is a Neotropical genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...
presently consisting of sixty-one recognized species with a highly distinctive lineage of dioecious
Dioecy is the property of a group of biological organisms that have males and females, but not members that have organs of both sexes at the same time. I.e., those whose individual members can usually produce only one type of gamete; each individual organism is thus distinctly female or male...
The genus consists of pioneer trees in the more or less humid parts of the Neotropics, with the majority of the species being myrmecophytic. Berg and Rosselli state that the genus is characterized by some unusual traits: spathes fully enclosing the flower-bearing parts of the inflorescences until anthesis, patches of dense indumentums (trichilia) producing Mullerian (food) at the base of the petiole, and anthers becoming detached at anthesis (Berg and Rosselli, 2005). Cecropia
is most studied for its ecological role and association with ants. It’s classification is controversial; in the past it has been placed in the Cecropiaceae, Moraceae (the mulberry family), or Urticaceae (the nettle family). The modern Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system places the "cecropiacean" group in the Urticaceae
Urticaceae, or the nettle family, is a family of flowering plants. The family name comes from the genus Urtica . Urticaceae includes a number of well-known and useful plants, including the aforementioned nettles, Ramie , māmaki , and ajlai .The family includes approximately 2600 species, grouped...
The genus is native to the American tropics, where it is one of the most recognizable components of the rainforest. The genus is named after Cecrops I, the mythical first king of Athens. A common local name is yarumo
, or more specifically yagrumo hembra
") to distinguish them from the similar-looking but unrelated Schefflera (which are called yagrumo macho
, "male yagrumo
"). In English, these trees are occasionally called pumpwoods (though this may also refer to C. schreberiana
specifically) or simply Cecropias
. Spanish-speaking countries in Central American, Mexico, the Caribbean, Colombia and Ecuador commonly use the vernacular name, “Guarumo
The classification can be very subjective; there are many different viewpoints on how to classify Cecropia
due to the many changes over the years. The following are two examples with the second generally more accepted.
This version of the classification system is considered the “outdated” version but is still cited in some sources.
- Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
- Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
- Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
- Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
- Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
- Subclass: Hamamelididae
- Order: Urticales
- Family: Cecropiaceae – Cecropia family
- Genus: Cecropia Loefl. - pumpwood
This version of the classification system is considered the newer version and more widely accepted.
- Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
- Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
- Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
- Division: Angiospermae
- Class: Eudicotyledoneae
- Unranked clade: Rosidae
- Order: Rosales
- Family: Urticaceae
- Genus: Cecropia Loefl. –pumpwood
was first recognized and accounted for by Marcgrave (1648) and Piso (1658), the latter including an illustration with characteristic features. Loefling (1758) coined the genus name Cecropia
. In 1759, Linnaeus described Cecropia peltata which he applied to many species. Willdenow (1806) created C. palmate, which was also applied to a various species. Over the next decade, additional species were added by Bertoloni (1840), Martius (1841), and Liebmann (1851). Mixing of specimens was very common and there was a problem, which continues today, with many collections of Cecropia
. Many species were also described by Hemsley (1883), Richter (1897), Donnell Smith (1899), Rusby (1907, 1910), Huber (1910), Robinson (1912), Pittier (1917), Bailey (1922), and the most extensive number by Snethlage (1923, 1924). Additional species were recognized by Burret (1924), Mildbread (1925, 1933), Standly (1929, 1940), Macbride (1937), Diels (1941), Standley & Steyermark (1944), and Stadley & Williems (1952).
Engler (1964) placed Cecropia
in Urtitcales and Moraceae (concephaleideae) because of its woody bark. Later based on the floral characters, most notably the basal ovule and gynoecium which appears to be formed from a single carpel, Thorne (1976) moved it to Malvanae- Urticales, family Urticaceae. Berg (1978) however, placed it in its own family Cercropiaceae. When phylogenetic data became available, Cecropia was then moved back into Urticaceae.
is very similar in appearance to the Cercropia
, with its umbrella-shaped leaves, stilt roots, large leaves with wide lobes, and whitish color on the underside. The distinctions between the two however are as follows: 1) the petiole attaches at the base of the leaf rather than at the center of the leaf like Cecropia
and 2) Pourouma has leaf lobes that are triangular and pointed at the tip, whereas most Cecropia
The genus is easily identified by its large, circular, palmately lobed leaves, about 30–40 cm in diameter and deeply divided into 7-11 lobes. The trees consist of very few branches, usually with candelabrum-like branching system. In Costa Rica, three-toed sloths are often spotted easily in Cecropia
trees because of Cecropias’
open, leafless branches compared to other trees. Berg and Roselli (page 5) state, “Branch development is often initiated in seedlings, even in the axils of the first formed (opposite) leaves; prophylls are formed, and often the development of the first leaf begins but is arrested (if the seedling is not decapitated). In the axils of the leaves formed during later development, the axillary branch primordial do not produce more than one or two prophylls and a bud.” The branches of C. garciae
and C. hispidissima
occur at a height of 0.5 to 1 meter and the branches depart at acute angles. In most species of Cecropia
, the branches depart at obtuse angles and the crown has a distinct umbrella-shaped.
There is high deviation in the morphology of Cecropia
species, but most form small to medium-sized trees, 5-15m tall. Although some species (C. distachya, C. herthae, C.insignis, and C.sciadophylla) grow much taller, as large as 40m, and some (C.ulei) rarely surpass 5m. The high degree of variation can be attributed to regional habitat differences and longevity.
The family Cecropiaceae is characterized by having adventitious roots, and in Cecropia they become stilt-roots, which are a common feature of large trees, especially living near rivers or marshes. Cecropia are usually full of vines but not normally overgrown by them. Most species have internodes which are hollow and contain whitish pith. These internodes provide a nesting area for the Azteca ants that inhabit the trees.
When the branches are cut, they release a watery, often mucilaginous sap which turns black when it is exposed to the air. To prevent inhabitation by ants and occupation and damage by herbivorous insect larvae, the terminal buds and upper internodes are filled with mucilage. Several species’ leafy twigs are covered by a waxy layer making them bluish.
Berg and Rosselli describe in detail six types of trichomes that can be recognized on Cecropia and more information on each can be found in their paper . They are as follows: 1. Thick unicellular hairs 2. Thin unicellular hairs 3. Pluricellular trichomes 4. Cystolith hairs 5. Pearl glands (or “pearl bodies”) and 6. Mullerian bodies.
Parts of the Cecropia such as the stipules, the spathers, and the main veins of the lamina have red-coloring substances. The concentration of the substances varies, even within species, and some parts can be green, bluish, pale pink, dark red, dark purple and even blackish. The color may fade with age, and can be deposited equally or in patterns such as longitudinal stripes.
The leaves of adult Cecropia species are large and peltate, almost circular in circumference. The lamina is attached to the petiole, the venation is radiate and the lamina is radially incised in between the radiating main veins. Variation is high in the number of lobes or leaf segments, ranging from 5 to more than 20. For detailed diagrams of the development of the leaves follow the link to an article written by Berg and Rosselli, 2005.
is a major pioneer tree genera in regions of the Neotropics with wet lowland and montane forest. Greenhouse experiments have been performed with some species of Cecropia indicating them as “gap” and “pioneer” species under different light regimes and nutrient treatments. Some species (C. maxima, C. tacuna, C. teleabla and C. telenitida) do not show the traits of pioneer species though, as they occur evenly in the forest. The pioneer Cecropia
species have a higher demand for light, occur in open habitats, relatively rapid growth rates and short-lived leaves. According to McKey’s theory, these pioneer species tend to invest more heavily in pearl bodies and less heavily in Mullerian bodies than more shade-tolerant species with slower intrinsic growth rates and longer leaf life spans. In the small light gaps (which is more shaded than normal), the most distinctive myrmecophytic Cecropia
Often time’s species of Cecropia
display what is called myrmecophytism as a form of biotic defense. D.W. Davidson said,
- “In all the world, the genus Cecropia is unrivaled for the number of myrmecophytes, or true “ant-plants” counted among its species. Based on the proportion of Cecropia species producing Mullerian bodies in at least some parts of their distribution, myrmecophytes comprise the vast majority (80%) of species in the genus; most nonmyrmecophytes occur at higher elevations and on islands, where their ants are missing.” (Berg, Rosselli and Davidson, 2005: page 214)
Myrmecophytism is a mutualistic relationship formed with ant colonies, where the ants protect the tree from herbivory and the trees provide shelter and food for the ants. Along with protection against herbivory, the ants will also prevent the Cecropia from encroaching vines and other plants. This may vary between or within species and over geographical locations. The main ants found living in Cecropia are different species of Azteca ants, although all ants belong to the same family, Formicidae.  The genus Azteca is endemic to the New World and its greatest abundance is in the lowland tropics. In the article written by Davidson, 2005 on page 221, Table 1contains known obligate Cecropia-ants listed by species and geographic distribution. Ants and Cecropia have coadapted to each other; meaning that each species has evolved one or more traits in response to selective pressures exerted by the other. An example of a coadapted trait resulting from association with one another is the recognition and use of both prostomata and Mullerian bodies by queens and worker ants.
Habitat and Distribution
The Neotropical genus Cecropia
is the largest genus of the family Cecropiaceae, with 61 species known (Berg & Rosselli, 2005). Between forty and fifty percent of the taxa of Cecropia are montane or submontane Andean, with the majority of species in the northern part of the Andes, in Colombia and Ecuador. The Andean region is regarded as the center of species richness and speciation because of the additional 25% of lowland taxa that reach the eastern or western foothills of the Andes. Therefore, only approximately 25% of the species occur outside of the Andean region. A map of the distribution of Cecropia can be found in the article written by Berg and Rosselli, 2005 . Most species of Cecropia are lowland humid/rainforest species occurring from sea-level to 1,300 meter altitude, while submontane species occupy an altitudinal range from 1,300-2,000 m, and montane species are found in cloud forest from 2,000-2,600 m (Lok et al., 2010).  Many species have a narrow altitudinal and ecological niche, with certain species specializing in specific habitats, such as seasonally inundated habitats, rocky slopes, swamps, natural or man-made clearings, etc.
Species in the genus Cecropia
are some of the most abundant pioneer tree species in natural tree fall gaps inside primary forests. Its geographic distribution extends along the Pacific and Atlantic Mexican coasts and in Central and South American forests and are found over an elevation range of 0 to 2,600 meters. Cecropia species are among the most abundant pioneers of other neotropical forests.  It is native to the neotropics and occurs as an introduced exotic plant elsewhere. In most low-elevation, wet regions of the neotropics, Cecropia trees are ubiquitous and important invaders of man-made clearings.
The species Cecropia pachystachya
and C. peltata
are invasive species in Old World localities including Singapore, Cameroon, Java, Malaysia, Ivory Coast, French Polynesia and Hawaii. C. peltata has been nominated as one of the “100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species” by the Global Invasive Species Database (Lok et al., 2010). C. peltata was introduced to the Singapore Botanic Gardens in 1902 and has spread widely throughout Singapore along with C. pachystachya which was introduced in the 1960’s (Lok et al., 2010). The species is successful as an invasive species because of its ability to pollinate without the need for pollinators, the possible preferential liking for its fruits by frugivorous birds, and its lack natural predators.
species has staminate and pistillate flowers on separate trees, more commonly referred to as a dioecious species. The fruits are achenes enveloped by a fleshy perianths, oblongoid, elliptic, (sub)obovoid or (sub)ovoid. The pericarp is tuberculate in most species, although it is smooth in some species. Seeds can be viable for more than five years and will germinate when triggered by full sunlight and changing temperatures. Full-grown Cecropia
trees can produce up to a million seeds, and this regular presence of fruits allows this genus to play a major role in the ecosystem. It is often the keystone food supply for frugivorous animals, such as birds, fruit bats, monkeys, opossums, and even fish. 
Traits of the staminate flowers and inflorescences are adapted to wind pollination- either by pendulous spikes which can be moved by the wind to shed the pollen or by the special adaptation of detachment of anthers and their secondary attachment allowing the shedding of pollen by motion of anthers (Berg and Roselli, 2005). The dryness and fact that it is easily released by movement makes it ideal for wind pollination. Wind pollination is the dominate form, but insects, small beetles and flies can be pollinators. In the Neotropics, toucans and other birds help disperse the seeds of species with short infructescences, while bats are associated with species with long peduncles and spikes. Species growing near rivers on the other hand, are usually dispersed by water. 
The wood from Cecropia
trees is used by local people mainly to make musical instruments and tool handles. Flutes and guitars are commonly made of Cecropia
wood. In addition, the wood is used for production of matches and cheap boxes. An attempt was made to use the wood to produce paper but the wood pulp was too high in resin and it was not suitable. The fibers of the bark can be twisted into rope and the ropes are manufactured for bowstrings and hammocks. The leaves can also be burned and the ashes mixed in with roasted and powdered coca leaves to be placed between the cheek and gum under the tongue as “dip”.
The main human-use of Cecropia
trees is planting them in soil erosion prone areas. The trees make few demands on the soil and grow very quickly. The trees are used in clear-cut areas because they retain the soil, create new biomass and allow other types of plants to settle in the area. Berg and Rosselli stated that decoctions of leaves are made to stimulate the cardiac system, to treat asthma and pneumonia, to treat diabetes and as a diuretic. Powder of leaves is used for control of Parkinson’s disease and extract of roots is used to heal wounds or eczema.
The species in the genus Cecropia are generally not endangered; therefore, there are no major conservation effects in place. Their abundance increases temporarily with the clearing of forest or creation of gaps.
Ecology and uses
These trees are characteristic features of many American tropical rainforest
A tropical rainforest is an ecosystem type that occurs roughly within the latitudes 28 degrees north or south of the equator . This ecosystem experiences high average temperatures and a significant amount of rainfall...
ecosystems and may be among the dominant tree species in some places. Being aggressive, rapid growth trees, whose succulent fruits are readily sought by various animals, they tend to be among the first pioneer species
Pioneer species are species which colonize previously uncolonized land, usually leading to ecological succession. They are the first organisms to start the chain of events leading to a livable biosphere or ecosystem...
to occupy former forest areas cleared for pasture or altered by human activity. Cecropia hololeuca
, known in Brazil as "silver cecropia", has broad, silver-hue leaves that make it to be used as an ornamental plant for landscaping
Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including:# living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly referred to as gardening, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of creating a beautiful environment within the landscape.#...
projects, as is the case also with the similar species C. pachystachya
species are used as food plants by the larva
A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle...
e of some Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies . It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world, encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies, skipper butterflies, and moth-butterflies...
species, including the arctiid moth
Arctiidae is a large and diverse family of moths with around 11,000 species found all over the world, including 6,000 neotropical species. This family includes the groups commonly known as tiger moths , which usually have bright colours, footmen , lichen moths and wasp moths...
; the Cecropia Moth (Hyalophora cecropia
) is a North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...
n species however, and thus allopatric with the plant genus. The leaves and buds are also eaten by sloth
Sloths are the six species of medium-sized mammals belonging to the families Megalonychidae and Bradypodidae , part of the order Pilosa and therefore related to armadillos and anteaters, which sport a similar set of specialized claws.They are arboreal residents of the jungles of Central and South...
as their main source of food. But many herbivore
Herbivores are organisms that are anatomically and physiologically adapted to eat plant-based foods. Herbivory is a form of consumption in which an organism principally eats autotrophs such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria. More generally, organisms that feed on autotrophs in...
s avoid these plants: most Cecropia
Myrmecophyte is a plant that lives in a mutualistic association with a colony of ants. There are over 100 different genera of myrmecophytes. These plants possess structural adaptations that provide ants with food and/or shelter. These specialized structures include domatia, food bodies, and...
s, housing dolichoderine ants
Dolichoderinae is a subfamily of ants, which includes species such as the Argentine ant , the erratic ant, the odorous house ant, and the cone ant. This subfamily is distinguished by having a single petiole and a slit-like orifice, rather than the round acidopore encircled by hairs that typifies...
of the genus Azteca
, which will vigorously defend their hostplant against getting eaten. This symbiosis
Symbiosis is close and often long-term interaction between different biological species. In 1877 Bennett used the word symbiosis to describe the mutualistic relationship in lichens...
has been studied extensively by biologist
A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of life. Typically biologists study organisms and their relationship to their environment. Biologists involved in basic research attempt to discover underlying mechanisms that govern how organisms work...
s such as Daniel Janzen
Daniel Hunt Janzen is an evolutionary ecologist, naturalist, and conservationist and the son of a previous Director of the US Fish and Wildlife Service...
fruit, known as snake fingers
, are a popular food of diverse animals however, including bat
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera "hand" and pteron "wing") whose forelimbs form webbed wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. By contrast, other mammals said to fly, such as flying squirrels, gliding possums, and colugos, glide rather than fly,...
s like the Common Fruit Bat (Artibeus jamaicensis
) or Carollia
Carollia is a genus of bats often referred to as the short-tailed fruit bats. Along with the genus, Rhinophylla, Carollia makes up the subfamily Carolliinae of family Phyllostomidae, the leaf-nosed bats. Currently, nine species of Carollia are recognized, with a number having been described since...
species, the Central American Squirrel Monkey
The Central American squirrel monkey is a squirrel monkey species from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Panama. It is restricted to the northwestern tip of Panama near the border with Costa Rica, and the central and southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica, primarily in Manuel Antonio and Corcovado...
), and bird
Birds are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic , egg-laying, vertebrate animals. Around 10,000 living species and 188 families makes them the most speciose class of tetrapod vertebrates. They inhabit ecosystems across the globe, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Extant birds range in size from...
s like the Green Aracari
The Green Aracari, Pteroglossus viridis, is a toucan, a near-passerine bird found in the lowland forests of northeastern South America , in the northeast Amazon Basin, the Guianas and the eastern Orinoco River drainage of Venezuela. At 30-40 cm...
), the Keel-billed Toucan
The Keel-billed Toucan , also known as Sulfur-breasted Toucan or Rainbow-billed Toucan, is a colorful Latin American member of the toucan family. It is the national bird of Belize.- Description :...
), the Peach-fronted Conure (Aratinga Aurea
), the Bare-throated Bellbird
The Bare-throated Bellbird is a species of bird in the Cotingidae family. It is found in Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay....
) and particularly nine-primaried oscine
The nine-primaried oscines are a group of songbird families from the superfamily Passeroidea. It is composed of the Fringillidae , Emberizidae , Parulidae , Thraupidae , Cardinalidae , Icteridae and the monotypic Peucedramidae...
s. The seeds are not normally digested
Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into smaller components that are more easily absorbed into a blood stream, for instance. Digestion is a form of catabolism: a breakdown of large food molecules to smaller ones....
and thus these animals are important in distributing the trees.
Some birds – e.g. the Lesser Potoo
The Common Potoo, Grey Potoo or Lesser Potoo , is a nocturnal bird which breeds in tropical Central and South America from Costa Rica to northern Argentina and northern Uruguay. The Northern Potoo The Common Potoo, Grey Potoo or Lesser Potoo (Nyctibius griseus), is a nocturnal bird which breeds in...
) – nest in Cecropia
trees. The Elfin-woods Warbler
The Elfin-woods Warbler , or Reinita de Bosque Enano , is a bird endemic to the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico where it is a local and uncommon species. Discovered in 1968 and described in 1972, it is the most recently described species of New World warbler...
) is notable for using Cecropia
leaves as nesting material, which no other New World warbler
The New World warblers or wood-warblers are a group of small, often colorful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are not related to the Old World warblers or the Australian warblers....
(family Parulidae) seems to do.
Red Cecropia (C. glaziovii
) shows antidepressant
An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication used to alleviate mood disorders, such as major depression and dysthymia and anxiety disorders such as social anxiety disorder. According to Gelder, Mayou &*Geddes people with a depressive illness will experience a therapeutic effect to their mood;...
-like activity in rats. Native peoples use Cecropia
for food, firewood
Firewood is any wood-like material that is gathered and used for fuel. Generally, firewood is not highly processed and is in some sort of recognizable log or branch form....
, and in herbalism
Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. Herbalism is also known as botanical medicine, medical herbalism, herbal medicine, herbology, herblore, and phytotherapy...
; some species also have cultural significance. On Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying just off the coast of northeastern Venezuela and south of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles...
, Shield-leaved Pumpwood (C. peltata
Cecropia peltata is a plant in the Cecropia genus. Common names include pumpwood and trumpet tree. It is listed as one of the world's 100 worst invasive species....
) root is chewed and given to dogs that have been bitten by poisonous snakes as an emergency remedy. Cecropia
leaves can be used as a substitute for sandpaper
Sandpaper, also known as glasspaper, is a heavy paper with abrasive material attached to its surface.Sandpaper is part of the "coated abrasives" family of abrasive products. It is used to remove small amounts of material from surfaces, either to make them smoother , to remove a layer of material...
.. In western South America
South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...
leaf ash is used in the traditional preparation of ypadu
Ypadú or ypadu is an unrefined, unconcentrated powder made from coca leaves and the ash of various other plants. Like coca teas consumed in Peru to adapt to sickness induced by high elevation, it has a long ethnobotanical history and cultural associations.- Background :A report by Pien Metaal and...
, a mild coca
Coca, Erythroxylum coca, is a plant in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America. The plant plays a significant role in many traditional Andean cultures...
-based stimulant. Cecropia
bark can be used in rope
A rope is a length of fibres, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. It has tensile strength but is too flexible to provide compressive strength...
making as well as in tannery
Tanning is the making of leather from the skins of animals which does not easily decompose. Traditionally, tanning used tannin, an acidic chemical compound from which the tanning process draws its name . Coloring may occur during tanning...
wood is used in the manufacture of box
Box describes a variety of containers and receptacles for permanent use as storage, or for temporary use often for transporting contents. The word derives from the Greek πύξος , "box, boxwood"....
A toy is any object that can be used for play. Toys are associated commonly with children and pets. Playing with toys is often thought to be an enjoyable means of training the young for life in human society. Different materials are used to make toys enjoyable and cuddly to both young and old...
s, aeromodelling models and rafts. .
- Cecropia concolor Willd.
- Cecropia glaziovii Snethl. – Red Cecropia
- Cecropia hololeuca Miq.
- Cecropia insignis Liebm.
- Cecropia longipes
Cecropia longipes is a species of plant in the Urticaceae family. It is found in Colombia and Panama. It is threatened by habitat loss.-Source:* Mitré, M. 1998. . Downloaded on 21 August 2007....
- Cecropia lyratiloba Miq.
- Cecropia maxima
Cecropia maxima is a species of plant in the Urticaceae family. It is endemic to Ecuador. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montanes. It is threatened by habitat loss.-References:...
- Cecropia maxonii
Cecropia maxonii is a species of plant in the Urticaceae family. It is endemic to Panama.-Source:* Mitré, M. 1998. . Downloaded on 21 August 2007....
- Cecropia multiflora
Cecropia multiflora is a species of plant in the Urticaceae family. It is endemic to Peru.-Source:* World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. . Downloaded on 21 August 2007....
- Cecropia myrtluca
- Cecropia obtusifolia
Cecropia obtusifolia is a species of plant in the Urticaceae family. It is found in Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama. Common Names are trumpet tree or snakewood tree. In Central America it is known as Guarumo. Though impressive silhouetted against the sky, it is an invasive species to the...
- Cecropia pachystachya Trécul – Ambay Pumpwood, ambay (= C. adenopus)
- Cecropia palmata Willd.
- Cecropia pastasana
Cecropia pastasana is a species of plant in the Urticaceae family. It is endemic to Ecuador. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montanes. It is threatened by habitat loss....
- Cecropia peltata
Cecropia peltata is a plant in the Cecropia genus. Common names include pumpwood and trumpet tree. It is listed as one of the world's 100 worst invasive species....
L. – Shield-leaved Pumpwood, bois canôt, "trumpet tree"
- Cecropia pittieri
- Cecropia polyphlebia
- Cecropia polystachya Trécul
- Cecropia schreberiana Miq.
- Cecropia schreberiana ssp. antillarum (Snethl.) C.C.Berg & P.Franco (= C. antillarum)
- Cecropia schreberiana ssp. schreberiana
- Cecropia sciadophylla Mart.
- Cecropia tubulosa
Cecropia tubulosa is a species of plant in the Urticaceae family. It is endemic to Peru.-References:* World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. . Downloaded on 21 August 2007....
- Cecropia utcubambana
Cecropia utcubambana is a species of plant in the Urticaceae family. It is endemic to Peru.-References:* World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. . Downloaded on 21 August 2007....
- Cecropia velutinella
Cecropia velutinella is a species of plant in the Urticaceae family. It is endemic to Ecuador. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montanes. It is threatened by habitat loss.-References:...