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Battles of the Mexican-American War

Battles of the Mexican-American War

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The battles of the Mexican–American War include all major engagements and most reported skirmishes, including Thornton's Defeat, the Battle of Palo Alto
Battle of Palo Alto
The Battle of Palo Alto was the first major battle of the Mexican-American War and was fought on May 8, 1846, on disputed ground five miles from the modern-day city of Brownsville, Texas...

, and the Battle of Resaca de la Palma
Battle of Resaca de la Palma
At the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, one of the early engagements of the Mexican-American War,United States General Zachary Taylor engaged the retreating forces of the Mexican Ejército del Norte under General Mariano Arista on May 9, 1846.-Background:During the night of May 8, following...

, which took place prior to the official start of hostilities.

Background


The Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
The Mexican–American War, also known as the First American Intervention, the Mexican War, or the U.S.–Mexican War, was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S...

 lasted from 1846 until 1848. It grew out of unresolved border disputes between the Republic of Texas
Republic of Texas
The Republic of Texas was an independent nation in North America, bordering the United States and Mexico, that existed from 1836 to 1846.Formed as a break-away republic from Mexico by the Texas Revolution, the state claimed borders that encompassed an area that included all of the present U.S...

 and Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 after the United States annexed Texas nine years after the Texas Revolution
Texas Revolution
The Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence was an armed conflict between Mexico and settlers in the Texas portion of the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas. The war lasted from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836...

. It ended in 1848 with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is the peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States to the interim government of a militarily occupied Mexico City, that ended the Mexican-American War on February 2, 1848...

 in which Mexico sold
Mexican Cession
The Mexican Cession of 1848 is a historical name in the United States for the region of the present day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S...

 a vast tract of land that amounted to over half its national territory
National territory
"National Territory" is translated from "Territorio nacional", a term used for territories in Argentina. The last national territory was the Tierra del Fuego Province, which was given the status of a province in 1990....

 to the United States.

List of battles



Key: – American Victory – Mexican Victory – Inconclusive

1846

Battle Date Engagement remarks Result
Thornton Affair
Thornton Affair
The Thornton Affair, also known as the Thornton Skirmish, Thornton's Defeat, or Rancho Carricitos was a battle between the military forces of the United States and Mexico. It served as the primary justification for U.S. President James K. Polk's declaration of war against Mexico in 1846,...

April 25/26 Skirmishing in the disputed borderlands of South Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

.
(M)
Siege of Fort Texas
Siege of Fort Texas
The Siege of Fort Texas marked the beginning of active campaigning by the armies of the United States and Mexico during the Mexican-American War. The battle is sometimes called The Siege of Fort Brown, but this is not entirely accurate — the name Fort Brown was taken from Major Jacob Brown,...

May 3–9 American forces withstand Mexican Army attacks. (A)
Battle of Palo Alto
Battle of Palo Alto
The Battle of Palo Alto was the first major battle of the Mexican-American War and was fought on May 8, 1846, on disputed ground five miles from the modern-day city of Brownsville, Texas...

May 8 Mexican Army under Mariano Arista
Mariano Arista
Mariano Arista was a noted veteran of many of Mexico's nineteenth century wars who served as president of Mexico from 15 January 1851 to 6 January 1853....

 in the disputed land between the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
The Rio Grande is a river that flows from southwestern Colorado in the United States to the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way it forms part of the Mexico – United States border. Its length varies as its course changes...

 (Río Bravo) and the Nueces River
Nueces River
The Nueces River is a river in the U.S. state of Texas, approximately long. It drains a region in central and southern Texas southeastward into the Gulf of Mexico. It is the southernmost major river in Texas northeast of the Rio Grande...

 engage an American army attempting to lift the aforementioned Siege of Fort Texas.
(A)
Battle of Resaca de la Palma
Battle of Resaca de la Palma
At the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, one of the early engagements of the Mexican-American War,United States General Zachary Taylor engaged the retreating forces of the Mexican Ejército del Norte under General Mariano Arista on May 9, 1846.-Background:During the night of May 8, following...

May 9 Arista is defeated by Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor was the 12th President of the United States and an American military leader. Initially uninterested in politics, Taylor nonetheless ran as a Whig in the 1848 presidential election, defeating Lewis Cass...

.
(A)
Occupation of Matamoros
Matamoros, Tamaulipas
Matamoros, officially known as Heroica Matamoros, is a city in the northeastern part of Tamaulipas, in the country of Mexico. It is located on the southern bank of the Rio Grande, directly across the border from Brownsville, Texas, in the United States. Matamoros is the second largest and second...

May 18 U.S. troops occupy Matamoros, Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria. The capital city was named after Guadalupe Victoria, the...

, with no resistance. More than 300 sick and wounded Mexicans captured in the hospitals. Also abandoned were 5 spiked guns.
(A)
Battle of Monterey
Battle of Monterey
-Preliminaries:Prior to the Mexican-American War the Californio forces had already driven the Mexican appointed Governor Manuel Micheltorena and most of his soldiers from Alta California...

July 7 U.S. Navy occupies Monterey, California. (A)

|-
| align="left" | Occupation of Camargo, Tamaulipas
Camargo, Tamaulipas
Camargo is a municipality in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. It is located on the US border, across from Rio Grande City, Texas. It has an official population of 14,933 inhabitants and an international bridge. The municipal seat is Ciudad Camargo, with a population of 7,984...

.
| July 14
| align=center | —
| (A)
|-
| Battle of Cañoncito
| early August
| Stephen Watts Kearny defeats Manuel Armijo
Manuel Armijo
Manuel Armijo was a New Mexican soldier and statesman who served three times as governor of New Mexico. He was instrumental in putting down the Revolt of 1837, he led the force that captured the Texan Santa Fe Expedition and he surrendered to the United States in the Mexican-American War.-Early...

 on the way to Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico. It is the fourth-largest city in the state and is the seat of . Santa Fe had a population of 67,947 in the 2010 census...

.
| (A)
|-
| Battle of Santa Fe
Battle of Santa Fe
The Capture of Santa Fe, also known as the Battle of Santa Fe or the Battle of Cañoncito, took place near Santa Fe, New Mexico, the capital of the Mexican Province of New Mexico, during the Mexican-American War on 8 August through 14 August 1846. No shots were fired.-Background:United States Army...


| August 18
| Kearny occupies Santa Fe, New Mexico.
| (A)
|-
| Battle of Monterrey
Battle of Monterrey
In the Battle of Monterrey during the Mexican-American War, General Pedro de Ampudia and the Mexican Army of the North was defeated by U.S...


| September 21–23
| Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor was the 12th President of the United States and an American military leader. Initially uninterested in politics, Taylor nonetheless ran as a Whig in the 1848 presidential election, defeating Lewis Cass...

 forces Pedro de Ampudia
Pedro de Ampudia
Pedro de Ampudia was born in Havana, Cuba and served Mexico as a Northern army officer for most of his life. He was also governor of the state of Nuevo León in 1846 and from 1853 to 1854....

 to surrender Monterrey
Monterrey
Monterrey , is the capital city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León in the country of Mexico. The city is anchor to the third-largest metropolitan area in Mexico and is ranked as the ninth-largest city in the nation. Monterrey serves as a commercial center in the north of the country and is the...

.
| (A)
|-
| Siege of Los Angeles
Siege of Los Angeles
The Siege of Los Angeles was a military occupation by the United States Marines of the Pueblo de Los Angeles during the Mexican-American war.-Occupation:...


| September 22–30
| Led by Gen José María Flores
José Mariá Flores
General José María Flores was an officer in the Mexican Army and was a member of la otra banda. He was appointed Governor and Comandante General pro tem of Alta California from 1846 to 1847.-Mexican-America War:...

, Californios and Mexicans retake Los Angeles.
| (M)
|-
| Battle of Chino
Battle of Chino
The Battle of Chino, a skirmish of the Mexican-American War occurred on September 26–27, 1846, during which 24 Americans led by Benjamin D. Wilson, who were hiding in the adobe house of Rancho Santa Ana del Chino, were captured by a group of about 50 Californios.-Background:In late September 1846,...


| September 26–27
| Californios defeat and capture 24 Americans, led by Benjamin D. Wilson, who were hiding in an adobe
Adobe
Adobe is a natural building material made from sand, clay, water, and some kind of fibrous or organic material , which the builders shape into bricks using frames and dry in the sun. Adobe buildings are similar to cob and mudbrick buildings. Adobe structures are extremely durable, and account for...

 house in Rancho Santa Ana del Chino
Rancho Santa Ana del Chino
Rancho Santa Ana del Chino was a Mexican land grant in the Chino Hills of present day San Bernardino County, California given to Antonio Maria Lugo in 1841 by Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado...

, near present day Chino, California
Chino, California
Chino is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States. It is located in the western end of the Riverside-San Bernardino Area and it is easily accessible via the Chino Valley and Pomona freeways....

.
| (M)
|-
| Battle of Dominguez Rancho
Battle of Dominguez Rancho
The Battle of Dominguez Rancho or The Battle of the Old Woman's Gun was a military engagement of the Mexican-American War...


| October 7
| Californios, led by José Antonio Carrillo
José Antonio Carrillo
Captain José Antonio Ezequiel Carrillo was a Californio rancher, officer, and politician in the early years of Mexican Alta California and U.S...

, defeat 203 US Marines led by U.S. Navy Captain William Mervine
William Mervine
William Mervine was a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy, whose career included service in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War and the American Civil War.-Biography:...

.
| (M)
|-
| First Battle of Tabasco
First Battle of Tabasco
The First Battle of Tabasco was fought during the Mexican-American War.-Background:The battle was part of the U.S. Home Squadron's efforts to blockade the major Mexican ports on the Gulf of Mexico.-Battle:...


| October 24–26
| Commodore Perry makes a demonstration against Tabasco
Tabasco
Tabasco officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tabasco is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 17 municipalities and its capital city is Villahermosa....


| (I)
|-
| align="left" | Occupation of Tampico
Tampico
Tampico is a city and port in the state of Tamaulipas, in the country of Mexico. It is located in the southeastern part of the state, directly north across the border from Veracruz. Tampico is the third largest city in Tamaulipas, and counts with a population of 309,003. The Metropolitan area of...

, Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria. The capital city was named after Guadalupe Victoria, the...


| November 14
| Occupation by the U.S. Navy.
| (A)
|-
| align="left" | Occupation of Saltillo
Saltillo
Saltillo is the capital city of the northeastern Mexican state of Coahuila and the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name. The city is located about 400 km south of the U.S. state of Texas, and 90 km west of Monterrey, Nuevo León....

, Coahuila
Coahuila
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza , officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico...


| November 16
| Occupation by the U.S. Army.
| (A)
|-
| Battle of Natividad
Battle of Natividad
The Battle of the Natividad took place on November 16, 1846 in the Salinas Valley, in present day Monterey County, California, during the California Campaign of the Mexican-American War, between United States organized California militia and loyalist Mexican militia.-Battle:San Juan Bautista was...


| November 16
| Town located in northern California.
| (A)
|-
| Battle of San Pasqual
Battle of San Pasqual
The Battle of San Pasqual, also spelled San Pascual, was a military encounter that occurred during the Mexican-American War in what is now the San Pasqual Valley community of the city of San Diego, California. On December 6 and December 7, 1846, General Stephen W...


| December 6
| Californios and Presidial Lancers defeat Kearny
| (M)
|-
| Capture of Tucson (1846)
Capture of Tucson (1846)
The Capture of Tucson was a United States attack on the Mexican city of Tucson, Sonora, now the present day Tucson, Arizona. The would be combatants were provisional Mexican Army troops and the American Mormon Battalion. Tucson fell in December of 1846 without resistance.-Capture:The...


| December 16
|The Mormon Battalion
Mormon Battalion
The Mormon Battalion was the only religiously based unit in United States military history, and it served from July 1846 to July 1847 during the Mexican-American War. The battalion was a volunteer unit of between 534 and 559 Latter-day Saints men led by Mormon company officers, commanded by regular...

 captures Tucson
Tucson, Arizona
Tucson is a city in and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States. The city is located 118 miles southeast of Phoenix and 60 miles north of the U.S.-Mexico border. The 2010 United States Census puts the city's population at 520,116 with a metropolitan area population at 1,020,200...

, Sonora
Sonora
Sonora officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo....

 and occupies her for a day or two.
| (A)
|-
| Battle of El Brazito
Battle of El Brazito
The Battle of El Brazito took place on December 25, 1846 between the United States Army and the Mexican Army during the Mexican-American War.-Battle:...


| December 25
| Also called the "Battle of Temascalitos" in Spanish. Mexican forces attack El Brazito, New Mexico. U.S. forces were led by Colonel
Colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

 Alexander William Doniphan
Alexander William Doniphan
Alexander William Doniphan was a 19th-century American attorney, soldier and politician from Missouri who is best known today as the man who prevented the summary execution of Mormon founder Joseph Smith, Jr. at the close of the 1838 Mormon War in that state...

.
| (A)
|}

1847

Battle Date Engagement remarks Result
Battle of Santa Clara
Battle of Santa Clara (Mexican–American War)
The Battle of Santa Clara, nicknamed the "Battle of the Mustard Stalks", was a skirmish during the Mexican–American War, fought on January 2, 1847, 2½ miles west of Mission Santa Clara de Asís in California. It was the only engagement of its type in Northern California during the...

January 2 Fought in California. (A)
Battle of Rio San Gabriel
Battle of Rio San Gabriel
The Battle of Rio San Gabriel fought on January 8, 1847 was a decisive action of the California campaign of the Mexican-American War and occurred at a ford of the San Gabriel River, at what are today parts of the cities of Whittier, Pico Rivera and Montebello, about ten miles south-east of downtown...

January 8 Part of a series of battles for control of Los Angeles. (A)
Battle of La Mesa
Battle of La Mesa
The Battle of La Mesa of the Mexican-American War occurred on January 9, 1847, in present-day Vernon, California, the day after the Battle of Rio San Gabriel during the California Campaign.-Background:...

January 9 Last conflict before U.S. forces enter Los Angeles. (A)
Battle of Cañada
Battle of Cañada
The Battle of Cañada was part of the Taos Revolt, a popular insurrection against the American occupation of New Mexico by Mexicans and Pueblo Indians...

January 24 Sterling Price
Sterling Price
Sterling Price was a lawyer, planter, and politician from the U.S. state of Missouri, who served as the 11th Governor of the state from 1853 to 1857. He also served as a United States Army brigadier general during the Mexican-American War, and a Confederate Army major general in the American Civil...

 defeats insurgents in New Mexico.
(A)
First Battle of Mora January 24 A failed attack by American Forces on Mora, New Mexico led by Israel Hendley on January 24. (M)
Second Battle of Mora
Second Battle of Mora
The Second Battle of Mora was a military engagement during the Taos Revolt of the Mexican-American War. After being defeated in the First Battle of Mora on January 24, 1847, American forces attacked Mora again about a week later and destroyed the New Mexican insurgents holding the town.-Battle:On...

February 1 On February 1, another American expedition armed with howitzers succeeded in razing the village of Mora in New Mexico. (A)
Siege of Pueblo de Taos
Siege of Pueblo de Taos
The Siege of Pueblo de Taos was the final battle during the main phase of the Taos Revolt, an insurrection against the United States during the Mexican-American War. It was also the final major engagement between American forces and insurgent forces in New Mexico during the war...

February 3/4 Rancheros and Mexican Militia surrender to U.S. forces thus ending the Taos Revolt
Taos Revolt
The Taos Revolt was a popular insurrection in January 1847 by Mexicans and Pueblo allies against the United States' occupation of present-day northern New Mexico during the Mexican–American War. In two short campaigns, United States troops and militia crushed the rebellion of the Mexicans and...

.
(A)
Battle of Buena Vista
Battle of Buena Vista
The Battle of Buena Vista , also known as the Battle of Angostura, saw the United States Army use artillery to repulse the much larger Mexican army in the Mexican-American War...

February 22/23 Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor was the 12th President of the United States and an American military leader. Initially uninterested in politics, Taylor nonetheless ran as a Whig in the 1848 presidential election, defeating Lewis Cass...

 fights Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón , often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, known as "the Napoleon of the West," was a Mexican political leader, general, and president who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government...

 south of Saltillo in one of the largest battles of the war.
(A)
Battle of the Sacramento
Battle of the Sacramento
The Battle of the Sacramento River took place on February 28, 1847 during the Mexican–American War. About twenty-five miles north of Chihuahua, Mexico at the river Sacramento, American forces numbering less than 1,000 men defeated a superior Mexican army which led to the occupation of...

February 28 Doniphan defeats a larger Mexican army before the capture of Chihuahua
Chihuahua, Chihuahua
The city of Chihuahua is the state capital of the Mexican state of Chihuahua. It has a population of about 825,327. The predominant activity is industry, including domestic heavy, light industries, consumer goods production, and to a smaller extent maquiladoras.-History:It has been said that the...

.
(A)
Battle of Embudo Pass
Battle of Embudo Pass
The Battle of Embudo Pass was part of the Taos Revolt, a popular insurrection against the American army's occupation of northern New Mexico. It took place on January 29, 1847, during the Mexican-American War, in what now is New Mexico.-Battle:...

January 29 Last insurgent stand before the Siege of Pueblo de Taos
Siege of Pueblo de Taos
The Siege of Pueblo de Taos was the final battle during the main phase of the Taos Revolt, an insurrection against the United States during the Mexican-American War. It was also the final major engagement between American forces and insurgent forces in New Mexico during the war...

.
(A)
Siege of Veracruz
Siege of Veracruz
The Battle of Veracruz was a 20-day siege of the key Mexican beachhead seaport of Veracruz, during the Mexican-American War. Lasting from 9-29 March 1847, it began with the first large-scale amphibious assault conducted by United States military forces, and ended with the surrender and occupation...

March 9–29 Beginning with Marine landings, U.S. forces besiege and gradually encircle Mexican Marines and Coast Guard in vicious twenty-day siege. (A)
Battle of Cerro Gordo
Battle of Cerro Gordo
The Battle of Cerro Gordo, or Battle of Sierra Gordo, in the Mexican-American War saw Winfield Scott's United States troops flank and drive Santa Anna's larger Mexican army from a strong defensive position.-Battle:...

April 18 Dubbed the "Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae
The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece. It took place simultaneously with the naval battle at Artemisium, in August...

 of the West."
(A)
First Battle of Tuxpan April 18 Commodore
Commodore (USN)
Commodore was an early title and later a rank in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard and a current honorary title in the U.S. Navy with an intricate history. Because the U.S. Congress was originally unwilling to authorize more than four ranks until 1862, considerable importance...

 Matthew C. Perry seizes the port city of Tuxpan
Tuxpan
Tuxpan is both a municipality and city located in the Mexican state of Veracruz. The population of the city was 78,523 and of the municipality was 134,394 inhabitants, according to the INEGI census of 2005, residing in a total area of 1,051.89 km²...

 on the Gulf coast
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

.
(A)
Battle of Red River Canyon
Red River Canyon Affair
The Red River Canyon Affair, or the Battle of Red River Canyon, was a military action fought during the Taos Revolt of the Mexican-American War...

May 26 New Mexican insurgents fight a skirmish with United States troops. (A)
Second Battle of Tuxpan
Second Battle of Tuxpan
The Second Battle of Tuxpan was one of the three small battles of the Mexican-American War to occur in Tuxpan, Mexico. The exact date is unknown but was fought between a landing force of Matthew C. Perry's Mosquito Fleet and Mexican soldiers and or militiamen. The engagement resulted in the death...

June Perry's Mosquito Fleet
Mosquito Fleet
The term Mosquito Fleet has had nine main meanings in U.S. naval and maritime history:#It is the term used to describe the United States Navy's fleet of small gunboats, leading up to and during the War of 1812, most were part of the New Orleans Squadron....

 engages Mexicans at Tuxpan for a second time.
(A)
Third Battle of Tuxpan
Third Battle of Tuxpan
The Third Battle of Tuxpan was one of the three small battles of the Mexican-American War to occur in Tuxpan, Mexico. The engagement occurred on June 30, 1847, between Mexican troops and or militia and an American landing force from the Mosquito Fleet under Matthew C. Perry.Not much is known but a...

June 30 Perry's Mosquito Fleet engages Mexicans for a third time. (A)
Capture of Perote April 22 54 Guns and mortars, and 500 muskets captured at Perote.
Second Battle of Tabasco
Second Battle of Tabasco
The Second Battle of Tabasco, also known as the Battle of Villahermosa, was a battle fought in June 1847 during the Mexican-American War as part of the U.S. blockade of Mexican Gulf ports.-Background:...

June 16 Commodore Perry captures Villahermosa
Villahermosa
Like most of the Tabasco, Villahermosa has a tropical climate. The city specifically features a tropical monsoon climate. Temperatures during spring and summer seasons reach upwards of 40°C , with humidity levels hovering around 30% during the same period...

, the last port city on the Mexican Gulf coast.
(A)
Battle of Las Vegas
Las Vegas Affair
The Las Vegas Affair or the Battle of Las Vegas was a battle of the Taos Revolt, fought in July 1847. It was initiated by American troops against New Mexican insurgents at the presidio town of Las Vegas during the Mexican-American War.-Background:...

July 6 New Mexican insurgents and United States soldiers fight at Las Vegas, New Mexico
Las Vegas, New Mexico
Las Vegas is a city in San Miguel County, New Mexico, United States. Once two separate municipalities both named Las Vegas, west Las Vegas and east Las Vegas , divided by the Gallinas River, retain distinct characters and separate, rival school districts. The population was 14,565 at the 2000...

.
(A)
Battle of Cienega Creek
Cienega Affair
The Cienega Affair, or the Battle of Cienega Creek, was the last engagement of the Taos Revolt during the Mexican-American War. The battle occurred in July, 1847 and was fought between New Mexican insurgents, Pueblo natives and United States Army troops.-Battle:On July 9, 1847 a detachment of...

July 9 New Mexicans and United States forces clash near Taos, New Mexico. (A)
Battle of Contreras
Battle of Contreras
The Battle of Contreras, also known as the Battle of Padierna, took place during August 19–20, 1847, in the final encounters of the Mexican-American War. In the Battle of Churubusco, fighting continued the following day.-Background:...

 (also known as Battle of Padierna)
August 19 Santa Anna fails to support the Mexican line at a critical moment; turns victory into rout. (A)
Battle of Churubusco
Battle of Churubusco
The Battle of Churubusco took place on August 20, 1847, in the immediate aftermath of the Battle of Contreras during the Mexican-American War. After defeating the Mexican army at Churubusco, the U.S. Army was only 5 miles away from Mexico City, the capital of the nation...

August 20 Regular Mexican troops and Saint Patrick's Battalion
Saint Patrick's Battalion
The Saint Patrick's Battalion , formed and led by Jon Riley, was a unit of 175 to several hundred immigrants and expatriates of European descent who fought as part of the Mexican Army against the United States in the Mexican-American War of 1846 to 1848. Most of the battalion's members had...

 under Manuel Rincón hold a fortified monastery against Winfield Scott; just over half of the San Patricios are killed or captured, the rest retreat with the rest of the Mexican forces in the area.
(A)
Battle of Molino del Rey
Battle of Molino del Rey
The Battle of Molino del Rey was one of the bloodiest engagements of the Mexican-American War. It was fought in September 1847 between Mexican forces under General Antonio Léon against an American force under General Winfield Scott at a hill called El Molino del Rey near Mexico City.-Background:On...

September 8 Americans lose nearly 800 men in an attempt to take a suspected cannon foundry: "They fell in platoons and companies." (A)
Battle of Chapultepec
Battle of Chapultepec
The Battle of Chapultepec, in September 1847, was a United States victory over Mexican forces holding Chapultepec Castle west of Mexico City during the Mexican-American War.-Background:On September 13, 1847, in the costly Battle of Molino del Rey, U.S...

September 13 Scott assaults Chapultepec Castle. Los Niños Héroes
Niños Héroes
The Niños Héroes , also known as the Heroic Cadets or Boy Soldiers, were six Mexican teenage military cadets. These cadets died defending Mexico at Mexico City's Chapultepec Castle from invading U.S. forces in the 13 September 1847 Battle of Chapultepec, during the Mexican–American War...

pass into legend. Some captured San Patricios members executed during the battle.
(A)
Battle for Mexico City
Battle for Mexico City
The Battle for Mexico City refers to the series of engagements from September 8 to September 15, 1847, in the general vicinity of Mexico City during the Mexican-American War...

September 13/14 Fierce fighting for Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

.
(A)
Siege of Puebla
Siege of Puebla
The Siege of Puebla began the same day Mexico City fell to Winfield Scott and lasted for 28 days when a relief force was able to fight its way into the city and lift the siege.-Background:...

September 14 Mexican forces begin the siege of Puebla, Puebla
Puebla, Puebla
The city and municipality of Puebla is the capital of the state of Puebla, and one of the five most important colonial cities in Mexico. Being a planned city, it is located to the east of Mexico City and west of Mexico's main port, Veracruz, on the main route between the two.The city was founded...

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Fall of Mexico City September 15 U.S. forces enter Mexico City. (A)
Battle of Mulegé
Battle of Mulege
The Battle of Mulegé was an American attack on Mulegé, Baja California Sur, during the Mexican-American War. On October 1, 1847, United States Marines and sailors fought with Mexican militia.-Background:...

October 2 Mexican forces led by Captain Manuel Pineda are defeated by a small detachment of American forces at Mulegé
Mulegé
Mulegé is an oasis town in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur, situated at the mouth of the Río de Santa Rosalía. It is the fourth-largest community in Mulegé Municipality...

, Baja California Sur
Baja California Sur
Baja California Sur , is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Before becoming a state on October 8, 1974, the area was known as the South Territory of Baja California. It has an area of , or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico and comprises...

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Battle of Huamantla
Battle of Huamantla
The Battle of Huamantla was a U.S. victory late in the Mexican-American War that forced the Mexican Army to lift the Siege of Puebla.-Background:...

October 9 U.S. relief column is able to reach Puebla. (A)
Siege of Puebla
Siege of Puebla
The Siege of Puebla began the same day Mexico City fell to Winfield Scott and lasted for 28 days when a relief force was able to fight its way into the city and lift the siege.-Background:...

October 12 Siege of Puebla lifted. (A)
Skirmish at Atlixco
Atlixco
Atlixco is a city and a municipality in the Mexican state of Puebla. It is located only 24 km south of the city of Puebla, yet it is 300 meters lower in altitude, at 1840 m. This drop in altitude causes a noticeable change in the weather of the city compared to the surrounding regions of the...

October 19 Also known as the "Atlixco Affair" (I)
Bombardment of Punta Sombrero
Bombardment of Punta Sombrero
The Bombardment of Punta Sombrero, was an American naval bombardment in response to a Mexican attack on a United States Navy warship which occurred during the Mexican-American War in October of 1847.-Background:...

October 31 United States Navy schooner USS Libertad silences Mexican shore batteries in the Sea of Cortez (A)
Battle of La Paz
Battle of La Paz
The Battle of La Paz was an engagement of the Pacific Coast Campaign during the Mexican-American War. The belligerents were United States Army troops against Mexican militia, commanded by Mexican Army officers...

November 16/17 A Mexican defeat at La Paz, Mexico (A)
Battle of San José del Cabo
Battle of San José del Cabo
The Battle of San José del Cabo was a military engagement of the Mexican-American War which took place on two November days in 1847, after the fall of Mexico City.-Background:...

November 20/21 Mexicans defeated by American forces at San José del Cabo
San José del Cabo
The city of San José del Cabo is located in Baja California Sur Mexico and is the seat of the municipality of Los Cabos at the south end of the Baja California peninsula. In the 2010 census it had a population of 69,788. Together with neighboring Cabo San Lucas it forms a major tourist destination...

(A)
Siege of La Paz
Siege of La Paz
The Siege of La Paz was a Mexican siege of their own city of La Paz in Baja California Sur. Mexican militia forces attempted to destroy the United States Army garrison, occupying the peninsular town...

November 27/December 8 A second Mexican attack on La Paz, Mexico ending in an American victory. (A)

1848

Battle Date Engagement remarks Result
Siege of San José del Cabo
Siege of San José del Cabo
The Siege of San José del Cabo, from January to February 1848, was a prolonged battle of the Mexican-American War in which Mexican militia besieged a smaller force of American marines, sailors and Californio militia...

January 22/February 14 A failed Mexican siege of San José del Cabo
San José del Cabo
The city of San José del Cabo is located in Baja California Sur Mexico and is the seat of the municipality of Los Cabos at the south end of the Baja California peninsula. In the 2010 census it had a population of 69,788. Together with neighboring Cabo San Lucas it forms a major tourist destination...

(A)
Battle of Santa Cruz de Rosales
Battle of Santa Cruz de Rosales
The Battle of Santa Cruz de Rosales was an engagement of the Mexican-American War that took place after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had been signed.-Background:...

March 16 Sterling Price
Sterling Price
Sterling Price was a lawyer, planter, and politician from the U.S. state of Missouri, who served as the 11th Governor of the state from 1853 to 1857. He also served as a United States Army brigadier general during the Mexican-American War, and a Confederate Army major general in the American Civil...

 advances into Chihuahua after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was already signed.
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Skirmish of Todos Santos March 31 Lt. Col. Henry S. Burton defeated Mexican forces in Baja California Sur
Baja California Sur
Baja California Sur , is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Before becoming a state on October 8, 1974, the area was known as the South Territory of Baja California. It has an area of , or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico and comprises...

 after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was already signed.
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From January to August Mexican partisans
Resistance movement
A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to opposing an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign state. It may seek to achieve its objects through either the use of nonviolent resistance or the use of armed force...

continued to resist the U.S. Army of Occupation. Formal fighting, however, had ceased by the end of January.