Ardabil Province

Ardabil Province

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Ardabil Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran
Provinces of Iran
Iran is subdivided into thirty one provinces , each governed from a local center, usually the largest local city, which is called the capital of that province...

. It is in the north west of the country, bordering the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

 and the provinces of East Azerbaijan, Zanjan
Zanjan Province
Zanjan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. Located in the North West of Iran, its capital is Zanjan city. Zanjan province with an area of 36,400 km² has a mostly rural, population of 964,601 . The province lies 330 km northwest of Tehran, connected to it via a freeway.Zanjan...

, and Gilan
Gilan Province
Gilan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It lies along the Caspian Sea, just west of the province of Mazandaran, east of the province of Ardabil, north of the provinces of Zanjan and Qazvin....

. Its centre is the city of Ardabil
Ardabil
Ardabil is a historical city in north-western Iran. The name Ardabil probably comes from the Zoroastrian name of "Artavil" which means a holy place. Ardabil is the center of Ardabil Province. At the 2006 census, its population was 412,669, in 102,818 families...

. The province was established in 1993 from the eastern part of East Azerbaijan and the northern part of Gilan.

Climate and geography


Many tourists come to the region for its cool climate (max 35 °C) during the hot summer months. The winters are bitter cold, with temperatures plummeting to -25°C.

Its famous natural region is the Sabalan
Sabalan
Sabalan is an inactive stratovolcano in Ardabil province of northwestern Iran. It is the third highest mountain in Iran with a permanent crater lake formed at its summit. Sabalan has a ski resort and different tourist areas such as the Sarein spa...

 mountains. The population of Ardabil province is mainly composed of Azeris, Talysh, Tats
Tats
Tats are an Iranian people, presently living within Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Russia ....

  and Persians
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

. The province is considered the coldest province in Iran by many. Large parts of the province are green and forested.

Famous athletes such as Ali Daei
Ali Daei
Ali Daei is an Iranian retired football player and former national team coach who currently manages a local Iranian team, Rah Ahan. He is a former captain of the Iran national football team, and is the world's all-time leading goalscorer in international matches...

 and Hossein Rezazade are originally from Ardabil.

Ardabil's capital stands about 70 km from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. The sea has a surface area of and a volume of...

 and has an area of 18011 km². Neighbouring the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. The sea has a surface area of and a volume of...

 and the Republic of Azerbaijan, the city is of great political and economic significance.
The province has been blessed with splendid natural beauty and numerous sights.

History


The natural features of the province of Ardabil are mentioned in the Avesta
Avesta
The Avesta is the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the Avestan language.-Early transmission:The texts of the Avesta — which are all in the Avestan language — were composed over the course of several hundred years. The most important portion, the Gathas,...

, according to which Zoroaster
Zoroaster
Zoroaster , also known as Zarathustra , was a prophet and the founder of Zoroastrianism who was either born in North Western or Eastern Iran. He is credited with the authorship of the Yasna Haptanghaiti as well as the Gathas, hymns which are at the liturgical core of Zoroastrianism...

 was born by the river Aras
Aras
Aras may refer to:*Aras , an autochthon in Greek mythology, father of Araethyrea and Aoris*ARAS, the Ascending Reticular Activating System*ARAS, the Archive for Research in Archetypal Symbolism...

 and wrote his book in the Sabalan
Sabalan
Sabalan is an inactive stratovolcano in Ardabil province of northwestern Iran. It is the third highest mountain in Iran with a permanent crater lake formed at its summit. Sabalan has a ski resort and different tourist areas such as the Sarein spa...

 Mountains. During the Islamic conquest of Iran, Ardabil was the largest city in Azarbaijan, and remained so until the Mongol invasion period.

Shah Ismail I
Ismail I
Ismail I , known in Persian as Shāh Ismāʿil , was a Shah of Iran and the founder of the Safavid dynasty which survived until 1736. Isma'il started his campaign in Azerbaijan in 1500 as the leader of the Safaviyya, an extremist heterodox Twelver Shi'i militant religious order and unified all of Iran...

 started his campaign to nationalize Iran's government and land from here, but consequently announced Tabriz
Tabriz
Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former...

 as his capital in 1500CE. Yet Ardabil remained an important city both politically and economically until modern times.

Administrative divisions


The province is divided into 9 counties
Counties of Iran
The provinces of Iran further subdivided into counties called shahrestan , an area inside an ostan, and consists of a city centre, few bakhsh and many villages around them. There are usually a few cities and rural agglomerations in each county. Rural agglomerations are a collection of a number...

: Ardabil
Ardabil County
Ardabil County is a county in Ardabil Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Ardabil. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 542,930, in 131,950 families, excluding those portions, the population was 525,733, in 128,013 families. The county has two districts: the Central...

, Bilasavar
Bilasavar County
Bilasavar County is a county in Ardabil Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Bileh Savar. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 54,471, in 11,700 families. The county contains two districts: the Central District and Qeshlaq Dasht District...

, Germi
Germi County
Germi County is a county in Ardabil Province in Iran.It placed in north of Ardabil city. The capital of the county is Germi. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 89,248, in 18,710 families. The county is divided into three districts: Anguti District, the Central District, and Muran...

, Khalkhal, Kowsar
Kowsar County
Kowsar County is a county in Ardabil Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Kivi. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 27,472, in 6,085 families. The county consists of two districts: the Central District and Firuz District. The county has one city: Kivi.-References:* اطلس...

, Meshginshahr
Meshginshahr County
Meshgin Shahr County is a county in Ardabil Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Meshgin Shahr. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 156,141, in 36,470 families. The county is divided into four districts: Arshaq District, the Central District, Meshgin Sharqi District, and...

, Namin
Namin County
Namin County is a county in Ardabil Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Namin. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 59,242, in 13,682 families. The county has three districts: the Central District, Anbaran District, and Vilkij District...

, Nir
Nir County
Nir County is a county in Ardabil Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Nir. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 23,573, in 5,411 families. The county consists of two districts: the Central District and Kuraim District. The county has two cities: Nir and Kuraim.-References:*...

, and Parsabad
Parsabad County
Parsabad County is a county in Ardabil Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Parsabad. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 164,576, in 34,456 families. The county has three districts: the Central District, Tazeh Kand District, and Aslan Duz District...

.
Ardabil Province counties

Culture



Ardabil is the seat of the sanctuary and tomb of Shaikh Safî ad-Dîn, eponym
Eponym
An eponym is the name of a person or thing, whether real or fictitious, after which a particular place, tribe, era, discovery, or other item is named or thought to be named...

 of the Safavid Dynasty
Safavid dynasty
The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires since the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning...

 Kulliye
Kulliye
Kollyaii refers to the regions Songhor سنقر and Koliai . Kollyaii is a mountainous county in Kermanshah Province, which is in the west of Iran. According to 1996 census, Sonqor had a population of 112,214. It consists of two districts: the central district and nine townships...

.
It has many hot springs and beautiful natural landscapes and these attract tourists. The mineral springs of Ardabil are Beele-Darreh, Sareyn
Sareyn
Sareyn is a city in and the capital of Sareyn County, in Ardabil Province, Iran. Sareyn is known for its hot springs. The population is about 8000, and increases to more than 20000 in the summer because of the many tourists who go there due to the charming climate. It stands 28 km from...

, Sardabeh and Booshloo, which are famed throughout Iran for their medicinal qualities.
It also has many beauty lakes: the largest of which are Ne'or, Shoorabil, ShoorGel, NouShahr and Alooche, which are the habitats of some species of water birds.

The beautiful Lake Ne'or is located in a mountainous area 48 km south-east of the city of Ardabil. It covers an area of 2.1 km² and has an average depth of 3 metres. It is fed by springs in the lake bed. Lake Shoorabil is located in a hilly area south of the city of Ardabil and covers an area of 640,000 m². The surface of the lake is covered with a thin white layer of minerals, which is useful for healing skin diseases and rheumatism. Near the lake there is the leisure complex of Shoorabil.
Ardabil is a city of great antiquity. Its origins go back 4000 to 6000 years (according to historical research in this city). This city was the capital of Azerbaijan province in different times, but its golden age was in the Safavid period.

One of the most ancient cities in Iran is Meshkin Shahr. It is located in the north-west of Iran in Azerbaijan, 839 kilometers from Tehran. It is the closest city to the Sabalan mountains. In the past, it was called "Khiav", "Orami", and "Varavi".

The most important places to visit in the district of Meshkin Shahr are the following :
- The hot water springs of Moiel , Eelando and Qaynarja, located in the suburb of the city.
- Qara Soo River Sides.
- The spring of Qotur Suie, located 42 kilometers from Meshkin shahr.
- The old Castle of Meshkin Shahr.
- Qahqaheh castle, located 80 kilometers from Meshkin Shahr.
- Deev castle, located in Kavij.
- The petrograph of Shapour Sasani in Meshkin Shahr.
- The old cemetery in Oonar.
- The tomb of Sheykh Haydar in Meshkin Shahr.
- Imamzadeh Seyyed Soleyman.

The other significant historical monuments are as follows: the mausoleum of Sheikh Jebra'il, located 2 km north of Ardabil, the old but always lively bazaar, the babadavood anbaran, the Friday mosque, and a few ancient bridges. In addition to these, in many villages of Ardabil, relics of ancient monuments, including tombs, have been found.

Colleges and universities

  1. Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
    Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
    Ardabil University of Medical Sciences , is a medical university in Ardabil Province of Iran.Located in north-west of Iran in the city of Ardabil, the university was established in 1993...

  2. Mohaghegh Ardabili University
    Mohaghegh Ardabili University
    Mohaghegh Ardabili University is a university in Ardabil Province of Iran.Established in 1978 as "The Agricultural Institute" under the supervision of Tabriz University, it became independent in 1996 as a separate university.The university currently offers 79 degrees in 5 colleges....

  3. Islamic Azad University of Ardabil
  4. Payam Noor University of Ardabil
  5. Soureh University of Ardabil
  6. Islamic Azad University of Khalkhal


Language


The language of Ardebil province is Azeri, a branch of Altaic Languages. It is predominently spoken among people of Ardebil and adjasent provinces like Tabriz, Zanjan, Urmia and so on.

Azeri [8] or Turki[9][10] is a language belonging to the Turkic language family, spoken in southwestern Asia, primarily in Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran. Azerbaijani is member of the Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages and is closely related to Turkish, Qashqai and Turkmen.
Today′s Azeri languages evolved from the Eastern Oghuz branch of Western (Oghuz) Turkic[11] which spread to Southwestern Asia during medieval Turkic migrations, and has been heavily influenced by Persian.[12] Arabic also influenced the language, but Arabic words were mainly transmitted through the intermediary of literary Persian.[13]

Azerbaijani gradually supplanted the old Iranian languages in what is now northern Iran (most notably the Tat, Azari, and Middle Persian varieties), and a variety of Caucasian languages in the Caucasus, particularly Udi. By the end of the 17th century, it had become the dominant language of the region, and was a spoken language in the court of the Safavid Empire. However, minorities in both Azerbaijan and Iran continue to speak the earlier Iranian languages to this day, and Middle- and Modern Persian loanwords are numerous in the Azerbaijani language.

Rashidi categorizes The historical development of Azeri Language into two major periods: early (ca. 16th to 18th century) and modern (18th century to present). Azerbaijani differs from its descendant in that it contained a much greater amount of Persian, and Arabic loanwords, phrases and syntactic elements. Early writings in Azerbaijani also demonstrate linguistic interchangeability between Oghuz and Kypchak elements in many aspects (such as pronouns, case endings, participles, etc.). As Azerbaijani gradually moved from being merely a language of epic and lyric poetry to being also a language of journalism and scientific research, its literary version has become more or less unified and simplified with the loss of many archaic Turkic elements, stilted Iranisms and Ottomanisms, and other words, expressions, and rules that failed to gain popularity among Azerbaijani-speaking masses.

Between ca. 1900 and 1930, there were several competing approaches to the unification of the national language in Azerbaijan popularized by the literati. Despite major differences, they all aimed primarily at making it easy for semi-literate masses to read and understand literature. They all criticized the overuse of Persian, Arabic, Ottoman Turkish, and European (mainly Russian) elements in both colloquial and literary language and called for a more simple and popular style.

External links