Consularis is a Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 word, derived from consulo, "take counsel".

Roman history

Originally it was simple and adjective meaning "consular", but more interestingly it has also become a substantive, used in technical meanings.
  • Any former consul
    Consul was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire. The title was also used in other city states and also revived in modern states, notably in the First French Republic...

    . This is worth mentioning, for it is a traditional qualification (in many case, prerequisite) for various appointments.
  • During the Dominate
    The Dominate was the "despotic" latter phase of government in the ancient Roman Empire from the conclusion of the Third Century Crisis of 235–284 until the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. It followed the period known as the Principate...

     (late imperial period
    Roman Empire
    The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

    ), Consularis was specifically used as one of the more frequently used titles for the Roman governor
    Roman governor
    A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Roman Empire...

     (the generic term was Rector provinciae) of an "eparchy
    Eparchy is an anglicized Greek word , authentically Latinized as eparchia and loosely translating as 'rule over something,' like province, prefecture, or territory, to have the jurisdiction over, it has specific meanings both in politics, history and in the hierarchy of the Eastern Christian...

    " (province).

According to the Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
The Notitia Dignitatum is a unique document of the Roman imperial chanceries. One of the very few surviving documents of Roman government, it details the administrative organisation of the eastern and western empires, listing several thousand offices from the imperial court down to the provincial...

(circa 400), the following provinces were administered by a Consularis, in the following diocese
A diocese is the district or see under the supervision of a bishop. It is divided into parishes.An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese. An archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or had importance due to size or historical significance...

  • in fifteen provinces in the eastern empire
    Byzantine Empire
    The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

    • five in the diocese Oriens: Palaestina, Foenicia, Syria, Cilicia
      In antiquity, Cilicia was the south coastal region of Asia Minor, south of the central Anatolian plateau. It existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Byzantine empire...

       and Cyprus
      Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

    • three in the diocese Asiana: Pamfylia, Hellespontus and Lydia
      Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern Turkish provinces of Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian....

    • two in the Pontic diocese: Galatia
      Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia in modern Turkey. Galatia was named for the immigrant Gauls from Thrace , who settled here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC. It has been called the "Gallia" of...

       and Bithynia
      Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine .-Description:...

    • two in Thraciae: Europa and Thracia
      Thracia is a Web-Based computer game created and developed by an exclusively Romanian team, part of Infotrend Consulting, and launched in 2009. At the time, it was the first endeavor of its kind. All browser games were text based, made up mostly of static content...

    • three in Illyricum: Creta (Crete), Macedon
      Macedonia or Macedon was an ancient kingdom, centered in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, bordered by Epirus to the west, Paeonia to the north, the region of Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south....

      ia and Dacia mediterranea
      Dacia Mediterranea
      Dacia Mediterranea is a part of the former Dacia Aureliana divided by Constantine the Great.Serdica is the province capital....

    • while Egypt—sui generis, the imperial crown domain—is explicitly said to have none.
  • in twenty one provinces in the western empire:
    • one in the diocese Pannonia, itself called Pannonia
      Pannonia was an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia....

    • eight in Italiae: Venetia et Histria, Aemilia
      Aemilia can indicate several people and places in Classical history:* Aemilia , a patrician family of Ancient Rome, and the female members of this gens* Tertia Aemilia Paulla, third daughter of Lucius Aemilius Paullus, and wife of Scipio Africanus...

      , Liguria
      Liguria (Roman province)
      Liguria was a late Roman province in Italy in the 4th-6th centuries. Despite its name, it encompassed most of the modern Italian region of Piedmont and parts of Lombardy, but not the medieval and modern region Liguria, which was included in the province of Alpes Cottiae. The province's capital was...

      , Flaminia et Picenum annonarium, Tuscia et Umbria, Picenum suburbicarium, Campania and Sicilia
    • two in Africa: Byzacium and Numidia
      Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in part of present-day Eastern Algeria and Western Tunisia in North Africa. It is known today as the Chawi-land, the land of the Chawi people , the direct descendants of the historical Numidians or the Massyles The kingdom began as a sovereign state and later...

    • three in Hispaniae (half of the provinces in Spain & Portugal): Baetica, Lusitania
      Lusitania or Hispania Lusitania was an ancient Roman province including approximately all of modern Portugal south of the Douro river and part of modern Spain . It was named after the Lusitani or Lusitanian people...

      , Callaecia (greater Galicia)
    • six in Galliae: Viennensis, Lugdunensis prima, Germania prima, Germania secunda, Belgica prima and Belgica secunda
    • two in Britanniae: Maxima Caesariensis
      Maxima Caesariensis
      Maxima Caesariensis was the name of one of the four provinces of later Roman Britain . Its capital was Londinium and probably encompassed what is now south east England. Originally, its governors were of equestrian rank but by the mid fourth century they had to be of consular rank...

       and Valentia
      Valentia may refer to:*Valentia Island, off the coast of Ireland*Valentia , a province of Roman Britain*Valence, Drôme, France, known in Roman times as Valentia*Nuragus, Sardinia, Italy, known in Roman times as Valentia...


Yet the title Consularis was also used in the Dominate for a department chief, notably a Consularis aquarum ("Count of the waterworks") under the Praefectus Urbis
Praefectus urbi
The praefectus urbanus or praefectus urbi, in English the urban prefect, was prefect of the city of Rome, and later also of Constantinople. The office originated under the Roman kings, continued during the Republic and Empire, and held high importance in late Antiquity...

 of Rome.

Modern use

The Latin term consularis ("adviser") has also been adopted, notably in Dutch
Dutch language
Dutch is a West Germanic language and the native language of the majority of the population of the Netherlands, Belgium, and Suriname, the three member states of the Dutch Language Union. Most speakers live in the European Union, where it is a first language for about 23 million and a second...

, by a foundation for retired professionals (managers, consultants etc.) who help young businesses by donating some of their know-how, within the framework of a foundation called De Consularis ("de" is Dutch for the).
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