Sherman Fairchild

Sherman Fairchild

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Sherman Mills Fairchild was an inventor and serial entrepreneur who founded over 70 companies namely Fairchild Aircraft, Fairchild Industries
Fairchild Industries
Fairchild Industries was created from a name change from Fairchild Hiller Corporation, division and subsidiaries: Fairchild Aircraft Marketing Company, Fairchild Aircraft Services Division, Fairchild Republic Division, Fairchild Space and Electronics Division, Fairchild Stratos Division, Burns Aero...

, Fairchild Aviation Corporation and Fairchild Camera and Instrument
Fairchild Camera and Instrument
Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation was a company founded by Sherman Fairchild. It was based on the East Coast of the United States, and provided research and development for flash photography equipment...

. Fairchild made significant contributions to the aviation industry and was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1979. His Fairchild Semiconductor
Fairchild Semiconductor
Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. is an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California. Founded in 1957, it was a pioneer in transistor and integrated circuit manufacturing...

 company played a defining role in the development of Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley is a term which refers to the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California in the United States. The region is home to many of the world's largest technology corporations...

. He held over 30 patents for products ranging from the silicon semiconductor to the 8-mm. home sound motion-picture camera. Fairchild is also responsible for inventing the first synchronized camera shutter and flash as well as developing new technologies for aerial cameras that were later used on the Apollo Missions.

Early life and education



Born in Oneonta, New York
Oneonta, New York
Oneonta is a city in southern Otsego County, New York, USA. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, had a population of 13,901. Its nickname is "City of the Hills." While the word "oneonta" is of undetermined origin, it is popularly believed to mean "place of open rocks" in the Iroquois language...

, Sherman Fairchild was the only child of George Winthrop Fairchild
George Winthrop Fairchild
George Winthrop Fairchild , was a six-term Republican U.S. Representative from New York.Prior to joining congress, he was a businessman and investor, best known as the chairman from 1915-1924 of the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company which later became IBM.-Biography:He was born in Oneonta New...

 (1854–1924) and Josephine Mills Sherman (1859–1924). His father was a Republican Congressman
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 as well as a co-founder and the first Chairman of IBM
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas...

. His mother was the daughter of William Sherman, of Davenport, Iowa.

His father died on December 31, 1924, and as an only child he inherited his father's multi-million dollar estate. He also inherited his father's IBM stock, becoming IBM's largest individual stockholder until his passing in 1971.

Known to be a particularly bright and naturally inquisitive child, Sherman Fairchild matriculated at Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University is a private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation chartered in the country...

 in 1915 where, in his freshman year, he invented the first synchronized camera shutter and flash. During these college years he also contracted tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body...

 and under the advice of his physician, moved to Arizona
Arizona
Arizona ; is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the western United States and the mountain west. The capital and largest city is Phoenix...

 to recover in the drier climate. He then transferred to the University of Arizona
University of Arizona
The University of Arizona is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. The University of Arizona was the first university in the state of Arizona, founded in 1885...

, where he became increasingly interested in photography. He would later transfer to Columbia University
Columbia University
Columbia University in the City of New York is a private, Ivy League university in Manhattan, New York City. Columbia is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York, the fifth oldest in the United States, and one of the country's nine Colonial Colleges founded before the...

 in New York. Due to his ongoing medical problems, Fairchild did not earn a degree from any of these schools. Instead he pursued his desire to become an entrepreneur.

Having never been married or having any children, he spent his time exploring a variety of interests. Aside from maintaining his companies, he enjoyed architecture, cooking, jazz, dancing, philosophy, and tennis. He always kept an eye out for opportunities to create or improve upon existing technology or capabilities.

Aerial photography



In 1917, after being rejected from the military because of his poor health Fairchild was determined to find another way to support the World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 effort. Fairchild and his father went to Washington and won a government contract to develop an improved aerial camera. The camera featured a shutter that was inside the lens, thereby reducing the significant image distortion caused by the slow shutter speeds that could not keep up with the movement of the plane. The U.S. government gave Fairchild a budget of $7,000; the project however ended up costing $40,000, his father paid the difference. Although the military did not accept his camera until the war effort was over, the U.S. government did purchase two cameras for training. Undeterred, Fairchild went on to focus his attention on developing a more advanced camera and in February 1920 he established the Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation (predecessor of Fairchild Camera and Instrument
Fairchild Camera and Instrument
Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation was a company founded by Sherman Fairchild. It was based on the East Coast of the United States, and provided research and development for flash photography equipment...

). Shortly thereafter the U.S. Army ordered 20 additional Fairchild cameras and selected it as the standard for aerial cameras. The need for Fairchild's aerial cameras continued to grow; during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 over 90% of all aerial cameras used by Allied Forces were of Fairchild design or manufacture.
Fairchild wanted to expand the capabilities of his cameras for map making and aerial surveying. In 1921, he formed Fairchild Aerial Surveys and bought a surplus World War I Fokker D.VII
Fokker D.VII
The Fokker D.VII was a German World War I fighter aircraft designed by Reinhold Platz of the Fokker-Flugzeugwerke. Germany produced around 3,300 D.VII aircraft in the summer and autumn of 1918. In service, the D.VII quickly proved itself to be a formidable aircraft...

 biplane to take his aerial photographs. Shortly afterward, Fairchild landed a contract to make a photomap of Newark, New Jersey
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the largest city in the American state of New Jersey, and the seat of Essex County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Newark had a population of 277,140, maintaining its status as the largest municipality in New Jersey. It is the 68th largest city in the U.S...

, which would be the first aerial mapping of a major city. In 1923, Fairchild formed Fairchild Aerial Surveys of Canada, Limited after he was asked by the chief forester of the Laurentide Paper Company to perform aerial surveys of Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

. Back in the United States he made an aerial map of Manhattan Island which went on to become a commercial success and was implemented by several New York businesses. Other cities began using aerial mapping as they found it was faster and less expensive than the ground surveys of the time. Aerial photography proved to be a successful commercial venture. To accommodate this growing commercial demand for aerial surveys; Fairchild established Fairchild Aerial Surveys in the United States. In 1965 Fairchild sold Fairchild Aerial Surveys to Aero Services, Inc., which decided to keep only the more recent photographs and dispose of the others. A former Fairchild employee learned of this plan and was able to get the older material to three Southern California Institutions; Whittier College
Whittier College
Whittier College is a private liberal arts college in Whittier, California. As of January 2009, the college has approximately 1540 enrolled students.-Overview:...

, UCLA, and California State University at Northridge, where he knew professors who would put the material to good use.

Lunar Photography



Fairchild Corporation also developed the Fairchild Lunar Mapping Camera (also known as the Metric Camera) for NASA
NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

. The camera was carried on Apollo 15
Apollo 15
Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the American Apollo space program, the fourth to land on the Moon and the eighth successful manned mission. It was the first of what were termed "J missions", long duration stays on the Moon with a greater focus on science than had been possible on previous...

, 16
Apollo 16
Young and Duke served as the backup crew for Apollo 13; Mattingly was slated to be the Apollo 13 command module pilot until being pulled from the mission due to his exposure to rubella through Duke.-Backup crew:...

, and 17
Apollo 17
Apollo 17 was the eleventh and final manned mission in the American Apollo space program. Launched at 12:33 a.m. EST on December 7, 1972, with a three-member crew consisting of Commander Eugene Cernan, Command Module Pilot Ronald Evans, and Lunar Module Pilot Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 remains the...

 and took photos from lunar orbit throughout the missions. Over 7,000 individual frames were captured by the Lunar Mapping Cameras which resulted in the coverage of approximately 20% of the lunar surface. These frames were primarily used to produce topographic photo maps of the moon. The data acquired by the Apollo Lunar Mapping Cameras provided important information to scientists and geologists studying and mapping the lunar surface.

Airplane manufacturing



Fairchild soon realized that existing planes were not suitable for the type of maneuvering and extreme conditions that were often encountered during aerial photography. In 1925 Sherman Fairchild, formed the Fairchild Aviation Corporation in Long Island, New York. Fairchild founded the company to build the FC-1, an aircraft specifically designed to provide accurate aerial mapping and surveying. Fairchild was a dominant force in the aviation industry during this period, becoming one of the nation's largest manufacturers of commercial aircraft. Between 1927 and 1930, the company delivered over 300 of the FC-2, the production version of the FC-1 aerial mapping aircraft The aircraft could hold up to five passengers and could also be equipped with float or ski landing gear. The FC-2 was later chosen to accompany Charles A. Lindbergh on his 23000 miles (37,014.8 km) tour of America. It also carried the first international airmail from Key West, Florida
Key West, Florida
Key West is a city in Monroe County, Florida, United States. The city encompasses the island of Key West, the part of Stock Island north of U.S. 1 , Sigsbee Park , Fleming Key , and Sunset Key...

 to Havana, Cuba. In the short span of 9 months, Fairchild went from initial production to being the second largest aircraft producer in the world.


Fairchild went on to create, purchase, merge and sell his aviation company countless times.
He incorporated Fairchild Aviation Corporation as a holding company for all his other endeavors, with two of its largest subsidiaries being the Fairchild Airplane Manufacturing Corporation of Farmingdale, New York
Farmingdale, New York
The Village of Farmingdale is an incorporated village on Long Island within the Town of Oyster Bay in Nassau County, New York in the United States...

 and the Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Company of Hagerstown, Maryland
Hagerstown, Maryland
Hagerstown is a city in northwestern Maryland, United States. It is the county seat of Washington County, and, by many definitions, the largest city in a region known as Western Maryland. The population of Hagerstown city proper at the 2010 census was 39,662, and the population of the...

. The Aviation Corp (AVCO
Avco
Avco Corporation is a subsidiary of Textron which operates Textron Systems Corporation and Lycoming.-Brief history:The Embry-Riddle Company created the Aviation Corporation in 1928 as a holding company tasked with acquiring small airlines...

) purchased Fairchild Aviation and its subsidiaries in 1930; however, in the following year Fairchild repurchased Fairchild Aviation Corp and eventually all its subordinate companies. In 1936, Fairchild Aviation divested all of its aircraft manufacturing interests into the new Fairchild Engine and Airplane Co.

History of acquisitions, mergers and divestitures


Created in 1924, Fairchild Airplane and Manufacturing Co. was the original aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of Fairchild Aviation Corp. Its primary purpose was to design and build aircraft for Fairchild's aerial cameras. It was purchased by AVCO in 1930, then combined with Fairchild Engine Co. to form American Airplane and Engine Corp, which then bought American Airplane and Engine in 1934 to become Fairchild Aircraft Manufacturing and Engine Co. In the 1936 reorganization it became Fairchild Engine and Airplane Co. and took control over all Fairchild Aircraft and engine holdings. In 1950, it became Fairchild Engine and Airplane Company.

During the 1960s Fairchild went through a serieis of changes and acquisition. The company was renamed Fairchild-Stratos Corporation in 1961, and began building meteoroid detection satellites for NASA as well as cameras that were used during the Apollo missions. After acquiring Hiller Aircraft in 1964, it became Fairchild Hiller. Later that same year Fairchild acquired Republic Aviation, which became the Republic Aviation Division of Fairchild Hiller. Fairchild created the Space & Electronic Systems division in 1965 to produce spacecraft and subsystems. The division also manufactured parts for the F-4 Phantom and the Boeing 747 Jumbo Jet.

After the death of Sherman Fairchild in 1971, the corporate identity of the company changed from Fairchild Hiller to Fairchild Industries, Inc. During this time Fairchild acquired the assets of Roades Lewis in Manhattan Beach, California and renamed it Stratos West. In the 1980s Fairchild underwent another series of ownership changes and divestitures. The aircraft manufacturing division was sold in 1987 as the company moved to focusing its resources on aerospace and defense components. Banner Industries, a metals firm, acquired Fairchild Industries in August 1989. The Fairchild Space & Defense and Fairchild Controls divisions were acquired by the Matra Lagardere Group, a French aerospace company. The Fairchild Controls division was relocated from Manhattan Beach, California to two locations in Maryland - Frederick and Germantown. In 1994 Orbital Sciences acquired the Space and Defense division. Fairchild Controls was spun off on its own and consolidated operations to its current location Frederick, Maryland. On July 10, 2000, Fairchild Controls Corporation became part of one of the largest aerospace and defense company's in the world. When DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG of Germany and Aerospatiale-Matra of France, and Construcciones Aeronáuticas S.A. of Spain merged to form EADS. />

Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Co.


In 1929, Fairchild acquired a controlling interest in the Kreider-Reisner Co and began building new manufacturing facilities at the Hagerstown Airfield. During the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

 he consolidated his aircraft business in Hagerstown to form the Fairchild Aircraft Corp in 1935, which became his principle US aircraft manufacturing subsidiary. The plant began manufacturing new aircraft including the Fairchild Model 22 (1931), Model 24 (1932), Model 95 (1934 – USAAC XC-31), Model 91, Jungle Clipper (1935), Model 45 (1935) and Model 46 (1937). After numerous changes it became the Aircraft Division in 1967, which was broken up in a corporate reorganization after Fairchild's death.

Aircraft Contributions



Over the years, Fairchild airplanes would play major roles in the military, ferrying, freighting, and surveying industries. In 1939, Fairchild bought a process developed by Virginius E. Clark
Virginius E. Clark
Virginius Evans Clark was an American World War I engineer. Clark designed the 1922 Clark Y airfoil used by many early aircraft.-Biography:...

 in which a composite made of hot layers of plywood soaked with resin adhesive and bonded under pressure was used for building airframes. Fairchild was involved in the development and production of the process which he renamed Fairchild Duramold and then used on the AT-21 Gunner
AT-21 Gunner
|-See also:-References:NotesBibliography* Andrade, John M. U.S. Military Aircraft Designations and Serials since 1909. Hinckley, England: Midland Counties Publications, 1979, ISBN 0-904597-22-9....

 trainer. Before the outbreak of the war, Fairchild realized the large sales potential for trainers and developed the Model 62(M-62) which met both the requirements for the military and civilian flying schools.
In the summer of 1939, he entered the plane in a U.S. Army competition against other primary trainer candidates. When the M-62 won the contest, the Air Corps
United States Army Air Corps
The United States Army Air Corps was a forerunner of the United States Air Force. Renamed from the Air Service on 2 July 1926, it was part of the United States Army and the predecessor of the United States Army Air Forces , established in 1941...

 awarded Fairchild with a contract for 270 planes to be designated the PT-19. The PT-19 model, was the main product of the Fairchild plant in Hagerstown.

In 1942, Fairchild developed the Fairchild Model 78, which was designed specifically for military transport. He was awarded a military contract to build his large capacity twin-boom plane which featured a hinged rear door used to load bulky cargo to be designated the C-82 Packet
C-82 Packet
The C-82 Packet was a twin-engine, twin-boom cargo aircraft designed and built by Fairchild Aircraft. It was used briefly by the United States Army Air Forces and United States Navy following World War II.-Design and development:...

. It was nicknamed the "Flying Boxcar" because the plane's cargo capacity of 2870 cubic feet (81.3 m³) was the same as that of a standard railway boxcar. It was used during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 to fly assembled vehicles into Berlin. Fairchild was able to remain profitable after the war by manufacturing the C-119 Flying Boxcar
C-119 Flying Boxcar
The Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar was an American military transport aircraft developed from the World War II-era Fairchild C-82 Packet, designed to carry cargo, personnel, litter patients, and mechanized equipment, and to drop cargo and troops by parachute...

, an upgraded version of the Packet which incorporated more powerful engines and greater capacity.
From December 1949 until 1955 over 1,100 C-119s had been constructed. This would be the last Fairchild design to be mass produced. The C-119 was eventually converted into the AC-119, a night attack gunship used in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

. In the 1950s, Fairchild manufactured the C-123 Provider
C-123 Provider
The C-123 Provider was an American military transport aircraft designed by Chase Aircraft and subsequently built by Fairchild Aircraft for the United States Air Force...

, a short range assault transport which was used for a variety of purposes including spraying defoliants in Vietnam.
In 1956, Fairchild built the Fokker F-27 Friendship passenger airplane, the first American-built jet airliner in service. The 40-seat plane was also the first to offer its passengers air conditioning and pressurization within the short-haul marketplace. It became widely used as a "feeder" plane for commercial carriers across the globe. After acquiring Hiller Helicopters and becoming Fairchild Hiller in 1964, it introduced the FH-1100 civilian helicopter and AU-23 peacemaker military helicopter. On December 18, 1970, the Air Force
Air force
An air force, also known in some countries as an air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military organization that primarily conducts aerial warfare. More specifically, it is the branch of a nation's armed services that is responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an army, navy or...

 selected Fairchild to develop the YA-10A prototype, which would be the last aircraft project undertaken before Fairchild's death in 1971. Production of the A-10 Thunderbolt began in 1974. It was nicknamed the "Warthog" because it was built as a workhorse and many felt it was plain ugly. It was used in 1991 at the start of Operation Desert Storm during the first ground battle. The planes took more responsibilities during the war as they were strongly built and able to withstand considerable battle damage. After sixty years, the entire aircraft program was shut down in 1987 after the failure of the T-46A program.

Death



Sherman Fairchild died on March 28, 1971 at the Roosevelt Hospital in New York after a long illness. Fairchild was laid to rest in Greenwood Cemetery in Oneonta, Otsego County, N.Y. He is buried within walking distance of the home he grew up in, now the Oneonta Masonic Lodge.

He left bequests to more than 50 relatives, friends and former employees. Most of the $200+ million estate went to two charitable foundations he formed during his lifetime, the Fairchild Foundation and the Sherman Fairchild Foundation
Sherman Fairchild Foundation
The Sherman Fairchild Foundation, founded in 1955, is a charitable foundation of Sherman Mills Fairchild, founder and chairman of many Fairchild Corporations. Fairchild formed two charitable Foundations, the Fairchild Foundation and the Sherman Fairchild Foundation during his lifetime...

. Bequestees included Walter Burke of Winding Lane, Greenwich, Conn. Mr. Burke, the executor, was a long-time friend and business advisor. Other bequests included were to Ann Diane Williams of Beverley Hills, California, $2-million, or 1% of the net estate, whichever is greater; Cornelia Lynn Sharp of 111 East 75th Street, $200,000, and Roswell Gilpatric
Roswell Gilpatric
Roswell Leavitt Gilpatric was a prominent New York City corporate attorney and government official who served as Deputy Secretary of Defense from 1961–64, when he played a pivotal role in the high-stake strategies of the Cuban Missile Crisis, advising President John F...

 of 79 East 79th Street, $100,000. Specific bequests to organizations were Roosevelt Hospital, $300,000; the Salvation Army, $200,000 and the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, in memory of his late aunt, May Fairchild; $100,000. His will was offered for probate in Manhattan Surrogate's Court by the law firm of Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamiltion of New York. The assets of the Sherman Fairchild Foundation
Sherman Fairchild Foundation
The Sherman Fairchild Foundation, founded in 1955, is a charitable foundation of Sherman Mills Fairchild, founder and chairman of many Fairchild Corporations. Fairchild formed two charitable Foundations, the Fairchild Foundation and the Sherman Fairchild Foundation during his lifetime...

, headquartered in Chevy Chase, MD, have grown to over $500 Million in recent years. The Walter Burke family continue to run the Sherman Fairchild Foundation
Sherman Fairchild Foundation
The Sherman Fairchild Foundation, founded in 1955, is a charitable foundation of Sherman Mills Fairchild, founder and chairman of many Fairchild Corporations. Fairchild formed two charitable Foundations, the Fairchild Foundation and the Sherman Fairchild Foundation during his lifetime...

. Bonnie Burke Himmelman is the current president.

As a result of his lifetime achievements, he was awarded fellowships in the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences and in the Royal Aeronautical Society
Royal Aeronautical Society
The Royal Aeronautical Society, also known as the RAeS, is a multidisciplinary professional institution dedicated to the global aerospace community.-Function:...

, as well as accolades by the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
The Smithsonian Institution is an educational and research institute and associated museum complex, administered and funded by the government of the United States and by funds from its endowment, contributions, and profits from its retail operations, concessions, licensing activities, and magazines...

. In 1979, Fairchild was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame
National Aviation Hall of Fame
The American National Aviation Hall of Fame is located at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, east Dayton, Ohio...

.

Books

  • Thomas J. Campanella-Cities from the Sky: An Aerial Portrait of America-ISBN 156892992, ISBN 15668982991, Princeton Architectural Press: 1 edition (November 26, 2001)
  • Wayne G. Broehl-The Sherman Fairchild Foundation, 1955-1993-(Unknown Binding) ASIN: B0006P19WA, The Foundation
  • Frank and Suanne Woodring-Images of Aviation:Fairchild Aircraft-ISBN 978-0-7385-4439-7, Arcadia Publishing (2007)

See also

  • Fairchild (disambiguation)
    Fairchild (disambiguation)
    -Organizations:* Fairchild Aerial Surveys, operated in cooperation with a subsidiary of Fairey Aviation Company* Fairchild Aircraft, an aircraft manufacturer, also variously known as Fairchild-Hiller, Fairchild-Republic and Fairchild-Dornier* Fairchild Aircraft Ltd...

  • Fairchild Aircraft Ltd. (Canada)
    Fairchild Aircraft Ltd. (Canada)
    The Fairchild Aircraft Ltd. of Longueuil, Quebec, Canada was an aircraft manufacturer in the period 1920-1950. It served as a subsidiary of the Fairchild Aircraft company of the United States.-Origin:...

  • Fairchild Semiconductor
    Fairchild Semiconductor
    Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. is an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California. Founded in 1957, it was a pioneer in transistor and integrated circuit manufacturing...

  • Traitorous Eight
    Traitorous Eight
    The Traitorous Eight, as they became known, are eight men who left Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory to form Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957. More neutral terms include the "Fairchild Eight" and the "Shockley Eight." They have sometimes been called "Fairchildren," although this term has been also...

  • Silicon Valley
    Silicon Valley
    Silicon Valley is a term which refers to the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California in the United States. The region is home to many of the world's largest technology corporations...


External links