Treaty of Lisbon

Treaty of Lisbon

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The Treaty of Lisbon of 1668 was a peace treaty between Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 and Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, concluded at Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon is the capital city and largest city of Portugal with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of , making it the 9th most populous urban...

 on 13 February 1668, through the mediation of England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, in which Spain recognized the sovereignty of Portugal's new ruling dynasty, the House of Braganza
House of Braganza
The Most Serene House of Braganza , an important Portuguese noble family, ruled the Kingdom of Portugal and its colonial Empire, from 1640 to 1910...

.

The principals


The regent of Spain, queen Mariana of Austria
Mariana of Austria
Mariana of Austria was Queen consort of Spain as the second wife of King Philip IV, who was also her maternal uncle...

, second wife of the late King Philip IV
Philip IV of Spain
Philip IV was King of Spain between 1621 and 1665, sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands, and King of Portugal until 1640...

, acting in the name of her young son Carlos II, oversaw the negotiation on behalf of Spain. The prince-regent of Portugal, Pedro, future king Peter II of Portugal, in the name of his incapacitated brother, Afonso VI, represented Portugal. The peace was mediated by Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich
Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich
Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, KG was an English Infantry officer who later became a naval officer. He was the only surviving son of Sir Sidney Montagu, and was brought up at Hinchingbrooke House....

, an ambassador of Charles II of England
Charles II of England
Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

.

Circumstances of the Portuguese Restoration War


By 1640, the Habsburg
Habsburg
The House of Habsburg , also found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and...

 king, Philip IV of Spain
Philip IV of Spain
Philip IV was King of Spain between 1621 and 1665, sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands, and King of Portugal until 1640...

 (Philip III of Portugal), could no longer count on the trust, support, or loyalty of most Portuguese nobles. The country was overtaxed and Portuguese colonies had been left unprotected. Portugal, like many of Philip’s domains, was on the verge of open rebellion.

After sixty years of living under the rule of Spanish kings, a small band of conspirators in Lisbon rebelled and the Duke of Braganza
Duke of Braganza
The title Duke of Braganza in the House of Braganza is one of the most important titles in the peerage of Portugal. Since the House of Braganza acceded to the throne of Portugal in 1640, the male heir of the Portuguese Crown was known as the Duke of Braganza and Prince of Brazil until 1822, or...

 was acclaimed king of Portugal as John IV
John IV of Portugal
|-|John IV was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 1640 to his death. He was the grandson of Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, who had in 1580 claimed the Portuguese crown and sparked the struggle for the throne of Portugal. John was nicknamed John the Restorer...

 on 1 December 1640, taking advantage of a simultaneous revolt in Catalonia
Catalonia
Catalonia is an autonomous community in northeastern Spain, with the official status of a "nationality" of Spain. Catalonia comprises four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. Its capital and largest city is Barcelona. Catalonia covers an area of 32,114 km² and has an...

 and Spain’s continuing conflict with France. This began the 28-year-long Portuguese Restoration War
Portuguese Restoration War
Portuguese Restoration War was the name given by nineteenth-century 'romantic' historians to the war between Portugal and Spain that began with the Portuguese revolution of 1640 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon . The revolution of 1640 ended the sixty-year period of dual monarchy in Portugal...

.

In the beginning, Portugal lost many of its colonial possessions to the opportunistic Dutch. Portugal's military strength was reserved for protecting its own frontiers against Spanish incursions; however, after 1648, with the end of the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

, these misfortunes began to reverse. Portugal regained its colonies in Angola
Angola
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola , is a country in south-central Africa bordered by Namibia on the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the north, and Zambia on the east; its west coast is on the Atlantic Ocean with Luanda as its capital city...

, São Tomé
São Tomé
-Transport:São Tomé is served by São Tomé International Airport with regular flights to Europe and other African Countries.-Climate:São Tomé features a tropical wet and dry climate with a relatively lengthy wet season and a short dry season. The wet season runs from October through May while the...

, and Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 by 1654.

In 1652, Catalonia’s rebellion against Spain
Catalan Revolt
The Catalan Revolt affected a large part of the Catalan Principality of Catalonia between the years of 1640 and 1659. It had an enduring effect in the Treaty of the Pyrenees , which ceded the county of Roussillon and the northern half of the county of Cerdanya to France , thereby splitting the...

 collapsed, and, in 1659, Spain ended its war with France, so there were grounds for Spanish optimism in the struggle to regain control over Portugal. Yet Portugal could draw on the wealth of Brazil and the aid of (first) France and (then) England, while Spain’s finances were perpetually in crisis.

A series of successes by the Portuguese made it clear that the Iberian Peninsula would not be reunited under Spanish rule
Iberian Union
The Iberian union was a political unit that governed all of the Iberian Peninsula south of the Pyrenees from 1580–1640, through a dynastic union between the monarchies of Portugal and Spain after the War of the Portuguese Succession...

. The first of these took place on 8 June 1663, when the count of Vila Flor
Sancho Manoel de Vilhena
Sancho Manoel de Vilhena, 1st Count of Vila Flor , was a remarkable Portuguese aristocrat and military leader, of royal background....

, Sancho Manoel de Vilhena, with Marshal Schomberg by his side, utterly defeated John of Austria the Younger
John of Austria the Younger
John of Austria was a Spanish general and political figure. He was the only natural son of Philip IV of Spain to be acknowledged by the King and trained for military command and political administration...

, an illegitimate son of Philip IV, at the Battle of Ameixial
Battle of Ameixial
The Battle of Ameixial, was fought on June 8, 1663, near the village of Santa Vitória do Ameixial, some 10 km north-west of Estremoz, between Spanish and Portuguese as part of the Portuguese Restoration War....

, before retaking Évora
Évora
Évora is a municipality in Portugal. It has total area of with a population of 55,619 inhabitants. It is the seat of the Évora District and capital of the Alentejo region. The municipality is composed of 19 civil parishes, and is located in Évora District....

, which had been captured earlier that year. One year later, on 7 July 1664, Pedro Jacques de Magalhães, a local military leader, defeated the Duke of Osuna
Gaspar Téllez-Girón, 5th Duke de Osuna
Gaspar Téllez-Girón, 5th Duke de Osuna , 5th Marquess of Peñafiel, 9th Count of Ureña and other lesser titles, was a Spanish general and a Grandee of Spain, title bestowed by king Philip II of Spain on 5 February 1562 when Pedro Téllez-Girón y de la Cueva, 5th Count of Ureña, a.k.a...

 at Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo is a small cathedral city in the province of Salamanca, in western Spain, with a population of about 14,000. It is the seat of a judicial district as well....

 in the Salamanca province of Spain. And finally, on 17 June 1665, the marquis of Marialva and Schomberg destroyed a Spanish army under the marquis of Caracena
Luis de Benavides Carrillo, Marquis of Caracena
Luis Francisco de Benavides Carrillo de Toledo, Marquis of Caracena, Marquis of Fromista was a Spanish general and political figure...

 at the Battle of Montes Claros
Battle of Montes Claros
The Battle of Montes Claros, was fought on June 17, 1665, near Vila Viçosa, between Spanish and Portuguese as the last battle in the Portuguese Restoration War....

, followed by defeat at Vila Viçosa
Vila Viçosa
Vila Viçosa is a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 195.0 km² and a total population of 8,745 inhabitants.The municipality is composed of 5 parishes, and is located in the District of Évora....

.

The Spaniards failed to gain any compensating advantage. Three years later, in 1668, desperate to reduce its military commitments, at almost any price, Spain accepted the loss of the Crown of Portugal and formally recognized the sovereignty of the House of Braganza by signing the Treaty of Lisbon.

Treaty terms


The fundamental terms of the treaty were:
  • The Spanish Habsburgs finally recognized the legitimacy of the Braganza dynasty in Portugal. Infanta Catarina, Duchess of Braganza (1540–1614), former Duchess of Braganza and grandmother of João IV of Portugal, was retrospectively acknowledged as a legitimate heir to the throne.

  • Portuguese sovereignty over its colonial possessions was reconfirmed, except for the African exclave of Ceuta
    Ceuta
    Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

    , who did not recognized the House of Braganza as the new ruling dynasty.

  • Agreements on the exchange of prisoners, reparations, and the restoration of commercial relations were reached.

  • Portugal ceded the african city of Ceuta
    Ceuta
    Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

     to Spain. Seven years earlier, the nearby city of Tangiers had been awarded to Charles II of England as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza
    Catherine of Braganza
    Catherine of Braganza was a Portuguese infanta and queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland as the wife of King Charles II.She married the king in 1662...

    ; this was stipulated in the Treaty of Lisbon of 1661.

Practical consequences


The Treaty of Lisbon of 1668 had advantages for both countries. Spain, relieved to be ending a financially ruinous war, was quite pliant in the negotiations. As for Portugal, it was now able to pursue the peaceful possession of its overseas colonies. Portugal's finances were, quite possibly, in even more precarious shape than Spain's; it was saddled with huge debts related to Catherine of Braganza's dowry (two million gold florins) and to the settlement of issues related to the Netherlands and contention over the colonies in Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 and Ceylon (eight million guilders). So, the expenses related to fighting Spain cut Portugal very close to the bone. Most importantly for Portugal, it gained the grim satisfaction of seeing its sovereignty recognized by those who had denied it to them.Despite regaining its independence, however, Portugal remained under English hegemony for many more years.

Aftermath


After 1668, Portugal, determined to differentiate itself from Spain, turned to Western Europe, particularly France and England, for new ideas and skills. This was part of a gradual "de-Iberianization", as Portugal consolidated its cultural and political independence from Spain. Portuguese nationalism, aroused by success on the battlefield, produced hostile reactions to Spain and to Spanish things and persons. By this time, Portuguese society was composed of two basic elements: those who participated in the gradual Europeanization process, the “political nation,” and those who remained largely unchanged, the majority of the people, who remained apolitical and passive.

Portugal’s restoration of independence freed it to pursue the course mapped out by the pioneers of commercial imperialism. During the seventeenth century, its economy depended largely upon entrepôt
Entrepôt
An entrepôt is a trading post where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties, often at a profit. This profit is possible because of trade conditions, for example, the reluctance of ships to travel the entire length of a long trading route, and selling to the entrepôt...

trade in tobacco and sugar, and the export of salt. During the eighteenth century, even though staples were not abandoned, the Portuguese economy came to be based more upon slaves, gold, leather, and wine. Portuguese trade, centered in the busy port of Lisbon, was most influenced by Anglo-Dutch capitalism and by the colonial economy in Brazil.