Wolf Graf von Baudissin

Wolf Graf von Baudissin

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Wolf Stefan Traugott Graf von Baudissin (8 May 1907 – 5 June 1993) was a German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 general
General
A general officer is an officer of high military rank, usually in the army, and in some nations, the air force. The term is widely used by many nations of the world, and when a country uses a different term, there is an equivalent title given....

, military planner and peace researcher
Peace and conflict studies
Peace and conflict studies is a social science field that identifies and analyses violent and nonviolent behaviours as well as the structural mechanisms attending social conflicts with a view towards understanding those processes which lead to a more desirable human condition...

. His wife was the sculptress Dagmar Gräfin zu Dohna-Schlodien. He was one of the developers of the concepts of Innere Führung (officially translated as "leadership development and civic education") and Staatsbürger in Uniform ("citizens in uniform"), the two lead concepts of the modern German Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
The Bundeswehr consists of the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities...

. He died in Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

.

Early life


Baudissin was born in Trier
Trier
Trier, historically called in English Treves is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle. It is the oldest city in Germany, founded in or before 16 BC....

 into the Baudissin
Baudissin
Baudissin is the name of a German noble family of Sorbian origin, first mentioned in 1326 in Upper Lusatia, now part of Saxony. At the time Bautzen, the district capital, was called Budissin, whence the name originated....

 family. He studied law, history and economics in Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

.

In World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Baudissin served as hauptmann
Hauptmann
Hauptmann is a German word usually translated as captain when it is used as an officer's rank in the German, Austrian and Swiss armies. While "haupt" in contemporary German means "main", it also has the dated meaning of "head", i.e...

 im Generalstab
(captain with the General Staff
German General Staff
The German General Staff was an institution whose rise and development gave the German armed forces a decided advantage over its adversaries. The Staff amounted to its best "weapon" for nearly a century and a half....

) at the personal request of General Erwin Rommel
Erwin Rommel
Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel , popularly known as the Desert Fox , was a German Field Marshal of World War II. He won the respect of both his own troops and the enemies he fought....

. He was captured by the Australians in 1941 and detained in the prisoner-of-war camp
Prisoner-of-war camp
A prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of combatants captured by their enemy in time of war, and is similar to an internment camp which is used for civilian populations. A prisoner of war is generally a soldier, sailor, or airman who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or...

 Durringhile, Victoria
Victoria (Australia)
Victoria is the second most populous state in Australia. Geographically the smallest mainland state, Victoria is bordered by New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania on Boundary Islet to the north, west and south respectively....

, Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

. In absence, he was promoted to major
Major
Major is a rank of commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every military in the world.When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicator of rank, the term refers to the rank just senior to that of an Army captain and just below the rank of lieutenant colonel. ...

. While being held at Durringhile, he developed the idea of the "prisoner-of-war university" (Kriegsgefangenenuniversität). There, the expert German prisoners taught their comrades in various subjects and prepared them for a life after the war. Baudissin was released in 1947.

Career in the Bundeswehr


In October 1950, Baudissin worked on the secret Himmeroder Denkschrift, a pamphlet advocating German rearmament. In 1956 he helped to create the fledgling German new armed forces, the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
The Bundeswehr consists of the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities...

 (in the rank of colonel
Colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

) and soon headed a tank brigade. In 1963 to 1965, promoted to lieutenant general
Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a Captain General....

 he was Commandant of the Nato Defence College in Paris. Baudissin then went on to serve with NATO Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe is the central command of NATO military forces. It is located at Casteau, north of the Belgian city of Mons...

 (SHAPE) in the position of Deputy Chief of Staff. Pensioned in 1967, he became a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany
Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Social Democratic Party of Germany is a social-democratic political party in Germany...

, and openly supported Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm , was a German politician, Mayor of West Berlin 1957–1966, Chancellor of West Germany 1969–1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany 1964–1987....

's bid for chancellorship in 1972.

From 1971 to 1984, Baudissin served as founding director for the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy (Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitik) at the University of Hamburg
University of Hamburg
The University of Hamburg is a university in Hamburg, Germany. It was founded on 28 March 1919 by Wilhelm Stern and others. It grew out of the previous Allgemeines Vorlesungswesen and the Kolonialinstitut as well as the Akademisches Gymnasium. There are around 38,000 students as of the start of...

. In 1979, he was made professor
Professor
A professor is a scholarly teacher; the precise meaning of the term varies by country. Literally, professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being usually an expert in arts or sciences; a teacher of high rank...

. From 1980 to 1986, he served as professor for social science at the University of the Bundeswehr in Hamburg.

Awards and honors


Baudissin was a member of the peace movement
Peace movement
A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war , minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of achieving world peace...

 group "Generals for Peace" (Generale für den Frieden). In 1967, he was awarded the Theodor-Heuss-Preis and the Great Federal Cross of Merit, with stars and sash
Bundesverdienstkreuz
The Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany is the only general state decoration of the Federal Republic of Germany. It has existed since 7 September 1951, and between 3,000 and 5,200 awards are given every year across all classes...

.

On 19 April 1994, the hall of the Bundeswehr's Zentrum für Innere Führung (Center for Civic Education) in Koblenz
Koblenz
Koblenz is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine at its confluence with the Moselle, where the Deutsches Eck and its monument are situated.As Koblenz was one of the military posts established by Drusus about 8 BC, the...

 was renamed "Forum Wolf Graf von Baudissin". On 7 June of the same year, the "General Schwartzkopff Barracks" in Osdorf
Osdorf, Hamburg
Osdorf is a quarter in the city of Hamburg, Germany. It belongs to the Altona borough. In 2006 the population was 25,206.-History:...

were renamed "Lieutenant General Graf von Baudissin Barracks".

External links