Tabriz

Tabriz

Overview
Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River
Aji Chay
Aji Chay , or Talkheh-Rūd, is a river in north-western Iran. Most of it is situated in the East Azerbaijan Province.Its water is alkali due to passing from the lands with high mineralization. It is the largest river that discharges into Lake Urmia. It arises above Sarab from the slopes of Mount...

, it was the second largest city in Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 until the late 1960s, one of its former capitals, and residence of the crown prince under the Qajar dynasty. The city has proven extremely influential in the country’s recent history.
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Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River
Aji Chay
Aji Chay , or Talkheh-Rūd, is a river in north-western Iran. Most of it is situated in the East Azerbaijan Province.Its water is alkali due to passing from the lands with high mineralization. It is the largest river that discharges into Lake Urmia. It arises above Sarab from the slopes of Mount...

, it was the second largest city in Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 until the late 1960s, one of its former capitals, and residence of the crown prince under the Qajar dynasty. The city has proven extremely influential in the country’s recent history. Tabriz is located in a valley to the north of the long ridge of the volcanic cone of Sahand
Sahand
Sahand is a massive, heavily eroded stratovolcano in northwestern Iran. At , it is the highest mountain in the Iranian province of East Azarbaijan....

, south of the Eynali
Eynali
Eynali is a small mountain range in north of Tabriz, Iran. The range has a couple of peaks including Eynali , Halileh , Pakeh-chin , Bahlul and the highest one Dand . It has red soil and it is seen from everywhere in Tabriz...

 mountain. The valley opens out into a plain that slopes gently down to the northern end of Lake Urmia
Lake Urmia
Lake Urmia , ancient name: Lake Matiene) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran, near Iran's border with Turkey. The lake is between the Iranian provinces of East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea...

, 60 km to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers the city is considered a summer resort.

The estimated population of the city is around 1,400,000 based on results of the Iranian census bureau. Tabriz is the fourth most populous city in Iran after Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

, Mashhad
Mashhad
Mashhad , is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shia Muslim world. It is also the only major Iranian city with an Arabic name. It is located east of Tehran, at the center of the Razavi Khorasan Province close to the borders of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Its...

, and Esfahan, and is also a major Iranian heavy industrial and manufacturing center. Some of these industries include automobile, machine tools, oil and petrochemical and cement production.

With a rich history, Tabriz contains many historical monuments, but repeated devastating earthquakes and several invasions during frequent wars have substantially damaged many of them. Many monuments in the city date back to the Ilkhanid, Safavid
Safavid dynasty
The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires since the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning...

, and Qajar
Qajar dynasty
The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

 periods, with the large Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex being named as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 in 2010. In addition to all of this there is an excavation site and museum in the city center with a history that dates back to 2500 years.

History



Early accounts


The early history of Tabriz is not yet known very well. Some archeologist suggested that Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
The Garden of Eden is in the Bible's Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man, Adam, and his wife, Eve, lived after they were created by God. Literally, the Bible speaks about a garden in Eden...

 must have been located in Tabriz. Mentioned for the first time in Assyrian King Sargon II
Sargon II
Sargon II was an Assyrian king. Sargon II became co-regent with Shalmaneser V in 722 BC, and became the sole ruler of the kingdom of Assyria in 722 BC after the death of Shalmaneser V. It is not clear whether he was the son of Tiglath-Pileser III or a usurper unrelated to the royal family...

's epigraph in 714 B.C., Tabriz was the capital of several rulers starting with Atropates
Atropates
Atropates was a Persian nobleman who served Darius III, then Alexander III of Macedon, and eventually founded an independent kingdom and dynasty that was named after him...

 and his dynasty.

A recent excavation at site of the Iron Age museum
Iron Age museum
The Iron Age Museum is a museum in Tabriz, north-western Iran, which covers an area of 28,290 m². It is located on the north, northwest and northeast of the Blue Mosque, situated under the several sediments and geological strata from the floor of the existing mosque.-History :Through the...

 in the northeastern part of the Blue Mosque connected the history of civilization in the city to the first millennium B.C. It is more likely that the city was destroyed several times either by natural disasters or by invaders.

The Cambridge History of Iran
The Cambridge History of Iran
The Cambridge history of Iran is a multi-volume survey of Iranian history published by Cambridge University Press . The seven volumes cover "the history and historical geography of the land which is present-day Iran, as well as other territories inhabited by peoples of Iranian descent, from...

claims that current Tabriz was founded at the time of the early Sassanids in the 3rd or 4th century AD or, more probably, in the 7th century.

From the Muslim conquest to Qajars


After the conquest of Iran by Muslims, the Arabic Azd tribe from Yemen resided in Tabriz and development of post-Islamic Tabriz began as of this time. The Islamic geographer Yaqut says that Tabriz was a village before Rawwad from the tribe of Azd arrive at Tabriz. In 791 AD, Zubaidah, the wife of Abbasid
Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

 caliph Harun al-Rashid, rebuilt Tabriz after a devastating earthquake and beautified the city so much as to obtain the credit for having been its founder.

After the Mongol invasion, Tabriz came to eclipse Maragheh
Maragheh
Maragheh also Romanized as Marāgheh and Marāghen) is a city in and the capital of Maragheh County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 146,405, in 38,891 families....

 as the later Ilkhanid capital of Azerbaijan until it was sacked by Timur
Timur
Timur , historically known as Tamerlane in English , was a 14th-century conqueror of West, South and Central Asia, and the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia, and great-great-grandfather of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty, which survived as the Mughal Empire in India until...

 in 1392. Chosen as a capital by Abaqa Khan
Abaqa Khan
Abaqa Khan , also Abaga , or Abagha Khan, was the second Mongol ruler of the Persian Ilkhanate. The son of Hulagu Khan and Yesuncin Khatun, he reigned from 1265–1282 and was succeeded by his brother Tekuder Khan...

, fourth ruler of the Ilkhanate, for its favored location in the northwestern grasslands, in 1295, his successor Ghazan Khan made it the chief administrative center of an empire stretching from Anatolia
Anatolia
Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

 to the Oxus River and from the Caucasus
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

 to the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded on the north by the Indian Subcontinent and Arabian Peninsula ; on the west by eastern Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, and...

. Under his rule new walls were built around the city, and numerous public buildings, educational facilities, and caravansarais were erected to serve traders traveling on the ancient Silk Road
Silk Road
The Silk Road or Silk Route refers to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa...

. The Byzantine
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

 Gregory Choniades
Gregory Choniades
Gregory Choniades was a Byzantine Greek astronomer. He travelled to Persia where he learnt Persian mathematical and astronomical science which he introduced into Byzantium upon return from Persia and founded an astronomical academy at Trebizond...

 is said to have served as the city's Orthodox bishop during this time.
Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant traveler from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, travelled through Asia and apparently...

 who traveled though the silk road passed Tabriz about 1275 describe it as:
"...a great city surrounded by beautiful and pleasant gardens. It is excellently situated so the goods bring to here from many regions. Latin merchants specially Genevis go there to buy the goods that come from foreign lands..."


During the Middle Ages, a Jewish community existed in the town. In the 16th century a Jewish Yemenite traveler to the town described the deteriorating conditions of Jewish life there. From 1375 to 1468, Tabriz was the capital of Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans , were a Shi'ite Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising the present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, north-western Iran, eastern Turkey and Iraq from about 1375 to 1468.The Kara Koyunlu Turkomans at one...

 state in Azerbaijan, and from 1469 to 1501 the capital of Ak Koyunlu
Ak Koyunlu
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans , was an Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled parts of present-day Eastern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, northern Iraq, and Iran from 1378 to 1508.-History:According to chronicles from the Byzantine Empire, the Aq Qoyunlu...

 state. Some of the existing historical monuments including Blue Mosque
Blue Mosque
Blue Mosque may refer to:* Blue Mosque, Tabriz, Iran, 1465* Rawze-e-Sharif, Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan, 1512* Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey, 1616* Blue Mosque, Yerevan, Armenia, 1766* Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque, Shah Alam, Malaysia, 1982...

 are belonged to Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans , were a Shi'ite Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising the present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, north-western Iran, eastern Turkey and Iraq from about 1375 to 1468.The Kara Koyunlu Turkomans at one...

 period.

In 1501, Shah Ismail I entered Tabriz and proclaimed it the capital of his Safavid state. In 1514, after the Battle of Chaldiran
Battle of Chaldiran
The Battle of Chaldiran or Chaldoran occurred on 23 August 1514 and ended with a victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire of Persia . As a result, the Ottomans gained immediate control over eastern Anatolia and northern Iraq...

, Tabriz was temporarily occupied by the Ottomans, but remained the capital of Safavid Iranian empire
Safavid dynasty
The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires since the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning...

 until 1548, when Shah Tahmasp I transferred it to Qazvin
Qazvin
Qazvin is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 349,821, in 96,420 families....

.

Between 1585 and 1603, Tabriz was occupied by the Ottomans
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 but was then returned to the Safavids after which it grew as a major commercial center, conducting trade with the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

, and India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. In 1724–1725 the city was again occupied by the Ottomans, and two hundred thousand of its inhabitants were massacared. The city was retaken later by the Iranian army. In 1780, a devastating earthquake near the city killed over 200,000 which is regarded as 25th most deadly disaster of all times. Between 1790 and 1797, Jews in Tabriz were accused of a blood libel and massacred. By 1828, the Jewish community in Tabriz had ceased to exist.

The city was captured by Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 in 1826 after a series of battles but the Iranian army retook Tabriz in 1828. Tabriz was the residence for the Crown Prince during the Qajar Dynasty.

During Qajar dynasty Tabriz was the residence of the crown prince of Iran who often served as governor of Azerbaijan province. In the early 19th century and after the Russo-Persian War, Abbas Mirza
Abbas Mirza
Prince, Field-Marshal Abbas Mirza born Amol city , was a Qajar crown prince of Persia. He developed a reputation as a military commander during wars with Russia and the Ottoman Empire, as an early modernizer of Persia's armed forces and institutions, and for his death before his father, Fath Ali...

, a Qajar Prince and the governor of Azerbaijan, launched a modernization scheme from Tabriz. He introduced Western-style institutions, imported industrial machinery, installed the first regular postal service, and undertook military reforms. He rebuilt the city and established a modern taxation system.

Contemporary age


Thanks to closeness to the west and to communications with nearby countries' enlightenment movements, Tabriz became the center of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution
Iranian Constitutional Revolution
The Persian Constitutional Revolution or Iranian Constitutional Revolution took place between 1905 and 1907...

. This made Tabriz a major centre for Iranian Constitutional Revolutionary movements between 1905 and 1911, which led to the establishment of a parliament in Iran. Sattar Khan
Sattar Khan
Sattar Khan Sattar Khan Sattar Khan (Persian/Azeri: ستارخان, ; (October 20, 1866—November 17, 1914), honorarily titled Sardār-e Melli was a pivotal figure in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution and is one of the greatest heroes of Iran.Sattar Khan,...

 and Bagher Khan
Bagher Khan
Bāqer Khān , honorarily titled Sālār-e Melli , was one of the key figures in the Persian Constitutional Revolution.-Notes:...

 two Tabrizi reformists who led Tabriz people's solidarity had a great role in achievement of this revolution.
After World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the Soviets set up the communist Azerbaijan People's Government
Azerbaijan People's Government
The Azerbaijan People's Government was a short-lived, Soviet-backed client state in northern Iran. Established in Iranian Azerbaijan, the APG's capital was the city of Tabriz...

 in north-west Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 with its capital at Tabriz. The new communist government, under the leadership of Ja'far Pishevari, held power for a year from 1946, after which Tabriz returned to Iran after the forced Soviet withdrawal.

Capital of Iran


Tabriz served as capital of several rulers starting with Atropates
Atropates
Atropates was a Persian nobleman who served Darius III, then Alexander III of Macedon, and eventually founded an independent kingdom and dynasty that was named after him...

. It was capital of Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate , was a Mongol khanate established in Azerbaijan and Persia in the 13th century, considered a part of the Mongol Empire...

 dynasty since 1265, but it was during Ghazan Khan who came to power on 1295 the city reached to its highest splendour. The later realm stretched from Amu Darya
Amu Darya
The Amu Darya , also called Oxus and Amu River, is a major river in Central Asia. It is formed by the junction of the Vakhsh and Panj rivers...

 in the East to the Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 borders in the West and from the Caucasus
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

 in the North to the Indian ocean in the South. It was again capital of Iran during Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans , were a Shi'ite Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising the present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, north-western Iran, eastern Turkey and Iraq from about 1375 to 1468.The Kara Koyunlu Turkomans at one...

 dynasty from 1375 until 1468, then during Ak Koyunlu
Ak Koyunlu
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans , was an Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled parts of present-day Eastern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, northern Iraq, and Iran from 1378 to 1508.-History:According to chronicles from the Byzantine Empire, the Aq Qoyunlu...

 within 1468–1501. Finally, it was capital of the Iranian Empire within the Safavid
Safavid dynasty
The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires since the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning...

 period from 1501 until their defeat in 1514
Battle of Chaldiran
The Battle of Chaldiran or Chaldoran occurred on 23 August 1514 and ended with a victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire of Persia . As a result, the Ottomans gained immediate control over eastern Anatolia and northern Iraq...

.

During the Qajar dynasty, Tabriz was residence of Iranian Crown Prince (1794–1925).

Excavation sites


In 2002, during a construction project at the north side of the Blue Mosque (Part of Silk Road
Silk Road
The Silk Road or Silk Route refers to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa...

 Project), an ancient graveyard was revealed. This was kept secret until a construction worker alerted the authorities. Radiocarbon analysis by Allameh Tabatabi University has shown the background of the graves to be more than 3800 years old. A museum of these excavations including the Blue Mosque
Blue Mosque
Blue Mosque may refer to:* Blue Mosque, Tabriz, Iran, 1465* Rawze-e-Sharif, Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan, 1512* Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey, 1616* Blue Mosque, Yerevan, Armenia, 1766* Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque, Shah Alam, Malaysia, 1982...

 was opened to public in 2006.

There is another excavation in Abbasi Street at site of Rab'-e Rashidi
Rab'-e Rashidi
Rab'-e Rashidi was an academic complex back in 13th century and during Ilkhanid dynasty. During its long history much damage happened, by natural disasters or during its reconstruction. Most of the structure covered by 6 meters depth of soil and dust...

. This academic institution dates from more than 700 years ago and was established in Ilkhanid period.

Topography


Tabriz is located in northwest of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 in East Azerbaijan province between Eynali
Eynali
Eynali is a small mountain range in north of Tabriz, Iran. The range has a couple of peaks including Eynali , Halileh , Pakeh-chin , Bahlul and the highest one Dand . It has red soil and it is seen from everywhere in Tabriz...

 and Sahand
Sahand
Sahand is a massive, heavily eroded stratovolcano in northwestern Iran. At , it is the highest mountain in the Iranian province of East Azarbaijan....

 mountains in a fertile area in shore of Aji River
Aji Chay
Aji Chay , or Talkheh-Rūd, is a river in north-western Iran. Most of it is situated in the East Azerbaijan Province.Its water is alkali due to passing from the lands with high mineralization. It is the largest river that discharges into Lake Urmia. It arises above Sarab from the slopes of Mount...

 and Ghuri River.
The local area is earthquake-prone and during its history, the city has been devastated and rebuilt several times.

Climate


Tabriz has a semi-arid climate climate with regular season
Season
A season is a division of the year, marked by changes in weather, ecology, and hours of daylight.Seasons result from the yearly revolution of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's axis relative to the plane of revolution...

s (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 BSk). The annual precipitation is around 380 millimetres (15 in), a good deal of which falls as snow
Snow
Snow is a form of precipitation within the Earth's atmosphere in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. Since snow is composed of small ice particles, it is a granular material. It has an open and therefore soft structure, unless packed by...

 during the winter
Winter
Winter is the coldest season of the year in temperate climates, between autumn and spring. At the winter solstice, the days are shortest and the nights are longest, with days lengthening as the season progresses after the solstice.-Meteorology:...

 months and rain
Rain
Rain is liquid precipitation, as opposed to non-liquid kinds of precipitation such as snow, hail and sleet. Rain requires the presence of a thick layer of the atmosphere to have temperatures above the melting point of water near and above the Earth's surface...

 in spring
Spring (season)
Spring is one of the four temperate seasons, the transition period between winter and summer. Spring and "springtime" refer to the season, and broadly to ideas of rebirth, renewal and regrowth. The specific definition of the exact timing of "spring" varies according to local climate, cultures and...

 and autumn
Autumn
Autumn is one of the four temperate seasons. Autumn marks the transition from summer into winter usually in September or March when the arrival of night becomes noticeably earlier....

. The city enjoys mild and fine climate in spring, dry and semi-hot in summer, humid and rainy in autumn and snowy cold in winter. The average annual temperature is 13oC. Cool winds blow from east to west mostly in summer.

Air pollution


Due to appearance of modern industries especially chemical industries in west of the city, air pollution level increases continuously since second half of twentieth century. However according to the efforts by industries and new limiting environmental national code the level of industrial pollution decreased,yet still the reports are illustrating main reasons for air pollution as: vehicles and major factories like oil refineries, chemical and petrochemical
Petrochemical
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane....

 factories. According to research, 558,167 tons of pollutants are produced everyday in Tabriz.

Governance



City authority lies with the mayor, who is elected by a municipal board. The municipal board is periodically elected by the city residents.
Municipality of Tabriz is used as the Municipal central office.

Districts


The city is divided into 10 municipal districts each of them includes couple of old neighborhoods of city. Following shows a list of old districts of the city.

  • Ahrab (اهراب)
  • Akhmaqaya (آخماقيه)
  • َAmiraqiz (اميراقيز)
  • Bahar (باهار)
  • Baghmasha (باغ‌مئشه)
  • Baghshoumal (باغ‌شومال)
  • Baron Avak
    Baron Avak
    Baron Avak is the name of a quarter at the city center of Tabriz, Iran, where mostly Armenians and other Christians of Tabriz live. Famous churches of Tabriz like Catholic Church of Tabriz and other Christian organizations are located in Baron Avak district....

     (Barnava) (بارناوا، بارون‌آواك)
  • Bazaar (بازار)
  • Beylanki (Beylankooh)(بيلانكي)
  • Charandab (چرنداب)

  • Chousdouzan (چوس‌دوزان)
  • Davachi (Shotorban) (ده‌وه‌چي)
  • Gadjil (گجيل)
  • Gazran (Re. Khayyam) (گزران)
  • Imamieh
    Imamieh
    Imamieh is a suburb of Tabriz, Iran found in the southern part of the city. It is famous for its cemetery where Samad Behrangi has been buried.-Photo gallery:- External links :* Iranian Student's Tourism & Traveling Agency, ISTTA. ,...

     (اماميه)
  • Hokmavar (حكم‌آوار)
  • Kouchebagh (كوچه‌باغ)
  • Khatib (hatib) (خطيب، حطيب)
  • Khayyam (خيام)
  • Khiyavan (خياوان)
  • Laklar (لك‌لر)

  • Lalah (لاله)
  • Manzariya (منظريه)
  • Maghsoudia (مقصوديه)
  • Maralan
    Maralan
    Maralan, is an historic district in the southeastern part of Tabriz. The north neighborhood of this district is Khiyavan, from the south to the yellow fields and Yanyq daghi hills, from the East to gardens of Khiyavan, Kazan daghi and shor kol, from the West Side neighborhood with Nobar...

     (مارالان)
  • Nobar (نوبر)
  • Qara-aghach (قره‌آغاج)
  • Qaramalik (قره‌مليك)
  • Rastakucha (راستاكوچه)

  • Sarlak (سرلك)
  • Selab (سئلاب)
  • Shamghazan (شام‌غازان)
  • Shah-goli (شاه‌گؤلي، شاه‌گؤلو)
  • Sheshghelan
    Sheshghelan
    Sheshghelan is name of a suburb at the city center of Tabriz. It is one of the oldest quarters of the city which includes some historical houses and monuments.Main monuments of Sheshghelan are:*Maqbaratoshoara*Amir Nezam House...

     (ششگلان)
  • Sirkhab (سيرخاب)
  • Tapalibagh (تپلي‌باغ)
  • Vardjibashi (Vidjooya) (ورجي‌باشي، ويجويه)


Demographics



According to official census of 2006, the population of Tabriz is about 1,400,000. The majority of the city's population are Iranian Azeris. Persians
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

, Armenians and Assyrian
Assyrian people
The Assyrian people are a distinct ethnic group whose origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia...

s form sizable minorities.

Language



Today, the predominant language spoken in Tabriz is Azerbaijani Turkic
Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani or Azeri or Torki is a language belonging to the Turkic language family, spoken in southwestern Asia by the Azerbaijani people, primarily in Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran...

, which belongs to the Turkic languages
Turkic languages
The Turkic languages constitute a language family of at least thirty five languages, spoken by Turkic peoples across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family.Turkic languages are spoken...

 family. Azeri is a member of Oghuz branch of Turkic language, and it is closely related to Turkish
Turkish language
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

 and Turkmeni. The modern Azeri language is evolved from the Eastern Oghuz dialect of Western (Oghuz
Oghuz Turks
The Turkomen also known as Oghuz Turks were a historical Turkic tribal confederation in Central Asia during the early medieval Turkic expansion....

) Turkic, which spread to Southwestern Asia during medieval Turkic migrations and was heavily influenced by Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 and Arabic. Classical literature in Azeri was formed in 14th century, based on the Tabrizi and Shirvan
Shirvan
Shirvan , also spelled as Shirwan, Shervan, Sherwan and Šervān, is a historical region in the eastern Caucasus, known by this name in both Islamic and modern times...

i dialects, which were used by classical Azeri poets and writers such as Nasimi, Fuzuli and Khatai. Most inhabitants also speak the Persian language
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

, which is the official language of Iran and the sole language of education.

Before the expansion of Turko-Mongol peoples in the area, Iranian languages
Iranian languages
The Iranian languages form a subfamily of the Indo-Iranian languages which in turn is a subgroup of Indo-European language family. They have been and are spoken by Iranian peoples....

 were spoken in Tabriz, Azerbaijan. and pre-dominated till the 15th century. The 13th century manuscript Safina-yi Tabriz
Safina-yi Tabriz
Safīna-yi Tabriz is an important encyclopedic manuscript from 14th century Ilkhanid Iran compiled by Abu'l Majd Muhammad b. Mas'ud Tabrizi between 1321 and 1323....

 has poems in what its Tabriz-born author has called the Tabrizi language (Zaban-e-Tabrizi). Samples of the Tabrizi dialect of the wider Old Azari language include quatrains recorded in Tabrizi dialect by Abd al-Qadir Maraghi
Abd al-Qadir Maraghi
Abd al-Qadir al-Maraghi b. Ghaybi ), was a Persian musician and artist. According to the Encyclopedia of Islam, he was the greatest of the Persian writers on music.-Life:...

, phrases from Baba Faraji Tabrizi and poems in Tabrizi in the Safina-yi Tabriz
Safina-yi Tabriz
Safīna-yi Tabriz is an important encyclopedic manuscript from 14th century Ilkhanid Iran compiled by Abu'l Majd Muhammad b. Mas'ud Tabrizi between 1321 and 1323....

, and poetry from Homam Tabrizi, Mama Esmat Tabrizi, Maghrebi Tabrizi and others. Before the Safavid revolution, Tabriz was predominantly a Shafi'ite and Sunni city.

Religion


The majority of people are followers of Shia Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

. Some Assyrian
Assyrian people
The Assyrian people are a distinct ethnic group whose origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia...

s live in Tabriz and have their own churches and organizations. There used to be a small Jewish community, but most of them have moved to Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

.

Culture and art



Literature


The music and folk songs of Tabriz are popular, and traditions have a long history. The prominent Iranian Azeri poet Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar was born in Tabriz. The handicrafts in the Bazaar of Tabriz
Bazaar of Tabriz
The Bazaar of Tabriz is one of the oldest bazaars of the Middle East and the largest covered bazar in the world. It was inscribed as World Heritage Site by UNESCO in July 2010....

, and in particular the Tabriz rug
Tabriz rug
A Tabriz rug/carpet is a type in the general category of Persian carpets from the city of Tabriz, the capital city of East Azarbaijan Province in north west of Iran. It is one of the oldest rug weaving centers and makes a huge diversity of types of carpets...

, are famous worldwide. The culture, social values, language and the music is a mixture of what exists in rest of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

.

Tabriz also has a special place in Persian literature
Persian literature
Persian literature spans two-and-a-half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. Its sources have been within historical Persia including present-day Iran as well as regions of Central Asia where the Persian language has historically been the national language...

, as the following sample of verses from some of Iran's best poets and authors illustrates:


ساربانا بار بگشا ز اشتران

شهر تبريز است و کوی دلبران

Oh Sārbān, have camels' cargo unloaded,

For Tabriz is neighborhood of the beloved.

Molana
Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi
Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Balkhī , also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Rūmī and popularly known as Mevlānā in Turkey and Mawlānā in Iran and Afghanistan but known to the English-speaking world simply as Rumi was a 13th-century Persian Muslim poet, jurist, theologian, and Sufi mystic...



عزیزی در اقصای تبریز بود

که همواره بیدار و شبخیز بود

A beloved lived in Tabriz away from sight,

who was always alert and awake at night

Bustan of Sadi
تا به تبریزم دو چیزم حاصل است

نیم نان و آب مهران رود و بس

As long as I live in Tabriz, two things I need not worry of,

The half loaf of bread and the water of Mehranrud [river] are enough!

Khaqani

اين ارك بلند شهر تبريز است

افراشته قامتِ رسايش را

This is the tall Arg of Tabriz City,

Raised it's outstanding height there!

Maftun
Yadollah Maftun Amini
Yadollah Maftun Amini is an Iranian poet.-His life:Yadollah Amini known as Maftun was born in 1926 in Shahindezh near to Tabriz. After completing primary and secondary school in his hometown, he moved to Tehran...





Music


The professional music of Azeri people are divided into two "distinct types", the music of "ashyg" and the "mugam". Mugam "is not common" among Iranian Azeris, who "prefer the School of Tabriz".

On the other hand, the music of the ashyg is found in most places in northwestern Iran and particularly in Tabriz, Maraghe, Khoy, and Orumïye (Rezaye). In Iran, the primarily distinct styles of Mugam and the music of the ashyg "still share common characteristics" including "the initial range, which is restricted to a pentachord (jins), readily identifiable modes, melodic lines consisting predominantly of sequential notes, time signatures (4/4, 6/8, 3/4), brevity of compositions, arrangements of dance melodies, tone colour, the dragging of the voice and vocal techniques which are similar to those of popular singing and small instrumental ensembles (three or four musicians)."
Ashighs are traveling bards, who sing and play the saz
Baglama
thumb|180px|Cura and bağlamaThe bağlama is a stringed musical instrument shared by various cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean, Near East, and Central Asia....

 or qopuz, a form of lute. Their songs are partly improvised around a common base.

Painting


One of the Iranian painting styles is called "Tabrizian style" which has been shaped in the era of Ilkhanids, Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans , were a Shi'ite Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising the present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, north-western Iran, eastern Turkey and Iraq from about 1375 to 1468.The Kara Koyunlu Turkomans at one...

 and the Safavids.

Cuisine


Some traditional Tabriz dishes are:

Ash
Ash (Persian food)
Ash is part of Iranian cuisine, similar to soup but thicker, which is usually served hot. Depending on the type of ash, it could contain different types of grain, legumes , vegetables, herbs , onions, oil, meat, garlic, reshteh and spices, such as salt, pepper,...

is a kind of soup which are prepared with bouillon
Bouillon
Bouillon is a municipality in Belgium. It lies in the country's Walloon Region and Luxembourg Province.The municipality, which covers 149.09 km², had 5,477 inhabitants, giving a population density of 36.7 inhabitants per km².- History :...

, various vegetables, carrot
Carrot
The carrot is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, red, white, and yellow varieties exist. It has a crisp texture when fresh...

, noodle
Noodle
The noodle is a type of food, made from any of a variety of doughs, formed into long thin ribbons, strips, curly-cues, waves, helices, pipes, tubes, strings, or other various shapes, sometimes folded. They are usually cooked in a mixture of boiling water and/or oil. Depending upon the type, noodles...

 and spices.

Chelow Kabab
Chelow kabab
Chelow kabab is the national dish of Iran. The meal is simple, consisting of steamed, saffroned basmati or Persian rice and kabab, of which there are several distinct Persian varieties...

is the national dish of Iran, prepared with Kebab
Kebab
Kebab is a wide variety of meat dishes originating in Middle East and later on adopted by the Middle East, and Asia Minor, and now found worldwide. In English, kebab with no qualification generally refers more specifically to shish kebab served on the skewer...

 and roasted tomatoes (and roasted hot peppers occasionally) on a plate of steamed rice
Rice
Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the West Indies...

. Tabriz is famous for its Chelow Kabab
Chelow kabab
Chelow kabab is the national dish of Iran. The meal is simple, consisting of steamed, saffroned basmati or Persian rice and kabab, of which there are several distinct Persian varieties...

 in Iran.
Dolma
Dolma
Dolma is a family of stuffed vegetable dishes in the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and surrounding regions such as Russia, Middle East and the Caucasus and Central and South Asia. Perhaps the best-known is the grape-leaf dolma. Common vegetables to stuff include onion, zucchini, eggplant,...

is a traditional delicious Azerbaijani food. It is prepared with eggplant, capsicum, tomato or zucchini filled with a mixture of meat, split pea
Split pea
Split peas are the dried, peeled and split seeds of Pisum sativum. In north India, they are generally known as matar ki daal, sometimes used as a cheaper variation for the very popular chhole on stalls offering it. . They come in yellow and green varieties. The peas are round when harvested and dried...

, onion and various spices.

Garniyarikh
Karniyarik
Karnıyarık is a Turkish dish consisting of eggplant stuffed with a mix of sautéed chopped onions, garlic, black pepper, tomatoes, parsley and ground meat. A related dish is the İmam Bayıldı which does not include meat, and is served cold....

(meaning "the torn abdomen" in Azeri
Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani or Azeri or Torki is a language belonging to the Turkic language family, spoken in southwestern Asia by the Azerbaijani people, primarily in Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran...

) is a kind of Dolma
Dolma
Dolma is a family of stuffed vegetable dishes in the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and surrounding regions such as Russia, Middle East and the Caucasus and Central and South Asia. Perhaps the best-known is the grape-leaf dolma. Common vegetables to stuff include onion, zucchini, eggplant,...

 filled with meat, garlic
Garlic
Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. Dating back over 6,000 years, garlic is native to central Asia, and has long been a staple in the Mediterranean region, as well as a frequent...

, almond
Almond
The almond , is a species of tree native to the Middle East and South Asia. Almond is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree...

s and spice
Spice
A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for flavor, color, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth. It may be used to flavour a dish or to hide other flavours...

s.

Kofta
Kofta
Kofta is a Middle Eastern and South Asian meatball or meatloaf.In the simplest form, koftas consist of balls of minced or ground meat—usually beef or lamb—mixed with spices and/or onions...

 (Koufteh) Tabrizi
is a special recipe from Tabriz with the appearance of big meatballs, which are prepared with a mixture of ground meat, rice, leeks and some other ingredients. The word kofta is derived from Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 kūfta: in Persian, kuftan (کوفتن) means "to beat" or "to grind".

There are also confections, biscuits and cookies, some of which are Tabriz specialities including Ghorabiye, Eris, Nugha, Tasbihi, Latifeh, Ahari, Lovadieh, Lokum
Lokum
Lokum or Nokul is a type of puff pastry. Lokum is a type of pastry eaten in Turkey and Bulgaria with variations. Lokum is sometimes served hot as an appetizer instead of bread.It consists of a rolled sheet of yeast dough onto which a feta,walnut or poppy seed is sprinkled over a thin coat of butter...

  and others.

Main sights




Tabriz was devastated by several earthquakes during history (e.g., in 858, 1041, and 1721) and as a result, from numerous monuments only few of them or part of them have survived until now. Moreover, some of the historical monuments have been destroyed fully or partially within construction projects (e.g. Ark of Tabriz is in hazard of destruction now, because of ongoing construction project of "Mosal'laye Emam" close to it). Nonetheless, there are still numerous monuments remaining until now, which include:
  • Grand Bazaar of Tabriz, a world heritage site.
  • Adventist churchArmenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

    n.
  • Aji Chay Bridge
    Aji Chay Bridge
    Aji Chy Bridge bridge is one of the oldest bridge in the region. Its is on the Aji Chay river at the western part of Tabriz. Its history goes back to the time while Tabriz still a small village. Located at the ancient Silk Road, the bridge always had a major role in connecting east to the west....

    * Assyrian
    Assyrian people
    The Assyrian people are a distinct ethnic group whose origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia...

     church
  • Amir Nezam House
    Amir Nezam House
    The Amir Nezām House , or The Qajar Museum of Tabriz, is a historical building in the Sheshghelan district , one of the oldest quarters of the city of Tabriz, Iran. The base of the edifice covers an area of 1200 square metres...

     (Qajar museum)
  • Ark of Tabriz
  • Azerbaijan Museum
    Azerbaijan Museum
    Azerbaijan Museum is the major archaeological and historical museum in Tabriz, in the northwest part of Iran . It was established on April 1958. The museum consists of three major halls, a side yard, office rooms and a library. It mostly contains objects discovered from excavations in Iranian...

  • Baghmasha gate
  • Behnam House
    Behnam House
    Behnam House is a historical building in Tabriz, Iran.The edifice was built during the later part of the Zand dynasty and the early part of the Qajar dynasty , as a residential house. During the reign of Nasereddin Shah Qajar this building was substantially renovated and embellished with...

     (school of architecture)
  • Blue Mosque (Goy Masjid)
  • Boulourchian house
  • Catholic church of Tabriz
    Catholic church of Tabriz
    The Protestant Church is a Christian church in Tabriz in the northwestern Iranian region Iranian Azerbaijan.It is located in south Shahnaz street, near the Ararat Cultural Complex of the city.- References :*...

  • Constitutional Revolution House of Tabriz (Mashrouteh museum)
  • Daneshsara (faculty of education)
  • Document Museum
  • East-Azerbaijan State Palace
    East-Azerbaijan State Palace
    East-Azerbaijan State Palace, , is the main office for Iran's East-Azerbaijan province governor located in city center of Tabriz. The history of the location goes back to Safavid dynasty and Zand dynasty. The original name for the palace was Aali Qapou, then later on during Naser al-Din Shah time...

  • Ferdowsi street
    Ferdowsi Street
    Ferdowsi street is a street in downtown of Tabriz, Iran connecting Bazaar alley to Imam Ave in the vicinity of Arg. It is well-known for its historical architecture, hostels and shops. It is located in the Bazaar suburb. The street is include numerous shops for industrial tools.- References :* *...

  • Ghadaki house
  • Ghari bridge
    Ghari Bridge
    The Ghari Bridges are two historical bridges over Quri River, in Tabriz, Iran. Because of their age, currently both of the bridges have been closed to traffic...

  • Haidarzadeh house
    Haidarzadeh house
    Haidarzadeh’s house is a historical mansion situated in Maghsoudieh suburb of Tabriz, Iran, on the south side of Tabriz Municipality building. There is no document showing the date of construction of this historical house, but studies revealed that the house constructed about 1870 by Haji Habib Lak...

  • Hariree house
    Hariree house
    The Dr,Hariri house is related to the ‍‍‍‍Qajar period, and in No. 132, Noor Hashemi Alley, Tarbiyat street, Tabriz, This house was recorded in Iran's national effect with Registration No. 2242 on 1999/01/17.-References:*...

  • House of Seghat ol Islam
    House of Seghat ol Islam
    House of Seghat ol Islam is a historical house in Tabriz, Iran, now a museum dedicated to Seghat ol Islam who was a local reformist of the Qajar era.- See also :* Seqat-ol-Eslam Tabrizi* The Amir Nezam House* Constitutional Revolution House of Tabriz...

  • Imamzadeh Hamzah, Tabriz
  • Imamzadeh Ibrahim
  • Iranian municipalities
  • Iron Age museum
    Iron Age museum
    The Iron Age Museum is a museum in Tabriz, north-western Iran, which covers an area of 28,290 m². It is located on the north, northwest and northeast of the Blue Mosque, situated under the several sediments and geological strata from the floor of the existing mosque.-History :Through the...

  • Jamee mosque of Tabriz
    Jamee mosque of Tabriz
    The Jāmeh Mosque is a large, congregational mosque in Tabrīz city, within the East Azerbaijan Province of Iran. It is located in the Bazaar suburb of Tabriz next to the Grand Bazaar of Tabriz and the Constitutional House of Tabriz.- See also :...

  • Madrasah Akbarieh
    Madrasah Akbarieh
    Madrasah Akbarieh was an old school in Tabriz, north-western Iran.- See also :* Madrasah* Saheb ol Amr mosque* House of Seghat ol Islam* The Amir Nezam House...

  • Maqbaratoshoara
    Maqbaratoshoara
    Maqbaratoshoara or Maqbarat al-Shu'ara is a mausoleum for poets, mystics and famous people located in the Surkhab district of Tabriz in Iran...

     (tomb of poets)
  • Mansoor bridge
  • Measure museum
    Measure museum
    The Measure Museum of Tabriz is in the Salmasi House.The museum has a variety of weighing tools such as Goldsmith, large balance of Field vegetables, the Balance weights, oil modules, Astronomical equipments like Astrolabe, Meteorology-related assessment tools, Compass and Watches from the past...

  • Muharram museum
    Muharram museum
    Muharram museum is an anthropological museums in Tabriz, in the East Azerbaijan province, Iran. As it is known, anthropology is the study of people’s culture, hence Muharram ceremonies which are arisen from the heart of Shi'ite, involve the important fields of anthropological studies...

  • Municipality of Tabriz
  • Bohtouni museum
    Museum of Ostad Bohtouni
    Museum of Ostad Bohtouni is a museum in Tabriz, north-western Iran. Handcrafts of artist Bohtouni are kept in this museum including sculptures of different stuffs like flowers, fruits etc....

  • Nature museum
  • Nobar bath
    Nobar bath
    The Nobar bath is one of the historical baths of Tabriz, Iran. It has been constructed in the centre of the city, near the Nobar gate which was one of the old gates of Tabriz. Nobar bath, which covers an area about 700 sq. metres, was used as a public bath until 1994...

  • On ibn Ali's shrine
    On ibn Ali's shrine
    On ibn Ali's shrine is a shrine over Eynali mountain to north of Tabriz, Iran.Some historians believe the shrine belongs to two Muslim clerics...

  • Ordobadi house
  • Pahlavi street (Imam St.)
  • Pol Sanghi
    Pol Sanghi
    Pol Sangi is a bridge in Tabriz, Iran, over Quri River.- External links :* Virtual Museum of Historical Buildings of Tabriz .* Tabriz Islamic Art University , Tabriz, Iran ....

     (Stone bridge)
  • Pottery museum
    Pottery museum
    The Pottery museum is an art museum in Tabriz, Iran, established in one of the historical houses of the city known as Sarraflar’s house, which belongs to Qajar era.It includes the following sections:...

  • Post museum
  • Qur'an museum
  • Roshdieh school
  • Rug museum
  • Ruins of Rabe Rashidi University
  • Saheb ol Amr
    Saheb ol Amr
    The Sāheb ol Amr Mosque is a mosque located on the east side of Saaheb Aabaad square in Tabriz, Iran. The mosque was initially built in 1636 and has a history of destruction and repair...

     mosque
  • Saint Mary Church of Tabriz
    Saint Mary Church of Tabriz
    The Saint Mary church one the Christian churches in Tabriz. It is the largest and oldest Christian churches in Tabriz and Major National religious and ceremonies will be held by Christians in this church. The church was in Dick Bashi district of Tabriz....

     (Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

    n church of)
  • Salmasi house Measure museum
    Measure museum
    The Measure Museum of Tabriz is in the Salmasi House.The museum has a variety of weighing tools such as Goldsmith, large balance of Field vegetables, the Balance weights, oil modules, Astronomical equipments like Astrolabe, Meteorology-related assessment tools, Compass and Watches from the past...

    .
  • Seyed Hamzeh shrine
    Seyed Hamzeh shrine
    Imāmzādeh Hamzah is an Imamzadeh mosque-complex in Tabrīz, Iran. The mosque contains the grave of Hamzah, son of the Twelver Shī‘ah Imām, Mūsā' al-Kādhim.-Location:...

  • Shahnaz street
    Shahnaz street
    Shahnaz is a street in Tabriz, Iran. The street is well-known because of its distinct architecture, the churches and shops. It is passing through few of Tabriz old suburbs including Baron Avak and Emamiye connecting them to the city center and Bazaar of Tabriz.- References :* * http://www.eachto.ir...

  • Shahryar literature museum (house of Shahryar)
  • Sharbatoglu house
  • Shohada Mosque
    Shohada Mosque
    The Shohada mosque is a historical mosque at city center of Tabriz, Iran. It is dedicated to the martyrs of Islam....

  • Sorkheh-i house
  • Tabriz Art University
    Tabriz Art University
    The Tabriz Art University one of the university's of East Azarbaijan Province . This university was established in October 1999 with accepted 241 students in courses of study with the Industry and Carpet design and Architecture and started its activities....

     (former Charmsazi Khosravi)
  • Tabriz Fire Fighting Tower
    Tabriz Fire Fighting Tower
    The Tabriz Fire Fighting Tower is a fire fighting tower in Tabriz, Iran. The tower, standing at 23 m, was built in 1917 . It was used to investigate fire related incidents inside the city...

  • Tabriz Railway Station
    Tabriz Railway Station
    Tabriz railway station is a structure in Tabriz, Iran; the current building was built during second Pahlavi era by iranian architect Heydar Ghiaï-Chamlou....

  • Tarbiyat street
    Tarbiyat street
    Tarbiyat is a pedestrian street in center of Tabriz. It was built during the Pahlavi Dynasty and named in memory of Tabriz's mayor Mohammad Ali Khan-e Tarbiyat, who was responsible for the modernization project of Tabriz...

  • Two Kamals tomb

Parks and gardens


Tabriz has 132 parks, including 97 small parks, 31 regional and 4 city parks. According to 2005 statistics, area of parks in Tabriz is 2,595 km2 also area of green spaces of Tabriz is 8,548 km2, which means 5.6 sq.m per person. The oldest park in Tabriz, called Golestan Park
Golestan Park
Golestan Park is a historical park in Tabriz, Iran. The park is located near to Ghungha Square in city center. The place, which was originally used as a public cemetery, has changed to a city park during the second Pahlavi era....

, was established at first Pahlavi
Pahlavi dynasty
The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi (reg. 1925–1941) and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty ...

's era in city center. Tabriz has 8 traveller-parks with capacity of 10.000 travellers, as well.
  • Baghlarbaghi
  • Khaqani Park
    Khaqani Park
    Khaqani Park is a small park between Azerbaijan Museum and Blue mosque in Tabriz.- References :* * * http://www.tabrizcity.org...

  • Ghaem Magham
    Ghaem Magham
    Ghaem Magham park is a small park in Sheshghelan suburb of Tabriz, north-western Iran.- References :* * * http://www.tabrizcity.org...

  • Golestan Park
    Golestan Park
    Golestan Park is a historical park in Tabriz, Iran. The park is located near to Ghungha Square in city center. The place, which was originally used as a public cemetery, has changed to a city park during the second Pahlavi era....

  • Mashrouteh Park
  • Saeb Tabrizi garden
  • Shah Goli park
  • Shams Tabrizi garden

Industries


It is claimed that Tabriz is the 2nd industrial city of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. Modern industries in this city include the manufacturing of machinary, vehicles, chemicals and petrochemical
Petrochemical
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane....

 materials, refinery
Refinery
A refinery is a production facility composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value.-Types of refineries:Different types of refineries are as follows:...

, cement
Cement
In the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term opus caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed...

, electrical and electronical equipment, home appliances, textiles and leather, nutrition and dairy factories and woodcraft.

There are numerous industrial complexes in Tabriz industrial area. Iran Tractor Manufacturing Co (ITMCO)
Iran Tractor Manufacturing Company
Iran Tractor Manufacturing Company is a tractor manufacturing company with headquarters in Tabriz.-History and development:Based on an agreement that was reached in 1966 between Iran and Romania to establish a tractor manufacturing company in Iran, the company was created in Tabriz in 1968...

 is one of the biggest industrial complexes in the region. This complex has the highest foundry and forging capacity in middle east, the biggest manufacturer of tractor in Iran, which has some domestic & abroad branches too. Although initially the complex was established with the aim of producing tractor and agricultural machines as a starting point for modernization of traditional Iranian agricultural system, nowadays its products include a large variety from auto parts to machine tools and some domestic van and trucks. Behind ITMCO there are several other industrial complexes including Machine Sazi Tabriz Co, Iran Diesel Engine Manufacturing Co (IDEM), Pump Iran, Tabriz Petrochemical Complex, Tabriz Oil Refinery and couple of industrial regions which are including hundreds of small industries. Beside this Tabriz is a site for numerous food and some of the most famous chocolate factories in Iran which honored the city as chocolate city of Iran.Dadash Baradar Industrial Co. in SHONIZ brand is one of the biggest factories in middle-east which has above 3000 employees and produces more than 75 species of confectionery.

Small businesses


A vast partition of the city's population are involved in small businesses like shoe making ateliers, stonecutting, furniture
Furniture
Furniture is the mass noun for the movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating and sleeping in beds, to hold objects at a convenient height for work using horizontal surfaces above the ground, or to store things...

 ateliers, confectionary, printing and dry nuts.

Handcrafts ateliers



Tabriz is the major center for production of the famous Iranian Rugs. Their high quality is greatly valued in world markets. Tabrizi rug
Carpet
A carpet is a textile floor covering consisting of an upper layer of "pile" attached to a backing. The pile is generally either made from wool or a manmade fibre such as polypropylene,nylon or polyester and usually consists of twisted tufts which are often heat-treated to maintain their...

s and carpet
Carpet
A carpet is a textile floor covering consisting of an upper layer of "pile" attached to a backing. The pile is generally either made from wool or a manmade fibre such as polypropylene,nylon or polyester and usually consists of twisted tufts which are often heat-treated to maintain their...

s usually have ivory backgrounds with blue, rose, and indigo motifs. They often have very symmetrical and balanced designs. They usually have a single medallion that is surrounded with vines and palmettos.
One of the main quality characteristics of Tabriz rug
Carpet
A carpet is a textile floor covering consisting of an upper layer of "pile" attached to a backing. The pile is generally either made from wool or a manmade fibre such as polypropylene,nylon or polyester and usually consists of twisted tufts which are often heat-treated to maintain their...

s is the weaving style, using special ties that guarantee the durability of the rug in comparison for example with Kashan
Kashan
Kashan is a city in and the capital of Kashan County, in the province of Isfahan, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 248,789, in 67,464 families....

 rug
Carpet
A carpet is a textile floor covering consisting of an upper layer of "pile" attached to a backing. The pile is generally either made from wool or a manmade fibre such as polypropylene,nylon or polyester and usually consists of twisted tufts which are often heat-treated to maintain their...

s.

Behind carpet the city is famous for couple of other handicrafts including silver
Silver
Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal...

wares, wood
Wood
Wood is a hard, fibrous tissue found in many trees. It has been used for hundreds of thousands of years for both fuel and as a construction material. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression...

 engraving, pottery
Pottery
Pottery is the material from which the potteryware is made, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made is also called a pottery . Pottery also refers to the art or craft of the potter or the manufacture of pottery...

 and ceramic
Ceramic
A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous...

s, Ghalamzani (toreutics
Toreutics
Toreutics is a term, relatively rare in English, for artistic metalworking, by hammering gold or silver , engraving, Repoussé and chasing to form minute detailed reliefs or small engraved patterns. Toreutics can include metal-engraving - forward-pressure linear metal removal with a...

), Moarraq, Monabbat, embroider.

Shopping


Shopping centers are mostly located in city center, including Grand Bazaar of Tabriz
Bazaar of Tabriz
The Bazaar of Tabriz is one of the oldest bazaars of the Middle East and the largest covered bazar in the world. It was inscribed as World Heritage Site by UNESCO in July 2010....

, pedestrian malls on Tarbiyat street
Tarbiyat street
Tarbiyat is a pedestrian street in center of Tabriz. It was built during the Pahlavi Dynasty and named in memory of Tabriz's mayor Mohammad Ali Khan-e Tarbiyat, who was responsible for the modernization project of Tabriz...

, Shahnaz street
Shahnaz street
Shahnaz is a street in Tabriz, Iran. The street is well-known because of its distinct architecture, the churches and shops. It is passing through few of Tabriz old suburbs including Baron Avak and Emamiye connecting them to the city center and Bazaar of Tabriz.- References :* * http://www.eachto.ir...

 and Ferdowsi street
Ferdowsi Street
Ferdowsi street is a street in downtown of Tabriz, Iran connecting Bazaar alley to Imam Ave in the vicinity of Arg. It is well-known for its historical architecture, hostels and shops. It is located in the Bazaar suburb. The street is include numerous shops for industrial tools.- References :* *...

. Also, there are some malls and a lot of elegant & luxurious boutiques of jewelry, rugs, clothes, handcrafts, confectionary and nuts, home appliances and so on in Abressan intersection, Roshdiyeh
Roshdiyeh
Roshdiyeh is name of a quarter in Tabriz which is located to northeast part of the city famous for its modern lovely architecture. The name derives from Haj-Mirza Hassan Roshdieh, pioneer of Iranian education.- External links :...

 district and Kouy Valiasr
Kouy Valiasr
Kouy Valiasr is a wealthy district located in the eastern part of Tabriz, north-western Iran. Due to its elevation, it enjoys an overall colder climate than the rest of the city.- External links :* Virtual Museum of Historical Buildings of Tabriz ....

.

The special feature of Tabriz malls is that most of them are designated to a particular order, such as home appliances, jewelry, shoes, clothes, wedding ceremonies, ladies/babies/men specialties, leather products, handcrafts, agricultural products, computers, electronic components, industrial equipment, piping equipment, chemical materials, agricultural machines, stationery, books, rugs, construction stuff and others.

Likewise, there are seasonal/occasional shopping fairs opened mainly in Tabriz International Exhibition Center too.

Tabriz International Exhibition Center


Tabriz International Exhibition Center
Tabriz International Exhibition Center
Tabriz International Exhibition Center which is a complex with vast exhibition infrastructures located in eastern part of the Tabriz, Iran holds tens of exhibition based on yearly schedule. The most famous fair is TEXPO which is a general trade fair and established on 1992 and normally holds on...

 which is located in eastern part of the city holds tens of exhibition based on yearly schedule. The most famous fair is TEXPO which is a general trade fair and established on 1992 and normally holds on August 4–9 every year.

Universities


Tabriz is the site for 14 of Iran's most prominent universities. Established on 1947, University of Tabriz
University of Tabriz
The University of Tabriz is a public university in Tabriz, Iran. It is the second-oldest university in Iran after the University of Tehran and the biggest academic institution in northwestern Iran and one of five biggest universities in Iran...

 is the most prestigious university in north-western Iran. It is also considered one of five mother universities in the country. Beside this, there are couple of other public universities, operating primarily in the city: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Tabriz University of Medical Sciences is public medical sciences university located in Tabriz, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran. It is ranked as one of Iran's top medical schools, with more than 5000 students....

, Sahand University of Technology
Sahand University of Technology
Sahand University of Technology is one of the best and prestigious engineering schools in Iran. Located in the northwest of Iran, 20 km southwest of Tabriz in Sahand satellite city, offering both undergraduate and postgraduate studies...

, Tabriz Arts University, Payam-e Noor University of Tabriz, and Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem
Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem
Azerbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem ,commonly called only Azerbaijan University, was founded on 1987 in Tabriz as a branch of Tehran Teacher Education University. On 1988 AUTM became an independent university with. The initial objective of the university was to training teachers in different...

.

There are couple of private universities serving student as well, including: Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Daneshvaran Higher Education Institute, Seraj Higher Education Institute, University College of Nabi Akram, Khajeh Rashid university.

There are few technical colleges, which serve the students as well: Elmi-Karbordi University of Tabriz, Tabriz College of Technology, Roshdiyeh Higher Education Institute of Tabriz, Jahad Daneshgahi (ACECR) Higher Education Institute, East Azerbaijan Branch, Azzahra College of Technology, State Organization of Technical and Vocational Training

There are a couple of research centers supported by Iranian government in the city including: East Azerbaijan Park of Science & Technology, Islamic Azad University – Science and Research branch of East Azerbaijan.

Furthermore, a couple of Iranian universities have branches in Tabriz, including: Imam Hossein University
Imam Hossein University
The Imam Hossein University is a public university of engineering, science, and military in Iran.The university was opened in1986. The university is one of the top ranking industrial universities in Iran. It is located in Tehran, Shahid Babaei Highway near Tehran Pars Fourth Square, and Hakimiyeh...

, Shahid Beheshti Training Teacher Center of Tabriz

Famous high schools


Hundreds of public and private schools are serving students based on Iranian education system. Students are starting with primary school which is for five years, then three years in secondary and finally they are pursuing for three more years in high school. For those who are about entering to the university they have to fulfill one more year in college. Despite the common language in city is Azerbaijani
Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani or Azeri or Torki is a language belonging to the Turkic language family, spoken in southwestern Asia by the Azerbaijani people, primarily in Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran...

, the entirety of the educational period in schools is in Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

. Some of the high schools are famous because of their history or higher educational quality. Here is a list of most famous high schools in the city:
  • Memorial school (American School of Tabriz) was opened on 1891 and is one of the most famous schools of its type. After World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

    , the school's name was changed to Parvin High School, under Iran
    Iran
    Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

     education ministry's management. Currently, it is divided into three separate high schools, and the original building is under reconstruction. Howard Baskerville
    Howard Baskerville
    Howard Conklin Baskerville was an American teacher in the Presbyterian mission school in Tabriz, Iran, who died fighting for Iranian democracy. He has been called the "American Lafayette in Iran." ...

     used to teach in Memorial school.

  • Roshdieh school is the first modern Iran
    Iran
    Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

    ian school, which was established by Haji-Mirza Hassan Roshdieh. Currently, its building is used as the Tabriz branch of the National Iran
    Iran
    Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

    ian Documents and Library Office.

  • Vahdat Technical College is another famous school in Tabriz. It was developed by the Germans
    Germans
    The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

     during World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

    . The main building is in the shape of an 'A'.

  • Ferdowsi high school is one of the largest and most prominent academic high schools in Tabriz. The original building was constructed by German
    Germans
    The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

     engineers before World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

     (to serve as hospital). The building is in the shape of a letter 'H'.

  • Mansoor High School (now divided into two high schools with new names) is one of the most highest-ranking schools in Tabriz, which was established about 50 years ago. One of the high schools is known as Taleqani and the other as Motahhari.

  • Tiz'houshan School (Shahid Madani and Farzanegan) (SAMPAD
    National Organization for Development of Exceptional Talents
    National Organization for Development of Exceptional Talents are national Middle and High Schools in Iran developed specifically for the development of exceptionally talented students in Iran...

    /NODET
    National Organization for Development of Exceptional Talents
    National Organization for Development of Exceptional Talents are national Middle and High Schools in Iran developed specifically for the development of exceptionally talented students in Iran...

    ) middle and high schools were established in 1989 for high I.Q. talented students. Students can attend in Tiz'houshan after successfully passing the entrance exam.

Religious schools


Valiasr Religious School and Talebieh Islamic Science School are two major religious schools in the city which are used for teaching Islamic Science.

Libraries


Tabriz National Library
Tabriz National Library
The Tabriz Central Library , formerly Tabriz National Library, was founded in 1956 by Nakhjavani with help from the people of Tabriz, Iran. It contains several handwritten books. The library is called National because of its non-benefit and non-governmental structure...

, also known as Central Library of Tabriz, is the most prestigious library in Tabriz, and its numerous unique handwriting old books made it a vulnerable source for researchers in Iranian literature. There are other libraries behind National library which are serving to public some of which are: Tarbiat library, library of Helal Ahmar, library of Shahid Motahhari, library of Shahriyar, library of Jafarieh and Farhangsara of Tabriz.

Health systems


The government of Iran operates the public hospital
Hospital
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment. Hospitals often, but not always, provide for inpatient care or longer-term patient stays....

s in the Tabriz metropolitan region, some of which are aligned with medical faculties. There are also a number of private hospitals and medical centers in the city.

Transportation


Most Tabriz residents travel by car through the system of roads and highway
Highway
A highway is any public road. In American English, the term is common and almost always designates major roads. In British English, the term designates any road open to the public. Any interconnected set of highways can be variously referred to as a "highway system", a "highway network", or a...

s. Tabriz has also a taxi and public bus network. There are also some private groups, which provide services called Phone-taxi.

Tabriz is the second city in Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 after Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

 that in which the B.R.T system has been established. It includes a distance of about 18 km from Baseej Square in the east to railway station in the west of the city. There are 50 bus stops in the path of B.R.T.
Tabriz subway train network is still under construction. The government of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 had planned to finish 6 km of line No.1 of the network in 2006, but this was not achieved due to financial problems.

Tabriz is linked to Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 through Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

's roads
Road 32 (Iran)
Road 32 is a road in Northwestern part of Iran. It starts from Tehran and it runs from Tehran to Tabriz along Freeway 2 and from Tabriz to Bazargan, Turkish border....

 and Bazargan
Bazargan, Iran
Bazargan is a city in the Central District of Maku County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. It is the most important Iranian ground border for importing and exporting. At the 2006 census, its population was 9,047, in 2,126 families....

 (Azerbaijani
Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani or Azeri or Torki is a language belonging to the Turkic language family, spoken in southwestern Asia by the Azerbaijani people, primarily in Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran...

, Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

: بازرگان ) border, also Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

-Tabriz freeway
Freeway 2 (Iran)
-West Part:Freeway 2 runs from the capital city, Tehran to Tabriz in northwestern Iran. This freeway is an important transit road that connects Iran's industrial zones to Tabriz and Turkey.-East Part:...

 is almost complete except for the last 20 km between Tabriz and Bostan Abad
Bostan Abad
Bostanabad is a city in and the capital of Bostanabad County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 16,592, in 3,937 families....

.

The city is linked to Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 National Railways (IRIR, Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

: رجا ) also to Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 by Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

's railways via Ghotour
Ghotour
Ghotour Bridge is a railway bridge in Khoy County, West Azarbaijan Province, Iran, over the Ghotour River. It is an arch bridge, was completed in 1970, and has a length of 442.9 m. with the largest span being 223.1 m. ....

 (Azerbaijani, Persian قطور) bridge in West Azerbaijan province of Iran. Tabriz was the first city in Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 to be served by railways with the construction of the Tabriz-Jolfa
Jolfa
Jolfa is a city in and capital of Jolfa County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 4,983, in 1,365 families....

 line in 1912–1914 (later converted to broad-gauge in 1916). Tabriz Railway Station
Tabriz Railway Station
Tabriz railway station is a structure in Tabriz, Iran; the current building was built during second Pahlavi era by iranian architect Heydar Ghiaï-Chamlou....

 is located in the western part of the city, at the end of Khomeyni Street.

Tabriz International Airport
Tabriz International Airport
Tabriz International Airport is an airport that serves Tabriz, Iran. It is the primary airport of Tabriz. It also serves as a military for IRIAF as second fighter base of IRIAF.- Airlines and destinations:-Accidents and incidents:...

 opened in 1950 and is the only international airport in East Azerbaijan (since 1991). Recently, it became the first Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

ian airport to gain ISO9001-2000.

Sport



Sport is an important part of Tabriz's culture. The most popular sport in Tabriz is soccer. Tabriz is home to four Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

ian major Football teams: Tractor Sazi F.C., Machine Sazi Tabriz F.C.
Machine Sazi Tabriz F.C.
Machine Sazi Tabriz F.C. is an Iranian football club based in Tabriz, East Azerbaijan. They currently play the Azadegan League...

, Shahrdari Tabriz F.C.
Shahrdari Tabriz F.C.
Shahrdari Tabriz Cultural and Athletic Club is an Iranian sports club most widely known for its professional football team based in Tabriz, Iran.They currently compete in the Iran Pro League, the first tier of Iranian football.-The birth of Shahrdari Tabriz F.C...

, Petrochimi Tabriz F.C.
Petrochimi Tabriz F.C.
Petrochimi Tabriz Football Club is an Iranian football club based in Tabriz, Azerbaijan Province. They were founded in 2001 and will participate as a professional club in the Azadegan League 2008-09....



Tabriz also has two stadiums for Football: Bagh Shomal Stadium, with capacity of 20,000 and Yadegar-e-Emam Stadium with 71,000.

Tractor Sazi F.C. or Tirakhtorsazi, as it called in the city, is an Iranian soccer club, based in Tabriz. They currently play in Iran's Pro League which is the highest domestic league in Iran.They also provided Iran with some of the most talented players during the nineties. In 2009, Trakhtorsazi, the most well-known team of the Azerbaijan province, was promoted to the first football division of Iran (the Iran Pro League.) And according to surverys, the team has got the most enthusiastic fans in the Iran Pro League. The team is sponsored by Iran Tractor Manufacturing Co. (ITMCO).

Behind soccer they are few other sport events holds in Tabriz. The major one is Azerbaijan Cycling Tour
Azerbaijan Cycling Tour
Azerbaijan International Cycling Tour is the most elite men's professional road bicycle racing international annual event in Iran, which is held as part of the UCI Asia Tour.The race is rated at multi-day 6 stage race...

. Azerbaijan Cyclibng Tour is a professional cycling tour held annually in part of Iranian Azerbaijan and Republic of Azerbaijan. Tabriz also has an UCI Continental cycling team
Cycling team
A cycling team is a group of cyclists who join a team or are acquired and train together to compete in bicycle races whether recreational or professional - and the supporting personnel...

 that is competing in UCI
Union Cycliste Internationale
Union Cycliste Internationale is the world governing body for sports cycling and oversees international competitive cycling events. The UCI is based in Aigle, Switzerland....

-sanctioned competitions through Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

n continents. The team is: Tabriz Petrochemical Cycling Team
Tabriz Petrochemical Cycling Team
Tabriz Petrochemical Cycling Team is an Iranian UCI Continental cycling team managed by Ramin Dadgar and Azeem Abdolnaghad and main sponsored by Tabriz Petrochemical Company...



The city has several swimming pools that are parts of sport complexes, both public and private: Takhti swimming pool, Tabriz Petrochemical Company's sports complex, Bargh swimming pool, Sahand swimming pool, Bagh Shomal swimming pool, Kargaran sports complex, Hotel Elgoli swimming pool, Hotel Shahryar swimming pool, Azarsatrup sports complex, Sauna Tabriz, Azaran sauna & pool, Zamzam swimming pool, Aseman residential complex swimming pool.

Media


Tabriz has one state television channel called "Sahand TV" that broadcasts in both Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 and Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani or Azeri or Torki is a language belonging to the Turkic language family, spoken in southwestern Asia by the Azerbaijani people, primarily in Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran...

. It broadcasts internationally through satellite Intelsat 902.

The city has one government-controlled radio channel broadcasting in both Persian and Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani or Azeri or Torki is a language belonging to the Turkic language family, spoken in southwestern Asia by the Azerbaijani people, primarily in Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran...

s.

14 weekly magazines and 8 main newspapers are published in the city including: Amin, Mahd Azadi, Asr Azadi, Fajr Azarbaijan, Saeb Tabriz, Peyam Noor, Navaye Misho and Saheb.

Notable people


Within its long history Tabriz was always origin for many Iranian illumination and modernization movements. This is why the city was home town for numerous Iranian dominant figures including many Iranian politicians, revolutionaries, artists, and military leaders. Here a partial list of some of most notable people who born or lived in Tabriz.

For a complete list see: List of people from Tabriz

Artists

  • Ahad Hoseini
    Ahad hoseini
    Ahad Hosseini , is an Iranian Azerbaijani sculptor and painter....

    : Sculptor and painter
  • Qolam Hossein Bigjeh-Khani: Musician & Tar player
  • Tahmineh Milani
    Tahmineh Milani
    Tahmineh Milāni is an Iranian film director, screenwriter, and producer.-Early life:Milani was born 1960 in Tabriz, Iran. Of Azeri descent, she is the wife of the Iranian actor and producer Mohammad Nikbin.- Early career :...

    : Film director, screenwriter and producer
  • Jamileh Sheykhi
    Jamileh Sheykhi
    -Career:She made her stage debut in 1957 and began film acting with Shipwreck . As a pioneer and veteran character actress of Iranian theatre and cinema, she performed in a number of films with reputable directors...

    : Theatre and film actress
  • Kamal Tabrizi
    Kamal Tabrizi
    Kamal Tabrizi is an Iranian film director. He was born in Tehran . A newly released picture shows that he was as a photographer & reporter among the 1979 hostage takers at the U.S. embassy in Tehran.- Filmography as a director :-External links:...

    : Movie producer
  • Monir Vakili Nikjoo
    Monir Vakili
    Monir Vakili was an Iranian singer.Monir was born to a family of art and music enthusiasts. Her father encouraged her love of opera and supported her decision to study abroad...

    : Opera singer
  • Ali Salimi
    Ali Salimi
    Ali Salimi , , was an Azerbaijani musician, composer and tar player. He had been based in Tehran for the last few decades where he made significant contribution to promotion and development of Azerbaijani music....

    : Musician
  • H.$:music producer,rapper

Military figures

  • Colonel Pesian
    Colonel Pesian
    Colonel Mohammad Taqi-Khan Pessian , born into an aristocratic family in Tabriz, was a popular military leader of Iran and became a national hero after his assassination...

    : Military leader
  • Feridoun Jam
    Feridoun Jam
    Feridoun Jam , was a senior Iranian army official and the son of former Iranian prime minister Mahmud Jam. He married Princess Shams in 1937 and was later divorced after death of Reza Shah on 1944. Jam served as head of the Iranian Imperial Army Corps from 1969 to 1971...

    : Marshal and head of Iran Imperial Army Core

Religious figures

  • Seghatoleslam: Cleric
  • Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari: Grand Ayatollah
  • Allameh Tabatabaei
    Allameh Tabatabaei
    Allameh Seyyed Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei was one of the most prominent thinkers of philosophy and contemporary Shia Islam...

    : One of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam
  • Allameh Jafari: One of the most prominent Iranian scholar, thinker, and theologian and philosophy.

Poets and writers

  • Shams Tabrizi
    Shams Tabrizi
    Shams-i-Tabrīzī or Shams al-Din Mohammad was a Persian Muslim, who is credited as the spiritual instructor of Mewlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhi, also known as Rumi and is referenced with great reverence in Rumi’s poetic collection, in particular Diwan-i Shams-i Tabrīzī...

    : Sufi, Spiritual instructor of Rumi
  • Samad Behrangi
    Samad Behrangi
    Samad Behrangi was an Iranian teacher, social critic, folklorist, translator, and short story writer of Azeri extraction. He is famous for his children's book, The Little Black Fish.-Life:He was born in Tabriz to a lower-class Azerbaijani family...

    : Writer, Social critic
  • Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi
    Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi
    Gholām-Hossein Sā'edi MD was an Iranian writer. He has published over forty books, representing his talents in the fiction genres of drama , the novel, the screenplay, and the short story in addition to the non-fiction genres of cultural...

    : Writer
  • Reza Baraheni
    Reza Baraheni
    Reza Baraheni is an exiled Iranian novelist, poet, critic, and political activist.Former president of PEN Canada, the often called "Iran's finest living Writer" lives in Toronto, Canada, where he used to teach at the Centre for Comparative Literature at the University of Toronto.He’s the author of...

    : Poet, Writer
  • Ahmad Kasravi
    Ahmad Kasravi
    Ahmad Kasravi , was a notable Iranian linguist, historian, and reformer.Born in Hokmabad , Tabriz, Iran, Kasravi was an Iranian Azeri Initially, Kasravi enrolled in a seminary. Later, he joined the Iranian Constitutional Revolution...

    Tabrizi: Writer, Historian
  • Shahriar: Poet
  • Mahmoud Melmasi - Azarm
    Mahmoud Melmasi - Azarm
    Mahmoud Melmasi was contemporary poet and scholar. He was a descendant of Homam-e Tabrizi. He was born on 1917 in Tabriz.He learn reading and writing before of five years old from his father and than from Mirza Mohsen Adib Ulama. After some months he went to school. He finished Gulistan of Sa'di...

    : Poet
  • Parvin E'tesami
    Parvin E'tesami
    Parvin E'tesami , also Parvin Etesami was a 20th century Persian poet of Iran. According to Ali Akbar Dehkhoda, her given name was Rakhshanda .-Life:...

    : Poet
  • Homam-e Tabrizi
    Homam-e Tabrizi
    Homam-e Tabrizi or HOMĀM-AL-DIN B. ʿALĀʾ TABRIZI was an Persian poet of the Ilkhanid era. He was a follower of Saadi and his poetry was mostly in form of ghazal.-Biography:...

    : Poet
  • Qatran Tabrizi
    Qatran Tabrizi
    Abū-Mansūr Qatrān-i Tabrīzī was a royal Persian poet.He was born in Sahar near Arrah, bihar Tabriz and was the most famous panegyrist of his time in Iran. His full name according to an old manuscript handwritten by the famous poet Anvari Abivardi is Abu Mansur Qatran al-Jili al-Azerbaijani...

    : Poet
  • Abu'l Majd Tabrizi
    Safina-yi Tabriz
    Safīna-yi Tabriz is an important encyclopedic manuscript from 14th century Ilkhanid Iran compiled by Abu'l Majd Muhammad b. Mas'ud Tabrizi between 1321 and 1323....

    : Compiler of Safina-yi Tabriz
    Safina-yi Tabriz
    Safīna-yi Tabriz is an important encyclopedic manuscript from 14th century Ilkhanid Iran compiled by Abu'l Majd Muhammad b. Mas'ud Tabrizi between 1321 and 1323....

    , writer
  • Yadollah Maftun Amini
    Yadollah Maftun Amini
    Yadollah Maftun Amini is an Iranian poet.-His life:Yadollah Amini known as Maftun was born in 1926 in Shahindezh near to Tabriz. After completing primary and secondary school in his hometown, he moved to Tehran...

    : Poet
  • Saeb-e Tabrizi :poet
  • Samad Sardari nia: Writer,Historian
  • Jamshid Alizadeh:Writer,poet,Teacher & Researcher of Literature
  • Nayyer-e Tabrizi:Poet,Hojjat-ol-islam
  • Magham Sahoff:Writer,Religious,Qajar Court Dignitary


Politicians and reformists

  • Bagher Khan
    Bagher Khan
    Bāqer Khān , honorarily titled Sālār-e Melli , was one of the key figures in the Persian Constitutional Revolution.-Notes:...

    : Nationalist revolutionary leader
  • Hasan Taqizadeh: politician
  • Mohammad Khiabani
    Mohammad Khiabani
    Shaikh Mohammad Khiābāni , also known as Shaikh Mohammad Khiābāni Tabrizi , was an Iranian cleric, political leader, and representative to the parliament....

    : Cleric, political leader
  • Mohammad Shah Qajar
    Mohammad Shah Qajar
    Mohammad Shah Qajar was king of Persia from the Qajar dynasty .- Rise to power :...

    : Shah of Persia
    Qajar dynasty
    The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

     of the Qajar dynasty
    Qajar dynasty
    The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

  • Naser al-Din Shah Qajar: Shah of Persia
    Qajar dynasty
    The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

     of the Qajar dynasty
    Qajar dynasty
    The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

  • Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
    Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
    Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar was the Shah of Persia from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.-Biography:He was against the constitution that was ratified during the reign of his father, Mozzafar-al-Din Shah...

    : King of Iran
  • Ahmad Shah Qajar
    Ahmad Shah Qajar
    Ahmad Shah Qajar ‎ was Shah of Iran from July 16, 1909, to October 31, 1925 and the last of the Qajar dynasty.- Reign :...

    : King of Iran
  • Farah Pahlavi
    Farah Pahlavi
    Farah Pahlavi is the former Queen and Empress of Iran. She is the widow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran, and only Empress of modern Iran...

    : The last queen consort of Iran
  • Ismail Mumtaz
    Ismail Mumtaz
    Ismail Mumtaz was a notable Iranian statesman of the early twentieth century. Born in Tabriz in 1880 of Azeri-Iranian descent, he was one of the original Parliamentarians of the First Majlis in 1906. He was also its fourth Speaker....

    : Minster of Finance
  • Sattar Khan
    Sattar Khan
    Sattar Khan Sattar Khan Sattar Khan (Persian/Azeri: ستارخان, ; (October 20, 1866—November 17, 1914), honorarily titled Sardār-e Melli was a pivotal figure in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution and is one of the greatest heroes of Iran.Sattar Khan,...

    : Revolutionary leader
  • Abd al-Rahim Talebof Tabrizi
    Abd al-Rahim Talebof Tabrizi
    Abd al-Rahim Talebof Tabrizi is a pioneering literary critic of Iran. He was born in the Sorkhab quarter of the city of Tabriz. As he tells us, both his father, Abu Najjar Tabrizi, and grandfather, Ostad Abd al-Rahim were carpenters...

    : Liberal intellectual and constitution pioneer
  • Hossein Kazemzadeh (Iranshahr): Liberal intellectual and constitution pioneer
  • Khalil Maleki
    Khalil Maleki
    Khalil Maleki was an Iranian political figure, socialist and intellectual.During the early 1940s, Maleki had been one of 53 left-wing intellectuals who had been imprisoned by Reza Shah. After his release, he had been one of the original founders of the Tudeh Party Khalil Maleki (1903 Tabriz -...

    : Political figure, socialist and intellectual

Scientists

  • Mohsen Hashtroodi
    Mohsen Hashtroodi
    Mohsen Hashtroodi was an Iranian mathematician. His father, Shaikh Esmāeel Mojtahed was an advisor to Shaikh Mohammad Khiābāni who played a significant role in the establishment of the parliamentary democracy in Iran during and after the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.Mohsen Hashtroodi...

    : Mathematician
  • Javad Tabatabaei
    Javad Tabatabaei
    Dr. Javad Tabatabai is a political philosopher, historian and university professor.Tabatabai studied law at Tehran University. He then shifted to philosophy and did his doctorate works at Sorbonne University. Tabatabai was a professor of philosophy at University of Strasbourg as well as Tehran...

    : Political philosopher, historian, distinguished university professor
  • Mousa Ghaninejad
    Mousa Ghaninejad
    Dr. Mousa Ghaninejad is a senior Iranian economist and a faculty member at the Oil Industry University. He is editor of daily economic newspaper, Donya-e-Eqtesad....

    : Liberal Economist
  • Vartan Gregorian
    Vartan Gregorian
    Vartan Gregorian is an Armenian-American academic, serving as the president of Carnegie Corporation of New York. He is an ethnic Armenian, born in Iran....

    : President of Brown University, 1898–1997.


Sister cities and twin towns


Tabriz is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with the following cities: Baku
Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

 Gaza
Gaza
Gaza , also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of about 450,000, making it the largest city in the Palestinian territories.Inhabited since at least the 15th century BC,...

, Palestine
Palestine
Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

 Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City , formerly named Saigon is the largest city in Vietnam...

, Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 Erzurum
Erzurum
Erzurum is a city in Turkey. It is the largest city, the capital of Erzurum Province. The city is situated 1757 meters above sea level. Erzurum had a population of 361,235 in the 2000 census. .Erzurum, known as "The Rock" in NATO code, served as NATO's southeastern-most air force post during the...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 Izmir
Izmir
Izmir is a large metropolis in the western extremity of Anatolia. The metropolitan area in the entire Izmir Province had a population of 3.35 million as of 2010, making the city third most populous in Turkey...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 Khujand
Khujand
Khujand , also transliterated as Khudzhand, , formerly Khodjend or Khodzhent until 1936 and Leninabad until 1991, is the second-largest city of Tajikistan. It is situated on the Syr Darya River at the mouth of the Fergana Valley...

, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Tajikistan , officially the Republic of Tajikistan , is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Afghanistan borders it to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east....

 Kazan
Kazan
Kazan is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. With a population of 1,143,546 , it is the eighth most populous city in Russia. Kazan lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in European Russia. In April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted Kazan the...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 Konya
Konya
Konya is a city in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. The metropolitan area in the entire Konya Province had a population of 1,036,027 as of 2010, making the city seventh most populous in Turkey.-Etymology:...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...


Consulates


Azerbaijan and Turkey have consulate offices in Tabriz. Formerly the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 and the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 had consulate offices in Tabriz. The US consulate office closed after the 1979 Islamic revolution and the USSR's office closed after the collapse of the USSR in 1991.

Photo gallery





External links