Pannonia

Pannonia

Overview
Pannonia was an ancient province of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 bounded north and east by the Danube
Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

, coterminous westward with Noricum
Noricum
Noricum, in ancient geography, was a Celtic kingdom stretching over the area of today's Austria and a part of Slovenia. It became a province of the Roman Empire...

 and upper Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, and southward with Dalmatia
Dalmatia (Roman province)
Dalmatia was an ancient Roman province. Its name is probably derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae which lived in the area of the eastern Adriatic coast in Classical antiquity....

 and upper Moesia
Moesia
Moesia was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans, along the south bank of the Danube River. It included territories of modern-day Southern Serbia , Northern Republic of Macedonia, Northern Bulgaria, Romanian Dobrudja, Southern Moldova, and Budjak .-History:In ancient...

.
Pannonia was located over the territory of the present-day western Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 eastern Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

, northern Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

, north-western Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

, Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

, western Slovakia
Slovakia
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

 and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

.


Julius Pokorny
Julius Pokorny
Julius Pokorny was an Austrian linguist and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism. He held academic posts in Austrian and German universities.-Life:...

 derived the name Pannonia from Illyrian
Illyrian languages
The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Delmatae, Pannonii, Autariates, Taulanti...

, from the Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European language
The Proto-Indo-European language is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans...

 root *pen-, "swamp, water, wet" (cf.
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Encyclopedia
Pannonia was an ancient province of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 bounded north and east by the Danube
Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

, coterminous westward with Noricum
Noricum
Noricum, in ancient geography, was a Celtic kingdom stretching over the area of today's Austria and a part of Slovenia. It became a province of the Roman Empire...

 and upper Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, and southward with Dalmatia
Dalmatia (Roman province)
Dalmatia was an ancient Roman province. Its name is probably derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae which lived in the area of the eastern Adriatic coast in Classical antiquity....

 and upper Moesia
Moesia
Moesia was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans, along the south bank of the Danube River. It included territories of modern-day Southern Serbia , Northern Republic of Macedonia, Northern Bulgaria, Romanian Dobrudja, Southern Moldova, and Budjak .-History:In ancient...

.
Pannonia was located over the territory of the present-day western Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 eastern Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

, northern Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

, north-western Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

, Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

, western Slovakia
Slovakia
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

 and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

.

Name



Julius Pokorny
Julius Pokorny
Julius Pokorny was an Austrian linguist and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism. He held academic posts in Austrian and German universities.-Life:...

 derived the name Pannonia from Illyrian
Illyrian languages
The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Delmatae, Pannonii, Autariates, Taulanti...

, from the Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European language
The Proto-Indo-European language is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans...

 root *pen-, "swamp, water, wet" (cf. English fen, "marsh"; Hindi pani, "water").

History



Its original inhabitants were the Pannonii (Pannonians), a group of Indo-European
Indo-European
Indo-European may refer to:* Indo-European languages** Aryan race, a 19th century and early 20th century term for those peoples who are the native speakers of Indo-European languages...

 tribes akin to Illyrians
Illyrians
The Illyrians were a group of tribes who inhabited part of the western Balkans in antiquity and the south-eastern coasts of the Italian peninsula...

. From the 4th century BC it was invaded by various Celtic tribes. Little is heard of Pannonia until 35 BC, when its inhabitants, allies of the Dalmatia
Dalmatia (Roman province)
Dalmatia was an ancient Roman province. Its name is probably derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae which lived in the area of the eastern Adriatic coast in Classical antiquity....

ns, were attacked by Augustus
Augustus
Augustus ;23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.The dates of his rule are contemporary dates; Augustus lived under two calendars, the Roman Republican until 45 BC, and the Julian...

, who conquered and occupied Siscia (Sisak
Sisak
Sisak is a city in central Croatia. The city's population in 2011 was 33,049, with a total of 49,699 in the administrative region and it is also the administrative centre of the Sisak-Moslavina county...

). The country was not, however, definitely subdued by the Romans until 9 BC, when it was incorporated into Illyricum
Illyricum (Roman province)
The Roman province of Illyricum or Illyris Romana or Illyris Barbara or Illyria Barbara replaced most of the region of Illyria. It stretched from the Drilon river in modern north Albania to Istria in the west and to the Sava river in the north. Salona functioned as its capital...

, the frontier of which was thus extended as far as the Danube.

In AD 6, the Pannonians, with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, engaged in the so-called Great Illyrian Revolt
Great Illyrian revolt
The Great Illyrian Revolt, was a major conflict between an alliance of indigenous communities from Illyricum and Roman forces that lasted for four years beginning in AD 6 and ending in AD 9.-The war:...

, and were overcome by Tiberius
Tiberius
Tiberius , was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian...

 and Germanicus
Germanicus
Germanicus Julius Caesar , commonly known as Germanicus, was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the early Roman Empire. He was born in Rome, Italia, and was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle...

, after a hard-fought campaign which lasted for three years. After the rebellion was crushed in AD 9, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, and its lands were divided between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia
Dalmatia (Roman province)
Dalmatia was an ancient Roman province. Its name is probably derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae which lived in the area of the eastern Adriatic coast in Classical antiquity....

 in the south. The date of the division is unknown, most certainly after AD 20 but before AD 50. The proximity of dangerous barbarian tribes (Quadi
Quadi
The Quadi were a smaller Germanic tribe, about which little is definitively known. We only know the Germanic tribe the Romans called the 'Quadi' through reports of the Romans themselves...

, Marcomanni
Marcomanni
The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Buri, Suebi or Suevi.-Origin:Scholars believe their name derives possibly from Proto-Germanic forms of "march" and "men"....

) necessitated the presence of a large number of troops (seven legions in later times), and numerous fortresses were built on the bank of the Danube.

Some time between the years 102 and 107, between the first and second Dacian war, Trajan
Trajan
Trajan , was Roman Emperor from 98 to 117 AD. Born into a non-patrician family in the province of Hispania Baetica, in Spain Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a legatus legionis in Hispania Tarraconensis, in Spain, in 89 Trajan supported the emperor against...

 divided the province
Roman province
In Ancient Rome, a province was the basic, and, until the Tetrarchy , largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of Italy...

 into Pannonia Superior (western part with the capital Carnuntum
Carnuntum
Carnuntum was a Roman army camp on the Danube in the Noricum province and after the 1st century the capital of the Upper Pannonia province...

), and Pannonia Inferior (eastern part with the capitals in Aquincum
Aquincum
The ancient city of Aquincum was situated on the North-Eastern borders of the Pannonia province within the Roman Empire. The ruins of the city can be found today in Budapest, the capital city of Hungary...

 and Sirmium
Sirmium
Sirmium was a city in ancient Roman Pannonia. Firstly mentioned in the 4th century BC and originally inhabited by the Illyrians and Celts, it was conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC and subsequently became the capital of the Roman province of Lower Pannonia. In 294 AD, Sirmium was...

). According to Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy , was a Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek. He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in Egypt under Roman rule, and is believed to have been born in the town of Ptolemais Hermiou in the...

, these divisions were separated by a line drawn from Arrabona in the north to Servitium in the south; later, the boundary was placed further east. The whole country was sometimes called the Pannonias (Pannoniae).

Pannonia Superior was under the consular legate, who had formerly administered the single province, and had three legions under his control; Pannonia Inferior at first under a praetorian legate with a single legion as garrison, after Marcus Aurelius under a consular legate, still with only one legion. The frontier on the Danube was protected by the establishment of the two colonies Aelia Mursia and Aelia Aquincum by Hadrian
Hadrian
Hadrian , was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. He is best known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. In Rome, he re-built the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. In addition to being emperor, Hadrian was a humanist and was philhellene in...

.

Under Diocletian
Diocletian
Diocletian |latinized]] upon his accession to Diocletian . c. 22 December 244  – 3 December 311), was a Roman Emperor from 284 to 305....

 a fourfold division of the country was made:
  • Pannonia Prima
    Pannonia Prima
    Pannonia Prima was an ancient Roman province. It was formed in the year 296, during the reign of Emperor Diocletian. Previously, it was a part of the province of Pannonia, which was gradually divided into four administrative units: Pannonia Prima, Pannonia Secunda, Valeria, and Savia. This...

     in the northwest, with capital in Savaria / Sabaria,
  • Pannonia Valeria
    Pannonia Valeria
    The Pannonia Valeria or simply Valeria was one of the provinces of the Roman Empire. It was formed in the year 296, during the reign of emperor Diocletian. The capital of the province was Sopianae . Pannonia Valeria included parts of present-day Hungary and Croatia.-External links:*...

     in the northeast, with capital in Sopianae,
  • Pannonia Savia
    Pannonia Savia
    The Pannonia Savia, also known as Savia and Pannonia Ripariensis, was an ancient Roman province. It was formed in the year 296, during the reign of emperor Diocletian. The capital of the province was Siscia . Pannonia Savia included parts of present-day Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and...

     in the southwest, with capital in Siscia,
  • Pannonia Secunda
    Pannonia Secunda
    The Pannonia Secunda was one of the provinces of the Roman Empire. It was formed in the year 296, during the reign of emperor Diocletian. The capital of the province was Sirmium...

     in the southeast, with capital in Sirmium
    Sirmium
    Sirmium was a city in ancient Roman Pannonia. Firstly mentioned in the 4th century BC and originally inhabited by the Illyrians and Celts, it was conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC and subsequently became the capital of the Roman province of Lower Pannonia. In 294 AD, Sirmium was...



Diocletian also moved parts of today's Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

 out of Pannonia and incorporated them in Noricum
Noricum
Noricum, in ancient geography, was a Celtic kingdom stretching over the area of today's Austria and a part of Slovenia. It became a province of the Roman Empire...

. Constantine I
Constantine I
Constantine the Great , also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337. Well known for being the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity, Constantine and co-Emperor Licinius issued the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious tolerance of all...

 enlarged in 324 AD the borders of Roman Pannonia to the east, annexing the plains of what is now eastern Hungary, northern Serbia and western Romania up to the limes
Limes
A limes was a border defense or delimiting system of Ancient Rome. It marked the boundaries of the Roman Empire.The Latin noun limes had a number of different meanings: a path or balk delimiting fields, a boundary line or marker, any road or path, any channel, such as a stream channel, or any...

 that he created: the Devil's Dykes
Devil's Dykes
The Devil's Dykes , also known as the Csörsz árka or the Limes Sarmatiae , are several lines of Roman fortifications built mostly during the reign of Constantine I , stretching between today's Hungary, Romania and Serbia.-History:The fortifications consisted of a series of...

.

In the 4th-5th century, one of the dioceses of the Roman Empire was known as the Diocese of Pannonia
Diocese of Pannonia
The Diocese of Pannonia , from 379 known as the Diocese of Illyricum, was a diocese of the Late Roman Empire. The seat of the vicarius was Sirmium.-History:...

. It had capital in Sirmium
Sirmium
Sirmium was a city in ancient Roman Pannonia. Firstly mentioned in the 4th century BC and originally inhabited by the Illyrians and Celts, it was conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC and subsequently became the capital of the Roman province of Lower Pannonia. In 294 AD, Sirmium was...

 and included all four provinces that were formed from historical Pannonia, as well as provinces of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
Dalmatia is a historical region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. It stretches from the island of Rab in the northwest to the Bay of Kotor in the southeast. The hinterland, the Dalmatian Zagora, ranges from fifty kilometers in width in the north to just a few kilometers in the south....

, Noricum Mediterraneum and Noricum Ripensis.

In the middle of the 5th century, Pannonia was ceded to the Huns
Huns
The Huns were a group of nomadic people who, appearing from east of the Volga River, migrated into Europe c. AD 370 and established the vast Hunnic Empire there. Since de Guignes linked them with the Xiongnu, who had been northern neighbours of China 300 years prior to the emergence of the Huns,...

 by Theodosius II
Theodosius II
Theodosius II , commonly surnamed Theodosius the Younger, or Theodosius the Calligrapher, was Byzantine Emperor from 408 to 450. He is mostly known for promulgating the Theodosian law code, and for the construction of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople...

, and after the death of Attila successively passed (entirely or partially) into the hands of the Ostrogoths (456–6th century), Lombards
Lombards
The Lombards , also referred to as Longobards, were a Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin, who from 568 to 774 ruled a Kingdom in Italy...

 (530–68), Gepids (6th century), Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

 (6th century and 11th-12th century), Avars
Eurasian Avars
The Eurasian Avars or Ancient Avars were a highly organized nomadic confederacy of mixed origins. They were ruled by a khagan, who was surrounded by a tight-knit entourage of nomad warriors, an organization characteristic of Turko-Mongol groups...

 (560s – c.800), various Slavic states (Slavs living there since c. 480s; independent since 7th century), Franks
Franks
The Franks were a confederation of Germanic tribes first attested in the third century AD as living north and east of the Lower Rhine River. From the third to fifth centuries some Franks raided Roman territory while other Franks joined the Roman troops in Gaul. Only the Salian Franks formed a...

 (8th-9th century), Magyars (since 900/901), Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 (since 10th century), Habsburgs
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

 (since 14th century), Ottomans
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 (since 1512; the Ottoman administration ended in 1878) and Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

 (since 19th century). After the First World War, the region was divided between Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

, Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed to Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia refers to three political entities that existed successively on the western part of the Balkans during most of the 20th century....

 in 1929) and Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992...

.

During the first period of Byzantine administration in the 6th century, province named Pannonia (with capital in Sirmium
Sirmium
Sirmium was a city in ancient Roman Pannonia. Firstly mentioned in the 4th century BC and originally inhabited by the Illyrians and Celts, it was conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC and subsequently became the capital of the Roman province of Lower Pannonia. In 294 AD, Sirmium was...

) was temporarily restored, but it included only small south-eastern part of historical Pannonia. In the second period of Byzantine administration (11th century) an province named Theme of Sirmium (also with capital in Sirmium
Sirmium
Sirmium was a city in ancient Roman Pannonia. Firstly mentioned in the 4th century BC and originally inhabited by the Illyrians and Celts, it was conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC and subsequently became the capital of the Roman province of Lower Pannonia. In 294 AD, Sirmium was...

) was established in this same area. An Frankish frontier march named March of Pannonia
March of Pannonia
The March of Pannonia was a frontier march of the Carolingian Empire erected in the mid-ninth century against the threat of Great Moravia and lasting only as long as the strength of that state....

 was established in the end of the 8th century, while terms Lower and Upper Pannonia were also used in the 9th century as a designations for an Slavic principality and an Frankish province.

Furthermore, between the 5th and the 10th century the romanized population of Pannonia developed the Romance Pannonian Language
Pannonian Romance
Pannonian Romance was the Romance language that developed in Pannonia after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. It seems to have lasted until the 10th century...

, mainly around the lake Balaton
Lake Balaton
Lake Balaton is a freshwater lake in the Transdanubian region of Hungary. It is the largest lake in Central Europe, and one of its foremost tourist destinations. As Hungary is landlocked , Lake Balaton is often affectionately called the "Hungarian Sea"...

 in present-day western Hungary, where there was the keszthely culture
Keszthely culture
The Keszthely culture was created ca. 500 - 700 by the Romanized residents of Pannonia who lived near the fortified village of Castellum , near the lake Balaton in now western Hungary....

. This language and the related culture were extinct with the arrival of the Magyars.

Cities and auxiliary forts



The native settlements consisted of pagi (cantons) containing a number of vici (villages), the majority of the large towns being of Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 origin. The cities and towns in Pannonia were:
  • Acumincum
    Acumincum
    Acumincum was ancient Roman settlement, located in the present day town of Stari Slankamen, Serbia.- History :In the 3rd century BC, the area was inhabited by Celtic Scordisci. In the 1st century BC, the fort was conquered by Romans and the settlement was known as Acumincum...

     (Stari Slankamen
    Stari Slankamen
    Stari Slankamen , also known as Slankamen , is a village located in the Inđija municipality, in the Srem District of Serbia. It is situated in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina...

    , in present-day Serbia)
  • Ad Flexum
    Ad Flexum
    Ad Flexum may refer to:*Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary*San Pietro in Fine, Italy...

     (Mosonmagyaróvár
    Mosonmagyaróvár
    Mosonmagyaróvár is a city in Győr-Moson-Sopron county in northwestern Hungary. It lies close to both the Austrian and Slovakian borders and has a population of 30,200 ....

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Ad Herculae (Čortanovci
    Cortanovci
    Čortanovci is a village in Serbia. It is situated in the Inđija municipality, Srem District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and its population numbering 2,308 people .Because of its pleasant climate and neighbouring Danube it is mostly visited by citizens who have...

    , in present-day Serbia)
  • Ad Mures (Ács
    Ács
    Ács is a town in Komárom-Esztergom county, Hungary.-External links:* *...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Ad Novas (Zmajevac
    Zmajevac
    Zmajevac is a settlement in the region of Baranja, Croatia. Administratively, it is located in the Kneževi Vinogradi municipality within the Osijek-Baranja County. Population is 974 people.-Ethnic groups :*701 - Hungarians*178 - Croats...

    , in present-day Croatia)
  • Ad Statuas (Vaspuszta, in present-day Hungary)
  • Ad Statuas (Várdomb, in present-day Hungary)
  • Alisca (Szekszárd
    Szekszárd
    Szekszárd is a city in Hungary and the capital of Tolna county. By population, Szekszárd is the smallest county capital in Hungary; by area, it is the second smallest -Location:...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Alta Ripa (Tolna, in present-day Hungary)
  • Andautonia (Ščitarjevo
    Šcitarjevo
    Šćitarjevo is a settlement officially in the Town of Velika Gorica, Croatia, located near the Zagreb bypass and the recently built Homeland Bridge. Its main tourist attraction and cultural site is Andautonia, an archeological site with remains of a Roman city.-External links:* website of the...

    , in present-day Croatia)
  • Aqua Viva (Varaždin
    Varaždin
    Varaždin is a city in north Croatia, north of Zagreb on the highway A4. The total population is 47,055, with 38,746 on of the city settlement itself . The centre of Varaždin county is located near the Drava river, at...

    , in present-day Croatia)
  • Aquae Balisae (Daruvar
    Daruvar
    Daruvar is a town in central Croatia, population 9,815 , total municipality population 13,243 ....

    , in present-day Croatia)
  • Aquincum
    Aquincum
    The ancient city of Aquincum was situated on the North-Eastern borders of the Pannonia province within the Roman Empire. The ruins of the city can be found today in Budapest, the capital city of Hungary...

      (Óbuda
    Óbuda
    Óbuda was a historical city in Hungary. United with Buda and Pest in 1873 it now forms part of District III-Óbuda-Békásmegyer of Budapest. The name means Old Buda in Hungarian...

    , Budapest, in present-day Hungary)
  • Arrabona (Győr
    Gyor
    -Climate:-Main sights:The ancient core of the city is Káptalan Hill at the confluence of three rivers: the Danube, Rába and Rábca. Püspökvár, the residence of Győr’s bishops can be easily recognised by its incomplete tower. Győr’s oldest buildings are the 13th-century dwelling tower and the...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Bassianae
    Bassianae
    Bassianae or Bassiana was an important ancient Roman town in Pannonia . It was located near present-day Donji Petrovci village in Ruma municipality. Bassianae was second largest town in Syrmia, after Sirmium...

     (Donji Petrovci
    Donji Petrovci
    Donji Petrovci is a village in Serbia. It is situated in Ruma municipality, Srem District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and a population of 991 people...

    , in present-day Serbia)
  • Bononia
    Banoštor
    Banoštor is a village in Serbia. It is situated in the Beočin municipality, in the Vojvodina province. Although, the village is geographically located in Syrmia, it is part of the South Bačka District. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and its population numbering 780 people .-Name:The name...

     (Banoštor
    Banoštor
    Banoštor is a village in Serbia. It is situated in the Beočin municipality, in the Vojvodina province. Although, the village is geographically located in Syrmia, it is part of the South Bačka District. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and its population numbering 780 people .-Name:The name...

    , in present-day Serbia)
  • Brigetio (Szőny
    Szöny
    -History:In the year 97, the Roman legion Legio I Adiutrix campaigned in the area. The town was known as Brigetio to the Romans. The town has one of the earliest records of conjoined twins - Helen and Judith....

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Burgenae (Novi Banovci
    Novi Banovci
    Novi Banovci is an urban neighborhood in Serbia by the Danube River. It is situated in the Stara Pazova municipality, in the Srem District, in Vojvodina province. It is located 3 kilometers away from Batajnica and 20 km from the capital, Belgrade. Novi Banovci is situated on the...

    , in present-day Serbia)
  • Caesariana (Baláca
    Balaca
    Balaca is a genus of moth in the family Arctiidae. It contains only one species, Balaca picaria, which can be found in New Guinea.-References:**...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Campona (Nagytétény, in present-day Hungary)
  • Carnuntum
    Carnuntum
    Carnuntum was a Roman army camp on the Danube in the Noricum province and after the 1st century the capital of the Upper Pannonia province...

     (Petronell, Bad Deutsch-Altenburg
    Bad Deutsch-Altenburg
    Bad Deutsch-Altenburg is a town in the district of Bruck an der Leitha in Lower Austria in Austria.- People :* Anton Durcovici , Bishop of Iaşi * Ernest Windholz, politician* Hannes Swoboda...

    , in present-day Austria)
  • Celeia (Celje
    Celje
    Celje is a typical Central European town and the third largest town in Slovenia. It is a regional center of Lower Styria and the administrative seat of the Urban Municipality of Celje . The town of Celje is located under Upper Celje Castle at the confluence of the Savinja, Ložnica, and Voglajna...

    , in present-day Slovenia)
  • Certissa (Đakovo, in present-day Croatia)
  • Cibalae (Vinkovci
    Vinkovci
    Vinkovci is a city in Croatia, in the Vukovar-Syrmia County. In the 2011 census, the total population of the city was 35,375, making it the largest town of the county...

    , in present-day Croatia)
  • Cirpi (Dunabogdány
    Dunabogdány
    Dunabogdány is a village in Pest county, Budapest metropolitan area, Hungary.The population consisted of 3,101 inhabitants in 2007....

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Contra-Aquincum (Budapest
    Budapest
    Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Contra Constantiam (Dunakeszi
    Dunakeszi
    Dunakeszi is a city in Pest county, Budapest metropolitan area, Hungary. It is located to the north of Budapest on the left bank of the Danube.- External links :* *...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Lugio (Dunaszekcsõ
    Dunaszekcso
    Dunaszekcső is a village in Baranya County, Hungary. The city is on the right bank of the Danube River.- External links :* * * *...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Cornacum (Sotin
    Sotin
    Sotin is a village in eastern Croatia, located a few kilometers southeast of Vukovar by the Danube. It is administratively part of the city of Vukovar, and its population is 969...

    , in present-day Croatia)
  • Cuccium (Ilok
    Ilok
    Ilok is the easternmost town and municipality in Croatia. Located in the Syrmia region, it lies on a hill overlooking the Danube river, which forms the border with the Vojvodina region of Serbia. The population of the town of Ilok is 5,036, while the total municipality population is 6,750...

    , in present-day Croatia)
  • Cusum
    CUSUM
    In statistical quality control, the CUSUM is a sequential analysis technique due to E. S. Page of the University of Cambridge. It is typically used for monitoring change detection...

     (Petrovaradin
    Petrovaradin
    Petrovaradin , is part of the agglomeration of Novi Sad in Serbia...

    , in present-day Serbia)
  • Gerulata
    Gerulata
    Gerulata was a Roman military camp located near today's Rusovce, a borough of Bratislava, Slovakia. It was part of the Roman province Pannonia and built in the 2nd century as a part of the Limes Romanus system...

     (Rusovce
    Rusovce
    Rusovce castle")) is a borough in southern Bratislava on the right bank of the Danube river, close to the Hungarian border.- History :In the 1st century, there was a Roman settlement named Gerulata in today's Rusovce area. The first preserved written reference to the settlement is from 1208. It...

    , in present-day Slovakia)
  • Gorsium-Herculia (Tác
    Tác
    Tác is a village in Hungary. In the time of Roman Empire it was known as Gorsium-Herculia. An open-air museum presents the ruins.- External links :* *...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Graio (Sremska Rača
    Sremska Raca
    Sremska Rača , , is a village in Serbia. It is located in the Sremska Mitrovica municipality, in the Srem District, Vojvodina province...

    , in present-day Serbia)
  • Intercisa (Dunaújváros
    Dunaújváros
    Dunaújváros is a Hungarian city in Central Transdanubia, along the Danube river. It is in Fejér county.-History:Dunaújváros is one of the newest cities of the country...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Iovia or Iovia Botivo (Ludbreg
    Ludbreg
    Ludbreg is a town in Croatia, located halfway between Varaždin and Koprivnica near the river Drava. It has 3,594 inhabitants, and a total of 8,458 in the entire municipality .-History:...

    , in present-day Croatia)
  • Lugio (Dunaszekcső
    Dunaszekcso
    Dunaszekcső is a village in Baranya County, Hungary. The city is on the right bank of the Danube River.- External links :* * * *...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Lussonium (Dunakömlőd, in present-day Hungary)
  • Marsonia (Slavonski Brod
    Slavonski Brod
    Slavonski Brod is a city in Croatia, with a population of 59,507 in 2011. The city was known as Marsonia in the Roman Empire, and as Brod na Savi 1244–1934. It is the sixth largest city in Croatia, after Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek and Zadar. Located in the region of Slavonia, it is the...

    , in present-day Croatia)
  • Matrica (Százhalombatta
    Százhalombatta
    Százhalombatta is a town in Pest county, Hungary. The name of this town in Hungarian literally means "One hundred tumuli" referring to the tumulus field at the edge of the town.- History :...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Morgentianae (Tüskevár
    Tüskevár
    - External links :*...

     (?), in present-day Hungary)
  • Mursa (Osijek
    Osijek
    Osijek is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 83,496 in 2011. It is the largest city and the economic and cultural centre of the eastern Croatian region of Slavonia, as well as the administrative centre of Osijek-Baranja county...

    , in present-day Croatia)
  • Mursella (Mórichida
    Mórichida
    - External links :*...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Neviodunum (Drnovo
    Drnovo
    Drnovo is a village to the south of Leskovec in the Municipality of Krško in eastern Slovenia. It lies just north of the Ljubljana to Zagreb motorway. The area was traditionally part of Lower Carniola...

    , in present-day Slovenia)
  • Onagrinum (Begeč
    Begec
    Begeč is a village in Serbian province of Vojvodina. It is located in Novi Sad municipality, in South Bačka District. Begeč is situated on the river Danube, approximately 15 km west from Novi Sad, on Bačka Palanka-Novi Sad road...

    , in present-day Serbia)
  • Poetovio (Ptuj
    Ptuj
    Ptuj is a city and one of 11 urban municipalities in Slovenia. Traditionally the area was part of the Lower Styria region. The municipality is now included in the Podravje statistical region...

    , in present-day Slovenia)
  • Quadrata (Lébény
    Lébény
    Lébény is a village in Győr-Moson-Sopron county, Hungary. It has a romanesque family church from the 12th century. Similar medieval Hungarian clan / family financed "house" churches are in Ják, Ócsa, Nyírbátor, Harina, Mălâncrav....

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Rittium (Surduk
    Surduk
    Surduk is a village in Serbia. It is situated in the Stara Pazova municipality, in the Srem District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and its population numbering 1,589 people .-Name:...

    , in present-day Serbia)
  • Sala
    Sala
    - Geography :* Sala Municipality, Sweden - a municipality in Sweden* Sala, Sweden - a city in Sweden, seat of Sala Municipality* Sala municipality, Latvia - a municipality in Latvia* Sala, Latvia - a village in Latvia, an administrative centre of Sala municipality...

    (Zalalövő
    Zalalövo
    Zalalövő is a town in Zala county, Hungary.- External links :*...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Saldae (Brčko
    Brcko (city)
    Brčko is a city in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina, administrative seat of the Brčko District. It lies on the country's border along the Sava river across from Gunja, Croatia...

    , in present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina)
  • Savaria
    Savaria
    Savaria may refer to :-* Szombathely - a city in Hungary* Sarvaiya - a Rajput clan of India* Saawariya - a known Bollywood film....

     or Sabaria (Szombathely
    Szombathely
    Szombathely is the 10th largest city in Hungary. It is the administrative centre of Vas county in the west of the country, located near the border with Austria...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Scarbantia (Sopron
    Sopron
    In 1910 Sopron had 33,932 inhabitants . Religions: 64.1% Roman Catholic, 27.8% Lutheran, 6.6% Jewish, 1.2% Calvinist, 0.3% other. In 2001 the city had 56,125 inhabitants...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Serbinum
    Serbinum
    Serbinum, also known as Servitium or Servicium, was an ancient Roman city in the province of Pannonia. It was situated in the location of present-day Gradiška in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina.-Sources:...

     or Servitium (Gradiška, in present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina)
  • Sirmium
    Sirmium
    Sirmium was a city in ancient Roman Pannonia. Firstly mentioned in the 4th century BC and originally inhabited by the Illyrians and Celts, it was conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC and subsequently became the capital of the Roman province of Lower Pannonia. In 294 AD, Sirmium was...

     (Sremska Mitrovica
    Sremska Mitrovica
    Sremska Mitrovica is a city and municipality located in the Vojvodina province of Serbia, on the left bank of the Sava river. As of 2002 the town had a total population of 39,041, while Sremska Mitrovica municipality had a population of 85,605...

    , in present-day Serbia)
  • Siscia (Sisak
    Sisak
    Sisak is a city in central Croatia. The city's population in 2011 was 33,049, with a total of 49,699 in the administrative region and it is also the administrative centre of the Sisak-Moslavina county...

    , in present-day Croatia)
  • Solva
    Solva (Hungary)
    Solva was an early name for what is now Esztergom, Hungary, in the province of Pannonia, during the Roman period. It was an important part of the Limes line along the Danube. Solva was granted town rank by Publius Aelius Hadrianus in 121 AD.-External links:...

     (Esztergom
    Esztergom
    Esztergom , is a city in northern Hungary, 46 km north-west of the capital Budapest. It lies in Komárom-Esztergom county, on the right bank of the river Danube, which forms the border with Slovakia there....

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Sopianae (Pécs
    Pécs
    Pécs is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia. It is the administrative and economical centre of Baranya county...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Taurunum (Zemun
    Zemun
    Zemun is a historical town and one of the 17 municipalities which constitute the City of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia...

    , in present-day Serbia)
  • Teutoburgium (Dalj
    Dalj
    Dalj is a village on the Danube in eastern Croatia, near the confluence of the Drava and Danube, on the border with Serbia. It is connected with the D519 highway and administratively located in the municipality of Erdut, Osijek-Baranja County.-References:...

    , in present-day Croatia)
  • Ulcisia Castra (Szentendre
    Szentendre
    Szentendre is a riverside town in Pest county, Hungary, near the capital city Budapest. It is known for its museums , galleries, and artists. Due to its picturesque appearance and easy rail and river access, it has become a popular destination for tourists staying in Budapest...

    , in present-day Hungary)
  • Valcum (Fenékpuszta, in present-day Hungary)
  • Vindobona
    Vindobona
    Vindobona was originally a Celtic settlement, and later a Roman military camp on the site of the modern city of Vienna in Austria. Around 15 BC, the kingdom of Noricum was included in the Roman Empire...

     (Vienna
    Vienna
    Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

    , in present-day Austria)

Economy and country features



The country was fairly productive, especially after the great forests had been cleared by Probus and Galerius
Galerius
Galerius , was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311. During his reign he campaigned, aided by Diocletian, against the Sassanid Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 299. He also campaigned across the Danube against the Carpi, defeating them in 297 and 300...

. Before that time timber had been one of its most important exports. Its chief agricultural products were oat
Oat
The common oat is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name . While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed...

s and barley
Barley
Barley is a major cereal grain, a member of the grass family. It serves as a major animal fodder, as a base malt for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods...

, from which the inhabitants brewed a kind of beer
Beer
Beer is the world's most widely consumed andprobably oldest alcoholic beverage; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of sugars, mainly derived from malted cereal grains, most commonly malted barley and malted wheat...

 named sabaea. Vines and olive trees were little cultivated. Pannonia was also famous for its breed of hunting dogs. Although no mention is made of its mineral wealth by the ancients, it is probable that it contained iron
Iron
Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

 and silver
Silver
Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal...

 mines. Its chief rivers were the Dravus
Drava
Drava or Drave is a river in southern Central Europe, a tributary of the Danube. It sources in Toblach/Dobbiaco, Italy, and flows east through East Tirol and Carinthia in Austria, into Slovenia , and then southeast, passing through Croatia and forming most of the border between Croatia and...

, Savus, and Arrabo
Rába
The Rába is a river in southeastern Austria and western Hungary and a right tributary of the Danube. Its source is in Austria, some kilometres east of Bruck an der Mur below Heubodenhöhe Hill. It flows through the Austrian states of Styria and Burgenland, and the Hungarian counties of Vas and...

, in addition to the Danuvius
Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

(less correctly, Danubius), into which the first three rivers flow.

Sources

  • Radomir Popović, Rano hrišćanstvo u Panoniji, Vojvođanski godišnjak, sveska I, Novi Sad, 1995.
  • Petar Milošević, Arheologija i istorija Sirmijuma, Novi Sad, 2001.

External links