawl
Urban sprawl
Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density and auto-dependent development on rural land, high segregation of uses Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a...

 stretching into outlying countryside. On November 4, 2003, voters approved a greenbelt
Green belt
A green belt or greenbelt is a policy and land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas. Similar concepts are greenways or green wedges which have a linear character and may run through an...

 plan under which the city government bought development rights to pieces of land adjacent to Ann Arbor to preserve them from sprawling development. Since then, a vociferous local debate has hinged on how and whether to accommodate and guide development within city limits. Ann Arbor consistently ranks in the "top places to live" lists published by various mainstream media outlets every year. In 2008, it was ranked 27th out of 100 "America's best small cities."

Geography and cityscape



According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has an area of 27.7 square miles (71.7 km²); 27 square miles (69.9 km²) is land and 0.7 square miles (1.8 km²) or 2.43% is water, much of which is part of the Huron River
Huron River (Michigan)
The Huron River is a river in southeastern Michigan, rising out of the Huron Swamp in Indian Springs Metropark in northern Oakland County and flowing into Lake Erie on the boundary between Wayne County and Monroe County...

. Ann Arbor is about 35 miles (56.3 km) west of Detroit
Detroit, Michigan
Detroit is the major city among the primary cultural, financial, and transportation centers in the Metro Detroit area, a region of 5.2 million people. As the seat of Wayne County, the city of Detroit is the largest city in the U.S. state of Michigan and serves as a major port on the Detroit River...

. Ann Arbor Charter Township
Ann Arbor Charter Township, Michigan
Ann Arbor Charter Township is a charter township of Washtenaw County in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2000 census, the township population was 4,720. The city of Ann Arbor is adjacent to the township on the south and west sides. Small islands of the township also lie within the boundaries...

 adjoins the city's north and east sides. Ann Arbor is situated on the Huron River
Huron River (Michigan)
The Huron River is a river in southeastern Michigan, rising out of the Huron Swamp in Indian Springs Metropark in northern Oakland County and flowing into Lake Erie on the boundary between Wayne County and Monroe County...

 in a productive agricultural and fruit-growing region. The landscape of Ann Arbor consists of hills and valleys, with the terrain becoming steeper near the Huron River. The elevation ranges from about 750 feet (228.6 m) along the Huron River to over 1000 feet (304.8 m) on the city's west side, near I-94. Generally, the west-central and northwestern parts of the city and UM's North Campus are the highest parts of the city; the lowest parts are along the Huron River and in the southeast. Ann Arbor Municipal Airport, which is south of the city at 42°13.38′N 83°44.74′W, has an elevation of 839 feet (255.7 m).

Ann Arbor's "Tree Town" nickname stems from the dense forestation of its parks and residential areas. The city contains more than 50,000 trees along its streets and an equal number in parks. In recent years, the emerald ash borer
Emerald ash borer
The emerald ash borer is a green beetle native to Asia.In North America the borer is an invasive species, highly destructive to ash trees in its introduced range. The potential damage of this insect rivals that of Chestnut blight and Dutch Elm Disease...

 has destroyed many of the city's approximately 10,500 ash tree
Ash tree
Fraxinus is a genus flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae. It contains 45-65 species of usually medium to large trees, mostly deciduous though a few subtropical species are evergreen. The tree's common English name, ash, goes back to the Old English æsc, while the generic name...

s. The city contains 157 municipal parks ranging from small neighborhood green spots to large recreation areas. Several large city parks and a university park border sections of the Huron River. Fuller Recreation Area, near the University Hospital
University of Michigan Health System
The University of Michigan Health System is the wholly owned academic medical center of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. UMHS includes the U-M Medical School, with its Faculty Group Practice and many research laboratories; the U-M Hospitals and Health Centers, which includes University...

 complex, contains sports fields, pedestrian and bike paths, and swimming pools. Nichols Arboretum
Nichols Arboretum
Nichols Arboretum is an arboretum operated by the University of Michigan located on the eastern edge of its Central Campus at 1610 Washington Heights in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The Huron River forms the northern border of the arboretum. The arboretum is open daily from sunrise to sunset with no...

, operated by the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan in the United States. It is the state's oldest university and the flagship campus of the University of Michigan...

, is a 123 acres (49.8 ha) preserve that contains hundreds of plant and tree species. It is on the city's east side, near the university's central campus.


The Kerrytown Shops, Main Street Business District, the State Street Business District, and the South University Business District are commercial areas in downtown Ann Arbor. Three commercial areas south of downtown include the areas near I-94
Interstate 94
Interstate 94 is the northernmost east–west Interstate Highway, connecting the Great Lakes and Intermountain regions of the United States. I-94's western terminus is in Billings, Montana at a junction with Interstate 90; its eastern terminus is the U.S...

 and Ann Arbor-Saline Road, Briarwood Mall
Briarwood Mall
Briarwood Mall is a shopping mall in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States. The mall's four anchor stores are Macy's, JCPenney, Sears, and Von Maur. Surrounded by office and other development, the mall anchors the southern Ann Arbor commercial area around Eisenhower Boulevard and I-94. It serves as...

, and the South Industrial area. Other commercial areas include the Arborland/Washtenaw Avenue and Packard Road merchants on the east side, the Plymouth Road area in the northeast, and the Westgate/West Stadium areas on the west side. Downtown contains a mix of 19th- and early-20th-century structures and modern-style buildings, as well as a farmers' market
Farmers' market
A farmers' market consists of individual vendors—mostly farmers—who set up booths, tables or stands, outdoors or indoors, to sell produce, meat products, fruits and sometimes prepared foods and beverages...

 in the Kerrytown district. The city's commercial districts are composed mostly of two- to four-story structures, although downtown and the area near Briarwood Mall contain a small number of high-rise buildings.

Ann Arbor's residential neighborhoods contain architectural styles ranging from classic 19th-century and early-20th-century designs to ranch-style house
Ranch-style house
Ranch-style houses is a domestic architectural style originating in the United States. First built in the 1920s, the ranch style was extremely popular amongst the booming post-war middle class of the 1940s to 1970s...

s. Contemporary-style houses are farther from the downtown district. Surrounding the University of Michigan campus are houses and apartment complexes occupied primarily by student renters. Tower Plaza
Tower Plaza
Tower Plaza is the tallest building in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It is located at 555 East William Street. The high-rise was constructed in 1969 and stands at 26 stories, and is 267 ft. tall. The was designed in the international style of architecture. Its main materials are concrete and glass...

, a 26-story condominium building located between the University of Michigan campus and downtown, is the tallest building in Ann Arbor. The 19th century buildings and streetscape of the Old West Side neighborhood have been preserved virtually intact; in 1972, the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

, and it is further protected by city ordinances and a nonprofit preservation group.

Climate


Ann Arbor has a typically Midwestern
Midwestern United States
The Midwestern United States is one of the four U.S. geographic regions defined by the United States Census Bureau, providing an official definition of the American Midwest....

 humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dfa), which is influenced by the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
The Great Lakes are a collection of freshwater lakes located in northeastern North America, on the Canada – United States border. Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total surface, coming in second by volume...

. There are four distinct seasons: winters are cold with moderate to heavy snowfall, while summers are very warm and humid; in between, spring and autumn are short but mild. The area experiences lake effect weather, primarily in the form of increased cloudiness during late fall and early winter. The monthly daily average temperature in July is 72.6 °F (22.6 °C), while the same figure for January is 23.4 °F (-4.8 °C); the year averages out at 49 °F (9.4 °C). Summer temperatures can exceed 90 °F (32 °C), doing so on 10 days, and winter temperatures can drop well below 0 °F (-18 °C), doing so on 6 nights. Average monthly precipitation ranges from 2 to 4 in (5.1 to 10.2 cm), with the heaviest occurring during the summer months. Snowfall, which normally occurs from November to April, averages 52 inches (132 cm) per season, and the median amount is slightly less, at 45 inches (114 cm). The highest recorded temperature was 105 °F (41 °C) on July 24, 1934, and the lowest recorded temperature was −22 °F on January 19, 1994.

Demographics


As of the 2010 U.S. Census, there were 113,394 people, 45,634 households, and 21,704 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 4,270.33 people per square mile (2653.47/km²). There were 49,982 housing units at an average density of 1,748.0 per square mile (675.0/km²), making it less densely populated than inner-ring Detroit
Detroit, Michigan
Detroit is the major city among the primary cultural, financial, and transportation centers in the Metro Detroit area, a region of 5.2 million people. As the seat of Wayne County, the city of Detroit is the largest city in the U.S. state of Michigan and serves as a major port on the Detroit River...

 suburbs like Oak Park
Oak Park, Michigan
As of the census of 2000, there were 29,793 people, 11,104 households, and 7,595 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,863.8 persons per square mile . There were 11,370 housing units at an average density of 2,263.9 per square mile...

 and Ferndale
Ferndale, Michigan
Ferndale is adjacent to the cities of Detroit to the south, Oak Park to the west, Hazel Park to the east, Pleasant Ridge to the north, Royal Oak Township to the southwest, and Royal Oak to the north....

 (and than Detroit proper), but more densely populated than outer-ring suburbs like Livonia
Livonia, Michigan
Livonia is a city in the northwest part of Wayne County in the U.S. state of Michigan. Livonia is a very large suburb with an array of traditional neighborhoods connected to the metropolitan area by freeways. The population was 96,942 at the 2010 census, making it Michigan's 9th largest...

 or Troy
Troy, Michigan
Troy is a city in Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan, and is a suburb of Detroit. The population was 80,980 at the 2010 census, making it the 11th-largest city in Michigan by population, and the largest city in Oakland County...

. The racial makeup of the city was 73.0% White (70.4% non-Hispanic White), 7.7% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 14.4% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.0% from other races, and 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population.

In 2010 89.6% of the population was in a total of 47,060 households. The remaining 10.4% of the population primarily lived in university dorms.

As of 2000 the ancestry reports collected by the US census showed that in Ann Arbor 14.9% were of German
Germans
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

, 8.5% English
English people
The English are a nation and ethnic group native to England, who speak English. The English identity is of early mediaeval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Anglecynn. England is now a country of the United Kingdom, and the majority of English people in England are British Citizens...

 and 7.9% Irish
Irish people
The Irish people are an ethnic group who originate in Ireland, an island in northwestern Europe. Ireland has been populated for around 9,000 years , with the Irish people's earliest ancestors recorded having legends of being descended from groups such as the Nemedians, Fomorians, Fir Bolg, Tuatha...

 ancestry according to Census 2000. 79.2% spoke only English at home, while 3.2% spoke Chinese
Standard Mandarin
Standard Chinese or Modern Standard Chinese, also known as Mandarin or Putonghua, is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Republic of China , and is one of the four official languages of Singapore....

 or Mandarin
Standard Mandarin
Standard Chinese or Modern Standard Chinese, also known as Mandarin or Putonghua, is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Republic of China , and is one of the four official languages of Singapore....

, 3.1% Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

, 1.9% Korean
Korean language
Korean is the official language of the country Korea, in both South and North. It is also one of the two official languages in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in People's Republic of China. There are about 78 million Korean speakers worldwide. In the 15th century, a national writing...

, 1.2% German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

, 1.1% Japanese
Japanese language
is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities. It is a member of the Japonic language family, which has a number of proposed relationships with other languages, none of which has gained wide acceptance among historical linguists .Japanese is an...

 and 1.0% French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

. Because of the pull of the university, the city has one of the highest foreign-born populations in the state, at 17.4%.

In 2000 Out of the 45,693 households, 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.8% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 52.5% were nonfamilies. 35.5% of households were made up of individuals and 6.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.90. The age distribution was 16.8% under 18, 26.8% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 17.3% from 45 to 64, and 7.9% were 65 or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 97.7 males; while for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $46,299, and the median income for a family was $71,293 (these figures had risen to $51,232 and $82,293 respectively as of a 2007 estimate). Males had a median income of $48,880 versus $36,561 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $26,419. About 4.6% of families and 16.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.3% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over.

Ann Arbor's crime rate was below the national average in 2000. The violent crime rate was further below the national average than the property crime rate; the two rates were 48% and 11% lower than the U.S. average, respectively.

Economy


The University of Michigan shapes Ann Arbor's economy significantly. It employs about 30,000 workers, including about 12,000 in the medical center. Other employers are drawn to the area by the university's research and development money, and by its graduates. High tech
High tech
High tech is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology currently available. It is often used in reference to micro-electronics, rather than other technologies. The adjective form is hyphenated: high-tech or high-technology...

, health services and biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose...

 are other major components of the city's economy; numerous medical offices, laboratories, and associated companies are located in the city. Automobile manufacturers, such as General Motors and Visteon
Visteon
Visteon is one of the world's largest suppliers of automotive parts. The company formed in 1997 and spun off from the Ford Motor Company in 2000. In 2005, Visteon moved to new headquarters in Van Buren Township, Michigan...

, also employ residents.

High tech companies have located in the area since the 1930s, when International Radio Corporation introduced the first mass-produced AC/DC radio (the Kadette, in 1931) as well as the first pocket radio (the Kadette Jr., in 1933). The Argus camera company
Argus (camera company)
Argus is an American maker of cameras and photographic products, founded in 1936 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Argus originated as a subsidiary of the International Radio Corporation , founded by Charles Verschoor. Its best-known product was the C3 rangefinder camera, which enjoyed a 27-year production...

, originally a subsidiary International Radio, manufactured cameras in Ann Arbor from 1936 to the 1960s. Current firms include Arbor Networks
Arbor Networks
Arbor Networks is a software company founded in 2000 and based in Chemsford, Massachusetts, United States, which sells network security and network monitoring software, used – according to the company's claims – by over 70% of all Internet service providers...

 (provider of Internet traffic engineering and security systems), Arbortext (provider of XML-based publishing software), JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR is an online system for archiving academic journals, founded in 1995. It provides its member institutions full-text searches of digitized back issues of several hundred well-known journals, dating back to 1665 in the case of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society...

 (the digital scholarly journal archive), MediaSpan (provider of software and online services for the media industries), and ProQuest
ProQuest
ProQuest LLC is an Ann Arbor, Michigan-based electronic publisher and microfilm publisher.It provides archives of sources such as newspapers, periodicals, dissertations, and aggregated databases of many types. Its content is estimated at 125 billion digital pages...

, which includes UMI
University Microfilms International
University Microfilms International or UMI, was founded in the 1930s by Eugene Power in Ann Arbor. By June 1938, Power worked in two rented rooms from a downtown Ann Arbor funeral parlor, specializing in microphotography to preserve library collections...

. Ann Arbor Terminals manufactured a video-display terminal called the Ann Arbor Ambassador during the 1980s.

Websites and online media companies in or near the city include All Media Guide
All Media Guide
All Media Guide , is the company which owns and maintains Allmusic, Allgame and Allmovie. AMG was founded in 1990 by popular-culture archivist Michael Erlewine....

, the Weather Underground
Weather Underground (weather service)
Weather Underground is a commercial weather service that provides real-time weather information via the Internet. Weather Underground provides weather reports for most major cities across the world on its Web site, as well as local weather reports for newspapers and Web sites...

, and Zattoo
Zattoo
Zattoo is an Internet Protocol Television system, with offices located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and in Zurich, Switzerland. It is available on computer, iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad and runs on the operating systems Windows XP, Windows Vista, Mac OS X and Linux. The basic resolution for channels is...

. Ann Arbor is the home to Internet2
Internet2
Internet2 is an advanced not-for-profit US networking consortium led by members from the research and education communities, industry, and government....

 and the Merit Network
Merit Network
Merit Network, Inc., is a nonprofit member-governed organization providing high-performance computer networking and related services to educational, government, health care, and nonprofit organizations, primarily in Michigan...

, a not-for-profit research and education computer network. Both are located in the South State Commons 2 building on South State Street, which once housed the Michigan Information Technology Center Foundation. The city is also home to the headquarters of Google's AdWords
AdWords
Google AdWords is Google's main advertising product and main source of revenue. Google's total advertising revenues were USD$28 billion in 2010. AdWords offers pay-per-click advertising, cost-per-thousand advertising, and site-targeted advertising for text, banner, and rich-media ads. The AdWords...

 program—the company's primary revenue stream.

Pfizer
Pfizer
Pfizer, Inc. is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation. The company is based in New York City, New York with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut, United States...

, once the city's second largest employer, operated a large pharmaceutical research facility on the northeast side of Ann Arbor. On January 22, 2007, Pfizer announced it would close operations in Ann Arbor by the end of 2008. The facility was previously operated by Warner-Lambert and, before that, Parke-Davis. In December 2008, the University of Michigan Board of Regents approved the purchase of the facilities, and the university anticipates hiring 2,000 researchers and staff during the next 10 years. The city is the home of other research and engineering centers, including those of Lotus Engineering
Lotus Cars
Lotus Cars is a British manufacturer of sports and racing cars based at the former site of RAF Hethel, a World War II airfield in Norfolk. The company designs and builds race and production automobiles of light weight and fine handling characteristics...

, General Dynamics
General Dynamics
General Dynamics Corporation is a U.S. defense conglomerate formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2008 it is the fifth largest defense contractor in the world. Its headquarters are in West Falls Church , unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia, in the Falls Church area.The company has...

 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , pronounced , like "noah", is a scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere...

 (NOAA). Other research centers sited in the city are the United States Environmental Protection Agency
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress...

's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory and the Toyota Technical Center. The city is also home to National Sanitation Foundation International, AKA: NSF International
NSF International
NSF International is an Ann Arbor, Michigan-based not-for-profit public health and environmental organization that provides standards development, product certification, auditing, education and risk management services.-History:...

, the nonprofit non-governmental organization that develops generally accepted standards for a variety of public health related industries and subject areas.


Borders Books, started in Ann Arbor, was opened by brothers Tom and Louis Borders in 1971 with a stock of used books. The Borders chain was based in the city, as was its flagship store until it closed in September 2011. Domino's Pizza
Domino's Pizza
Domino's Pizza, Inc. is an international pizza delivery corporation headquartered in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America. Founded in 1960, Domino's is the second-largest pizza chain in the United States and has over 9,000 corporate and franchised stores in 60 countries and all 50 U.S....

's headquarters is near Ann Arbor on Domino's Farms, a 271 acres (109.7 ha) Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. Wright believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture...

-inspired complex just northeast of the city. Another Ann Arbor-based company is Zingerman's Delicatessen
Zingerman's
Zingerman's is an upscale food retailer headquartered in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. The original business and current flagship operation, Zingerman's Delicatessen, has long been a local favorite; the introduction of their award-winning web and mail-order offerings have attracted international...

, which serves sandwiches, and has developed businesses under a variety of brand names. Zingerman's has grown into a family of companies which offers a variety of products (bake shop, mail order, creamery, coffee) and services (business education). Flint Ink Corp., another Ann Arbor-based company, was the world's largest privately held ink manufacturer until it was acquired by Stuttgart-based XSYS Print Solutions in October 2005. AvFuel, a nationwide supplier of aviation fuels and services, is also headquartered in Ann Arbor.

Many cooperative enterprises were founded in the city; among those that remain are the People's Food Co-op and the Inter-Cooperative Council at the University of Michigan
Inter-Cooperative Council at the University of Michigan
The Inter-Cooperative Council at the University of Michigan is a student owned and operated housing cooperative serving students and community members in Ann Arbor, Michigan...

, a student-housing cooperative founded in 1937. The North American Students of Cooperation
North American Students of Cooperation
The North American Students of Cooperation is a federation of housing cooperatives in Canada and the United States, started in 1968. Traditionally, NASCO has been associated with student housing cooperatives, though non-student cooperatives are included in its network...

 (NASCO) is an international association of cooperatives headquartered in Ann Arbor. There are also three cohousing
Cohousing
A cohousing community is a type of intentional community composed of private homes supplemented by shared facilities. The community is planned, owned and managed by the residents – who also share activities which may include cooking, dining, child care, gardening, and governance of the...

 communities—Sunward
Sunward Cohousing
Sunward redirects here. For the company manufacturing model rockets, a trebuchet, a catapult, and hobby products, see Sunward Aerospace Group Limited.Sunward Cohousing is an intentional community located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA...

, Great Oak, and Touchstone—located immediately to the west of the city limits.

Culture


Many Ann Arbor cultural attractions and events are sponsored by the University of Michigan. Several performing arts groups and facilities are on the university's campus, as are museums
Museums at the University of Michigan
The University of Michigan in Ann Arbor is home to a number of museums. The majority of them on Central Campus, which include the Exhibit Museum of Natural History , Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, and the University of Michigan Museum of Art...

 dedicated to art
Art
Art is the product or process of deliberately arranging items in a way that influences and affects one or more of the senses, emotions, and intellect....

, archaeology
Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology , is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes...

, and natural history and sciences. Founded in 1879, the University Musical Society
University Musical Society
The University Musical Society is a not-for-profit performing arts presenter located on the campus of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It was established in December 1880...

 is an independent performing arts organization that presents over 60 events each year, bringing international artists in music, dance, and theater. Regional and local performing arts groups not associated with the university include the Ann Arbor Civic Theatre, the Arbor Opera Theater, the Ann Arbor Symphony Orchestra
Ann Arbor Symphony Orchestra
The Ann Arbor Symphony Orchestra is Ann Arbor, Michigan's only professional orchestra.The A2SO began as a community orchestra in Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1928. The "Ann Arbor Civic Symphony" began with only five members and has since blossomed into a full professional orchestra...

, the Ann Arbor Ballet Theater, the Ann Arbor Civic Ballet (established in 1954 as Michigan's first chartered ballet company), The Ark, and Performance Network Theatre
Performance Network Theatre
Performance Network Theatre is Ann Arbor, Michigan's only professional theatre, formed in 1981. It produces a wide variety of dramas, classics and comedies, many of which are World or Michigan Premieres. Its professional season runs year-round...

, which operates a downtown theater and frequently offers new or nontraditional plays. Another unique piece of artistic expression in Ann Arbor is the fairy doors
Fairy Doors of Ann Arbor, MI
The Fairy Doors of Ann Arbor, MI are a series of small doors that are a type of installation art found in Ann Arbor, MI. The first one appeared in the baseboards of the home of Jonathan and Kathleen Wright in 1993. Subsequently several others were discovered in their home; in the fireplace surround...

. These small portals are examples of installation art
Installation art
Installation art describes an artistic genre of three-dimensional works that are often site-specific and designed to transform the perception of a space. Generally, the term is applied to interior spaces, whereas exterior interventions are often called Land art; however, the boundaries between...

 and can be found throughout the downtown area.

The Ann Arbor Hands-On Museum
Ann Arbor Hands-On Museum
Ann Arbor Hands-On Museum located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, specializes in interactive exhibits.The Ann Arbor Hands-On Museum was founded in 1978, with approval from the city of Ann Arbor, as a touring collection of exhibits built by local specialists and volunteers...

, located in a renovated and expanded historic downtown fire station, contains more than 250 interactive exhibits featuring science and technology. Multiple art galleries exist in the city, notably in the downtown area and around the University of Michigan campus. Aside from a large restaurant scene in the Main Street, South State Street, and South University Avenue areas, Ann Arbor ranks first among U.S. cities in the number of booksellers and books sold per capita. The Ann Arbor District Library
Ann Arbor District Library
The Ann Arbor District Library is a public library system that serves the residents of Ann Arbor, Michigan. The Downtown Library, located at 343 South Fifth Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, was dedicated in 1957 and had building additions in 1974 and 1991. AADL also includes four branch...

 maintains four branch outlets in addition to its main downtown building. The city is also home to the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library
Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library
The Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library is part of the National Archives and Records Administration's presidential library system. The library is located at 1000 Beal Avenue on the north campus of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, where Ford was a student and football player...

.

Several annual events—many of them centered on performing and visual arts—draw visitors to Ann Arbor. One such event is the Ann Arbor Art Fairs
Ann Arbor Art Fairs
The Ann Arbor Art Fairs are a group of four award-winning, not-for-profit art fairs that take place annually in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Over 500,000 visitors attend the Fairs each year, which always take place during the third full week of July, running from Wednesday through Saturday...

, a set of four concurrent juried fairs held on downtown streets, which began in 1960. Scheduled on Wednesday through Saturday in the third week of July, the fairs draw upward of half a million visitors. Another is the Ann Arbor Film Festival
Ann Arbor Film Festival
The Ann Arbor Film Festival is an annual film festival held in Ann Arbor in the U.S. state of Michigan. Established in 1963, it is the third-oldest film festival in North America ; and the oldest experimental film festival...

, held during the third week of March, which receives more than 2,500 submissions annually from more than 40 countries and serves as one of a handful of Academy Award–qualifying festivals in the United States. One event that is not related to visual and performing arts is Hash Bash
Hash Bash
Hash Bash is an annual event held in Ann Arbor, Michigan, on the first Saturday of April at high noon on the University of Michigan Diag. A collection of speeches, live music, street vending and occasional civil disobedience are centered on the goal of reforming federal, state, and local marijuana...

, held on the first Saturday of April, ostensibly in support of the reform of marijuana
Cannabis (drug)
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among many other names, refers to any number of preparations of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug or for medicinal purposes. The English term marijuana comes from the Mexican Spanish word marihuana...

 laws. Until (at least) the successful passage of Michigan's medical marijuana law, the event had arguably strayed from its initial intent, although for years, a number of attendees have received serious legal responses due to marijuana use on University of Michigan property, which does not fall under the City's progressive and compassionate ticketing program.
Ann Arbor has a major scene for college sports, notably at the University of Michigan, a member of the Big Ten Conference
Big Ten Conference
The Big Ten Conference is the United States' oldest Division I college athletic conference. Its twelve member institutions are located primarily in the Midwestern United States, stretching from Nebraska in the west to Pennsylvania in the east...

. Several well-known college sports facilities exist in the city, including Michigan Stadium
Michigan Stadium
Michigan Stadium, nicknamed "The Big House," is the football stadium for the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Michigan Stadium was built in 1927 at a cost of $950,000 and had an original capacity of 72,000. Before playing football at the stadium, the Wolverines played on Ferry Field...

, the largest American football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

 stadium in the world with a 109,901 seating capacity. The stadium is colloquially known as "The Big House." Crisler Arena
Crisler Arena
Crisler Arena, in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, is the home arena for the University of Michigan men's and women's basketball teams. Constructed in 1967, the arena seats 13,751 spectators. It is named for Herbert O...

 and Yost Ice Arena
Yost Ice Arena
Yost Ice Arena is an indoor ice hockey arena located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It is the home of the University of Michigan varsity ice hockey team which plays in the Central Collegiate Hockey Association...

 play host to the school's basketball and ice hockey teams, respectively. Concordia University
Concordia University, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Concordia University is a private liberal arts university in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States. Its campus sits on the banks of the Huron River, about ten minutes outside downtown Ann Arbor. Concordia is affiliated with the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod and is a college of the Concordia...

, a member of the NAIA
National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics
The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics is an athletic association that organizes college and university-level athletic programs. Membership in the NAIA consists of smaller colleges and universities across the United States. The NAIA allows colleges and universities outside the USA...

, also fields sports teams.

For a period during the latter 1960s, the Ann Arbor vicinity acquired a greater recognition globally among certain fans of rock music, as the area included a number of popular groups which originated in Ann Arbor, were frequent visitors of Ann Arbor, or settled in the city or surrounding area. Among these were Detroit transplants MC5
MC5
The MC5 is an American rock band formed in Lincoln Park, Michigan and originally active from 1964 to 1972. The original band line-up consisted of vocalist Rob Tyner, guitarists Wayne Kramer and Fred "Sonic" Smith, bassist Michael Davis, and drummer Dennis Thompson...

, as well as The Stooges
The Stooges
The Stooges are an American rock band from Ann Arbor, Michigan first active from 1967 to 1974, and later reformed in 2003...

, SRC
SRC (band)
The SRC was a Detroit-based rock band from the late 1960s. From 1966 to 1972, they were a staple at many Detroit rock venues, such as the Grande Ballroom.-The early years:...

, The Up
The Up
The Up was an American rock band formed in Detroit, Michigan in early 1967. Along with fellow proto-punk bands the MC5 and The Stooges, The Up served as a "house band" for the Grande Ballroom in Detroit....

, The Rationals
The Rationals
-History:The Rationals formed in 1964 and first recorded a single for a local label, A2 Records, in 1965. After scoring a local hit with the tune "Gave My Love", they recorded a cover of Otis Redding's "Respect". This won them a contract for national distribution by Cameo/Parkway, and the single...

 and others. This trend continued with later groups such as The Cult Heroes, although the residual influences of the 1960s trendsetters are still evident in the city today.

A person from Ann Arbor is called an "Ann Arborite", and many long-time residents call themselves "townies". The city itself is often called ("A-squared") or A2 ("A two"), "The Deuce", "Ace Deuce" and, less commonly, Tree Town. With tongue-in-cheek
Tongue-in-cheek
Tongue-in-cheek is a phrase used as a figure of speech to imply that a statement or other production is humorously intended and it should not be taken at face value. The facial expression typically indicates that one is joking or making a mental effort. In the past, it may also have indicated...

 reference to the city's liberal political leanings, some occasionally refer to Ann Arbor as The People's Republic of Ann Arbor or 25 square miles surrounded by reality, the latter phrase being adapted from Wisconsin Governor Lee Dreyfus's description of Madison, Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin
Madison is the capital of the U.S. state of Wisconsin and the county seat of Dane County. It is also home to the University of Wisconsin–Madison....

. In A Prairie Home Companion
A Prairie Home Companion
A Prairie Home Companion is a live radio variety show created and hosted by Garrison Keillor. The show runs on Saturdays from 5 to 7 p.m. Central Time, and usually originates from the Fitzgerald Theater in Saint Paul, Minnesota, although it is frequently taken on the road...

broadcast from Ann Arbor, Garrison Keillor
Garrison Keillor
Gary Edward "Garrison" Keillor is an American author, storyteller, humorist, and radio personality. He is known as host of the Minnesota Public Radio show A Prairie Home Companion Gary Edward "Garrison" Keillor (born August 7, 1942) is an American author, storyteller, humorist, and radio...

 described Ann Arbor as "a city where people discuss socialism, but only in the fanciest restaurants." Ann Arbor sometimes appears on citation index
Citation index
A citation index is a kind of bibliographic database, an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents. The first citation indices were legal citators such as Shepard's Citations...

es as an author, instead of a location, often with the academic degree
Academic degree
An academic degree is a position and title within a college or university that is usually awarded in recognition of the recipient having either satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of study or having conducted a scholarly endeavour deemed worthy of his or her admission to the degree...

 MI, a misunderstanding of the abbreviation for Michigan.

Media



The Ann Arbor News, owned by the Michigan-based Booth Newspapers
Booth Newspapers
Booth Newspapers or BoothMichigan, based in Grand Rapids, Michigan, owns eight newspapers in the state of Michigan. Founded by George Gough Booth along with his two brothers, Booth Newspapers is presently owned by Advance Publications Booth Newspapers or BoothMichigan, based in Grand Rapids,...

 chain, was the major daily newspaper serving Ann Arbor and the rest of Washtenaw County. The newspaper ended its 174-year print run on July 23, 2009, due to economic difficulties. It has been replaced by AnnArbor.com
AnnArbor.com
AnnArbor.com is an online newspaper that covers local news of Ann Arbor, Michigan and the surrounding Washtenaw County, Michigan.- Overview :...

, which has a bi-weekly print operation in addition to its website. Another Ann Arbor-based publication that has ceased production was the Ann Arbor Paper, a free monthly. Currently-established publications in the city include the A2 Journal, a weekly newspaper that features local news, opinion, features and sports; Ann Arbor Observer
Ann Arbor Observer
The Ann Arbor Observer is a monthly newsprint magazine delivered free to all permanent residents of the Ann Arbor, Michigan school district and postal service area...

, a monthly magazine with features covering local culture, politics, family life, business and history, as well as a comprehensive calendar of events; Current, an entertainment guide; and the Communicator, a local high school paper. The University of Michigan campus area is served by many student publications, including the independent Michigan Daily
Michigan Daily
The Michigan Daily is the daily student newspaper of the University of Michigan. Its first edition was published on September 29, 1890. The newspaper is financially and editorially independent of the University's administration and other student groups, but shares a university building with other...

. The Ann Arbor Business Review
Ann Arbor Business Review
The Ann Arbor Business Review is a weekly business journal published in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The publication, formerly distributed in a tab format but now primarily on-line, covers business news in the Washtenaw County and Livingston County areas....

covers local business in the area. The Ann Arbor Chronicle is an online newspaper that covers local news, including meetings of the library board, county commission, and DDA. Car and Driver
Car and Driver
Car and Driver is an American automotive enthusiast magazine. Its total circulation is 1.31 million. It is owned by Hearst Magazines, who purchased prior owner Hachette Filipacchi Media U.S. in 2011...

magazine and Automobile Magazine
Automobile Magazine
Automobile magazine is an automobile magazine in the United States and is owned by Source Interlink. It was founded by a group of former employees of Car and Driver magazine, led by that publications’s former editor, David E. Davis, and originally published by News Corporation...

are also based in Ann Arbor.

Four major AM
Amplitude modulation
Amplitude modulation is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. AM works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in relation to the information being sent...

 radio station
Radio station
Radio broadcasting is a one-way wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both...

s based in or near Ann Arbor are WAAM
WAAM
WAAM is a radio station in Ann Arbor, Michigan that broadcasts on AM 1600. Known as "WAAM Talk 1600" , WAAM broadcasts with 5,000 watts of power. The station is owned by Coolarity A2, LLC. Until recently, the station broadcast in AM Stereo.-Early History: WHRV:The station signed on as WHRV in...

 1600, a conservative news and talk station; WLBY
WLBY
WLBY, "Ann Arbor's Business Talk Radio", is a business talk radio station brodacasting from Saline, Michigan. They carry nationally syndicated programs such as Dave Ramsey, The Clark Howard Show, and The Ray Lucia Show. The station is also home to former WAAM morning host Lucy Ann Lance weekday...

 1290, a business news and talk station; WDEO
WDEO (AM)
WDEO is a radio station broadcasting on 990 kilohertz in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Broadcasting Catholic programming, WDEO is operated by Ave Maria Radio....

 990, Catholic radio; and WTKA
WTKA
WTKA is a radio station located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, that broadcasts on 1050 AM. Day power is 10 kW, night power is 500 W. The station covers most of southeast Michigan....

 1050, which is primarily a sports station. The city's FM
Frequency modulation
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its instantaneous frequency. This contrasts with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied while its frequency remains constant...

 stations include NPR affiliate WUOM 91.7; country station WWWW
WWWW-FM
WWWW-FM - "W4 Country" - is a country music radio station based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, broadcasting on 102.9 MHz.-Early years:The 102.9 frequency began operations in or on March 1, 1962 as WOIA and was co-owned with WOIB-AM 1290 in Saline, Michigan. Originally, WOIA and WOIB simulcast a middle of...

 102.9 and adult-alternative station WQKL
WQKL
WQKL, known on the air as ann arbor's 107one, is a radio station broadcasting from Ann Arbor, Michigan. WQKL is a Cumulus radio station, co-owned with country WWWW-FM 102.9, Sports Talk WTKA-AM 1050, and WLBY-AM 1290. Although the station broadcasts with only 3,000 watts of power, it can be heard...

 107.1. Freeform station WCBN-FM 88.3 is a local community radio station operated by the students of the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan in the United States. It is the state's oldest university and the flagship campus of the University of Michigan...

 featuring noncommercial, eclectic music and public-affairs programming. The city is also served by public and commercial radio broadcasters in Ypsilanti, the Lansing/Jackson area, Detroit, Windsor, and Toledo.

WPXD
WPXD
WPXD-TV is a television station licensed to Ann Arbor, Michigan. It is the Ion Television network affiliate for the Southeastern Michigan market.-Digital programming:...

 channel 31, an affiliate of the ION Television network, is licensed to the city. Community Television Network (CTN) is a city-provided cable television channel with production facilities open to city residents and nonprofit organizations. Detroit and Toledo-area radio and television stations also serve Ann Arbor, and stations from Lansing and Windsor, Ontario, can be heard in parts of the area.

Law and government




Ann Arbor has a council-manager
Council-manager government
The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of municipal government in the United States; the other common form of local government is the mayor-council government form, which characteristically occurs in large cities...

 form of government. The mayor, who is elected every even-numbered year, is the presiding officer of the City Council and has the power to appoint all Council committee members as well as board and commission members, with the approval of the City Council. The mayor of Ann Arbor is John Hieftje
John Hieftje
John Hieftje is the mayor of Ann Arbor, Michigan. Hieftje began his political career in 1999, when he was elected to the city council for Ann Arbor's 1st Ward as a Democrat. He was first elected to the post of Mayor in 2000, and was re-elected in 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010...

 (Democrat
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

), who has served in that capacity since the 2000 election. The city council has eleven voting members, two from each of the city's five wards, and the mayor. Council members serve two-year terms; half the council is elected in annual elections. City operations are managed by the City Administrator, who is chosen by the city council.

Ann Arbor is in the 15th Congressional district, and is represented by Representative John Dingell
John Dingell
John David Dingell, Jr. is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 1955 . He is a member of the Democratic Party...

 (Democrat). On the state level, the city is in the 18th district in the Michigan Senate
Michigan Senate
The Michigan Senate is the upper house of the Michigan Legislature. The Senate consists of 38 members, who are elected from constituencies having approximately 212,400 to 263,500 residents....

. In the Michigan State House of Representatives
Michigan State House of Representatives
The Michigan House of Representatives is the lower house of the Michigan Legislature. There are 110 members, each of whom is elected from constituencies having approximately 77,000 to 91,000 residents, based on population figures from the 2000 federal U.S. Census.Members are elected in...

, the city of Ann Arbor is in the 53rd district, while northeastern Ann Arbor and Ann Arbor Township are in the 52nd district.

As the seat of Washtenaw County
Washtenaw County, Michigan
Washtenaw County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 344,791. Its county seat is Ann Arbor. The United States Office of Management and Budget defines the county as part of the Detroit–Warren–Flint Combined Statistical Area...

, Ann Arbor is the site of the Probate, Family and Circuit (civil and criminal) courts with pan-county jurisdiction; and of the District Court for the 15th District, which has limited jurisdiction within the City of Ann Arbor only. The 14-A District court, in the nearby City of Ypsilanti, has limited jurisdiction over matters that arise in the rest of Washtenaw County, except for the Charter Township of Ypsilanti (which is served by its own District 14-B court). Ann Arbor is also the site of a United States district court
United States district court
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. Both civil and criminal cases are filed in the district court, which is a court of law, equity, and admiralty. There is a United States bankruptcy court associated with each United States...

 for the Eastern District of Michigan
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan is the Federal district court with jurisdiction over of the eastern portion of the state of Michigan. The Court is based in Detroit, with courthouses also located in Ann Arbor, Bay City, Flint, and Port Huron...

 courthouse.

Politics


Left-wing politics have been particularly strong in municipal government since the 1960s. Voters approved charter amendments that have lessened the penalties for possession of marijuana (1974), and that aim to protect access to abortion
Abortion
Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo prior to viability. An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is usually called a miscarriage, or it can be purposely induced...

 in the city should it ever become illegal in the State of Michigan (1990). In 1974, Kathy Kozachenko
Kathy Kozachenko
In April 1974, Kathy Kozachenkos successful bid for a seat on the Ann Arbor, Michigan city council made her the first openly gay or lesbian candidate to run successfully for political office in the United States....

's victory in an Ann Arbor city-council race made her the country's first openly homosexual
Homosexuality
Homosexuality is romantic or sexual attraction or behavior between members of the same sex or gender. As a sexual orientation, homosexuality refers to "an enduring pattern of or disposition to experience sexual, affectional, or romantic attractions" primarily or exclusively to people of the same...

 candidate to win public office. In 1975, Ann Arbor became the first U.S. city to use instant-runoff voting
Instant-runoff voting
Instant-runoff voting , also known as preferential voting, the alternative vote and ranked choice voting, is a voting system used to elect one winner. Voters rank candidates in order of preference, and their ballots are counted as one vote for their first choice candidate. If a candidate secures a...

 for a mayoral race. Adopted through a ballot initiative sponsored by the local Human Rights Party, which feared a splintering of the liberal vote, the process was repealed in 1976 after use in only one election. As of August 2009, Democrats
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 hold the mayorship and all council seats. The left tilt of politics in the city have earned it the nickname "The People's Republic of Ann Arbor".

Higher education



The University of Michigan
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan in the United States. It is the state's oldest university and the flagship campus of the University of Michigan...

 is the dominant institution of higher learning in Ann Arbor, providing the city with a distinct college-town
College town
A college town or university town is a community which is dominated by its university population...

 atmosphere. Other local colleges and universities include Concordia University, Ann Arbor, a Lutheran liberal-arts institution, a campus of the University of Phoenix
University of Phoenix
The University of Phoenix is a for-profit institution of higher learning. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Apollo Group Inc. which is publicly traded , an S&P 500 corporation based in Phoenix, Arizona...

, and Cleary University
Cleary University
Cleary University is a Michigan based business university with two campuses; the Washtenaw Campus is located in Ann Arbor and the Livingston Campus is located near Howell. Both campus offer certificate, ABA, BBA, and MBA programs.- History :...

, a private business school. Washtenaw Community College
Washtenaw Community College
Washtenaw Community College is a community college located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Founded in 1965, WCC welcomes more than 13,000 people from over 100 different countries for study each year and grants certificates and degrees to over 1,400 students annually...

 is located in neighboring Ann Arbor Township. Ann Arbor was once home to Ave Maria School of Law
Ave Maria School of Law
The Ave Maria School of Law, founded in 1999, is a fully ABA accredited Roman Catholic law school, located in Naples, Florida. In the 2009-2010 academic year, there were over 375 students enrolled from a variety of states, countries, and undergraduate institutions...

, a Roman Catholic law school established by Domino's Pizza
Domino's Pizza
Domino's Pizza, Inc. is an international pizza delivery corporation headquartered in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America. Founded in 1960, Domino's is the second-largest pizza chain in the United States and has over 9,000 corporate and franchised stores in 60 countries and all 50 U.S....

 founder Tom Monaghan
Tom Monaghan
Thomas Stephen "Tom" Monaghan is an entrepreneur and Catholic philanthropist and activist who founded Domino's Pizza in 1960. He owned the Detroit Tigers from 1983-1992....

. Opened in northeastern Ann Arbor in 2000, the law school moved to southwest Florida in 2009. Thomas M. Cooley Law School
Thomas M. Cooley Law School
Thomas M. Cooley Law School is an American Bar Association accredited law school in the United States. Located in Michigan, its main campus is in Lansing, and its satellite campuses are in Ann Arbor, Auburn Hills, and Grand Rapids. Cooley plans on opening another satellite campus in Tampa Bay,...

 has acquired the law school buildings for a branch campus.

Primary and secondary education


The Ann Arbor Public School District
Ann Arbor Public Schools
Ann Arbor Public Schools serves the city of Ann Arbor, Michigan and parts of eight surrounding townships covering . The district operates 20 elementary schools, 1 K-8 open school, 5 middle schools, 3 comprehensive high schools, 3 alternative high schools, 3 preschools and 1 adult education program;...

 handles local public education. The system — which enrolls 16,539 students (September 2008 head count) — consists of 21 elementary school
Elementary school
An elementary school or primary school is an institution where children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as elementary or primary education. Elementary school is the preferred term in some countries, particularly those in North America, where the terms grade school and grammar...

s, five middle school
Middle school
Middle School and Junior High School are levels of schooling between elementary and high schools. Most school systems use one term or the other, not both. The terms are not interchangeable...

s, (Forsythe, Slauson, Tappan, Scarlett, and Clague
Clague Middle School
Clague Middle School is a public school in Ann Arbor, in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is located at 2616 Nixon Road on the northeast side of Ann Arbor, located around the Maplewood and Bromley neighborhoods. The school serves grades 6-8, with its principal being Ms. Cynthia Leaman...

) three traditional
Traditional education
Traditional education or back-to-basics refers to long-established customs found in schools that society has traditionally deemed appropriate. Some forms of education reform promote the adoption of progressive education practices, a more holistic approach which focuses on individual students'...

 high school
High school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

s (Pioneer, Huron
Huron High School, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Huron High School is a public school in Ann Arbor, in the U.S. state of Michigan. Located at 2727 Fuller Road in eastern Ann Arbor near the banks of the Huron River, it serves grades 9 through 12. The school's principal is Dr. Arthur Williams. Huron is one of the three main high schools in the...

, and Skyline
Skyline High School (Ann Arbor, Michigan)
Skyline High School is a comprehensive public high school in Ann Arbor, Michigan situated on a 100+ acre site at the intersection of N. Maple Road and M14, and .5mi from the Huron river. The school opened in Fall 2008 with the intention to relieve overcrowding of the two existing high schools,...

), and three alternative
Alternative education
Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, includes a number of approaches to teaching and learning other than mainstream or traditional education. Educational alternatives are often rooted in various philosophies that are fundamentally different...

 high schools (Community High, Stone School, and Roberto Clemente). The district also operates a K-8 open school program, Ann Arbor Open School
Ann Arbor Open School
Ann Arbor Open School is a progressive school of choice in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The school serves students in kindergarten through eighth grade and admissions are based on a lottery...

, out of the former Mack School. This program is open to all families who live within the district. Ann Arbor Public Schools also operates a preschool and family center, with programs for at-risk infants and at-risk children before kindergarten
Kindergarten
A kindergarten is a preschool educational institution for children. The term was created by Friedrich Fröbel for the play and activity institute that he created in 1837 in Bad Blankenburg as a social experience for children for their transition from home to school...

. The district has a preschool center with both free and tuition-based programs for preschoolers in the district.

Ann Arbor is home to more than 20 private schools, including the Rudolf Steiner School of Ann Arbor
Rudolf Steiner School of Ann Arbor
The Rudolf Steiner School of Ann Arbor is a private school located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It provides a Waldorf based education for students in grades preK - 12, and is one of three Waldorf Schools in the State of Michigan. The school is accredited by both the and the .-History:The was...

, St. Paul Lutheran School, Clonlara School
Clonlara School
Clonlara School is located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States. The school operates a campus school and a Home Based Education Program as alternative education. Its campus serves five through eighteen-year-olds who reside in Ann Arbor and surrounding areas...

 and Greenhills School
Greenhills School
Greenhills School is an independent college preparatory school in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States.-Awards and recognition:Greenhills Upper School was recognized as one of six national Intel Schools of Distinction in 2007 for excellence as one of the nation's top schools for science...

, a prep school near Concordia University. The city is also home to several charter schools. One such school is Washtenaw Technical Middle College, a school where students earn an associate's degree at Washtenaw Community College and a high school diploma at the same time.

Health and utilities


The University of Michigan Medical Center
University of Michigan Health System
The University of Michigan Health System is the wholly owned academic medical center of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. UMHS includes the U-M Medical School, with its Faculty Group Practice and many research laboratories; the U-M Hospitals and Health Centers, which includes University...

, the preeminent health facility in the city, took the No.14 slot in U.S. News and World Report for best hospitals in the U.S., as of August 2009. The University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) includes University Hospital, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital and Women's Hospital in its core complex. UMHS also operates out-patient clinics and facilities throughout the city. The area's other major medical centers include a large facility operated by the Department of Veterans Affairs
United States Department of Veterans Affairs
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs is a government-run military veteran benefit system with Cabinet-level status. It is the United States government’s second largest department, after the United States Department of Defense...

 in Ann Arbor, and Saint Joseph Mercy Hospital in nearby Superior Township
Superior Township, Washtenaw County, Michigan
Superior Charter Township is a charter township of Washtenaw County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 10,740 at the 2000 census....

.

The city provides sewage disposal and water supply services, with water coming from the Huron River
Huron River (Michigan)
The Huron River is a river in southeastern Michigan, rising out of the Huron Swamp in Indian Springs Metropark in northern Oakland County and flowing into Lake Erie on the boundary between Wayne County and Monroe County...

 and groundwater sources. There are two water-treatment
Water purification
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from contaminated water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose...

 plants, one main and three outlying reservoir
Reservoir
A reservoir , artificial lake or dam is used to store water.Reservoirs may be created in river valleys by the construction of a dam or may be built by excavation in the ground or by conventional construction techniques such as brickwork or cast concrete.The term reservoir may also be used to...

s, four pump stations
Pumping station
Pumping stations are facilities including pumps and equipment for pumping fluids from one place to another. They are used for a variety of infrastructure systems, such as the supply of water to canals, the drainage of low-lying land, and the removal of sewage to processing sites.A pumping station...

, and two water tower
Water tower
A water tower or elevated water tower is a large elevated drinking water storage container constructed to hold a water supply at a height sufficient to pressurize a water distribution system....

s. These facilities serve the city, which is divided into five water districts. The city's water department also operates four dam
Dam
A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. Hydropower and pumped-storage hydroelectricity are...

s along the Huron River, two of which provide hydroelectric power. The city also offers waste management services, with Recycle Ann Arbor's handling recycling service. Other utilities are provided by private entities. Electrical power
Electric power
Electric power is the rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt.-Circuits:Electric power, like mechanical power, is represented by the letter P in electrical equations...

 and gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

 are provided by DTE Energy
DTE Energy
DTE Energy Co. is a Detroit, Michigan-based utility incorporated in 1995 involved in the development and management of energy-related businesses and services nationwide....

. AT&T
AT&T
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational telecommunications corporation headquartered in Whitacre Tower, Dallas, Texas, United States. It is the largest provider of mobile telephony and fixed telephony in the United States, and is also a provider of broadband and subscription television services...

, the successor to Michigan Bell
Michigan Bell
Michigan Bell is the subsidiary of AT&T serving the state of Michigan. Following the Bell System divestiture on January 8, 1982, the company became a subsidiary of Ameritech, the Regional Bell operating company that served the midwestern United States...

, Ameritech
Ameritech
AT&T Teleholdings, Inc., formerly known as Ameritech Corporation , was a U.S. telecommunications company that arose out of the 1984 AT&T divestiture. Ameritech was one of the seven Regional Bell Operating Companies that was created following the breakup of the Bell System...

, and SBC Communications, is the primary wired telephone service provider for the area. Cable TV
Cable television
Cable television is a system of providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through fixed optical fibers located on the subscriber's property, much like the over-the-air method used in traditional...

 service is primarily provided by Comcast
Comcast
Comcast Corporation is the largest cable operator, home Internet service provider, and fourth largest home telephone service provider in the United States, providing cable television, broadband Internet, and telephone service to both residential and commercial customers in 39 states and the...

.

Surface roads and paths


The city is belted by three freeways: I-94
Interstate 94 in Michigan
Interstate 94 is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs from Billings, Montana, to the Lower Peninsula of the US state of Michigan. In Michigan, it is a state trunkline highway that enters the state south of New Buffalo...

, which runs along the southern portion of the city; US 23
U.S. Route 23 in Michigan
US Highway 23 is a United States Numbered Highway that runs from Jacksonville, Florida to Mackinaw City, Michigan. In the US state of Michigan, it is a major north–south state trunkline highway that runs through the Lower Peninsula...

, which primarily runs along the eastern edge of Ann Arbor; and M-14
M-14 (Michigan highway)
M-14 is a east–west state trunkline highway in the southeastern portion of the US state of Michigan. Entirely freeway, it connects Ann Arbor with Detroit by way of connecting with I-96.-Route description:...

, which runs along the northern edge of the city. Other nearby highway
Highway
A highway is any public road. In American English, the term is common and almost always designates major roads. In British English, the term designates any road open to the public. Any interconnected set of highways can be variously referred to as a "highway system", a "highway network", or a...

s include US 12
U.S. Route 12
U.S. Route 12 or US 12 is an east–west United States highway, running from Grays Harbor on the Pacific Ocean, in the state of Washington, to downtown Detroit, for almost . As a thoroughfare, it has mostly been supplanted by I-90 and I-94, but remains an important road for local travel.The...

, M-17
M-17 (Michigan highway)
M-17 is a long state trunkline highway in the U.S. state of Michigan, connecting the cities of Ypsilanti and Ann Arbor in Washtenaw County. It was once part of a highway that spanned the southern Lower Peninsula of Michigan before the creation of the U.S. Highway System in 1926...

, and M-153
M-153 (Michigan highway)
M-153 is a state trunkline highway in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is also known as Ford Road for nearly its entire length, except for its westernmost portion where it splits from Ford Road and junctions with the M-14 freeway...

.

The streets in downtown Ann Arbor conform to a grid pattern, though this pattern is less common in the surrounding areas. Major roads branch out from the downtown district like spokes on a wheel to the highways surrounding the city. Several of the major surface arteries lead to the I-94/M-14 juncture in the west, US 23 in the east, and the city's southern areas. The city also has a system of bike routes and paths
Segregated cycle facilities
Segregated cycle facilities are marked lanes, tracks, shoulders and paths designated for use by cyclists from which motorised traffic is generally excluded...

 and includes the nearly complete Washtenaw County Border-to-Border Trail
Border-to-Border Trail
The Border-to-Border Trail is a partially constructed non-motorized trail in Washtenaw County, Michigan. The trail is planned to cover approximately from Livingston County to Wayne County along the Huron River....

.

Bus service



The Ann Arbor Transportation Authority
Ann Arbor Transportation Authority
The Ann Arbor Transportation Authority , which brands itself as "The Ride," is the public transit system serving the Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti, Michigan, area....

 (AATA), which brands itself as "The Ride", operates public bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

 services throughout Ann Arbor and nearby Ypsilanti
Ypsilanti, Michigan
Ypsilanti is a city in Washtenaw County in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 22,362. The city is bounded to the north by the Charter Township of Superior and on the west, south, and east by the Charter Township of Ypsilanti...

. AATA has recently introduced hybrid electric buses
Hybrid electric vehicle
A hybrid electric vehicle is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. The presence of the electric powertrain is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional...

 to its fleet of 69 and is the first public transit operator in the Midwest to state its intention to convert to all hybrid electric buses. A separate zero-fare bus service operates within the University of Michigan campuses, and the AATA ran a free Link Bus connecting central campus and downtown during the U-M school year until August 20, 2009.

A downtown bus depot served by Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines, Inc., based in Dallas, Texas, is an intercity common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 3,700 destinations in the United States, Canada and Mexico, operating under the well-known logo of a leaping greyhound. It was founded in Hibbing, Minnesota, USA, in 1914 and...

 provides out-of-town bus service, and is the city's only remaining example of the Streamline Moderne
Streamline Moderne
Streamline Moderne, sometimes referred to by either name alone or as Art Moderne, was a late type of the Art Deco design style which emerged during the 1930s...

 architectural style. Megabus has twice daily direct service to Chicago, Illinois
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, while a bus service provided by Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 connects to East Lansing
East Lansing, Michigan
East Lansing is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. The city is located directly east of Lansing, Michigan, the state's capital. Most of the city is within Ingham County, though a small portion lies in Clinton County. The population was 48,579 at the time of the 2010 census, an increase from...

 and Toledo, Ohio
Toledo, Ohio
Toledo is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Lucas County. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, on the western end of Lake Erie, and borders the State of Michigan...

, though only for rail passengers making connections. The Michigan Flyer, a service operated by Indian Trails, offers bus service to Detroit Metro Airport, Jackson
Jackson, Michigan
Jackson is a city located along Interstate 94 in the south central area of the U.S. state of Michigan, about west of Ann Arbor and south of Lansing. It is the county seat of Jackson County. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 33,534...

, and East Lansing.

Special bus shuttle service to Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport
Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport
Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport , usually called Detroit Metro Airport, Metro Airport locally, or simply DTW, is a major international airport covering in Romulus, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It is Michigan's busiest airport....

  is available for a low fare before and after university breaks. Another service, Michigan Flyer, is available regularly.

Airports


Ann Arbor Municipal Airport
Ann Arbor Municipal Airport
Ann Arbor Municipal Airport is a general aviation airport located 3 miles south of the city of Ann Arbor in Washtenaw County, Michigan, USA....

 is a small, city run general aviation
General aviation
General aviation is one of the two categories of civil aviation. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights...

 airport located south of I-94
Interstate 94
Interstate 94 is the northernmost east–west Interstate Highway, connecting the Great Lakes and Intermountain regions of the United States. I-94's western terminus is in Billings, Montana at a junction with Interstate 90; its eastern terminus is the U.S...

. Detroit Metropolitan Airport, the area's large international airport
International airport
An international airport is any airport that can accommodate flights from other countries and are typically equipped with customs and immigration facilities to handle these flights to and from other countries...

, is about 25 miles (40.2 km) east of the city, in Romulus
Romulus, Michigan
Romulus is a suburban city of Metro Detroit, located in Wayne County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 23,989 at the 2010 census, an increase from 22,979 in 2000. Romulus is home to Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport and a General Motors plant that opened in 1976...

. Willow Run Airport
Willow Run Airport
Willow Run Airport is an airport located in Van Buren Charter Township and in Ypsilanti Township, near Ypsilanti, Michigan, that serves freight, corporate, and general aviation clients...

 east of the city near Ypsilanti
Ypsilanti, Michigan
Ypsilanti is a city in Washtenaw County in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 22,362. The city is bounded to the north by the Charter Township of Superior and on the west, south, and east by the Charter Township of Ypsilanti...

 serves freight, corporate, and general aviation clients.

Railroads


The city was a major rail hub, notably for freight traffic between Toledo
Toledo, Ohio
Toledo is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Lucas County. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, on the western end of Lake Erie, and borders the State of Michigan...

 and ports north of Chicago, Illinois
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, from 1878 to 1982; however, the Ann Arbor Railroad also sold 1.1 million passenger tickets in 1913. The city was also served by the Michigan Central Railroad
Michigan Central Railroad
The Michigan Central Railroad was originally incorporated in 1846 to establish rail service between Detroit, Michigan and St. Joseph, Michigan. The railroad later operated in the states of Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois in the United States, and the province of Ontario in Canada...

 starting in 1837. Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti Street Railway
Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti Street Railway
The Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti Street Railway, known informally as the Ypsi-Ann, was an interurban railroad operating in southeastern Michigan; it was the first such operation in the state.- History :...

, Michigan's first interurban
Interurban
An interurban, also called a radial railway in parts of Canada, is a type of electric passenger railroad; in short a hybrid between tram and train. Interurbans enjoyed widespread popularity in the first three decades of the twentieth century in North America. Until the early 1920s, most roads were...

, served the city from 1891 to 1929.

Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 provides service to Ann Arbor, operating its Wolverine
Wolverine (passenger train)
The Wolverine is a passenger train service operated by Amtrak as part of its Michigan Services. The line provides three daily round-trips along the Pontiac–Detroit–Chicago route...

 three times daily in each direction between Chicago and Pontiac
Pontiac, Michigan
Pontiac is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan named after the Ottawa Chief Pontiac, located within the Detroit metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 59,515. It is the county seat of Oakland County...

, via Detroit
Detroit, Michigan
Detroit is the major city among the primary cultural, financial, and transportation centers in the Metro Detroit area, a region of 5.2 million people. As the seat of Wayne County, the city of Detroit is the largest city in the U.S. state of Michigan and serves as a major port on the Detroit River...

. Rail service is provided at the Ann Arbor Train Station
Ann Arbor (Amtrak station)
Ann Arbor Station is an Amtrak station in Ann Arbor, Michigan serving the Wolverine. The station has a ticket office, is fully wheelchair accessible and has an enclosed waiting area. Other amenities include public restrooms, public payphones, vending machines, paid parking, and a taxi stand...

; the present-day station neighbors the city's old Michigan Central Depot, which was renovated as a restaurant in 1969.

Sister cities



Ann Arbor has seven sister cities:
Tübingen
Tübingen
Tübingen is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated south of the state capital, Stuttgart, on a ridge between the Neckar and Ammer rivers.-Geography:...

 (Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

) since 1965 Belize City
Belize City
Belize City is the largest city in the Central American nation of Belize. Unofficial estimates place the population of Belize City at 70,000 or more. It is located at the mouth of the Belize River on the coast of the Caribbean. The city is the country's principal port and its financial and...

 (Belize
Belize
Belize is a constitutional monarchy and the northernmost country in Central America. Belize has a diverse society, comprising many cultures and languages. Even though Kriol and Spanish are spoken among the population, Belize is the only country in Central America where English is the official...

) since 1967 Hikone, Shiga
Hikone, Shiga
is a city located in Shiga, Japan. The city was incorporated on February 11, 1937.Hikone's most famous historical site is Hikone Castle. Its construction was begun in 1603, by Ii Naokatsu, son of the former lord, Ii Naomasa, but was not completed until 1622...

 (Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

) since 1969 Peterborough, Ontario
Peterborough, Ontario
Peterborough is a city on the Otonabee River in southern Ontario, Canada, 125 kilometres northeast of Toronto. The population of the City of Peterborough was 74,898 as of the 2006 census, while the census metropolitan area has a population of 121,428 as of a 2009 estimate. It presently ranks...

 (Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

) since 1983 Juigalpa, Chontales
Juigalpa, Chontales
Juigalpa is the capital city of the Chontales Department of Nicaragua. It is located within the municipality of Juigalpa, approximately 140 km east of Managua on Carretera Rama, in the central region of Nicaragua....

 (Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. The country is situated between 11 and 14 degrees north of the Equator in the Northern Hemisphere, which places it entirely within the tropics. The Pacific Ocean...

) since 1986 Dakar
Dakar
Dakar is the capital city and largest city of Senegal. It is located on the Cap-Vert Peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city on the African mainland...

 (Senegal
Senegal
Senegal , officially the Republic of Senegal , is a country in western Africa. It owes its name to the Sénégal River that borders it to the east and north...

) since 1997 Remedios
Remedios, Cuba
Remedios is a city and municipality located from the northern coast of Cuba, in the center of the island. It is part of the province of Villa Clara. It was declared a City by Isabel the Second, Queen of Spain, when the Island was still a colony...

 (Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

) since 2003

See also

  • Ann Arbor staging
    Ann Arbor staging
    Ann Arbor staging is the staging system for lymphomas, both in Hodgkin's lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma . It was initially developed for Hodgkin's, but has some use in NHL...

  • Ardis Publishing
    Ardis Publishing
    Ardis Publishing began in 1971, as the only publishing house outside of Russia dedicated to Russian literature in both English and Russian, Ardis was founded in Ann Arbor, Michigan by husband and wife scholars Carl R. Proffer and Ellendea C. Proffer...

  • List of people from Ann Arbor
  • Metro Detroit
    Metro Detroit
    The Detroit metropolitan area, often referred to as Metro Detroit, is the metropolitan area located in Southeast Michigan centered on the city of Detroit which shares an international border with Windsor, Ontario. The Detroit metropolitan area is the second largest U.S. metropolitan area...


External links