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Cultural policies of the European Union

Cultural policies of the European Union

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European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 culture policies
aim to address and promote the cultural dimension of European integration
European integration
European integration is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic integration of states wholly or partially in Europe...

 through relevant legislation and government funding. These policies support the development of cultural activity, education or research conducted by private companies, NGO's and individual initiatives based in the EU working in the fields of cinema
Film
A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects...

 and audiovisual, publishing
Publishing
Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature or information—the activity of making information available to the general public...

, music
Music
Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch , rhythm , dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture...

 and crafts.

The EU Commission runs Culture Programme (2007-2013), and the EU funds other cultural bodies such as the European Cultural Month
European Cultural Month
European Cultural Month is an event created by the European Union to promote culture. It is similar to the European City of Culture, but lasting for a shorter time and intended mainly for the Central and Eastern European countries. It was launched in 1990....

, the Media Programme, the European Union Youth Orchestra
European Union Youth Orchestra
The European Union Youth Orchestra is a training orchestra for young people in the European Union. It is funded centrally by the European Union and by a number of EU member states...

 and the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by theEuropean Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong European dimension....

 programme.

The EU awards grants to cultural projects (233 in 2004) and has launched a web portal dedicated to Europe and Culture, responding to the European Council's expressed desire to see the Commission and the member states "promote the networking of cultural information to enable all citizens to access European cultural content by advanced technological means."

History and development


The Council of Europe
Council of Europe
The Council of Europe is an international organisation promoting co-operation between all countries of Europe in the areas of legal standards, human rights, democratic development, the rule of law and cultural co-operation...

, which is distinct from the European Union (EU), first formalised cultural cooperation policy in Europe with its European Cultural Convention
Cultural convention
-The legal term Cultural Convention:The European Cultural Convention is an international treaty opened for signature by the Council of Europe in Paris on 19 December 1954. Its signature is one of the conditions for becoming a participating state in the Bologna Process and its European Higher...

.

However, specific EU policy on cultural cooperation began between member states since its inclusion in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty
Maastricht Treaty
The Maastricht Treaty was signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty...

.

Structure and strategies adopted


A cultural contact point (CCP) is set up in each EU member state, and is responsible for aiding communication between the European Commission
European Commission
The European Commission is the executive body of the European Union. The body is responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union's treaties and the general day-to-day running of the Union....

's Cultural Programme and member state.

Institutions and bodies


The most important EU institutions through which decisions area made regarding cultural policies are:
  • the European Commission acting in the areas of culture, sport and languages,
  • the Committee on Culture and Education
    Committee on Culture and Education
    The Committee on Culture and Education is a committee of the European Parliament.- Responsibilities of the Committee :This committee has focused on the well-being of all members of the human race and the increased opportunities for education in all countries of the European Union...

     of the European Parliament
    European Parliament
    The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union . Together with the Council of the European Union and the Commission, it exercises the legislative function of the EU and it has been described as one of the most powerful legislatures in the world...

    ,
  • the Education, Youth and Culture sector of the Council of the European Union
    Council of the European Union
    The Council of the European Union is the institution in the legislature of the European Union representing the executives of member states, the other legislative body being the European Parliament. The Council is composed of twenty-seven national ministers...

    ,
  • and the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency
    Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency
    The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency is an agency of the European Union, established on January 1, 2006, to manage parts of the Union's programs in education, culture, and audiovisual fields. It is part of the European Commission....

     of the European Commission.

List of institutions and bodies


The EU promotes cultural development through numerous institutions such as:
  • European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth
  • Directorate-General for Education and Culture
  • European Commission
    European Commission
    The European Commission is the executive body of the European Union. The body is responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union's treaties and the general day-to-day running of the Union....

  • Committee on Culture and Education
    Committee on Culture and Education
    The Committee on Culture and Education is a committee of the European Parliament.- Responsibilities of the Committee :This committee has focused on the well-being of all members of the human race and the increased opportunities for education in all countries of the European Union...

  • Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency
    Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency
    The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency is an agency of the European Union, established on January 1, 2006, to manage parts of the Union's programs in education, culture, and audiovisual fields. It is part of the European Commission....

  • European Union Youth Orchestra
    European Union Youth Orchestra
    The European Union Youth Orchestra is a training orchestra for young people in the European Union. It is funded centrally by the European Union and by a number of EU member states...

  • European Institute of Cultural Routes
    European Institute of Cultural Routes
    The European Institute of Cultural Routes is a non-profit association based in Luxembourg whose aim is to help the Council of Europe, as a technical body, in the establishment of European Cultural Routes.It was established in 1998 and its role is:...

  • Euranet
    Euranet
    Euranet, the European Radio Network, is an amalgamation of 18 international, national, regional and local European broadcasters, making up a pan-European media consortium...

  • Europa Nostra
    Europa Nostra
    Europa Nostra, the pan-European Federation for Cultural Heritage, is the representative platform of 250 heritage NGOs active in 45 countries across Europe...

  • European Network of Information Centres
    European Network of Information Centres
    The European Network of Information Centres were established as a join initiative of UNESCO and the Council of Europe. They are intended to implement the Lisbon recognition convention and, in general, to develop policy and practice for the recognition of qualifications...

  • European Audiovisual Observatory
    European Audiovisual Observatory
    The European Audiovisual Observatory was set up by the Council of Europe as a Partial Agreement. Its legal basis is Resolution 70 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, 15 December 1992...

  • European Film Promotion
    European Film Promotion
    European Film Promotion is an organisation which works for the worldwide promotion and marketing of European cinema. The EFP network incorporates 31 national promotion organisations from 32 European countries.-Activities:EFP's major objectives are:...

  • Europa Cinemas
  • Union of the Theatres of Europe
    Union of the Theatres of Europe
    The Union of the Theatres of Europe is an alliance of European public theatres. It serves to promote European integration through cultural interaction....

  • European Union National Institutes for Culture
    European Union National Institutes for Culture
    The European Union National Institutes for Culture, , is a network of national institutes for culture, engaged beyond their national borders and operating with a degree of autonomy from their governments. The EUNIC membership currently includes organisations from 25 EU countries...

  • European League of Institutes of the Arts
    European League of Institutes of the Arts
    The European League of Institutes of the Arts is an independent membership organization representing approximately 350 higher arts education institutions in 45 countries. It was founded in 1990 to represent, advocate and promote higher arts education and to create platforms of discussion and...


List of programmes


The EU promotes cultural development through numerous programmes such as:
  • MEDIA Programme
  • European Capital of Culture
    European Capital of Culture
    The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by theEuropean Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong European dimension....

  • European Cultural Route
    European Cultural Route
    A European Cultural Route is a title awarded to cultural routes recognised as significant throughout Europe by the Council of Europe. The European Institute of Cultural Routes is the body established to help the Council of Europe co-ordinate the development of these routes...

  • Culture 2000
    Culture 2000
    Culture 2000 was a 7-year European Union programme, which had among its key objectives to preserve and enhance Europe's cultural heritage. Its duration was between 2000 and 2006, and it had a budget of €236.5 million....

  • European Cultural Month
    European Cultural Month
    European Cultural Month is an event created by the European Union to promote culture. It is similar to the European City of Culture, but lasting for a shorter time and intended mainly for the Central and Eastern European countries. It was launched in 1990....

  • Erasmus Programme
    Erasmus Programme
    The Erasmus Programme , a.k.a. Erasmus Project is a European Union student exchange programme established in 1987...

  • Erasmus Mundus
    Erasmus Mundus
    The European Union's Erasmus Mundus programme aims to enhance quality in higher educationthrough scholarships and academic co-operation between Europe and the rest of the world.Erasmus Mundus comprises three Actions:-Erasmus Mundus Joint Programmes:...

  • European Heritage Days
    European Heritage Days
    European Heritage Days is a joint action of the Council of Europe and the European Commission involving all 50 signatory states of the European Cultural Convention under the motto, Europe: a common heritage. The annual programme offers opportunities to visit buildings, monuments and sites, many of...

  • Europa coin programme
  • Modul-dance
  • Video Active
  • Protected areas of the European Union
    Protected areas of the European Union
    Protected areas of the European Union are areas which need and/or receive special protection because of their environmental, cultural or historical value to the member states of the European Union.*NATURA 2000*Special Area of Conservation...

  • Europeana
    Europeana
    Europeana.eu is an internet portal that acts as an interface to millions of books, paintings, films, museum objects and archival records that have been digitised throughout Europe...

  • EUscreen
  • European Library
    European Library
    The European Library is an Internet service that allows access to the resources of 48 European national libraries. Searching is free and delivers metadata records as well as digital objects...


List of awards


The EU promotes cultural development through the policy of awards:
  • European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture
    European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture
    The European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture or Mies van der Rohe award is a prize given biennially by the European Union and the Fundació Mies van der Rohe, Barcelona, 'to acknowledge and reward quality architectural production in Europe'...

  • Civis media prize
    CIVIS media prize
    With the Civis Europe's media prize for integration, programme performances in radio and television will be honoured which are particularly suitable for the promotion of peaceful coexistence within the European immigration community....

  • Lux Prize
    Lux Prize
    The European Parliament LUX Prize, introduced in 2007, is a prize given to a competing film by the European Parliament. It is named after the unit of illuminance, "lux", which is Latin for "light"...

  • European Border Breakers Award
    European Border Breakers Award
    -Organization:The EBBA Awards were launched by the European Commission and are a European Union award. Selection and the award ceremony of the EBBA Awards are organized by Noorderslag Foundation, which has the mission to encourage the circulation of European pop music.-Partners:*European...

  • European Union Prize for Literature
    European Union Prize for Literature
    European Union Prize for Literature is a European Union literary award. The award is funded and founded by the Culture Programme of the European Union, and is coordinated by a Consortium, selected by a Commission. The Consortium is composed of the European Booksellers Federation, the European...

  • Europe Book Prize
    Europe Book Prize
    The European Book Prize is a European Union literary award established in 2007, organized by the association Esprit d'Europe. It seeks to promote European values, and to contribute to European citizens' better understanding of the European Union as a cultural entity. Eligible books must have been...

  • Aristeion Prize
    Aristeion Prize
    The Aristeion Prize is a European prize, awarded for significant contributions to contemporary literature, and exceptional translations of contemporary literature. The prize is awarded in a different Capital of Culture each year...

  • European IST Grand Prize
    European IST Grand Prize
    The European Information Society Technologies Prize is the most distinguished award for groundbreaking products that represent the best of European innovation in Information Society Technologies...

  • European Inventor of the Year
  • Young European of the Year

List of non-EU cultural institutions, bodies and programmes


The following is a list of European institutions, bodies and programmes which may be thought to be related to the EU/EU policy, but are not:
  • Arte
    Arte
    Arte is a Franco-German TV network. It is a European culture channel and aims to promote quality programming especially in areas of culture and the arts...

  • Council of Europe
    Council of Europe
    The Council of Europe is an international organisation promoting co-operation between all countries of Europe in the areas of legal standards, human rights, democratic development, the rule of law and cultural co-operation...

  • Compendium of cultural policies and trends in Europe
    Compendium of cultural policies and trends in Europe
    The Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe is a web-based and permanently updated information and monitoring system of national cultural policies in Europe, available at: http://www.culturalpolicies.net....

  • European Film Academy
    European Film Academy
    The European Film Academy is an initiative of a group of European filmmakers who came together in Berlin on the occasion of the first presentation of the European Film Awards in November 1988.- European Film Academy :...

  • Eurocities
    Eurocities
    EUROCITIES is the network of major European cities.The EUROCITIES network was founded in 1986 by mayors from six large European cities:* Barcelona, Spain* Birmingham, United Kingdom* Frankfurt, Germany* Lyon, France* Milan, Italy* Rotterdam, Netherlands...

  • European Cultural Foundation
    European Cultural Foundation
    The European Cultural Foundation is an independent foundation based in the Netherlands that has been operating across Europe for nearly 60 years. The ECF supports arts and culture in Europe via its activities, programmes, grants and online platforms...

  • Europalia
    Europalia
    Europalia is a major international arts festival held every two years to celebrate one invited country’s cultural heritage. Europalia was established in Brussels in 1969, and from the beginning Europalia was designed to be a multidisciplinary cultural festival....

  • University Network of the European Capitals of Culture
    University Network of the European Capitals of Culture
    The University Network of the European Capitals of Culture, an international non-profit association, was founded upon the initiative of the in Pécs, Hungary in December 2006 by 15 founding members....

  • European Dancehouse Network
  • EUROFRAME
    EUROFRAME
    EUROFRAME is a coalition of ten independent European research institutes. Founded in 1998, it cooperates on macroeconomic forecasting and other analyses to provide improved policy recommendations for the European Union and their respective nations/clients....

  • European Broadcasting Union
    European Broadcasting Union
    The European Broadcasting Union is a confederation of 74 broadcasting organisations from 56 countries, and 49 associate broadcasters from a further 25...

  • European Museum Forum
    European Museum Forum
    The European Museum Forum is a museum organization under the Council of Europe. It is an independent, non-profit-making charity, registered in the United Kingdom and founded in 1977....


Arts and Culture


The European Commission
European Commission
The European Commission is the executive body of the European Union. The body is responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union's treaties and the general day-to-day running of the Union....

 runs the EU's Culture Programme, which typically runs in 7 year intervals. The last Culture Programme was called Culture 2000
Culture 2000
Culture 2000 was a 7-year European Union programme, which had among its key objectives to preserve and enhance Europe's cultural heritage. Its duration was between 2000 and 2006, and it had a budget of €236.5 million....

. The current Culture Programme (2007-2013) will spend €400 million.

Sports



Sport is largely the domain of the member states, with the EU mostly playing an indirect role. Recently the EU launched an anti-doping convention. The role of the EU might increase in the future, if (for example) the Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon
The Treaty of Lisbon of 1668 was a peace treaty between Portugal and Spain, concluded at Lisbon on 13 February 1668, through the mediation of England, in which Spain recognized the sovereignty of Portugal's new ruling dynasty, the House of Braganza....

 were to be ratified by all member states. Other policies of the EU have had an impact on sports, such as the freedom of employment which was at the core of the Bosman ruling
Bosman ruling
Union Royale Belge des Sociétés de Football Association ASBL v Jean-Marc Bosman is a 1995 European Court of Justice decision concerning freedom of movement for workers, freedom of association, and direct effect of article 39 of the EC Treaty...

, which prohibited national football leagues from imposing quotas on foreign players with EU nationality.

Languages


The languages of the European Union are language
Language
Language may refer either to the specifically human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, or to a specific instance of such a system of complex communication...

s used by people within the member states of the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

. They include the 23 official languages of the European Union plus many others. EU policy is to encourage all its citizens to be multilingual; specifically, it encourages them to be able to speak two languages in addition to their mother tongue. The reason for this is not only to promote easier communication between Europeans, but also to encourage greater tolerance and respect for diversity. A number of EU funding programmes actively promote language learning and linguistic diversity. The content of educational systems remains the responsibility of individual Member States. Further information can be found at Language Policy.

Economic development


Expansion of the European Union


See also

  • Cultural policy
    Cultural policy
    Cultural Policy is the area of public policy-making that governs activities related to the arts and culture. Generally, this involves fostering processes, legal classifications and institutions which promote cultural diversity and accessibility, as well as enhancing and promulgating the artistic,...

  • Culture of Europe
    Culture of Europe
    The culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures. Whether it is a question of North as opposed to South; West as opposed to East; Orthodoxism as opposed to Protestantism as opposed to Catholicism as opposed to Secularism; many have claimed to identify cultural...

  • Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013
  • Religion in the European Union
    Religion in the European Union
    The most common religion in the European Union is Christianity, although many other religions are practiced as well. The European Union is officially secular, though some member states have state churches: these are Malta , Greece , Denmark , and part of the United Kingdom - England...

  • Bologna Process
    Bologna process
    The purpose of the Bologna Process is the creation of the European Higher Education Area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe, in particular under the Lisbon Recognition Convention...

  • Europeanisation
    Europeanisation
    Europeanisation refers to a number of related phenomena and patterns of change:*The process in which a notionally non-European subject adopts a number of European features...

  • Educational policies and initiatives of the European Union
  • European Communities
    European Communities
    The European Communities were three international organisations that were governed by the same set of institutions...

  • Trans-cultural diffusion
  • Greater Region
    Greater Region
    The Greater Region is a term used to describe the area of Saarland, Lorraine, Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Wallonia, the French Community of Belgium and the German-speaking Community of Belgium. It is not identical with the SaarLorLux Euregio, being in the same territory.It is situated between...


External links