Wind power in the United States

Wind power in the United States

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Encyclopedia
As of the third quarter of 2011, the cumulative installed capacity of wind power in the United States was 43,461 megawatts (MW), making it second in the world, behind China
Wind power in China
At the end of 2010, wind power in the People's Republic of China accounted for 41.8 gigawatts of electricity generating capacity, and China has identified wind power as a key growth component of the country's economy. With its large land mass and long coastline, China has exceptional wind...

. In 2010 wind power
Wind power
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships....

 accounted for 2.3% of the electricity generated in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. This amounted to 94,650 thousand megawatt-hours of electricity.

Driven by state renewable energy mandates, fourteen states have installed over 1,000 MW of wind capacity, and a total of 37 states now have installed at least some utility-scale wind power. Texas
Wind power in Texas
Wind power in Texas consists of many wind farms with a total installed nameplate capacity of 10,223 MW from over 40 different projects. Texas produces the most wind power of any U.S. state, followed by Iowa with 3,708 MW...

, with 10,135 MW of capacity, has the most installed wind power capacity of any U.S. state, followed by Iowa
Wind power in Iowa
Iowa is a leading U.S. state in wind power generation of electricity. Wind power in Iowa has 3,675 megawatts of capacity in 2011, second only to Texas. Wind power accounted for almost 20 percent of the state’s electricity generation in the first quarter of 2011...

 with 3,675 MW. The Roscoe Wind Farm
Roscoe Wind Farm
The Roscoe Wind Farm in Roscoe, Texas, owned and operated by E.ON Climate & Renewables is the world's largest capacity wind farm with 627 wind turbines and a total installed capacity of 781.5 MW, which surpasses the nearby 735.5 MW Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center.Roscoe was constructed in four phases...

 (781 MW) in Texas
Wind power in Texas
Wind power in Texas consists of many wind farms with a total installed nameplate capacity of 10,223 MW from over 40 different projects. Texas produces the most wind power of any U.S. state, followed by Iowa with 3,708 MW...

 is the largest wind farm
Wind farm
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines, and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other...

 in the US as of 2009. Shepherds Flat Wind Farm
Shepherds Flat Wind Farm
The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm is an 845 megawatt wind farm under construction in Oregon, United States. The project is located in Eastern Oregon in both Morrow and Gilliam counties, near Arlington. Approved in 2008 by state regulators, groundbreaking came in 2009...

 in Oregon will be the largest wind farm in the world, when completed in 2012, with the nameplate capacity of 845 MW.

The U.S. wind industry generates tens of thousands of jobs and billions of dollars of economic activity. Wind projects boost local tax bases, and revitalize the economy of rural communities by providing a steady income stream to farmers with wind turbines on their land. GE Energy is the largest domestic wind turbine
Wind turbine
A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical energy. If the mechanical energy is used to produce electricity, the device may be called a wind generator or wind charger. If the mechanical energy is used to drive machinery, such as for grinding grain or...

 manufacturer.

There are currently 8,482 MW in 90 projects under construction in the third quarter of 2011. The U.S. Department of Energy’s report 20% Wind Energy by 2030 envisioned that wind power could supply 20% of all U.S. electricity, which included a contribution of 4% from offshore wind power
Offshore wind power
Offshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms in bodies of water to generate electricity from wind. Better wind speeds are available offshore compared to on land, so offshore wind power’s contribution in terms of electricity supplied is higher....

. However, significant advances in cost, performance, and reliability will be needed. In August 2011, a coalition of 24 governors asked the Obama administration to provide a more favorable business climate for the development of wind power.

Overview



China
Wind power in China
At the end of 2010, wind power in the People's Republic of China accounted for 41.8 gigawatts of electricity generating capacity, and China has identified wind power as a key growth component of the country's economy. With its large land mass and long coastline, China has exceptional wind...

 has the largest installed capacity of wind power, followed by the United States. Wind power is growing rapidly worldwide and U.S. capacity has more than doubled in the past three years.

, the top five states with the most wind capacity installed are:

  • Texas
    Wind power in Texas
    Wind power in Texas consists of many wind farms with a total installed nameplate capacity of 10,223 MW from over 40 different projects. Texas produces the most wind power of any U.S. state, followed by Iowa with 3,708 MW...

     (10,223 MW)
  • Iowa
    Wind power in Iowa
    Iowa is a leading U.S. state in wind power generation of electricity. Wind power in Iowa has 3,675 megawatts of capacity in 2011, second only to Texas. Wind power accounted for almost 20 percent of the state’s electricity generation in the first quarter of 2011...

     (3,708 MW)
  • California
    Wind power in California
    Wind power in California has been an area of considerable activity for many years. California was the first U.S. state where large wind farms were developed, beginning in the early 1980s. By 1995, California produced 30 percent of the entire world's wind-generated electricity...

     (3,599 MW)
  • Minnesota
    Wind power in Minnesota
    At the end of 2010, the installed capacity for wind power in Minnesota was 2,192 megawatts . Wind farms generated nearly 10 percent of the electricity generated in the state in 2010...

     (2,681 MW)
  • Illinois
    Wind power in Illinois
    Wind power in Illinois has been supported by a renewable portfolio standard, passed in 2007, and strengthened in 2009, which requires 10% renewable energy from electric companies by 2010 and 25% by 2025. Illinois has about 1,850 megawatts of wind power installed, and the potential for up to 10,000...

     (2,438 MW)


The top five states according to percentage of generation by wind in 2010 are:
  • Iowa (15.4%)
  • North Dakota (12.0%)
  • Minnesota (9.7%)
  • South Dakota (8.3%)
  • Kansas (7.2%)


, these are the ten largest wind farms in the United States:
Project Capacity (MW) State
Roscoe Wind Farm
Roscoe Wind Farm
The Roscoe Wind Farm in Roscoe, Texas, owned and operated by E.ON Climate & Renewables is the world's largest capacity wind farm with 627 wind turbines and a total installed capacity of 781.5 MW, which surpasses the nearby 735.5 MW Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center.Roscoe was constructed in four phases...

781 Texas
Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center
Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center
Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center is a large wind farm with 735.5 megawatt capacity. It consists of 291 GE 1.5 MW wind turbines and 130 Siemens 2.3 MW wind turbines spread over nearly 47,000 acres of land in Taylor and Nolan County, Texas....

736 Texas
Alta Wind Energy Center
Alta Wind Energy Center
The Alta Wind Energy Center is a wind farm located in Tehachapi Pass of the Tehachapi Mountains, in Kern County, California. As of 2011, it is the largest wind farm in California, with a combined installed capacity of 720 MW. The project, which is being developed near Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm...

720 California
Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm
Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm
Wind development in the Tehachapi Pass began in the early 1980s. The area hosts a multitude of wind farms, comprising one of California's largest wind resource areas. The pass is undergoing much repowering activity...

705 California
Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm
Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm
The Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm is located in Sterling and Coke counties, Texas. It is a 662.5 MW wind farm, with 342 GE 1.5 MW wind turbines and 65 2.3 MW Siemens turbines that are capable of generating enough electricity for more than 220,000 homes...

662 Texas
San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm
San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm
The San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm is a wind farm located on the eastern slope of the San Gorgonio Pass in Riverside County, just east of White Water, California, United States. Developed beginning in the 1980s, it is one of three major wind farms in California, along with those at Altamont and the...

619 California
Fowler Ridge Wind Farm
Fowler Ridge Wind Farm
The Fowler Ridge Wind Farm currently consists of two completed phases with the possibility of a third phase some time in the near future. The wind farm is in Benton County, Indiana, near the city of Fowler, IN about northwest of Lafayette and northwest of Indianapolis...

600 Indiana
Sweetwater Wind Farm
Sweetwater Wind Farm
Sweetwater Wind Farm is one of the largest wind farms in Texas. Construction of the 585 MW wind farm has proceeded in five stages, and some generating capacity is still being built....

585 Texas
Altamont Pass Wind Farm
Altamont Pass Wind Farm
The Altamont Pass Wind Farm is located in the Altamont Pass of the Diablo Range in Central California. It is one of the earliest wind farms in the United States. The wind farm is composed of 4930 relatively small wind turbines of various types, making it at one time the largest farm in the world in...

576 California
Buffalo Gap Wind Farm
Buffalo Gap Wind Farm
The Buffalo Gap Wind Farm is located in Nolan and Taylor Counties, about south west of Abilene, Texas. It was constructed in three phases and has a total wind generation capacity of 524 megawatts ....

524 Texas
Meadow Lake Wind Farm
Meadow Lake Wind Farm
Meadow Lake Wind Farm is a wind farm near Brookston and Chalmers, Indiana, spreading over portions of White, Jasper, and Benton Counties in Indiana, owned and operated by Horizon Wind Energy...

500 Indiana


The Roscoe Wind Farm in Texas is the world's largest wind farm at 781.5 megawatt (MW) capacity. It consists of 627 wind turbines manufactured by General Electric, Mitsubishi, and Siemens. It surpassed the Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center in 2009. The project spans four Texas counties and covers an area the size of Manhattan.

The Fowler Ridge Wind Farm
Fowler Ridge Wind Farm
The Fowler Ridge Wind Farm currently consists of two completed phases with the possibility of a third phase some time in the near future. The wind farm is in Benton County, Indiana, near the city of Fowler, IN about northwest of Lafayette and northwest of Indianapolis...

 in Benton County, Indiana
Benton County, Indiana
Benton County is located along in the northwest part of the U.S. state of Indiana, along the border with Illinois. As of 2010, the county's population was 8,854. It contains six incorporated towns as well as several small unincorporated settlements; it is also divided into 11 townships which...

 has generating capacity of 600 MW total. The first phase of the project consisted of 222 wind turbines, installed 400 MW of capacity. Phase 2, completed in 2009, installed an additional 200 MW of capacity.

National trends


Over the last few years, wind power in the U.S. has been increasing rapidly. In 2010, however, new construction was about half of the previous year due to various factors. The following table uses data from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy is an office within the United States Department of Energy that invests in high-risk, high-value research and development in the fields of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies...

 to show the wind energy capacity growth in megawatts of the entire United States since 1999. In 2008, installed capacity in the U.S. increased by 50% over the prior year. The world average growth rate that year was 28.8%.
Year U.S. MW Change % change
2011(3Q) 43,461 3,360 8.17%
2010 40,180 5,317 15.25%
2009 34,863 9,453 37.20%
2008 25,410 8,503 50.29%
2007 16,907 5,332 46.06%
2006 11,575 2,428 26.54%
2005   9,147 2,424 36.06%
2004   6,723    373   5.87%
2003   6,350 1,663 35.48%
2002   4,687    455 10.75%
2001   4,232 1,693 66.68%
2000   2,539      67   2.71%
1999   2,472 N/A N/A


State trends


Driven by state renewable energy targets, fourteen states have installed over 1,000 MW of wind capacity, and a total of 37 states now have installed at least some utility-scale wind power. Much of the new wind power capacity is being built in the Great Plains and Midwest regions of the United States, which have a favorable combination of characteristics: ample wind resources, an extensive rail and highway network for shipping outsized turbine components, flat topography which both improves the wind and makes turbine components easier to ship, and broad acceptance from local farmers and ranchers. New development in some locations, however, is being limited by lack of additional capacity to transmit power to locations where it can be used. Other areas seeing wind development include the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
The Pacific Northwest is a region in northwestern North America, bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and, loosely, by the Rocky Mountains on the east. Definitions of the region vary and there is no commonly agreed upon boundary, even among Pacific Northwesterners. A common concept of the...

, and Northeast
Northeastern United States
The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States as defined by the United States Census Bureau.-Composition:The region comprises nine states: the New England states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; and the Mid-Atlantic states of New...

.

Texas




In 2010 Texas surpassed the 10,000 MW mark with the addition of over 600 MW of generating capacity.
Wind power in Texas
Wind power in Texas
Wind power in Texas consists of many wind farms with a total installed nameplate capacity of 10,223 MW from over 40 different projects. Texas produces the most wind power of any U.S. state, followed by Iowa with 3,708 MW...

 consists of many wind farm
Wind farm
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines, and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other...

s with a total installed capacity of 10,223 MW. The Roscoe Wind Farm
Roscoe Wind Farm
The Roscoe Wind Farm in Roscoe, Texas, owned and operated by E.ON Climate & Renewables is the world's largest capacity wind farm with 627 wind turbines and a total installed capacity of 781.5 MW, which surpasses the nearby 735.5 MW Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center.Roscoe was constructed in four phases...

 in Roscoe, Texas
Roscoe, Texas
Roscoe is a town in Nolan County, Texas, United States. The population was 1,378 at the 2000 census, but has decreased to only 900.-Geography:Roscoe is located at ....

, is the world's largest wind farm with 627 wind turbines and a total installed capacity of 781.5 MW, which surpasses the nearby 735.5 MW Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center
Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center
Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center is a large wind farm with 735.5 megawatt capacity. It consists of 291 GE 1.5 MW wind turbines and 130 Siemens 2.3 MW wind turbines spread over nearly 47,000 acres of land in Taylor and Nolan County, Texas....

. It is located about 200 miles (320 km) west of Fort Worth and the wind farm area spans parts of four Texas counties.
Large wind farms in Texas
Wind farm Installed
capacity (MW)
Turbine
manufacturer
County
Buffalo Gap Wind Farm
Buffalo Gap Wind Farm
The Buffalo Gap Wind Farm is located in Nolan and Taylor Counties, about south west of Abilene, Texas. It was constructed in three phases and has a total wind generation capacity of 524 megawatts ....

 
523 Vestas
Vestas
Vestas Wind Systems A/S is a Danish manufacturer, seller, installer, and servicer of wind turbines. It is the largest in the world, but due to very rapid growth of its competitors, its market share decreased from 28% in 2007 to 12.5% in 2009...

 
Taylor / Nolan
Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm
Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm
The Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm is located in Sterling and Coke counties, Texas. It is a 662.5 MW wind farm, with 342 GE 1.5 MW wind turbines and 65 2.3 MW Siemens turbines that are capable of generating enough electricity for more than 220,000 homes...

 
662 GE Energy / Siemens
Siemens
Siemens may refer toSiemens, a German family name carried by generations of telecommunications industrialists, including:* Werner von Siemens , inventor, founder of Siemens AG...

 
Sterling / Coke
Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center
Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center
Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center is a large wind farm with 735.5 megawatt capacity. It consists of 291 GE 1.5 MW wind turbines and 130 Siemens 2.3 MW wind turbines spread over nearly 47,000 acres of land in Taylor and Nolan County, Texas....

 
735 GE Energy / Siemens Taylor / Nolan
Lone Star Wind Farm
Lone Star Wind Farm
The Lone Star Wind Farm in Shackelford and Callahan Counties in Texas was officially opened by Horizon Wind Energy in June 2008, with an installed generating capacity of 400 MW. The site's 200 Gamesa 2 MW wind turbines produce enough electricity for at least 120,000 homes, with environmental...

 
400 Gamesa Shackelford / Callahan
Panther Creek Wind Farm
Panther Creek Wind Farm
The Panther Creek Wind Farm in Big Spring, Texas, USA consists of 305 wind turbines and has an installed capacity of 457.5 megawatts, making it one of the ten largest wind farms in the United States. Phases I and II of the wind farm became operational early in 2009, with the completion of the...

 
458 GE Energy Howard / …
Papalote Creek Wind Farm
Papalote Creek Wind Farm
Construction of Phase II of the Papalote Creek Wind Farm near Taft, Texas was completed in 2011, adding 87 turbines to the 109 that went into service in 2009. Together the 196 turbines can produce 380 megawatts of power, enough to serve approximately 115,000 homes...

 
380 Siemens San Patricio
Peñascal Wind Farm  404 Mitsubishi Kenedy
Roscoe Wind Farm
Roscoe Wind Farm
The Roscoe Wind Farm in Roscoe, Texas, owned and operated by E.ON Climate & Renewables is the world's largest capacity wind farm with 627 wind turbines and a total installed capacity of 781.5 MW, which surpasses the nearby 735.5 MW Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center.Roscoe was constructed in four phases...

 
781 Mitsubishi Nolan
Sweetwater Wind Farm
Sweetwater Wind Farm
Sweetwater Wind Farm is one of the largest wind farms in Texas. Construction of the 585 MW wind farm has proceeded in five stages, and some generating capacity is still being built....

 
585 GE Energy / Siemens / Mitsubishi Nolan


Expansion of wind power capacity will help Texas meet its renewable energy
Renewable energy
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable . About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from...

 goal of 5,000 MW of new power from renewable sources by 2015. On October 28, 2010, strong winds pushed wind power to 25% of the electrical generation in Texas.

Iowa




Wind power in Iowa has 3,675 megawatts (MW) of capacity in 2010, second only to Texas. Wind power accounted for almost 20 percent of the state’s electricity generation in the first quarter of 2011. Since Iowa adopted a renewable energy standard in 1983, the wind power industry has generated almost $5 billion in investment. The 444 MW Rolling Hills Wind Farm in southwestern Iowa is due to be completed in late 2011.

California


Wind power in California
Wind power in California
Wind power in California has been an area of considerable activity for many years. California was the first U.S. state where large wind farms were developed, beginning in the early 1980s. By 1995, California produced 30 percent of the entire world's wind-generated electricity...

 has been an area of considerable activity for many years. California was the first U.S. state where large wind farm
Wind farm
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines, and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other...

s were developed, beginning in the early 1980s. By 1995, California produced 30 percent of the entire world's wind-generated electricity. In 2004, California produced 4,258 million kilowatt-hours of electricity, roughly 1.5 percent of the total energy consumed by the state.

More than 13,000 of California's wind turbine
Wind turbine
A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical energy. If the mechanical energy is used to produce electricity, the device may be called a wind generator or wind charger. If the mechanical energy is used to drive machinery, such as for grinding grain or...

s, or 95 percent of all of California's wind output, are located in three primary regions: Altamont Pass Wind Farm
Altamont Pass Wind Farm
The Altamont Pass Wind Farm is located in the Altamont Pass of the Diablo Range in Central California. It is one of the earliest wind farms in the United States. The wind farm is composed of 4930 relatively small wind turbines of various types, making it at one time the largest farm in the world in...

 (east of San Francisco); Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm
Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm
Wind development in the Tehachapi Pass began in the early 1980s. The area hosts a multitude of wind farms, comprising one of California's largest wind resource areas. The pass is undergoing much repowering activity...

 (south east of Bakersfield), and San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm
San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm
The San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm is a wind farm located on the eastern slope of the San Gorgonio Pass in Riverside County, just east of White Water, California, United States. Developed beginning in the 1980s, it is one of three major wind farms in California, along with those at Altamont and the...

 (near Palm Springs, east of Los Angeles). The new Alta Wind Energy Center
Alta Wind Energy Center
The Alta Wind Energy Center is a wind farm located in Tehachapi Pass of the Tehachapi Mountains, in Kern County, California. As of 2011, it is the largest wind farm in California, with a combined installed capacity of 720 MW. The project, which is being developed near Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm...

, is also located within the Tehachapi Pass region.
Large wind farms in California
Name Location Capacity (MW) Status
Altamont Pass Wind Farm
Altamont Pass Wind Farm
The Altamont Pass Wind Farm is located in the Altamont Pass of the Diablo Range in Central California. It is one of the earliest wind farms in the United States. The wind farm is composed of 4930 relatively small wind turbines of various types, making it at one time the largest farm in the world in...

 
Alameda County
Alameda County, California
Alameda County is a county in the U.S. state of California. It occupies most of the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 1,510,271, making it the 7th most populous county in the state...

 
576 Operational
Alta Wind Energy Center
Alta Wind Energy Center
The Alta Wind Energy Center is a wind farm located in Tehachapi Pass of the Tehachapi Mountains, in Kern County, California. As of 2011, it is the largest wind farm in California, with a combined installed capacity of 720 MW. The project, which is being developed near Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm...

 
Kern County
Kern County, California
Spreading across the southern end of the California Central Valley, Kern County is the fifth-largest county by population in California. Its economy is heavily linked to agriculture and to petroleum extraction, and there is a strong aviation and space presence. Politically, it has generally...

 
720 Operational
San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm
San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm
The San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm is a wind farm located on the eastern slope of the San Gorgonio Pass in Riverside County, just east of White Water, California, United States. Developed beginning in the 1980s, it is one of three major wind farms in California, along with those at Altamont and the...

 
Riverside County
Riverside County, California
Riverside County is a county in the U.S. state of California. One of 58 California counties, it covers in the southern part of the state, and stretches from Orange County to the Colorado River, which forms the state border with Arizona. The county derives its name from the city of Riverside,...

 
615 Operational
Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm
Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm
Wind development in the Tehachapi Pass began in the early 1980s. The area hosts a multitude of wind farms, comprising one of California's largest wind resource areas. The pass is undergoing much repowering activity...

 
Kern County
Kern County, California
Spreading across the southern end of the California Central Valley, Kern County is the fifth-largest county by population in California. Its economy is heavily linked to agriculture and to petroleum extraction, and there is a strong aviation and space presence. Politically, it has generally...

 
705 Operational

Minnesota



At the end of 2008, the installed capacity for wind power in Minnesota was 1,754 megawatts (MW), and wind farm
Wind farm
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines, and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other...

s provided more than 7 per cent of the electricity used in the state. Wind farms in Minnesota include the Buffalo Ridge Wind Farm
Buffalo Ridge Wind Farm
Buffalo Ridge Wind Farm is a large wind farm near Lake Benton, Minnesota that is located on the geological Buffalo Ridge.- History :In 1994, a Minnesota legislative mandate increased the demand for wind power in Minnesota. Buffalo Ridge's geography is well suited for wind power and it has been...

 (225 MW), the Fenton Wind Farm
Fenton Wind Farm
The Fenton Wind Farm is a 205.5 megawatt wind energy project built by , that became operational in the second half of 2007. The $385-million project is in Chandler, Minnesota on a site that encompasses Murray and Nobles counties and consists of 137 GE 1.5 MW wind turbines.Power generated by the...

 (205.5 MW), the Nobles Wind Farm (201 MW) and the Bent Tree Wind Farm (201 MW).

Washington


Large wind farms in Washington
Name Location Capacity (MW) Status
Windy Point Wind Farm  Klickitat County  339 Operational
Wild Horse I
Wild Horse Wind Farm
The Wild Horse Wind Farm is a 229-megawatt wind farm that generates energy for Puget Sound Energy that consists of one hundred twenty-seven 1.8-megawatt Vestas V80 turbines on a site in Kittitas County, Washington, east of Ellensburg, Washington....

 
Kittitas County  273 Operational
Marengo Wind Farm
Marengo Wind Farm
Marengo Wind Farm is an electricity generating wind farm facility located near Dayton, Washington, United States. It is owned by PacifiCorp and began operations in 2007. The facility has a generating capacity of 140 megawatts.-External links:...

 
Columbia County  211 Operational
White Creek Wind Farm
White Creek Wind Farm
The White Creek Wind Farm is an electricity generating wind farm facility in Klickitat County, Washington, United States. It is owned by Last Mile Electric Cooperative and began operations in 2007...

 
Klickitat County  205 Operational
Big Horn Wind Farm
Big Horn Wind Farm
The Big Horn Wind Farm has a 200 megawatt generating capacity and uses 133 GE Energy 1.5 MW wind turbines. This wind power plant is owned by Big Horn LLC, a subsidiary of Iberdrola Renewables.It is located in Klickitat County, Washington and 98 percent of the land it is on remains available for...

 
Klickitat County  200 Operational
Stateline Wind Farm  Walla Walla County  177 Operational
Hopkins Ridge Wind Farm
Hopkins Ridge Wind Farm
The Hopkins Ridge Wind Farm is an electricity generating wind farm facility located in Columbia County, Washington, United States. It is owned by Puget Sound Energy and began operations in 2005. The facility has a generating capacity of 149 megawatts....

 
Columbia County  157 Operational
Lower Snake River Wind Project
Lower Snake River Wind Project
The Lower Snake River Wind Project is under construction in Washington’s Garfield and Columbia counties. The wind farm is being developed in phases with the first phase consisting of 149 Siemens wind turbines rated at 2.3 MW each for a maximum generating capacity of 343 MW...

 
Garfield County  342.7 Under construction

Oregon



Large wind farms in Oregon
Station Location Capacity (MW) Status Notes
Biglow Canyon Wind Farm
Biglow Canyon Wind Farm
Biglow Canyon Wind Farm is an electricity generating wind farm facility in Sherman County, Oregon, United States. It is owned by Portland, Oregon, based Portland General Electric and began operations in 2007. With the completion of phase 3 of the project it has a generating capacity of 450 megawatts...

 
Sherman County
Sherman County, Oregon
Sherman County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oregon. The county is named for William Tecumseh Sherman, a Union general in the American Civil War. In 2010, its population was 1,765. The seat of the county is Moro. The largest city is Wasco....

 
450 Operational
Leaning Juniper Wind Project
Leaning Juniper Wind Project
The Leaning Juniper Wind Project is an electricity generating wind farm facility located in Gilliam County, Oregon, United States with a total generating capicity of 302.3 megawatts. It is owned by PacifiCorp and began operations in 2006. The facility became operational in phase 1 generating a...

 
Gilliam County
Gilliam County, Oregon
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 1,915 people, 819 households, and 543 families residing in the county. The population density was 2 people per square mile . There were 1,043 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile...

 
302.3 Operational
Klondike Wind Farm
Klondike Wind Farm
Klondike Wind farm is located in Sherman County, east of the small agricultural community of Wasco, in the north-central part of the U.S. state of Oregon...

 
Sherman County
Sherman County, Oregon
Sherman County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oregon. The county is named for William Tecumseh Sherman, a Union general in the American Civil War. In 2010, its population was 1,765. The seat of the county is Moro. The largest city is Wasco....

 
399 Operational
Shepherds Flat Wind Farm
Shepherds Flat Wind Farm
The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm is an 845 megawatt wind farm under construction in Oregon, United States. The project is located in Eastern Oregon in both Morrow and Gilliam counties, near Arlington. Approved in 2008 by state regulators, groundbreaking came in 2009...

 
Gilliam
Gilliam County, Oregon
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 1,915 people, 819 households, and 543 families residing in the county. The population density was 2 people per square mile . There were 1,043 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile...

 and Morrow Counties
Morrow County, Oregon
Morrow County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oregon, on the south side of the Columbia River. It is included in the 8 county definition of Eastern Oregon. The county is named for one of its first white settlers, Jackson L. Morrow, who was a member of the state legislature when the county...

 
845 Under construction
Stateline Wind Project
Stateline Wind Project
The Stateline Wind Farm is a wind farm located on Vansycle Ridge, which receives 16 to 18 mph average wind speeds from the Columbia Gorge, on the border between Washington and Oregon in the United States...

 
Umatilla County
Umatilla County, Oregon
Umatilla County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oregon. It is included in the 8 county definition of Eastern Oregon. The county is named for the Umatilla River. In 2010, its population was 75,889...

 
123 Operational
Vansycle Wind Project
Vansycle Wind Project
The Vansycle I Wind Project is a wind farm in Umatilla County, Oregon. It consists of 38 Vestas 0.66 MW wind turbines at the upper end of Vansycle Canyon with a collective nameplate generating capacity of 25.08 MW...

 
Umatilla County
Umatilla County, Oregon
Umatilla County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oregon. It is included in the 8 county definition of Eastern Oregon. The county is named for the Umatilla River. In 2010, its population was 75,889...

 
124 Operational

Kansas


Kansas has high potential capacity for wind power, second behind Texas. The most recent estimates are that Kansas has a potential for 950 GW of wind power capacity yet has only about 1,000 MW installed. Kansas could generate 3,900 TW·h of electricity each year which represents nearly all the electricity generated from coal, natural gas and nuclear combined in the United States in 2008.

Industry trends



Since 2005 many turbine manufacturing leaders have opened U.S. facilities; of the top 10 global manufacturers in 2007, seven — Vestas
Vestas
Vestas Wind Systems A/S is a Danish manufacturer, seller, installer, and servicer of wind turbines. It is the largest in the world, but due to very rapid growth of its competitors, its market share decreased from 28% in 2007 to 12.5% in 2009...

, GE Energy, Gamesa
Gamesa Corporación Tecnológica
Gamesa Corporación Tecnológica , is a manufacturing company principally involved in the fabrication of wind turbines and the construction of wind farms....

, Suzlon
Suzlon Energy
Suzlon Energy is a global wind power company based in India. In terms of market share, the company is the fifth largest wind turbine manufacturer in Asia...

, Siemens
Siemens
Siemens may refer toSiemens, a German family name carried by generations of telecommunications industrialists, including:* Werner von Siemens , inventor, founder of Siemens AG...

, Acciona
Acciona Energy
Acciona Energy, a subsidiary of Acciona based in Madrid, is a Spanish company developing renewable energy projects, including small hydro, biomass, solar energy and thermal energy, and the marketing of biofuels. It also has assets in the field of co-generation and wind turbine manufacture...

, and Nordex
Nordex
Nordex is a German company that designs, sells and manufactures wind turbines. The domicile is located in the German city of Hamburg, production takes place in Rostock, China and Jonesboro, Arkansas. The company was founded in 1985 in Give, Denmark. Since then the company steadily grew...

 — have an American manufacturing presence. In addition, Clipper Windpower
Clipper Windpower
Clipper Windpower is a wind turbine manufacturing company formed in 2001 by James G.P. Dehlsen, who also formed Zond in 1980. In December 2010 Clipper Windpower was acquired by United Technologies Corporation.-History:...

, which is based in the U.S., has joined GE as a major domestic player in the production of utility-scale wind turbines, with the two companies together accounting for 50% of the 2008 domestic turbine market. REpower is another manufacturer with notable usage in the United States.

As of April 2009, over 100 companies are producing components for wind turbines, employing thousands of workers in the manufacture of parts as varied as towers, composite blades, bearings and gears. Many existing companies in traditional manufacturing states have retooled to enter the wind industry. Their manufacturing facilities are spread across 40 states, employing workers from the Southeast to the Steel Belt, to the Great Plains and on to the Pacific Northwest.

Plans for 30 new manufacturing facilities were announced in 2008, and the wind industry expects to see a continued shift towards domestic manufacturing in the coming years. In total, 70 manufacturing facilities have begun production, been expanded, or announced since January 2007.

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is working with six leading wind turbine manufacturers towards achieving 20% wind power in the United States by 2030. The DOE announced the Memorandum of Understanding
Memorandum of understanding
A memorandum of understanding is a document describing a bilateral or multilateral agreement between parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action. It is often used in cases where parties either do not imply a legal commitment or in...

 (MOU) with GE Energy, Siemens Power Generation
Siemens Power Generation
Siemens Power Generation, Inc is a power generation company based in the United States run by the German Siemens AG Corporation.SPGI was formed by the acquisition and merger of the non-nuclear energy divisions of Westinghouse Electric Company by the Siemens power generation division in 1997; the...

, Vestas Wind Systems, Clipper Windpower
Clipper Windpower
Clipper Windpower is a wind turbine manufacturing company formed in 2001 by James G.P. Dehlsen, who also formed Zond in 1980. In December 2010 Clipper Windpower was acquired by United Technologies Corporation.-History:...

, Suzlon Energy
Suzlon Energy
Suzlon Energy is a global wind power company based in India. In terms of market share, the company is the fifth largest wind turbine manufacturer in Asia...

, and Gamesa Corporation. Under the MOU, the DOE and the six manufacturers will collaborate to gather and exchange information relating to five major areas: research and development related to turbine reliability and operability; siting strategies for wind power facilities; standards development for turbine certification and universal interconnection of wind turbines; manufacturing advances in design, process automation, and fabrication techniques; and workforce development.

Government involvement


The DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory , located in Golden, Colorado, is the United States' primary laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility; it is funded through...

 (NREL) has announced a number of wind technology projects, including a new state-of-the-art wind turbine blade test facility to be built in Ingleside, Texas
Ingleside, Texas
Ingleside is a town in Nueces and San Patricio Counties in the U.S. state of Texas. The population was 9,388 at the 2000 census.Ingleside is also home to Naval Station Ingleside. On August 24, 2005, the BRAC Committee voted to close the base. In 2010, the main base property was turned over to the...

. The Texas-NREL Large Blade Research and Test Facility will be capable of testing blades as long as 70 meters (230 feet). It will be built and operated through a partnership among NREL, DOE, and a state consortium led by University of Houston
University of Houston
The University of Houston is a state research university, and is the flagship institution of the University of Houston System. Founded in 1927, it is Texas's third-largest university with nearly 40,000 students. Its campus spans 667 acres in southeast Houston, and was known as University of...

, with the university owning and operating the facility's buildings, DOE funding up to $2 million in capital costs, and NREL providing technical and operational assistance. The blade test facility is estimated to cost between $12 million and $15 million and should be completed by 2010. Located on the Gulf Coast, the Texas facility will complement a similar facility that is being built on the coast of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

.

NREL has also recently signed agreements with Siemens Power Generation and First Wind, a wind power developer. Siemens is launching a new research and development facility in nearby Boulder, Colorado
Boulder, Colorado
Boulder is the county seat and most populous city of Boulder County and the 11th most populous city in the U.S. state of Colorado. Boulder is located at the base of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of...

, and has agreed to locate and test a commercial-scale wind turbine at NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). First Wind (formerly called UPC Wind Partners, LLC) owns and operates the 30-megawatt Kaheawa Wind Power farm in West Maui, Hawaii
West Maui Mountains
The West Maui Mountains or West Maui Volcano, known to the Hawaiians as Maui Komohana and to geologists as Mauna Kahalawai, forms a much eroded shield volcano that constitutes the western one-quarter of the Hawaiian Island of Maui....

, and has agreed to let the NWTC establish a Remote Research Affiliate Partner Site at the facility. The Maui satellite of NWTC will collaborate with First Wind on studies to develop advanced wind energy technologies, including energy storage and integration of renewable electricity into Maui's electrical grid.

In July 2008, Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

 approved a $4.93 billion expansion of the state's electric grid to bring wind energy to its major cities. Transmission companies will recoup the cost of constructing the new power lines, expected to be completed in 2013, from fees estimated at $4 per month for residential customers. This lack of capacity forced wind turbines to be shut down at times and reduced wind power generation in Texas by 17% in 2009.

The Green Power Express is a proposal for an electric power transmission grid that would transmit up to 12,000 MW of wind generated power from the Dakotas, Minnesota, and Iowa to the Chicago area and to southeastern U.S. states. The system would add some 3000 miles (4,828 km) of extra high voltage (765 kilovolt) transmission lines. It has received some approvals from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the U.S. government. New transmission grid power lines would be needed to transmit power from sources like the Titan Wind Project
Titan Wind Project
The Titan Wind Project is a proposed 5,050 MW wind farm project, formerly known as Rolling Thunder, based in South Dakota. The project developers, Clipper Windpower and BP Alternative Energy, expect to build Titan in several phases and, when completed, it will be one of the largest wind farms in...

 to population centers further east. Opponents claim the lines would also be used to transmit electricity from coal fired powerplants.

The U.S. provides a federal production tax credit (PTC) of $21 per MW·h generated for the first ten years of operation for wind energy sold. RPS mandating a certain percentage of electricity sales come from renewable energy sources in about half of the states also have boosted the development of the wind industry.

In August 2011, a coalition of 24 governors asked the Obama administration to provide a more favorable business climate for the development of wind power, starting with “a seven-year extension of the Production Tax Credit (PTC) and the Investment Tax Credit (ITC) to provide stable, low tax rates for wind-generated electricity”. The governors said that these measures would help to “drive economic growth, energy development, and the creation of high-paying jobs”.

Siting considerations



There is competition for wind farms among farmers in places like Iowa or ranchers in Colorado. Farmers, with no investment on their part, typically receive $3,000–5,000 per year in royalties from the local utility for siting a single, large, advanced-design wind turbine.

Landscape and ecological issues may be significant for some wind farm proposals. However, when appropriate planning procedures for site selection are followed environmental problems should be minimal. Some people may still object to wind farms, but their concerns should be weighed against the need to address the threats posed by climate change
Climate change
Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions or the distribution of events around that average...

 and fossil fuel depletion
Peak oil
Peak oil is the point in time when the maximum rate of global petroleum extraction is reached, after which the rate of production enters terminal decline. This concept is based on the observed production rates of individual oil wells, projected reserves and the combined production rate of a field...

, the need for energy security
Energy security
Energy security is a term for an association between national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption. Access to cheap energy has become essential to the functioning of modern economies. However, the uneven distribution of energy supplies among countries has led...

, and the opinions of the broader community.

Worldwide experience has shown that community consultation and direct involvement of the general public in wind farm projects has helped to increase community approval, and some wind farms overseas have become tourist attractions.

Potential capacity


The U.S. Department of Energy’s 2008 report 20% Wind Energy by 2030 envisioned that wind power could supply 20% of all U.S. electricity, which included a contribution of 4% to the nation’s total electricity from offshore wind power. However, in order to achieve this, significant advances in cost, performance and reliability are needed, according to a report in 2011 from a coalition of researchers from universities, industry, and government, supported by the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future
Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future
The David R. Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future is a research organization created in Fall 2007 at Cornell University. ACSF advances multidisciplinary research in Energy, the Environment and Economic Development, and cultivates collaborations within and beyond Cornell.- History :ACSF,...

.

On February 11, 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory , located in Golden, Colorado, is the United States' primary laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility; it is funded through...

 released the first comprehensive update of the wind energy potential by state since 1993, showing that the contiguous United States
Contiguous United States
The contiguous United States are the 48 U.S. states on the continent of North America that are south of Canada and north of Mexico, plus the District of Columbia....

 had potential to install 10,459 GW of onshore wind power. The capacity could generate 37 petawatt-hours (PW·h) annually, an amount nine times larger than current total U.S. electricity consumption. The U.S. also has large wind resources in Alaska, and Hawaii.

In addition to the large onshore wind resources, the U.S. has large offshore wind power potential, with another NREL report released in September 2010 showing that the U.S. has 4,150 GW of potential offshore wind power nameplate capacity, an amount 4 times greater than the country's 2008 installed capacity from all sources of 1,010 GW.

Offshore wind power


, the United States has no offshore wind power.
In June 2009, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar
Ken Salazar
Kenneth Lee "Ken" Salazar is the current United States Secretary of the Interior, in the administration of President Barack Obama. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as a United States Senator from Colorado from 2005 to 2009. He and Mel Martinez were the first Hispanic U.S...

 issued five exploratory leases for wind power production on the Outer Continental Shelf offshore from New Jersey and Delaware. The leases authorize data gathering activities, allowing for the construction of meteorological towers on the Outer Continental Shelf
Outer Continental Shelf
The Outer Continental Shelf is a peculiarity of the political geography of the United States and is the part of the internationally recognized continental shelf of the United States which does not fall under the jurisdictions of the individual U.S...

 from six to 18 miles (29 km) offshore. Four areas are being considered. On February 7, 2011, Salazar and Stephen Chu announced a national strategy to have offshore wind power of 10 GW in 2020, and 54 GW in 2030.

The United States has very large offshore wind energy resources due to strong, consistent winds off the long U.S. coastline. Offshore wind energy is a clean, domestic, renewable resource that can assist the U.S. in meeting energy, environmental, and economic challenges. A robust U.S. offshore wind industry could generate tens of thousands of jobs and billions of dollars of economic activity. Much of this activity would boost economically depressed ports and shipyards, which could be repurposed to manufacture and install offshore wind turbines. Research on European offshore wind farms shows that offshore wind generates more jobs per megawatt installed than onshore wind. A Virginia study has shown that the development of 3,200 MW of offshore wind would create 9,700-11,600 jobs within 20 years, and that installation of a 588 MW offshore wind farm would attract $403 million of investment in the local economy regardless of where the turbines were manufactured. Though offshore wind turbines are more expensive to build than onshore turbines (because they tend to be larger and must be anchored to the sea-floor), they also tend to generate more electricity than onshore turbines because of their size.

Some coastal residents oppose offshore wind farms because of fears about impacts on marine life, the environment, electricity rates, aesthetics, and recreation such as fishing and boating. However, residents also cite improved electricity rates, air quality, and job creation as positive impacts they would expect from wind farms. Because the bases of offshore turbines function as artificial reefs, studies have shown that after the initial disturbance of construction, local fish and shellfish are positively affected. Because wind turbines can be positioned at some distance from shore, impacts to recreation and fishing can be managed by careful planning of wind farm locations.

In 2011, the NREL published a report, Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States, that analyzes the current state of the offshore wind energy industry. According to the report, "developing the offshore wind resource along U.S. coastlines and in the Great Lakes would help the nation":
  • Achieve 20% of its electricity from wind by 2030, as offshore wind could supply 54 gigawatts of wind capacity to the nation’s electrical grid, increasing energy security, reducing air and water pollution, and stimulating the domestic economy.
  • Provide clean power to its coastal demand centers, as wind power emits no carbon dioxide (CO2) and there are plentiful winds off the coasts of 26 states.
  • Revitalize its manufacturing sector, generating an "estimated $200 billion in new economic activity, and create more than 43,000 permanent, well-paid technical jobs in manufacturing, construction, engineering, operations and maintenance".

NREL’s report concludes that "the development of the nation’s offshore wind resources can provide many potential benefits, and with effective research, policies, and commitment, offshore wind energy can play a vital role in future U.S. energy markets".

Massachusetts



The Cape Wind Project is an approved offshore wind farm
Wind farm
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines, and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other...

, on Horseshoe Shoal in Nantucket Sound
Nantucket Sound
Nantucket Sound is a roughly triangular area of the Atlantic Ocean offshore from the U.S. state of Massachusetts. It is long and wide, and is enclosed by Cape Cod on the north, Nantucket on the south, and Martha's Vineyard on the west. Between Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard it is connected to the...

 off Cape Cod
Cape Cod
Cape Cod, often referred to locally as simply the Cape, is a cape in the easternmost portion of the state of Massachusetts, in the Northeastern United States...

 in the U.S. state of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

, proposed by a private developer, Cape Wind Associates. If the project moves forward on schedule, it may become the first offshore wind energy project in United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 coastal waters. The project has been fought by the Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound
Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound
The Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound is a 501 nonprofit self-styled environmental organization dedicated to the opposition of the Cape Wind project and to the long-term preservation of Nantucket Sound...

, formed in 2001 to oppose the proposal. The project is expected to cost $2.5 billion.

Rhode Island


At the state level, a goal was set in 2004 by the governor of having 15% of electricity come from renewable sources by 2020. State officials picked Deepwater Wind
Deepwater Wind
Deepwater Wind was established to develop large-scale offshore wind projects in the north-eastern part of the United States. The company's major investors are First Wind, a developer of on-shore wind projects in the United States, D.E...

 to build a $1.5-billion, 385-megawatt wind farm in federal waters off Block Island
Block Island
Block Island is part of the U.S. state of Rhode Island and is located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately south of the coast of Rhode Island, east of Montauk Point on Long Island, and is separated from the Rhode Island mainland by Block Island Sound. The United States Census Bureau defines Block...

. The 100-turbine project could provide 1.3 terawatt-hours (TW·h) of electricity per year — 15 percent of all electricity used in the state.
In 2009, Deepwater signed an agreement with National Grid to sell the power from a $200-million, 30-MW wind farm off Block Island, at an initial price of 24.4 ¢/kW·h.

New Jersey



In 2007, New Jersey awarded a $4.4 million contract to conduct an 18-month Ocean/Wind Power Ecological Baseline Study, becoming the first state to sponsor an ocean and wind power study before allowing renewable energy developers to study and build off its shores. The study focused on a designated area off the coast to determine the current distribution, abundance and migratory patterns of avian species, fish, marine resources and sea turtle use of the existing ecological resources. In 2008, new federal rules greatly expanded the territory offshore wind parks can be built. Previously, projects were only allowed in shallow state waters within 3 nautical miles (5.6 km) of shore. The edge of U.S. territory is about 200 nautical miles (370.4 km) out. Increased distance from the coast diminishes their visibility, at the same time create problems of stability.
In June 2010, the State of New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection released the results of the study which stated that the effects of developing offshore windfarms would be "negligible". Soon after, the New Jersey Legislature
New Jersey Legislature
The New Jersey Legislature is the legislative branch of the government of the U.S. state of New Jersey. In its current form, as defined by the New Jersey Constitution of 1947, the Legislature consists of two houses: the General Assembly and the Senate...

 created and the governor
Governor of New Jersey
The Office of the Governor of New Jersey is the executive branch for the U.S. state of New Jersey. The office of Governor is an elected position, for which elected officials serve four year terms. While individual politicians may serve as many terms as they can be elected to, Governors cannot be...

 signed the Offshore Wind Economic Development Act. The law provides for financial incentives and tax credit
Tax credit
A tax credit is a sum deducted from the total amount a taxpayer owes to the state. A tax credit may be granted for various types of taxes, such as an income tax, property tax, or VAT. It may be granted in recognition of taxes already paid, as a subsidy, or to encourage investment or other behaviors...

s to support offshore wind projects. It also authorized a new Offshore Wind Renewable Energy Certificate (OREC) program and rules that developers must follow to obtain approval and receive ORECs.

Atlantic Wind Connection


Atlantic Wind Connection
Atlantic Wind Connection
Atlantic Wind Connection is an electrical transmission backbone proposed by Trans-Elect Development Company that could be constructed starting in 2013 off the East Coast of the United States to service off-shore wind farms...

 is a planned electrical transmission backbone
Electric power transmission
Electric-power transmission is the bulk transfer of electrical energy, from generating power plants to Electrical substations located near demand centers...

 to be built off the Atlantic Coast of the United States to serve off-shore wind farm
Wind farm
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines, and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other...

s. Google
Google
Google Inc. is an American multinational public corporation invested in Internet search, cloud computing, and advertising technologies. Google hosts and develops a number of Internet-based services and products, and generates profit primarily from advertising through its AdWords program...

 and Good Energies, an investment firm, are the major investors in the $5 billion dollar project proposed by Trans-Elect Development Company which would deliver power ashore in southern Virginia, Delaware, southern New Jersey and northern New Jersey. The proposed system has been praised by environmentalists and federal regulators, but as a first of its kind project, poses significant risks of encountering unexpected technological challenges and cost overruns. Such an offshore backbone is an element in the national electricity strategy.

See also


  • American Wind Energy Association
    American Wind Energy Association
    Formed in 1974, the American Wind Energy Association is a Washington, D.C.-based national trade association representing wind power project developers, equipment suppliers, service providers, parts manufacturers, utilities, researchers, and others involved in the wind industry.With over 2,500...

  • List of wind farms in the United States
  • Renewable energy in the United States
    Renewable energy in the United States
    Renewable energy accounted for 14.3 percent of the domestically produced electricity in the United States in the first six months of 2011. Hydroelectricity is the largest producer of renewable power in the United States. In 2009, the U.S...

  • List of onshore wind farms
  • Wind ENergy Data & Information (WENDI) Gateway
    Wind ENergy Data & Information (WENDI) Gateway
    The Wind ENergy Data & Information Gateway was launched by the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in March 2010 to support the United States Department of Energy's Wind & Hydropower Technologies Program...