Oskaloosa, Iowa
Oskaloosa is the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Mahaska County
Mahaska County, Iowa
-2010 census:The 2010 census recorded a population of 22,381 in the county, with a population density of . There were 9,766 housing units, of which 8,975 were occupied.-2000 census:...

, Iowa
Iowa is a state located in the Midwestern United States, an area often referred to as the "American Heartland". It derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many American Indian tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa was a part of the French colony of New...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. The population was 11,463 in the 2010 census, an increase from 10,938 in the 2000 census.


Oskaloosa derives its name from Ouscaloosa who according to town lore was a Creek princess who married Seminole
The Seminole are a Native American people originally of Florida, who now reside primarily in that state and Oklahoma. The Seminole nation emerged in a process of ethnogenesis out of groups of Native Americans, most significantly Creeks from what is now Georgia and Alabama, who settled in Florida in...

 chief Osceola
Osceola, also known as Billy Powell , became an influential leader with the Seminole in Florida. He was of Creek, Scots-Irish and English parentage, and had migrated to Florida with his mother after the defeat of the Creek in 1814.Osceola led a small band of warriors in the Seminole resistance...

. It means "last of the beautiful." (This interpretation of "last of the beautiful" is not correct. "Oskaloosa" in the Mvskoke-Creek language means "black rain" from the Mvskoke words "oske" (rain) and "lvste" (black). "loosa" is an English corruption of the Mvskoke word "lvste". See for example the Wikipedia entry for "Tuskaloosa". In addition the Mvskoke word "Ouscaloosa" means "Black Water").
The first white settlers arrived in 1835 led by Nathan Boone, youngest son of Daniel Boone
Daniel Boone
Daniel Boone was an American pioneer, explorer, and frontiersman whose frontier exploits mad']'e him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now the Commonwealth of Kentucky, which was then beyond the western borders of...

 who acting on instructions from Stephen W. Kearny
Stephen W. Kearny
Stephen Watts Kearny surname also appears as Kearney in some historic sources; August 30, 1794 October 31, 1848), was one of the foremost antebellum frontier officers of the United States Army. He is remembered for his significant contributions in the Mexican-American War, especially the conquest...

 selected it to be the first site of Fort Des Moines
Fort Des Moines
Fort Des Moines can refer to:*Fort Des Moines No. 1 , a U.S. Army post that grew into Montrose, Iowa*Fort Des Moines No. 2 , a U.S. Army post that grew into Des Moines, Iowa...

 on a high ridge between what Skunk River
Skunk River
The Skunk River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the state of Iowa in the United States.It rises in two branches, the South Skunk and the North Skunk . The headwaters of the South Skunk are in Hamilton County in north central Iowa. It flows roughly due southward, to the west of...

 and Des Moines River
Des Moines River
The Des Moines River is a tributary river of the Mississippi River, approximately long to its farther headwaters, in the upper Midwestern United States...

. The ridge was originally called the Narrows.
The town was formally platted in 1844 when William Canfield who had a trading post on the Des Moines River
Des Moines River
The Des Moines River is a tributary river of the Mississippi River, approximately long to its farther headwaters, in the upper Midwestern United States...

 moved it to Oskaloosa. It became the county seat in the same year.

On January 6, 1882, most of the buildings in the north half of Oskaloosa were severely damaged and most of the plate glass windows in the area were broken by an explosion. Three boys were killed in the explosion. The boys had been seen shooting at the A. L. Spencer gunpowder magazine half a mile north of the town center.

In the 1880s, over a million tons of bituminous coal
Bituminous coal
Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than Anthracite...

 was mined in the area from 38 mines. The first mine in the area was opened shortly after 1853 by Robert Seevers, who in 1853 drove a drift
Drift mining
Drift mining is either the mining of a placer deposit by underground methods, or the working of coal seams accessed by adits driven into the surface outcrop of the coal bed. Drift is a more general mining term, meaning a near-horizontal passageway in a mine, following the bed or vein of ore. A...

 into a 4-foot coalbed in an exposed creek bank east of town. Initially, coal was mined entirely for local consumption, but with the arrival of the railroads, coal from the region was shipped widely. By 1887, the report of the state mine inspector listed 11 coal mines in and around Oskaloosa. The coal output of Mahaska County surpassed that of all other Iowa counties by 1895, by which time, the output had reached over a million tons per year. In 1911, coal mining was reported to be the primary industry in the region. In 1914, the Carbon Block Coal Company of Centerville produced over 100,000 tons of coal, ranking among the top 24 coal producers in the state.
There were several major coal-mining camps in the Oskaloosa area. Muchakinock was about 5 miles south of town, on the banks of the Muchakinock Creek. Lost Creek was a mining camp about 8 miles southeast of town. On January 24, 1902, there was a mine explosion in the Lost Creek No. 2 mine. This was one of only two major mine disasters in Iowa between 1888 and 1913. A miner setting shots to blast
Rock blasting
Rock blasting is the controlled use of explosives to excavate, break down or remove rock. It is practised most often in mining, quarrying and civil engineering such as dam or road construction...

 coal from the coal face re-used a hole left over from a previous failed shot, and the result was a coal dust explosion
Dust explosion
A dust explosion is the fast combustion of dust particles suspended in the air in an enclosed location. Coal dust explosions are a frequent hazard in underground coal mines, but dust explosions can occur where any powdered combustible material is present in an enclosed atmosphere.- Conditions for...

 that detonated barrels of gunpowder
Gunpowder, also known since in the late 19th century as black powder, was the first chemical explosive and the only one known until the mid 1800s. It is a mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate - with the sulfur and charcoal acting as fuels, while the saltpeter works as an oxidizer...

 stored in the mine. 20 men died on the site and 14 more were badly injured. The explosion sparked a state-wide miner's strike
Strike action
Strike action, also called labour strike, on strike, greve , or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances. Strikes became important during the industrial revolution, when mass labour became...

, and as a result, the following April, a law was passed regulating blasting in coal mines.


Oskaloosa is located at 41°17′38"N 92°38′40"W (41.293856, -92.644546).

According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 6.9 square miles (17.9 km²), of which 6.9 square miles (17.9 km²) is land and 0.04 square mile (0.1035995244 km²) (0.29%) is water.


2010 census

The 2010 census recorded a population of 11,463 in the city, with a population density of . There were 5,144 housing units, of which 4,715 were occupied.

The racial makeup of the city in the 2010 census was 93.3% White American
White American
White Americans are people of the United States who are considered or consider themselves White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa...

, 2.1% African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

, 0.3% Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

, 1.7% Asian American
Asian American
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians as "Asian” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,...

, 0.0% Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians refers to the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants. Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the original Polynesian settlers of Hawaii.According to the U.S...

 or Pacific Islander American
Pacific Islander American
Pacific Islander Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, are residents of the United States with original ancestry from Oceania. They represent the smallest racial group counted in the United States census of 2000. They numbered 874,000 people or 0.3 percent of the United States population...

, 0.9% other races and 1.8% were from two or more races. Of those 2.4% were Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic or Latino Americans are Americans with origins in the Hispanic countries of Latin America or in Spain, and in general all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino.1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins...


2000 census

As of the census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2000, there were 10,938 people, 4,603 households, and 2,863 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 1,593.8 people per square mile (615.6/km²). There were 4,945 housing units at an average density of 720.5 per square mile (278.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 95.86% White, 1.16% African American, 0.25% Native American, 1.32% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 0.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.26% of the population.

There were 4,603 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.8% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.89.

Population spread: 24.1% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, and 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $34,490, and the median income for a family was $42,138. Males had a median income of $33,830 versus $23,698 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $18,721. About 10.6% of families and 13.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.0% of those under age 18 and 11.6% of those age 65 or over.


Top Ten Companies
Employer Date Founded Type of Business Approximate Number of Employees Description of Services
Musco Lighting
Musco Lighting
Musco Lighting is an American privately owned company, based out of Oskaloosa, Iowa that is noted for providing permanent or temporary lighting at major sports events and stadiums including the Super Bowl and Olympics....

1976 Sports Lighting 450 Academy Award and Emmy award
Emmy Award
An Emmy Award, often referred to simply as the Emmy, is a television production award, similar in nature to the Peabody Awards but more focused on entertainment, and is considered the television equivalent to the Academy Awards and the Grammy Awards .A majority of Emmys are presented in various...

-winning company that provides permanent and temporary lighting for major sports venues around the world.
Oskaloosa Community Schools Education 375 Includes a high school, middle school, elementary school, preschool and alternative school
Mahaska Health Partnership 1907 Health Services 370 Includes a hospital and a variety of family and specialty clinics.
Clow Valve Company 1878 Manufacturing 350 The Oskaloosa plants include iron and brass foundries, a machine shop, assembly, finished goods warehousing, shipping and administrative offices. Clow Valve Company’s primary products include fire hydrants and a variety of valves.
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. , branded as Walmart since 2008 and Wal-Mart before then, is an American public multinational corporation that runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouse stores. The company is the world's 18th largest public corporation, according to the Forbes Global 2000...

1962 Retail Department Store 265 An American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 public corporation that runs a chain of large, discount department stores.
William Penn University
William Penn University
William Penn University is a private, liberal arts university in Oskaloosa, Iowa, United States. It was founded by members of the Religious Society of Friends in 1873 as Penn College...

1873 Education 300 A private, liberal arts
Liberal arts
The term liberal arts refers to those subjects which in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free citizen to study. Grammar, Rhetoric and Logic were the core liberal arts. In medieval times these subjects were extended to include mathematics, geometry, music and astronomy...

City of Oskaloosa 1844 Municipal Government 199
Hy-Vee is an employee-owned chain of supermarkets located in the Midwestern United States. Over 100 of its supermarkets are located in Iowa, with additional stores in Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota and now Madison, Wisconsin...

1930 Retail Food Store 155 An employee-owned chain of supermarkets located in the Midwestern United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

Cunningham Inc 1969 Mechanical Contractor-Commercial, Industrial 100 Sheetmetal Mfg, Hvac, Geo-Thermal, Plumbing-Piping, Architectural Metal-Roofing, Industrial Services, Duct Cleaning, and Heating and Air Conditioning Services .
Mahaska Bottling Co. Soft Drinks 97 Pepsi-Cola bottling company
  • Includes full, part-time and seasonal employees.
    • Source: LocationOne Information Systems website and telephone survey conducted February 2010

Annual events

The Southern Iowa Fair is one of the largest traditional county fairs in Iowa and is held each July.

Art on the Square is held each June on the city square. This event features local and regional artists.

Sweet Corn Serenade is held each August on the city square. A concert by the municipal band is the highlight of the corn-on-the-cob and pork burger feast.

Each December, the Lighted Christmas Parade travels through the downtown area on two consecutive nights. The floats in the parade are adorned with lights for the after-dark event.


The City of Oskaloosa has a Mayor-City Council-City Manager form of government under a Home Rule Charter. The Mayor and City Council are elected. The City Council is composed of seven members who have the responsibility of making decisions regarding rules and regulations pertaining to Oskaloosa.

The Mayor is elected for a two-year term and Council Members are elected to serve for four years. The City Manager is appointed by the City Council. The current Mayor is David Krutzfeldt.


Oskaloosa is the home of William Penn University
William Penn University
William Penn University is a private, liberal arts university in Oskaloosa, Iowa, United States. It was founded by members of the Religious Society of Friends in 1873 as Penn College...

, a private, liberal arts college. It was founded by members of the Religious Society of Friends
Religious Society of Friends
The Religious Society of Friends, or Friends Church, is a Christian movement which stresses the doctrine of the priesthood of all believers. Members are known as Friends, or popularly as Quakers. It is made of independent organisations, which have split from one another due to doctrinal differences...

 (Quakers) in 1873 as Penn College. In 1933, the name was changed to William Penn College, and finally to William Penn University in 2000.

Oskaloosa was the home of the now-defunct Oskaloosa College
Oskaloosa College
Oskaloosa College was a liberal arts college based out of Oskaloosa, Iowa. The college was founded in 1857, and was affiliated with the Christian Church . It operated until the first part of the 20th century...


The city's public system, Oskaloosa Community School District, operates a high school, middle school, elementary school, and an alternative school. Oskaloosa Elementary opened in January 2005, merging five smaller buildings scattered across the city. The building is the largest elementary school in Iowa.


In the city's town square is a bronze statue of Chief Mahaska
Chief Mahaska
Mahaska , or White Cloud, was a chief of the Native American Iowa tribe.-Early life and education:Mahaska was born into the Iowa tribe...

, the 19th-century leader of a Native American tribe called the Ioways, for whom Mahaska County was named. Recently restored, the artwork was completed in 1907 by an Iowa-born sculptor named Sherry Edmundson Fry
Sherry Edmundson Fry
Sherry Edmundson Fry was an American sculptor, who also played a prominent role in U.S. Army camouflage during World War I.-Early years:...

 (1879–1966). At the time it was commissioned, Fry was living in Paris. He returned to Iowa the following summer to make preparatory drawings of Meskwaki
The Meskwaki are a Native American people often known to outsiders as the Fox tribe. They have often been closely linked to the Sauk people. In their own language, the Meskwaki call themselves Meshkwahkihaki, which means "the Red-Earths." Historically their homelands were in the Great Lakes region...

 at the nearby Settlement at Tama, Iowa, and to collect Indian artifacts and other reference materials. Returning to Paris, he began on a clay scale model, which he first showed at the Paris Salon in 1907. A year later, he exhibited the final full-sized sculpture, for which he won the Prix de Rome
Prix de Rome
The Prix de Rome was a scholarship for arts students, principally of painting, sculpture, and architecture. It was created, initially for painters and sculptors, in 1663 in France during the reign of Louis XIV. It was an annual bursary for promising artists having proved their talents by...

. Soon after, it was shipped to the US, and arrived in Oskaloosa by railroad in September. The formal dedication of the statue, which was attended by a crowd of about 12,000 people, was held on May 12, 1909.

Oskaloosa boasts two private homes designed in 1948-51 by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. Wright believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture...

. Typical of his Usonian homes, these include the Carroll Alsop House
Carroll Alsop House
Carroll Alsop House, also known as Mitchell House, is a Frank Lloyd Wright designed Usonian home that was constructed in Oskaloosa, Iowa in 1948. This house is an L-plan, unless you count the carport, which makes it a T-plan.-References:...

 at 1907 A Street, and the Jack Lamberson House
Jack Lamberson House
The Jack Lamberson House, also known as Robert McCormick House, is a Frank Lloyd Wright-designed Usonian home that was constructed in Oskaloosa, Iowa in 1948.-References:...

 at 511 North Park Avenue.

Oskaloosa hosted the Iowa State Fair
Iowa State Fair
The Iowa State Fair is an annual state fair held in Des Moines, Iowa.The 2011 Iowa State Fair was held August 11–21 and marked 100 years of the butter cow sculpture.-History:...

 prior to the Civil War in 1858 and 1859.

In 1934, Oskaloosa became the first city in the United States to fingerprint all of its citizens, including children.

The city is mentioned in country and western singer Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
John R. "Johnny" Cash was an American singer-songwriter, actor, and author, who has been called one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century...

's song "I've been everywhere".

Municipal Band & Historic Bandstand

The first settlers in the area brought along their instruments and the universal, deep love of music. That led to the organization of a band in 1864. In 1880 the band was called the K. T. Band (for Knight Templars). It was about 1882 when a double-deck bandstand was erected in the center of the city park. The band started playing in the city park when it was just a field. The construction of a brick walk through the park was done with money obtained from a local talent minstrel show. In 1886 the K. T. Band went to St. Louis for their national conclave and was a tremendous hit. That marked the beginning of the band's prominence in the Midwest.

It was the genius of Charles L. Barnhouse that developed the band “atmosphere” from the time he came to Oskaloosa in 1891. He exerted a creative influence to build up a musical organization that would become the pride of the city. His band grew to statewide acclaim, becoming the official band of the Iowa State Fair for four years. In 1904 the band became even more well known when it played at the National K.P. encampment in Louisville, Kentucky, and stopped off en route, by invitation, to play at the World's Fair in St. Louis. In the ensuing years the band became popular throughout Iowa and other states.

In 1907 and 1908 Oskaloosa had two bands playing concerts – the Iowa Brigade Band and LaRue's Band. The merchants on High Avenue West employed their own band to compete with the Iowa Brigade Band in the park on Saturday evenings.

In 1911 the citizens decided to beautify the city and they voted to fund improvements for the city park. The citizens recommended that a new bandstand be erected in the center of the park. The old double deck frame bandstand was moved to one side to be used while the new bandstand was being built. The first concert in the new bandstand was played on June 1, 1912, and the bandstand was dedicated on July 25, 1912.

Notable people

  • Steve Bell
    Steve Bell (anchorman)
    Steve Bell is the former news anchor of ABC News programs "Good Morning America" and "World News This Morning", and professor emeritus of telecommunications at Muncie's Ball State University....

    , former ABC News
    ABC News
    ABC News is the news gathering and broadcasting division of American broadcast television network ABC, a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company...

  • Patrick O'Bryant
    Patrick O'Bryant
    Patrick Fitzgerald O'Bryant is an American professional basketball player who currently plays for Kavala B.C. in Greece. The , center was selected out of Bradley University by the Golden State Warriors with the 9th overall pick in the 2006 NBA Draft...

    , National Basketball Association
    National Basketball Association
    The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

  • Marsena E. Cutts
    Marsena E. Cutts
    Marsena Edgar Cutts was a nineteenth century politician, lawyer and teacher from Iowa.Born in Orwell, Vermont, Cutts attended common schools in his native village and later attended St. Lawrence Academy in Potsdam, New York. He moved to Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin in 1853 where he taught school for...

    , Iowa politician
  • Harry Hamilton Laughlin, executive
  • Charles Brookins
    Charles Brookins
    Charles Robert Brookins was an American track and field athlete who competed in the 1924 Summer Olympics.He was born in Oskaloosa, Iowa and died in Des Moines, Iowa....

    , track and field athlete
  • Arthur Russell (musician), modern music composer
  • Tyler Sash
    Tyler Sash
    Tyler Sash is an American football safety for the New York Giants of the National Football League. He was drafted by the Giants in the sixth round of the 2011 NFL Draft. He played college football at the University of Iowa.-College career:...

    , defensive back
    Defensive back
    In American football and Canadian football, defensive backs are the players on the defensive team who take positions somewhat back from the line of scrimmage; they are distinguished from the defensive line players and linebackers, who take positions directly behind or close to the line of...

     for the Iowa Hawkeyes
    Iowa Hawkeyes
    The Iowa Hawkeyes are the athletics teams that represent the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa, United States. The Hawkeyes have varsity teams in 24 sports, 11 for men and 13 for women. The teams participate in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and are members of the...

     football team
  • Cecil W. Stoughton
    Cecil W. Stoughton
    Cecil William Stoughton was an American photographer. Born in Oskaloosa, Iowa, Stoughton is best known for being President John F. Kennedy's photographer during his White House years....

    , Kennedy
    John F. Kennedy
    John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy , often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963....

     presidential photographer
  • Al Swearengen
    Al Swearengen
    Ellis Albert "Al" Swearengen was a pimp and early entertainment entrepreneur in Deadwood, South Dakota, running the Gem Theater, a notorious brothel, for 22 years, and combining a reputation for brutality with an uncanny instinct for forging political alliances.Swearengen and his twin brother,...

    , proprietor of the Gem Saloon in Deadwood, SD 1877-1899 (featured in HBO Series Deadwood)
  • Thomas Eugene Watson USMC Lieutenant General
    Lieutenant General
    Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a Captain General....

  • Roscoe B. Woodruff
    Roscoe B. Woodruff
    Roscoe Barnett Woodruff was a career U.S. Army officer who served in World War I and as a combat division and corps commander in both European and Pacific theaters of World War II.-Education and early career:...

    , United States Army
    United States Army
    The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

     general of World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

  • Alfred Balk
    Alfred Balk
    Alfred Balk was an American magazine writer/editor and journalist-book author, dedicated to media-improvement activities....

    , magazine editor
  • Tip Lamberson
    Tip Lamberson
    Nathaniel "Tip" Lamberson , also known as N.D. Lamberson, was one of the premier American flute makers. Tip made a total of 730 flutes from 1968 to 1985, when he officially retired from the flute-making industry.- Biography :...

    , flute maker
  • Bill S. Ballinger
    Bill S. Ballinger
    Bill S. Ballinger was a prolific American author and screenwriter...

    , author
    An author is broadly defined as "the person who originates or gives existence to anything" and that authorship determines responsibility for what is created. Narrowly defined, an author is the originator of any written work.-Legal significance:...

     and screenwriter
    Screenwriters or scriptwriters or scenario writers are people who write/create the short or feature-length screenplays from which mass media such as films, television programs, Comics or video games are based.-Profession:...

  • Chester Conklin
    Chester Conklin
    Chester Cooper Conklin was an American comedian and actor. He appeared in over 280 films, about half of them in the silent era.-Early life:...

    , comedian
    A comedian or comic is a person who seeks to entertain an audience, primarily by making them laugh. This might be through jokes or amusing situations, or acting a fool, as in slapstick, or employing prop comedy...

     and actor
    An actor is a person who acts in a dramatic production and who works in film, television, theatre, or radio in that capacity...

  • Dulah Marie Evans
    Dulah Marie Evans
    Dulah Marie Evans, later Dulah Marie Evans Krehbiel was an American painter, photographer, printmaker, illustrator, and etcher.-Education:...

    , painter
    Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...

    , photographer, print maker, illustrator
    An Illustrator is a narrative artist who specializes in enhancing writing by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text...

    , etcher.
  • Cliff Knox
    Cliff Knox
    Clifford Hiram Knox was a professional baseball player. He was a catcher for one season with the Pittsburgh Pirates. For his career, he compiled a .222 batting average in 18 at-bats, with two runs batted in....

    , Major League Baseball
    Major League Baseball
    Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

  • Max Bennett
    Max Bennett (musician)
    Max Bennett is an American jazz bassist and session musician.Bennett grew up in Kansas City and Oskaloosa, Iowa, and went to college in Iowa. His first professional gig was with Herbie Fields in 1949, and following this he played with Georgie Auld, Terry Gibbs, and Charlie Ventura...

    , jazz
    Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th...

    A musician is an artist who plays a musical instrument. It may or may not be the person's profession. Musicians can be classified by their roles in performing music and writing music.Also....* A person who makes music a profession....

  • Frank Friday Fletcher
    Frank Friday Fletcher
    Frank Friday Fletcher was an United States Navy admiral who served in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He was awarded the U.S. military's highest decoration, the Medal of Honor, for his actions as commander of Navy forces at the Battle of Veracruz, Mexico.-Biography:Fletcher was born on...

     United States Navy
    United States Navy
    The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

     Admiral, Medal of Honor
    Medal of Honor
    The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. It is bestowed by the President, in the name of Congress, upon members of the United States Armed Forces who distinguish themselves through "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his or her...

     winner and namesake of the Fletcher class destroyer
    Fletcher class destroyer
    The Fletcher class were a class of destroyers built by the United States during World War II. The class was designed in 1939 as a result of dissatisfaction with the earlier destroyer leader types...


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