Eponym

Eponym

Overview
An eponym is the name of a person or thing, whether real or fictitious, after which a particular place, tribe
Ethnonym
An ethnonym is the name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms and autonyms or endonyms .As an example, the ethnonym for...

, era
Regnal year
A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule.The oldest dating systems were in regnal years, and considered the date as an ordinal, not a cardinal number. For example, a monarch could have a first year of rule, a second year of rule, a third, and...

, discovery, or other item is named or thought to be named. One who is referred to as eponymous is someone who gives his or her name to something, e.g., Julian, the eponymous owner of the famous restaurant Julian's Castle. A common nonstandard usage is that something eponymous is named after a particular person, e.g., Julian's eponymous restaurant.

In contemporary English, the term self-titled is often used to mean eponymous in the case of a work with the same name as the person or persons who created it (e.g., the song "Black Sabbath
Black Sabbath (song)
"Black Sabbath" is a song by British heavy metal band of the same name, written in 1969 and released on the band's debut album, Black Sabbath...

", from the album Black Sabbath
Black Sabbath (album)
Black Sabbath is the debut studio album by English heavy metal band Black Sabbath. Released on 13 February 1970 in the United Kingdom, and later on 1 June 1970 in the United States, the album reached number eight on the UK Albums Chart and has been recognised as the first main album to be credited...

, by the band Black Sabbath
Black Sabbath
Black Sabbath are an English heavy metal band, formed in Aston, Birmingham in 1969 by Ozzy Osbourne , Tony Iommi , Geezer Butler , and Bill Ward . The band has since experienced multiple line-up changes, with Tony Iommi the only constant presence in the band through the years. A total of 22...

).

An etiological myth can be a "reverse eponym" in the sense that a legendary character is invented in order to explain a term.
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Encyclopedia
An eponym is the name of a person or thing, whether real or fictitious, after which a particular place, tribe
Ethnonym
An ethnonym is the name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms and autonyms or endonyms .As an example, the ethnonym for...

, era
Regnal year
A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule.The oldest dating systems were in regnal years, and considered the date as an ordinal, not a cardinal number. For example, a monarch could have a first year of rule, a second year of rule, a third, and...

, discovery, or other item is named or thought to be named. One who is referred to as eponymous is someone who gives his or her name to something, e.g., Julian, the eponymous owner of the famous restaurant Julian's Castle. A common nonstandard usage is that something eponymous is named after a particular person, e.g., Julian's eponymous restaurant.

In contemporary English, the term self-titled is often used to mean eponymous in the case of a work with the same name as the person or persons who created it (e.g., the song "Black Sabbath
Black Sabbath (song)
"Black Sabbath" is a song by British heavy metal band of the same name, written in 1969 and released on the band's debut album, Black Sabbath...

", from the album Black Sabbath
Black Sabbath (album)
Black Sabbath is the debut studio album by English heavy metal band Black Sabbath. Released on 13 February 1970 in the United Kingdom, and later on 1 June 1970 in the United States, the album reached number eight on the UK Albums Chart and has been recognised as the first main album to be credited...

, by the band Black Sabbath
Black Sabbath
Black Sabbath are an English heavy metal band, formed in Aston, Birmingham in 1969 by Ozzy Osbourne , Tony Iommi , Geezer Butler , and Bill Ward . The band has since experienced multiple line-up changes, with Tony Iommi the only constant presence in the band through the years. A total of 22...

).

An etiological myth can be a "reverse eponym" in the sense that a legendary character is invented in order to explain a term. This is one example of folk etymology.

History


In different cultures, time periods have often been named after the person who ruled during that period.
  • The ancient Greek classic The Odyssey is named after the main character, Odysseus.
  • One of the first recorded cases of eponymy occurred in the second millennium BC, when the Assyrians
    Assyrian people
    The Assyrian people are a distinct ethnic group whose origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia...

     named each year after a high official (limmu).
  • In ancient Greece
    Ancient Greece
    Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

    , the eponymous archon was the highest magistrate in Athens
    Athens
    Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

    . Archons of Athens served a term of one year which took the name of that particular archon (e.g., 594 BC was named for Solon
    Solon
    Solon was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet. He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, economic and moral decline in archaic Athens...

    ). Later historians provided yet another case of eponymy by referring to the period of Fifth-century Athens as The Age of Pericles after its most influential statesman Pericles
    Pericles
    Pericles was a prominent and influential statesman, orator, and general of Athens during the city's Golden Age—specifically, the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars...

    .
  • In Ancient Rome
    Ancient Rome
    Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

    , one of the two formal ways of indicating a year was to cite the two annual consul
    Consul
    Consul was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire. The title was also used in other city states and also revived in modern states, notably in the First French Republic...

    s who served in that year. For example, the year we know as 59 BC would have been described as "the consulship of Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus and Gaius Julius Caesar
    Julius Caesar
    Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire....

    " (although that specific year was known jocularly as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar" because of the insignificance of Caesar's counterpart). Under the empire, the consuls would change as often as every two months, but only the two consuls at the beginning of the year would lend their names to that year.
  • During the Christian era, many royal households used eponymous dating by regnal years. The Roman Catholic Church, however, eventually used the Anno Domini
    Anno Domini
    and Before Christ are designations used to label or number years used with the Julian and Gregorian calendars....

    dating scheme based on the birth of Christ on both the general public and royalty. The regnal year
    Regnal year
    A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule.The oldest dating systems were in regnal years, and considered the date as an ordinal, not a cardinal number. For example, a monarch could have a first year of rule, a second year of rule, a third, and...

     standard is still used with respect to statutes and law reports published in some parts of the United Kingdom and in some Commonwealth countries (England abandoned this practice in 1963): a statute signed into law in Canada between February 6, 1994 and February 5, 1995 would be dated 43 Elizabeth II, for instance.
  • Government administrations or political trends often become eponymous with a government leader. North American examples include the Nixon Era, Trudeaumania
    Trudeaumania
    Trudeaumania was the nickname given in early 1968 to the excitement generated by Pierre Trudeau's entry into the leadership race of the Liberal Party of Canada...

    , Jeffersonian economics, Jacksonian democracy
    Jacksonian democracy
    Jacksonian democracy is the political movement toward greater democracy for the common man typified by American politician Andrew Jackson and his supporters. Jackson's policies followed the era of Jeffersonian democracy which dominated the previous political era. The Democratic-Republican Party of...

    , McCarthyism
    McCarthyism
    McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidence. The term has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s and characterized by...

    , Thatcherism
    Thatcherism
    Thatcherism describes the conviction politics, economic and social policy, and political style of the British Conservative politician Margaret Thatcher, who was leader of her party from 1975 to 1990...

    , Kennedy's Camelot
    Camelot
    Camelot is a castle and court associated with the legendary King Arthur. Absent in the early Arthurian material, Camelot first appeared in 12th-century French romances and eventually came to be described as the fantastic capital of Arthur's realm and a symbol of the Arthurian world...

    , or Reaganomics
    Reaganomics
    Reaganomics refers to the economic policies promoted by the U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s, also known as supply-side economics and called trickle-down economics, particularly by critics...

    .
  • British monarchs have become eponymous throughout the English speaking world for time periods, fashions, etc. Elizabethan
    Elizabethan era
    The Elizabethan era was the epoch in English history of Queen Elizabeth I's reign . Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history...

    , Edwardian
    Edwardian period
    The Edwardian era or Edwardian period in the United Kingdom is the period covering the reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910.The death of Queen Victoria in January 1901 and the succession of her son Edward marked the end of the Victorian era...

    , Georgian, and Victorian
    Victorian era
    The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

    , are examples of these.

Other eponyms

  • In intellectual property law an eponym can refer to a genericized trademark
    Genericized trademark
    A genericized trademark is a trademark or brand name that has become the colloquial or generic description for, or synonymous with, a general class of product or service, rather than as an indicator of source or affiliation as intended by the trademark's holder...

     or brand name, a form of metonymy
    Metonymy
    Metonymy is a figure of speech used in rhetoric in which a thing or concept is not called by its own name, but by the name of something intimately associated with that thing or concept...

    .
  • Both in ancient Greece and independently among the Hebrews, tribes often took the name of a legendary leader (as Achaeus
    Achaeus, son of Xuthus
    Achaeus was, according to nearly all traditions, a son of Xuthus and Creusa, and consequently a brother of Ion and grandson of Hellen. The Achaeans regarded him as the author of their race, and derived from him their own name as well as that of Achaia, which was formerly called Aegialus...

     for Achaeans
    Achaeans (tribe)
    The Achaeans were one of the four major tribes into which the people of Classical Greece divided themselves. According to the foundation myth formalized by Hesiod, their name comes from Achaeus, the mythical founder of the Achaean tribe, who was supposedly one of the sons of Xuthus, and brother of...

    , or Dorus
    Dorus
    -People:*Dorus de Vries, Dutch footballer*Dorus Rijkers, Dutch lifeboat captain*Stage name of Dutch comedian Tom Manders-Greek mythology:*Dorus, son of Hellen and founder of the Dorian nation*Dorus, son of Apollo and Phthia, and the father of Xanthippe...

     for Dorians). The eponym gave apparent meaning to the mysterious names of tribes, and sometimes, as in the Sons of Noah
    Sons of Noah
    The Seventy Nations or Sons of Noah is an extensive list of descendants of Noah appearing in of the Hebrew Bible, representing an ethnology from an Iron Age Levantine perspective...

    , provided a primitive attempt at ethnology
    Ethnology
    Ethnology is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the ethnic, racial, and/or national divisions of humanity.-Scientific discipline:Compared to ethnography, the study of single groups through direct...

     as well, in the genealogical relationships of eponymous originators.
  • Places and towns can also be given an eponymous name through a relationship (real or imagined) to an important figure. Peloponnesus, for instance, was said to derive its name from the Greek god Pelops
    Pelops
    In Greek mythology, Pelops , was king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus. He was the founder of the House of Atreus through his son of that name....

    . In historical times, new towns have often been named (and older communities renamed) after their founders, discoverers, or after notable individuals. Examples include Vancouver, British Columbia, named after the explorer George Vancouver
    George Vancouver
    Captain George Vancouver RN was an English officer of the British Royal Navy, best known for his 1791-95 expedition, which explored and charted North America's northwestern Pacific Coast regions, including the coasts of contemporary Alaska, British Columbia, Washington and Oregon...

    ; and Prince Albert, Saskatchewan
    Prince Albert, Saskatchewan
    Prince Albert is the third-largest city in Saskatchewan, Canada. It is situated in the centre of the province on the banks of the North Saskatchewan River. The city is known as the "Gateway to the North" because it is the last major centre along the route to the resources of northern Saskatchewan...

    , originally called Isbister's Settlement but renamed after Queen Victoria's husband and consort in 1866.
  • In science and technology, discoveries and innovations are often named after the discoverer (or supposed discoverer) or to honour some other influential workers. Examples are Avogadro's number
    Avogadro's number
    In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant is defined as the ratio of the number of constituent particles N in a sample to the amount of substance n through the relationship NA = N/n. Thus, it is the proportionality factor that relates the molar mass of an entity, i.e...

    , the Diesel engine
    Diesel engine
    A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

    , meitnerium
    Meitnerium
    Meitnerium is a chemical element with the symbol Mt and atomic number 109. It is placed as the heaviest member of group 9 in the periodic table but a sufficiently stable isotope is not known at this time which would allow chemical experiments to confirm its position, unlike its lighter...

    , Alzheimer's disease
    Alzheimer's disease
    Alzheimer's disease also known in medical literature as Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia. There is no cure for the disease, which worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death...

    , and the Apgar score
    Apgar score
    The Apgar score was devised in 1952 by the eponymous Dr. Virginia Apgar as a simple and repeatable method to quickly and summarily assess the health of newborn children immediately after birth...

    . For a discussion of the process see Stigler's law of eponymy
    Stigler's law of eponymy
    Stigler's law of eponymy is a process proposed by University of Chicago statistics professor Stephen Stigler in his 1980 publication "Stigler’s law of eponymy". In its simplest and strongest form it says: "No scientific discovery is named after its original discoverer." Stigler named the...

    .
  • In (modern) art
    • Some book
      Book
      A book is a set or collection of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of hot lava, paper, parchment, or other materials, usually fastened together to hinge at one side. A single sheet within a book is called a leaf or leaflet, and each side of a leaf is called a page...

      s, film
      Film
      A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects...

      s, video games, and TV shows
      Television program
      A television program , also called television show, is a segment of content which is intended to be broadcast on television. It may be a one-time production or part of a periodically recurring series...

       have one or more eponymous principal characters: Robinson Crusoe
      Robinson Crusoe
      Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe that was first published in 1719. Epistolary, confessional, and didactic in form, the book is a fictional autobiography of the title character—a castaway who spends 28 years on a remote tropical island near Trinidad, encountering cannibals, captives, and...

      , the Harry Potter
      Harry Potter
      Harry Potter is a series of seven fantasy novels written by the British author J. K. Rowling. The books chronicle the adventures of the adolescent wizard Harry Potter and his best friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry...

      series, The Legend of Zelda
      The Legend of Zelda
      The Legend of Zelda, originally released as in Japan, is a video game developed and published by Nintendo, and designed by Shigeru Miyamoto and Takashi Tezuka. Set in the fantasy land of Hyrule, the plot centers on a boy named Link, the playable protagonist, who aims to collect the eight fragments...

      series, I Love Lucy
      I Love Lucy
      I Love Lucy is an American television sitcom starring Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance, and William Frawley. The black-and-white series originally ran from October 15, 1951, to May 6, 1957, on the Columbia Broadcasting System...

      , for example.
    • The term is also applied to music
      Music
      Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch , rhythm , dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture...

      , usually with regard to record titles. For example, Blur
      Blur (band)
      Blur is an English alternative rock band. Formed in London in 1989 as Seymour, the group consists of singer Damon Albarn, guitarist Graham Coxon, bassist Alex James and drummer Dave Rowntree. Blur's debut album Leisure incorporated the sounds of Madchester and shoegazing...

      's 1997 album was also titled Blur. Bad Company's first album Bad Company
      Bad Company (album)
      Bad Company is the eponymous debut studio album by hard rock band Bad Company.The album was recorded at Headley Grange with Ronnie Lane's Mobile Studio in November 1973....

      released in 1974 is another example that also contained a track that was a Rock Radio favourite of the same name, "Bad Company
      Bad Company (song)
      "Bad Company" is a song from the hard rock band Bad Company. It was released as the third single from their debut album Bad Company in 1974. Co-written by the group's lead singer Paul Rodgers and drummer Simon Kirke, the song's meaning comes from the movie of the same name featuring Jeff Bridges...

      ". Many other artists and bands have also served as eponyms of albums or singles, usually as their debut or second release. Some bands, such as the Tindersticks
      Tindersticks
      Tindersticks are an Indie rock band from Nottingham, England formed in 1991. They released six albums before singer Stuart A. Staples took on a solo career. The band reunited briefly in 2006, but more permanently the following year...

      , Metallica
      Metallica
      Metallica is an American heavy metal band from Los Angeles, California. Formed in 1981 when James Hetfield responded to an advertisement that drummer Lars Ulrich had posted in a local newspaper. The current line-up features long-time lead guitarist Kirk Hammett and bassist Robert Trujillo ...

      , Led Zeppelin
      Led Zeppelin
      Led Zeppelin were an English rock band, active in the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s. Formed in 1968, they consisted of guitarist Jimmy Page, singer Robert Plant, bassist/keyboardist John Paul Jones, and drummer John Bonham...

      , Crowded House
      Crowded House
      Crowded House are a rock band, formed in Melbourne, Australia and led by New Zealand singer-songwriter Neil Finn. Finn is the primary songwriter and creative director of the band, having led it through several incarnations, drawing members from New Zealand , Australia and the United States...

      , Van Halen
      Van Halen
      Van Halen is an American hard rock band formed in Pasadena, California, in 1972. The band has enjoyed success since the release of its debut album, Van Halen, . As of 2007 Van Halen has sold 80 million albums worldwide and has had the most #1 hits on the Billboard Mainstream Rock chart...

      , Duran Duran
      Duran Duran
      Duran Duran are an English band, formed in Birmingham in 1978. They were one of the most successful bands of the 1980s and a leading band in the MTV-driven "Second British Invasion" of the United States...

      , Bang Camaro
      Bang Camaro
      Bang Camaro is an American hard rock band from Boston, Massachusetts. Founded by guitarists Bryn Bennett and Alex Necochea in 2005, it is composed of members of various indie rock bands from the area...

      , Santana
      Santana (band)
      Santana is a rock band based around guitarist Carlos Santana and founded in the late 1960s. It first came to public attention after their performing the song "Soul Sacrifice" at the Woodstock Festival in 1969, when their Latin rock provided a contrast to other acts on the bill...

      , Living in a Box
      Living in a Box
      Living in a Box were a British band from the 1980s and early 1990s. They are best known for their eponymous debut single, produced by Richard James Burgess.-Formation and split up:...

      , and the Ramones
      Ramones
      The Ramones were an American rock band that formed in the New York City neighborhood of Forest Hills, Queens, in 1974. They are often cited as the first punk rock group...

      , have released more than one and are thus referred to in other ways, including number and album art (e.g., The Blue Album
      Weezer (The Blue Album)
      Weezer, also known as The Blue Album, is the debut album by the American alternative rock band Weezer, released in May 1994 through DGC Records. The album was produced by former Cars frontman Ric Ocasek and recorded in Electric Lady Studios in New York City...

      ). Peter Gabriel
      Peter Gabriel
      Peter Brian Gabriel is an English singer, musician, and songwriter who rose to fame as the lead vocalist and flautist of the progressive rock group Genesis. After leaving Genesis, Gabriel went on to a successful solo career...

      's first four long-play releases were all such (though the fourth was given a title for its US release). Another more common term is the self-titled album. The band R.E.M.
      R.E.M.
      R.E.M. was an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia, in 1980 by singer Michael Stipe, guitarist Peter Buck, bassist Mike Mills and drummer Bill Berry. One of the first popular alternative rock bands, R.E.M. gained early attention due to Buck's ringing, arpeggiated guitar style and Stipe's...

       titled their 1988 compilation CD Eponymous
      Eponymous (album)
      Eponymous is the first greatest hits and the second compilation album by American alternative rock band R.E.M., released in 1988. It was their last authorized release on I.R.S. Records, to whom they had been contracted since 1982, having just signed with Warner Bros. Records...

      as a joke. Brazilian artists usually self-title their albums; almost all the annual Roberto Carlos
      Roberto Carlos (singer)
      Roberto Carlos Braga is a Grammy Award-winning Brazilian singer and composer, who has achieved a great deal of success and recognition in his 50 year career, also known as King of Latin Music....

       albums are eponymous. Self-titled albums are often indicated with the abbreviation "s/t," e.g., "They Might Be Giants
      They Might Be Giants (album)
      They Might Be Giants is the eponymous debut album from Brooklyn-based band They Might Be Giants, also known as The Pink Album. It was released by Bar/None in 1986....

       (s/t)"

Lists of eponyms


By person's name

By category

  • Albums
  • Adages
  • Adjectives
  • Asteroids
  • Astronomical objects
    Astronomical objects named after people
    There are probably a few thousand astronomical objects named after people. These include the names of a few thousand asteroids and hundreds of comets. Also, many topological features on solar system bodies have been named after people, including many hundreds of craters on the Moon, Mars and...

  • Cartoon characters
  • Chemical elements
  • Colleges and universities
  • Companies
  • Diseases
  • Foods
  • Human anatomical parts
  • Ideologies
  • Inventions

  • Mathematical theorems
  • Medical signs
  • Medical treatments
  • Minerals
  • Observations
  • Places and political entities
  • Prizes, awards and medals
    Prizes named after people
    This is a list of prizes that are named after people.For other lists of eponyms see Lists of etymologies.* Ansari X Prize - Anousheh Ansari, Amir Ansari* Prince of Asturias Awards - Felipe, Prince of Asturias-A:...

  • Scientific constants
    Scientific constants named after people
    This is a list of physical and mathematical constants named after people.* Archimedes' constant — Archimedes* Avogadro's number — Amedeo Avogadro* Bohr magneton — Niels Bohr* Bohr radius — Niels Bohr* Boltzmann constant — Ludwig Boltzmann...

  • Scientific equations
    Scientific equations named after people
    This is a list of scientific equations named after people .-See also:* Eponym* List of eponymous laws* List of laws in science* List of equations* Scientific constants named after people* Scientific phenomena named after people...

  • Scientific laws
    Scientific laws named after people
    This is a list of scientific laws named after people . For other lists of eponyms, see eponym.-See also:* Eponym* Fields of science...

  • Scientific phenomena
    Scientific phenomena named after people
    This is a list of scientific phenomena and concepts named after people . For other lists of eponyms, see eponym.-A:* Abderhalden–Fauser reaction – Emil Abderhalden* Abney effect, Abney's law of additivity – William de Wiveleslie Abney...

  • Scientific units
    Scientific units named after people
    This is a list of scientific units named after people. For other lists of eponyms see eponym.Note that by convention, the name of the unit is properly written in all-lowercase, but its abbreviation is capitalized.-SI base units:...

  • Sports terms
    Sports terms named after people
    -Artistic Gymnastics:* Amanar , Yurchenko on - 2½ twist off, after Simona Amânar .* Blanik, named after Leszek Blanik, a Polish artistic gymnast....

  • Stadiums (U.S.)
  • Surgical procedures
  • Trademarks or brand names


Capitalized versus lowercase

  • Because proper nouns are capitalized in English, the usual default for eponyms is to capitalize the eponymous part of a term. The common-noun part is not capitalized. For example, in Parkinson disease (named after James Parkinson
    James Parkinson
    James Parkinson was an English apothecary surgeon, geologist, paleontologist, and political activist. He is most famous for his 1817 work, An Essay on the Shaking Palsy in which he was the first to describe "paralysis agitans", a condition that would later be renamed Parkinson's disease by...

    ), Parkinson is capitalized, but disease is not.
  • However, some eponymous adjectives are nowadays entered in many dictionaries as lowercase when they have evolved a common status, no longer deriving their meaning from the proper-noun origin. For example, Herculean when referring to Hercules himself, but often herculean when referring to the figurative, generalized extension sense; and quixotic and diesel engine [lowercase only]. For any given term, one dictionary may enter only lowercase or only cap, whereas other dictionaries may recognize the capitalized version as a variant, either equally common as, or less common than, the first-listed styling (marked with labels such as "or", "also", "often", or "sometimes"). For examples, see the comparison table below.

Genitive versus attributive

  • English can use either genitive case or attributive position to indicate the adjectival nature of the eponymous part of the term. (In other words, that part may be either possessive or nonpossessive.) Thus Parkinson's disease and Parkinson disease are both acceptable. Medical dictionaries have been shifting toward nonpossessive styling in recent decades. Thus Parkinson disease is more likely to be used in the latest medical literature (especially in postprints) than is Parkinson's disease.

National varieties of English

  • American and British English spelling differences
    American and British English spelling differences
    One of the ways in which American English and British English differ is in spelling.-Historical origins:In the early 18th century, English spelling was not standardized. Differences became noticeable after the publishing of influential dictionaries...

     can occasionally apply to eponyms. For example, American style would typically be cesarean section, whereas British style would typically be caesarean section (or cæsarean section [with digraph]).

Comparison table of eponym orthographic styling

Prevalent dictionary styling today Stylings that defy prevalent dictionary styling Comments
Addison disease *Addison Disease
*addison disease
 
Allemann syndrome *Allemann Syndrome
*allemann syndrome
 
cesarean [only]
cesarean also cesarian [but no cap variant]
  British dictionary entries from fairly recent editions may possibly be found for the following variants:
Cesarean
caesarean
Caesarean
cæsarean
Cæsarean
Cesarian
caesarian
Caesarian
cæsarian
Cæsarian
darwinian [only]
darwinism [only]
Darwinian [only]
Darwinism [only]
Darwinist [only]
   
diesel (n/adj/vi) [no cap variant]
and also
diesel-electric
diesel engine
dieseling
dieselize, dieselization
*Diesel engine
*Dieseling
*Dieselize, Dieselization
 
draconian
draconian often Draconian
   
eustachian [only]
eustachian often Eustachian
eustachian tube [only]
eustachian tube often Eustachian tube
eustachian tube or Eustachian tube
*Eustachian Tube  
fallopian [only]
fallopian often Fallopian
fallopian tube [only]
fallopian tube often Fallopian tube
fallopian tube also Fallopian tube
*Fallopian Tube  
Marxism [only]
Marxist [only]
*marxism
*marxist
 
mendelian [only] or Mendelian [only]
mendelian inheritance [only] or Mendelian inheritance [only] 
 but
Mendel's laws
*Mendelian Inheritance  
Newtonian [only] *newtonian  
parkinsonism [only]
parkinsonian [only]
parkinsonian tremor
Parkinson disease [only]
Parkinson's disease [only]
*Parkinsonism
*Parkinsonian
*Parkinsonian tremor
*Parkinsonian Tremor
*Parkinson Disease
*Parkinson's Disease
 
quixotic [only] *Quixotic  

See also

  • Antonomasia
    Antonomasia
    In rhetoric, antonomasia is a substitution of any epithet or phrase for a proper name, such as "the little corporal" for Napoleon I. The reverse process is also sometimes called antonomasia. The word derives from the Greek verb , meaning "to name differently"...

  • Archetypal name
    Archetypal name
    Archetypal names are proper names of real, mythological, or fictional characters that have become designations for archetypes of certain personal traits.Archetypal names are a literary device used to allude to a certain traits of a character or a plot....

  • Eponymous hairstyles
    Eponymous hairstyles
    An eponymous hairstyle is a particular style of hair that has become fashionable during a certain period of time through its association with a prominent individual.- The "wannabe" effect :...

  • Etymology
    Etymology
    Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.For languages with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during...

  • Lists of etymologies
  • False etymology
    False etymology
    Folk etymology is change in a word or phrase over time resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one. Unanalyzable borrowings from foreign languages, like asparagus, or old compounds such as samblind which have lost their iconic motivation are...

  • Genericized trademark
    Genericized trademark
    A genericized trademark is a trademark or brand name that has become the colloquial or generic description for, or synonymous with, a general class of product or service, rather than as an indicator of source or affiliation as intended by the trademark's holder...

  • Medical eponyms
    Medical eponyms
    Medical eponyms are terms used in medicine which are named after people .New discoveries are often attached to the people who made the discovery because of the nature of the history of medicine...

  • Metonym
  • name reaction
    Name reaction
    A name reaction is a chemical reaction named after its discoverers or developers. Well known examples include the Wittig reaction, the Claisen condensation, the Friedel-Crafts acylation, and the Diels-Alder reaction. Among the tens of thousands of organic reactions that are known, hundreds of such...

  • Stigler's law of eponymy
    Stigler's law of eponymy
    Stigler's law of eponymy is a process proposed by University of Chicago statistics professor Stephen Stigler in his 1980 publication "Stigler’s law of eponymy". In its simplest and strongest form it says: "No scientific discovery is named after its original discoverer." Stigler named the...


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