Al-Nasir Muhammad

Al-Nasir Muhammad

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Al-Nasir Muhammad (Arabic :الناصر محمد) (Epithet: al-Malik al-Nasir Nasir al-Din Muhammad ben Qalawun)( Arabic: الملك الناصر ناصر الدين محمد بن قلاوون) ( Nickname: Abu al-Ma'ali (أبو المعالى)) b. Cairo 1285, d. Cairo 1341) was the ninth Mamluk
Mamluk
A Mamluk was a soldier of slave origin, who were predominantly Cumans/Kipchaks The "mamluk phenomenon", as David Ayalon dubbed the creation of the specific warrior...

 sultan
Sultan
Sultan is a title with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic language abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", and "dictatorship", derived from the masdar سلطة , meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who...

 of Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 who was inaugurated three times, from December 1293 to December 1294 , from 1299 to 1309 and from 1309 till his death in 1341 .

Background


He was the youngest son of Sultan Qalawun
Qalawun
Saif ad-Dīn Qalawun aṣ-Ṣāliḥī was the seventh Mamluk sultan of Egypt...

 and the brother of Sultan Al-Ashraf Khalil. He was born in Cairo at Qal'at al-Jabal ( Citadel of the Mountain ). His mother was of Mongol origin.
His reign was in three stages, marked by temporary depositions.

1st reign : 1293 - 1294


After the assassination of Al-Ashraf khalil in December 1293, he was installed as Sultan with Zayn-ad-Din Kitbugha
Al-Adil Kitbugha
Kitbugha , was the 10th Mamluk Sultan of Egypt from December 1294 to November 1296.-Background:He was originally an ordinary Mongol soldier in the Ilkhanid army of Hulagu...

 as regent and vice-Sultan and Emir Sanjar al-Shuja'i as Vizier
Vizier
A vizier or in Arabic script ; ; sometimes spelled vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir, or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister in a Muslim government....

. Al-Nasir was only a nominal 9-year-old Sultan. Kitbugha and al-Shuja'i were the actual rulers of Egypt.
The two Emir
Emir
Emir , meaning "commander", "general", or "prince"; also transliterated as Amir, Aamir or Ameer) is a title of high office, used throughout the Muslim world...

s, Kitbugha who was of Mongol origin and al-Shuja'i were rivals and had bad relation with each other. al-Shujai with the support of the Burji Mamluks planned to arrest Kitbugha and assassinate his Emirs but Kitbugha sieged the Citadel and the conflict ended by the murder of al-Shuja'i and the removal of the Burjis from the Citadel.

When Emir Hossam ad-Din Lajin
Lajin
Lachin royal name: al-Malik al-Mansour Hossam ad-Din Lachin al-Mansuri Lachin (Arabic: لاجين) royal name: al-Malik al-Mansour Hossam ad-Din Lachin al-Mansuri Lachin (Arabic: لاجين) royal name: al-Malik al-Mansour Hossam ad-Din Lachin al-Mansuri (Arabic: الملك المنصور حسام الدين لاجين المنصورى (d....

 who fled after the murder of Al-Ashraf Khalil showed up in Cairo, the Burji Mamluks who were called al-Mamalik al-Ashrafiyah Khalil ( Mamluks of al-Ashraf Khalil ) and who were removed from the Citadel by Kitbugha, rebelled and went on rampage in Cairo as Lajin was not arrested and punished for his involvement in the murder of their benefactor Sultan al-Ashraf Khalil. The Ashrafiyah were defeated and many of them were killed and executed. Lajin convinced Kitbugha to depose Al-Nassir Muhammed and install himself as Sultan after he warned him that the Ashrafiyah and later Al-Nassir himself will seek revenge for the murder of Khalil in which Kitbugha also was involved. Kitbugha deposed Al-Nassir Muhammed and installed himself Sultan with Lajin as his vice-Sultan. Al-Nassir, who was by now 10-years-old, was removed with his mother to another section in the palace where they stayed until they were sent to Al Karak
Al Karak
Karak is a city in Jordan that is known for the famous crusader castle Kerak. The castle is one of the three largest castles in the region, the other two being in Syria...

 ending the first reign of Al-Nassir Muhammad. ( See Al-Adil Kitbugha
Al-Adil Kitbugha
Kitbugha , was the 10th Mamluk Sultan of Egypt from December 1294 to November 1296.-Background:He was originally an ordinary Mongol soldier in the Ilkhanid army of Hulagu...

 and Lajin
Lajin
Lachin royal name: al-Malik al-Mansour Hossam ad-Din Lachin al-Mansuri Lachin (Arabic: لاجين) royal name: al-Malik al-Mansour Hossam ad-Din Lachin al-Mansuri Lachin (Arabic: لاجين) royal name: al-Malik al-Mansour Hossam ad-Din Lachin al-Mansuri (Arabic: الملك المنصور حسام الدين لاجين المنصورى (d....

 )

2nd reign : 1299 - 1309



In 1296 Kitbugha was deposed by his vice-Sultan Lajin and he fled to Syria and died in 1297 while holding the post of the governor of Hama
Hama
Hama is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria north of Damascus. It is the provincial capital of the Hama Governorate. Hama is the fourth-largest city in Syria—behind Aleppo, Damascus, and Homs—with a population of 696,863...

. Lajin ruled as a sultan until he was murdered with his vice-sultan Mangu-Temur in 1299 known as the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar
Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar
The Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, also known as the Third Battle of Homs, was a Mongol victory over the Mamluks in 1299.-Background:In 1260, Hulagu Khan had invaded the Middle East all the way to Palestine. Before he could follow up with an invasion of Egypt, he was called back to Mongolia. He left...

. Al-Nassir's ar
In Egypt, the defeated soldiers of Al-Nasir kept arriving in disorder. The deposed Sultan Kitbugha who was in Syria also fled to Egypt. Cairo became overcrowded as a huge number of Syrians refugees fled to there. Al-Nasir Muhamed and the Emirs began to prepare for a new march to the Levant. Money, horses and arms were collected from all over Egypt. An attempt to reuse an old Fatwa
Fatwa
A fatwā in the Islamic faith is a juristic ruling concerning Islamic law issued by an Islamic scholar. In Sunni Islam any fatwā is non-binding, whereas in Shia Islam it could be considered by an individual as binding, depending on his or her relation to the scholar. The person who issues a fatwā...

 which was issued during the reign of Sultan Qutuz
Qutuz
Saif ad-Din Qutuz, also spelled Kutuz, was the third of the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt in the Turkic line from 1259 until his death in 1260. It was under his leadership that the Mamluks achieved success against the Mongols in the key Battle of Ain Jalut...

 and which obliged each Egyptian to pay one Dinar to support the army failed thus it was decided that the people should pay by free will and not by law. But suddenly the news arrived to Cairo that Ghazan left the Levant after he installed two of his commanders as his deputes there. Sultan Al-Nasir sent letters to Ghazan's deputes asking them to submit to him and they agreed. Kitbugha was granted the post of the governor of Hama and Salar and Baibars al-Jashnakir travelled with an army to the Levant to liquidate the remaining forces of Ghazan. The Druze
Druze
The Druze are an esoteric, monotheistic religious community, found primarily in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, which emerged during the 11th century from Ismailism. The Druze have an eclectic set of beliefs that incorporate several elements from Abrahamic religions, Gnosticism, Neoplatonism...

 who looted Al-Nasir's soldiers during their retreat to Egypt were attacked at their strongholds and they were forced to give back the weapons and the properties which they robbed from the retreating soldiers. The submitted deputes arrived in Egypt and were received by Al-Nasir Muhammed. The name of Sultan Al-Nasir was mentioned again at the Syrian Mosques. He was again the sovereign of the Levant.

In addition to Mongols threats in the Levant, the second reign of Al-Nasir Muhammed witnessed also disturbances inside Egypt itself. There were religious riots in Cairo and rebellions in Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt is the strip of land, on both sides of the Nile valley, that extends from the cataract boundaries of modern-day Aswan north to the area between El-Ayait and Zawyet Dahshur . The northern section of Upper Egypt, between El-Ayait and Sohag is sometimes known as Middle Egypt...

 which were harshly suppressed.
In 1301 parts of Armenian Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia , also known as the Cilician Armenia, Kingdom of Cilician Armenia or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia...

 were looted and Sis
Kozan, Adana
Kozan is a city in Adana Province, Turkey, 68 km north of the city of Adana, in the northern section of the Çukurova plain. The city is the capital of Kozan district. The Kilgen Stream, a tributary of the Ceyhan River , flows through Kozan crossing the plain south into the Mediterranean Sea....

 was attaked by Al-Nasir's forces led by his Emirs as the Armenians tried to support Ghazan and in 1302 the Crusade island of Arwad
Arwad
Arwad – formerly known as Arado , Arados , Arvad, Arpad, Arphad, and Antiochia in Pieria , also called Ruad Island – located in the Mediterranean Sea, is the only inhabited island in Syria. The town of Arwad takes up the entire island...

 was assaulted and looted as the crusaders used it as a base for attacks on Muslim ships. (See also Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar
Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar
The Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, also known as the Third Battle of Homs, was a Mongol victory over the Mamluks in 1299.-Background:In 1260, Hulagu Khan had invaded the Middle East all the way to Palestine. Before he could follow up with an invasion of Egypt, he was called back to Mongolia. He left...

)

The Battle of Shaqhab



In 1303 Ghazan's army crossed the Euphrates river and marched towards Syria. The Syrians fled from Aleppo
Aleppo
Aleppo is the largest city in Syria and the capital of Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 2,301,570 , expanding to over 2.5 million in the metropolitan area, it is also one of the largest cities in the Levant...

 and Hama to Damascus. An Egyptian force led by Baibars Al-Jashnakir arrived to Damascus. The population of Damascus wanted to flee also but they were warned that they would be killed and their money would be seized if they tried do that. A force of Ghazan attacked Turkmen
Turkmen people
The Turkmen are a Turkic people located primarily in the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and northeastern Iran. They speak the Turkmen language, which is classified as a part of the Western Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages family together with Turkish, Azerbaijani, Qashqai,...

 villages and took women and children as prisoners but the Sultan's forces led by his Emirs clashed with the Mongols and freed about 6000 Turkmen after they annihilated the Mongol force.

On April, 20, Al-Nasir Muhammed and the Caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

  arrived in Syria from Egypt and while the Emirs were greeting them, news reached them that a Mongol army of 50.000 soldiers led by Qutlugh-Shah, the deputy of Ghazan, was approaching. Al-Nasir and the Emirs decided to take the fight to Shaqhab. The Caliph who stood beside the sultan at the heart of the army exclaimed to the soldiers: " Warriors, do not worry about your Sultan but worry about your women and the religion of your Prophet ". A force of about 10.000 men led by Qutlugh-Shah attacked the right flank of Al-Nasir's army but units of Baibars and Salar gave their support and pushed Qutlugh-Shah back. There was a confusion on the battleground as many thought that Al-Nasir's army was defeated when they saw the Mongols passed the right flank of Al-Nasir's army. Qutlugh-Shah withdrew to a mountain believing also that he had won. But from his position on the mountain he saw the army of Al-Nasir standing firm on the left flank and the soldiers were filling the field. Qutlugh-Shah who was puzzled asked an Egyptian Emir who was taken prisoner about the army which he was seeing. The Emir answered him that it is the army of the Sultan of Egypt. Qutlugh-Shah was shocked as he did not know that Al-Nasir has arrived with the Egyptian army. When Qutlugh-Shah saw his army defeated and fleeing he too fled at sunset. Next morning Qutlugh-Shah returned to the battlefield but he was defeated again. His third offensive happened early in the morning of the third day but his army was utterly annihilated. Only a small number of the Mongols survived. When Ghazan heard about the defeat of his army he was so stressed that he suffered a severe nose hemorrhage and he died a year later. Al-Nasir Muhammed returned to Egypt amid overwhelming festivity, Cairo, which was full of people who came from all over Egypt to celebrate, was decorated from Bab al-Nasr
Bab al-Nasr, Cairo
Bab al-Nasr , ' in Islamic Cairo is a massive fortified gate with rectagular stone towers flanking the semicircular arch of the eastern Portal. The original Bab al-Nasr was built south of the present one by Fatimid general Jawhar as-Siqilli under Imam Moiz when the city was first laid out...

 (Victory Gate) to Qal'at al-Jabal The prominent Egyptian Mamluk historian Baibars al-Dewadar was present at the Battle of Shaqhab which is also called Battle of Marj al-Suffar. (See also Battle of Shaqhab ).

Achievements and withdrawal


In 1304 Sis was raided again by Al-Nasir's Emirs and a group of Mongols led by a prominent commander named Badr ad-Din Albaba were welcomed by Al-Nasir in Cairo. Al-Madrasah
Madrasah
Madrasah is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious...

 Al-Nasiryah which had the gate of the Cathedral
Cathedral
A cathedral is a Christian church that contains the seat of a bishop...

 of Acre
Acre
The acre is a unit of area in a number of different systems, including the imperial and U.S. customary systems. The most commonly used acres today are the international acre and, in the United States, the survey acre. The most common use of the acre is to measure tracts of land.The acre is related...

 which Al-Ashraf khalil brought to Egypt in 1291, was accomplished . 1304 witnessed also the birth of Al-Nasir's son Ali.

In 1309 Al-Nasir Muhammad felt fed up of being dominated by Salar and Baibars al-Jashnakir. He informed them that he is going to Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

 for pilgrimage
Pilgrimage
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of great moral or spiritual significance. Typically, it is a journey to a shrine or other location of importance to a person's beliefs and faith...

 but, instead, he went to Al Kark and stayed there ending his second reign. But Al-Nasir actually did not mean to resign. He knew he will not be able to rule while Baibars al-Jashnakir and Salar were there as he probably also was aware that sooner or later they would depose him or even kill him and take the power over. Al-Nasir tried to arrest Baibars and Salar but when he failed he calculated that by being in Al Kark, faraway from their eyes, he would be able to make new alliances with the Sultanate deputies in the Levant who could offer him support against the two Emirs when he return later to Egypt. When Al-Nasir refused to go back to Egypt, Baibars al-Jashnakir installed himself as the Sultan of Egypt with Salar as his vice-Sultan ( See Baibars II
Baibars II
Not to be confused with his more famous namesake, Baibars al-BunduqdariBaibars al-Jashnakir or Baibars II. Royal name: al-Malik al-Muzaffar Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Jashnakir al-Mansuri, ....

 ) .

3rd reign : 1309 - 1341



Baibars al-Jashnakir ruled Egypt ten months and 24 days. His reign was marked by social unrest and threats from the Mongols and the Crusaders. The population of Egypt who hated him demanded the return of their beloved Sultan Al-Nasir Muhammad. Baibars al-Jashnakir was forced to step down and flee from the angry mob (see Baibars II
Baibars II
Not to be confused with his more famous namesake, Baibars al-BunduqdariBaibars al-Jashnakir or Baibars II. Royal name: al-Malik al-Muzaffar Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Jashnakir al-Mansuri, ....

). Al-Nasir returned to Egypt. During his first reign he was dominated by Kitbugha and al-Shuja'i and during his second reign he was dominated by Baibars al-Jashnakir and Salar. Al-Nasir, who was by now 24-years-old, was determined not to be dominated or deprived from his Sultanic rights by any Emir. Al-Nasir executed Baibars al-Jashnakir and accepted the resignation of Salar as vice Sultan and replaced him with Baktmar al-Jukondar then after a year he arrested him and he died shortly in prison. The Mamluks and proprieties of both Baibars and Salar were seized.

In 1310 the vice-Sultan Baktmar and Emir Bikhtas conspired to overthrow Al-Nasir and replace him with Emir Musa son of as-Salih Ali son of Qalawun. Musa agreed but the conspiracy was revealed to Al-Nasir by an Emir and both Bikhtas and Musa were arrested. The vice-Sultan Baktmar al-Jukondar was arrested a year later after being accused of plotting to overthrow Al-Nasir and throne himself. Baibars al-Dewadar became the new vice-Sultan. Because of his old experience with the Emirs and their tricks, Al-Nasir Muhammad was a very suspicious and sensitive Sultan who took attention of every detail. He even exiled the Caliph himself to Qus
Qus
Qus is a city in the modern Qena Governorate, Egypt, located on the east bank of the Nile. Its modern name is one of many borrowings in Egyptian Arabic from Coptic, the last living phase of Ancient Egyptian...

 in 1338.

Crackdown on corruption


Slowly but systematically Al-Nasir Muhammed grasped his Sultanic power and took revenge on the Emirs who were unfair to him in the past and on the Emirs who plotted against him after his return to Egypt. He abolished a few official positions, seized wealths of corrupted officials, discharged the Oirats Mongols from royal services and annulled the exceptional taxes and surcharges (Mikoos) which were imposed on the commons by the authorities and enriched officials and made Emirs more powerful. He employed Emir Ibn al-Waziri, a man who was known to be tough on corruption, as the head of Dar al-Adl ( Court of Justice ) and he himself used to sit there every Monday to listen to complaints from the commons against the officials and the Emirs. He prohibited his governors from executing or physically punishing convicts without his permission and he shut an infamous dungeon prison that was near the citadel. In 1314 he abolished the post of vice-Sultan. And in 1315 he made a land survey to re-establish the amount of the taxes which the land owners and the landlords had to pay to the state.

Internal and external situations



During the third reign of Al-Nasir Muhammad Egypt did not witness external threats as both the Crusadres and the Mongols were enormously weakened by their frequent defeats and their internal conflicts. However, Mongol ruler Oljeitu besieged Mamluk fortresses but left due to deadly heat in 1312-1313. In 1314 the city of Malatya
Malatya
Malatya ) is a city in southeastern Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.-Overview:The city site has been occupied for thousands of years. The Assyrians called the city Meliddu. Following Roman expansion into the east, the city was renamed in Latin as Melitene...

 was surmounted by Tunkuz the deputy of Al-Nasir in the Levant. Sis and other places were raided by the forces of Al-Nasir but no serious problems developed. Inside Egypt, there were a few disorders in Upper Egypt due to law breaking activities by Arabian tribesmen which were easily subdued. However, in February 1321, a rather serious uproar between Egyptian Muslim and Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

 communities developed after a few Church
Christian Church
The Christian Church is the assembly or association of followers of Jesus Christ. The Greek term ἐκκλησία that in its appearances in the New Testament is usually translated as "church" basically means "assembly"...

es were suddenly destroyed simultaneously in various parts of Egypt and was followed by series of fires at Mosques and buildings in Cairo. A few Christians were arrested while they were trying to set fire at Mosques and buildings. Though the economy of Egypt flourished during the third reign of Al-Nasir, his era was struck a few times by financial problems and rise in prices caused by the circulation of underweight and alloyed coins. Al-Nasir minted a few thousands coins to fight the spurious coins.

Under Al-Nasir Muhammad the position of Egypt as a political power also flourished. Foreign delegations and king's envoys with gifts visited Cairo frequently seeking the help and the friendship of Al-Nasir. Most remarkable visits were from the envoys of Pope
Pope
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

 John XXII
Pope John XXII
Pope John XXII , born Jacques Duèze , was pope from 1316 to 1334. He was the second Pope of the Avignon Papacy , elected by a conclave in Lyon assembled by Philip V of France...

 and King Philip VI of France
Philip VI of France
Philip VI , known as the Fortunate and of Valois, was the King of France from 1328 to his death. He was also Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois from 1325 to 1328...

. The Papal envoys arrived at Cairo in June 1327 with a gift and a letter from the Pope who appealed to Al-Nasir to treat the Christians well and to protect the Christian holy places and to stop his attacks against Sis. Those were the first envoys of a Pope to go to Egypt since the time of Sultan as-Salih Ayyub
As-Salih Ayyub
Al-Malik as-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub , also known as al-Malik al-Salih was the Ayyubid ruler of Egypt from 1240 to 1249.-Biography:...

. In February 1330, King Philip VI sent a delegation of 120 men who appealed to Al-Nasir to grant Philip the city of Jerusalem and areas on the Levant
Levant
The Levant or ) is the geographic region and culture zone of the "eastern Mediterranean littoral between Anatolia and Egypt" . The Levant includes most of modern Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian territories, and sometimes parts of Turkey and Iraq, and corresponds roughly to the...

ine Coast. Al-Nasir reacted by insulting the French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 envoys and their King and ordered them to leave Egypt.

Public works



Al-Nasir Muhammad's long reign marked the apogee of Mamluk power and the high-water mark of culture in Egypt since Ptolemaic Alexandria
Alexandria
Alexandria is the second-largest city of Egypt, with a population of 4.1 million, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country; it is also the largest city lying directly on the Mediterranean coast. It is Egypt's largest seaport, serving...

 . Extraordinary public works were set in motion. He redug once again the canal connecting Alexandria with the Nile: it was opened to traffic in 1311 and required workforces on a Pharaonic
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

 scale. Some of his marvelous works in Cairo were the huge square that was called al-Midan al-Nasiri, Qasr al-Ablaq (al-Ablaq Palace) and the restructuring of the Iwan
Iwan
An iwan is a rectangular hall or space, usually vaulted, walled on three sides, with one end entirely open. The formal gateway to the iwan is called pishtaq, a Persian term for a portal projecting from the facade of a building, usually decorated with calligraphy bands, glazed tilework, and...

 which was built by his father Qalawun. In addition, he built Madrasas , magnificent public baths and renovated more than thirty Mosques which belonged to the most splendid examples of Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture....

 . His own Mosque in the Citadel which stands until today was decorated with stone brought in triumph from the ruined cathedral of Acre
Acre
The acre is a unit of area in a number of different systems, including the imperial and U.S. customary systems. The most commonly used acres today are the international acre and, in the United States, the survey acre. The most common use of the acre is to measure tracts of land.The acre is related...

. He also added to his father's complex of structures Cairo's first sabeel, a fountain for the use of all, especially welcome to the poor who might not have access to a well.

Account of Al-Malik Al-Nasir in Ibn Battuta's book


Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta , or simply Ibn Battuta, also known as Shams ad–Din , was a Muslim Moroccan Berber explorer, known for his extensive travels published in the Rihla...

 was a famous traveler and arrived in Cairo while al-Malik al-Nasir was the Sultan. He related the following:


The Sultan of Egypt at the time of my entry was al-Malik al-Nasir Abu'l Fath Muahmmad, son of al-Malik al-Mansur Saif al-Din Qala-un al-Salihi. Qala'un was known as al-Alfi ['the Thousand-man'] because al-Malik al-Salih bought him for a thousand dinars of gold. He came originally from Qifjaq [Kipchak]. Al-Malik al-Nasir (God's mercy upon him) was a man of generous character and great virtues, and sufficient proof of his nobility is furnished by his devotion to the service of the two holy sanctuaries [of Mecca and Medina] and the works of beneficence which he does every year to assist the pilgrims, in furnishing camels loaded with provisions and water for those without means and the helpless, and for carrying those who cannot keep up with the caravan or are too weak to walk on foot, both on the Egyptian pilgrim-road and on that from Damascus. He also built a great convent at Siryaqus, in the outskirts of Cairo.


Al-Nasir Muhammad's Emblems and coins


Emblems : Eagle, Flower, lily, Bundel ( symbol of the Jomdar who was an official of the department at the Sultan's clothing ).

1st reign : Not available.

2nd reign : coins had Al-Nasir's name inscribed as al-Sultan al-Malik al-Nasir Nasir al-Donya wa al-Din. Also a title of his father Qalawun was inscribed on his coins as : Al-Malik al-Mansur.

3rd reign : Al-Nasir Muhammad had on his coins the following remarkable titles which are unique in Mamluk's history : " al-Sultan al-Malik al-Nasir Nasir al-Din wa al-Donia ( The Sultan King al-Nasir triumphant in faith and temporal world ) " , " al-Sultan al-Malik al-Azam ( The Greatest Sultan King )", " al-Sultan al-Malik Nasir al-Donya wa al-Din Qasim Amir al-Mu'amimin ( The Sultan King triumphant in temporal world and in faith, the one who shares with the Emir of faithfuls ( the Caliph ))". Unique beseeching phrases that were inscribed on his coins were : " Azz Nasroh ( May his victories be glorified )" and " khalad Allah Mulkoh wa Sultanoh ( May God makes his kingdom and his Sultanate eternal )".

Legacy


The prominent Mamluk historian Ibn Iyas wrote the following about Al-Nasir Muhammad : " His name was mentioned everywhere like no other king's name. All the kings wrote to him, sent gifts to him and feared him. The whole of Egypt was in his grasp "

Both father and brother of Al-Nasir were celebrated Sultans and eight of his sons and four of his grandsons were throned as Sultans of Egypt :

Sons ( Sultans of Egypt from 1341 to 1361 ) :
  • al-Mansur Abu Bakr
    Saif ad-Din Abu-Bakr
    Saif ad-Din Abu-Bakr was a Mamluk sultan of Egypt in 1341....

  • al-Ashraf Kujuk
    Kujuk
    Ala'a ad-Din Kujuk royal name: al-Malik al-Ashraf Ala'a ad-Din Kujuk ) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt from 1341 to 1342....

  • al-Nasir Ahmad
    Shihab ad-Din Ahmad
    Shihab ad-Din Ahmad royal name: al-Malik al-Nasir Shihab ad-Din Ahmad ) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt in 1342....

  • al-Salih Ismail
  • al-Kamil Shaban
  • al-Muzzafar Hajji
  • al-Nasir Hassan
  • al-Salih Salih


Grandsons ( Sultans of Egypt from 1363 to 1382 ) :
  • al-Mansur Muhammad
    Al-Mansur Muhammad
    Al-Mansur Muhammad was an imam of the Zaidi state in Yemen who ruled in 1475-1504, in rivalry with other claimants for the imamate.-Zaidi disunity:...

  • al-Ashraf Nasir ad-Din Shaban
  • al-Mansur Ala-ad-Din Ali
  • al-Salih Haji