Duke of Cambridge

Duke of Cambridge

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Duke of Cambridge is a title (named after the city of Cambridge
Cambridge
The city of Cambridge is a university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, England. It lies in East Anglia about north of London. Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology centre known as Silicon Fen – a play on Silicon Valley and the fens surrounding the...

in England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

) which has been conferred upon members of the British royal family several times. It was first used as a designation for Charles Stuart (1660–1661), the eldest son of James, Duke of York
James II of England
James II & VII was King of England and King of Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685. He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland...

 (later James II), though he was never formally created Duke of Cambridge. The title was most recently bestowed upon Prince William of Wales on 29 April 2011.

History


The first officially recognised creation was in the Peerage of England
Peerage of England
The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. In that year, the Peerages of England and Scotland were replaced by one Peerage of Great Britain....

 in 1664, when James Stuart, son of the Duke of York by his first wife, was granted the title. James, Duke of Cambridge died young and without heirs, and the title became extinct. The title was next granted to Edgar Stuart, another son of the Duke of York by his first wife. Edgar also died young and the title again became extinct.

The Duke of York's eldest son by his second wife, Charles Stuart (1677), was also styled Duke of Cambridge, but died approximately a month old, not having lived long enough to be formally created.

The dukedom was next granted to George Augustus, son of George Louis, Hereditary Prince of Hanover and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who would later become George I of Great Britain
George I of Great Britain
George I was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 until his death, and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698....

. When George Augustus ascended to the throne as George II
George II of Great Britain
George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Archtreasurer and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death.George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain. He was born and brought up in Northern Germany...

, the dukedom merged into the crown. The title was next given, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom
Peerage of the United Kingdom
The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain...

, to Prince Adolphus, the seventh son of George III
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death...

. Upon the death of his only son without a legitimate heir, the title became extinct.

The dukedom last became vacant in 1904, when Prince George, 2nd Duke of Cambridge, died without legitimate issue. The first Duke's grandson (through a female line), Adolphus, Duke of Teck
Adolphus Cambridge, 1st Marquess of Cambridge
Adolphus Cambridge, 1st Marquess of Cambridge, GCB, GCVO, CMG , born Prince Adolphus of Teck and later The Duke of Teck , was a member of the British Royal Family and a younger brother of Queen Mary, the consort of King George V...

, who was the brother of Queen Mary
Mary of Teck
Mary of Teck was the queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Empress of India, as the wife of King-Emperor George V....

, George V
George V of the United Kingdom
George V was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 through the First World War until his death in 1936....

's consort, was created Marquess of Cambridge in 1917 when he gave up his German titles and took the surname "Cambridge". Upon the death of the second Marquess without any male heirs, the marquess
Marquess
A marquess or marquis is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent oriental styles, as in imperial China, Japan, and Vietnam...

ate became extinct.

In 1999, with the marriage of Prince Edward
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex KG GCVO is the third son and fourth child of Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh...

, the youngest son of Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
Elizabeth II is the constitutional monarch of 16 sovereign states known as the Commonwealth realms: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize,...

, experts had suggested the Dukedom of Cambridge or Sussex
Duke of Sussex
Duke of Sussex was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was conferred on 27 November 1801 upon The Prince Augustus Frederick, the sixth son of George III, who was created Duke of Sussex, Earl of Inverness, and Baron Arklow, all in the Peerage of the United Kingdom...

 as the most likely to be granted to Prince Edward, but he was instead created Earl of Wessex
Earl of Wessex
The title Earl of Wessex has been created twice in British history, once in the pre-Conquest Anglo-Saxon nobility of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom...

. It has subsequently been reported by The Sunday Telegraph that Prince Edward was originally to have been titled Duke of Cambridge after his marriage. However, after watching the 1998 film Shakespeare in Love
Shakespeare in Love
Shakespeare in Love is a 1998 British-American comedy film directed by John Madden and written by Marc Norman and playwright Tom Stoppard....

, he was reportedly attracted to the title used by a character played by Colin Firth
Colin Firth
SirColin Andrew Firth, CBE is a British film, television, and theatre actor. Firth gained wide public attention in the 1990s for his portrayal of Mr. Darcy in the 1995 television adaptation of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice...

, and asked the Queen to be given the title of Earl of Wessex instead.

On 29 April 2011, the day of his wedding, Prince William was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn
Earl of Strathearn
The Mormaer of Strathearn or Earl of Strathearn was a provincial ruler in medieval Scotland. Of unknown origin, the mormaers are attested for the first time in a document perhaps dating to 1115. The first known mormaer, Maol Íosa I is mentioned by Ailred of Rievaulx as leading native Scots in the...

 and Baron Carrickfergus
Baron Carrickfergus
Baron Carrickfergus is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, referring to Carrickfergus in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. Its current holder since its creation on 29 April 2011 is H.R.H. Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, who was granted the title as a personal gift by Queen Elizabeth II...

.

Styled (1660)

  • Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge. (1660–1661), eldest son of James, Duke of York (later James II & VII)
    James II of England
    James II & VII was King of England and King of Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685. He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland...

    , died in infancy having only been styled Duke

First creation (1664)

  • James Stuart, 1st Duke of Cambridge
    James Stuart, Duke of Cambridge
    James, Duke of Cambridge KG was the second son of James, Duke of York and his first wife Anne Hyde....

     (1663–1667), second son of James, Duke of York (later James II & VII), died in infancy

Second creation (1667)

  • Edgar Stuart, 1st Duke of Cambridge
    Edgar Stuart, Duke of Cambridge
    Edgar, Duke of Cambridge was the fourth son of James, Duke of York and his first wife Anne Hyde....

     (1667–1671), fourth son of James, Duke of York (later James II & VII), died in infancy

Styled (1677)

  • Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge (1677), fifth son of James, Duke of York (later James II & VII), died in infancy having only been styled Duke

Third creation (1706)

  • George, Electoral Prince of Hanover, 1st Duke of Cambridge
    George II of Great Britain
    George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Archtreasurer and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death.George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain. He was born and brought up in Northern Germany...

     (1683–1760), only son of George, Elector of Hanover
    George I of Great Britain
    George I was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 until his death, and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698....

     (later George I); later became Duke of Cornwall
    Duke of Cornwall
    The Duchy of Cornwall was the first duchy created in the peerage of England.The present Duke of Cornwall is The Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, the reigning British monarch .-History:...

    , Prince of Wales
    Prince of Wales
    Prince of Wales is a title traditionally granted to the heir apparent to the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the 15 other independent Commonwealth realms...

     and then King George II in 1727, at which point all of his British honours merged in the crown.

Fourth creation (1801)

  • Prince Adolphus, 1st Duke of Cambridge
    Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
    The Prince Adolphus, 1st Duke of Cambridge , was the tenth child and seventh son of George III and Queen Charlotte. He held the title of Duke of Cambridge from 1801 until his death. He also served as Viceroy of Hanover on behalf of his brothers George IV and William IV...

     (1774–1850), seventh son of George III
    George III of the United Kingdom
    George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death...

  • Prince George, 2nd Duke of Cambridge
    Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
    Prince George, Duke of Cambridge was a member of the British Royal Family, a male-line grandson of King George III. The Duke was an army officer and served as commander-in-chief of the British Army from 1856 to 1895...

     (1819–1904), only son of the 1st Duke, died without legitimate issue and his honours were extinct.

Fifth creation (2011)

  • Prince William, 1st Duke of Cambridge (born 1982), first son of Charles, Prince of Wales
    Charles, Prince of Wales
    Prince Charles, Prince of Wales is the heir apparent and eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Since 1958 his major title has been His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales. In Scotland he is additionally known as The Duke of Rothesay...

     and Diana, Princess of Wales
    Diana, Princess of Wales
    Diana, Princess of Wales was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, whom she married on 29 July 1981, and an international charity and fundraising figure, as well as a preeminent celebrity of the late 20th century...

    .


Coincidentally, Prince William is the great-great-great-great grandson of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
The Prince Adolphus, 1st Duke of Cambridge , was the tenth child and seventh son of George III and Queen Charlotte. He held the title of Duke of Cambridge from 1801 until his death. He also served as Viceroy of Hanover on behalf of his brothers George IV and William IV...

, whose daughter Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge
Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge
Princess Mary Adelaide Wilhelmina Elizabeth of Cambridge was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George III, and great-grandmother of Elizabeth II. She held the title of Duchess of Teck through marriage.Mary Adelaide is remembered as the mother of Queen Mary, the consort of...

 married Francis, Duke of Teck
Francis, Duke of Teck
Francis, Duke of Teck , was a member of the German nobility, and later of the British Royal Family. He was the father of Queen Mary, the wife of King George V...

. Adelaide and Francis' daughter--Mary of Teck
Mary of Teck
Mary of Teck was the queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Empress of India, as the wife of King-Emperor George V....

--became the queen consort of George V
George V
George V was king of the United Kingdom and its dominions from 1910 to 1936.George V or similar terms may also refer to:-People:* George V of Georgia * George V of Imereti * George V of Hanover...

, mother of George VI, and the grandmother of Elizabeth and her sister Margaret.

Marquesses of Cambridge (1917)

  • Adolphus Cambridge, 1st Marquess of Cambridge
    Adolphus Cambridge, 1st Marquess of Cambridge
    Adolphus Cambridge, 1st Marquess of Cambridge, GCB, GCVO, CMG , born Prince Adolphus of Teck and later The Duke of Teck , was a member of the British Royal Family and a younger brother of Queen Mary, the consort of King George V...

     (1868–1927), son of a daughter of Prince Adolphus, was created Marquess when George V
    George V of the United Kingdom
    George V was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 through the First World War until his death in 1936....

     relinquished his family's German titles
  • George Francis Hugh Cambridge, 2nd Marquess of Cambridge
    George Cambridge, 2nd Marquess of Cambridge
    George Francis Hugh Cambridge, 2nd Marquess of Cambridge, GCVO , known as Prince George of Teck until 1917 and as Earl of Eltham from 1917 to 1927, was a descendant of the British Royal Family. He was the elder son of the 1st Marquess of Cambridge, formerly the Duke of Teck, and his wife, the...

     (1895–1981), only son of the 1st Marquess, died without male issue and his honours were extinct

See also

  • Duke of Cambridge's Personal Canadian Flag