Arizona

Arizona

Overview
Arizona ; is a state located in the southwestern region
Southwestern United States
The Southwestern United States is a region defined in different ways by different sources. Broad definitions include nearly a quarter of the United States, including Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and Utah...

 of the United States. It is also part of the western United States and the mountain west
Mountain States
thumb|300px|Regional definitions vary from source to source. The states shown in dark red are always included, while the striped states are usually considered part of the same region called the Mountain States....

. The capital and largest city is Phoenix
Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

. The second largest city is Tucson
Tucson, Arizona
Tucson is a city in and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States. The city is located 118 miles southeast of Phoenix and 60 miles north of the U.S.-Mexico border. The 2010 United States Census puts the city's population at 520,116 with a metropolitan area population at 1,020,200...

, followed in size by eight Phoenix metropolitan area
Phoenix Metropolitan Area
The Phoenix metropolitan area, often referred to as The Valley of the Sun, is a metropolitan area, centered on the city of Phoenix, that includes much of the central part of the US state of Arizona...

 cities: Mesa
Mesa, Arizona
According to the 2010 Census, the racial composition of Mesa was as follows:* White: 77.1% * Hispanic or Latino : 26.54%* Black or African American: 3.5%* Two or more races: 3.4%* Native American: 2.4%...

, Glendale
Glendale, Arizona
Glendale is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, located about nine miles northwest from Downtown Phoenix. According to 2010 Census Bureau, the population of the city is 226,721....

, Chandler
Chandler, Arizona
-Demographics:As of the Census of 2010, there were 236,123 people, 86,924 households, and 60,212 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 73.3% White, 4.8% Black or African American, 1.5% Native American, 8.2% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 21.9% Hispanic or Latino, and 8.3%...

, Scottsdale
Scottsdale, Arizona
Scottsdale is a city in the eastern part of Maricopa County, Arizona, United States, adjacent to Phoenix. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2010 the population of the city was 217,385...

, Gilbert
Gilbert, Arizona
-Demographics:As of July 1, 2009, Maricopa Association of Governments, Census 2000. United States Census Bureau. there were 217,521 people, 74,147 housing units, and 3.01 persons per household....

, Tempe
Tempe, Arizona
Tempe is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, with the Census Bureau reporting a 2010 population of 161,719. The city is named after the Vale of Tempe in Greece. Tempe is located in the East Valley section of metropolitan Phoenix; it is bordered by Phoenix and Guadalupe on the west, Scottsdale...

, Peoria
Peoria, Arizona
Peoria is a city in Maricopa and Yavapai counties in the U.S. state of Arizona. Located primarily in Maricopa County, it is a major suburb of Phoenix. According to 2010 Census Bureau releases, the population of the city is 154,065. Peoria is currently the sixth largest city in Arizona for land...

, Surprise
Surprise, Arizona
Surprise is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA. The population was 30,848 at the 2000 census; however, rapid growth has boosted the city's population to 117,517 at the 2010 census, an increase of 281%...

 and then by Yuma
Yuma, Arizona
Yuma is a city in and the county seat of Yuma County, Arizona, United States. It is located in the southwestern corner of the state, and the population of the city was 77,515 at the 2000 census, with a 2008 Census Bureau estimated population of 90,041....

 in Yuma County.

Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states
Contiguous United States
The contiguous United States are the 48 U.S. states on the continent of North America that are south of Canada and north of Mexico, plus the District of Columbia....

 admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912.
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Encyclopedia
Arizona ; is a state located in the southwestern region
Southwestern United States
The Southwestern United States is a region defined in different ways by different sources. Broad definitions include nearly a quarter of the United States, including Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and Utah...

 of the United States. It is also part of the western United States and the mountain west
Mountain States
thumb|300px|Regional definitions vary from source to source. The states shown in dark red are always included, while the striped states are usually considered part of the same region called the Mountain States....

. The capital and largest city is Phoenix
Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

. The second largest city is Tucson
Tucson, Arizona
Tucson is a city in and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States. The city is located 118 miles southeast of Phoenix and 60 miles north of the U.S.-Mexico border. The 2010 United States Census puts the city's population at 520,116 with a metropolitan area population at 1,020,200...

, followed in size by eight Phoenix metropolitan area
Phoenix Metropolitan Area
The Phoenix metropolitan area, often referred to as The Valley of the Sun, is a metropolitan area, centered on the city of Phoenix, that includes much of the central part of the US state of Arizona...

 cities: Mesa
Mesa, Arizona
According to the 2010 Census, the racial composition of Mesa was as follows:* White: 77.1% * Hispanic or Latino : 26.54%* Black or African American: 3.5%* Two or more races: 3.4%* Native American: 2.4%...

, Glendale
Glendale, Arizona
Glendale is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, located about nine miles northwest from Downtown Phoenix. According to 2010 Census Bureau, the population of the city is 226,721....

, Chandler
Chandler, Arizona
-Demographics:As of the Census of 2010, there were 236,123 people, 86,924 households, and 60,212 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 73.3% White, 4.8% Black or African American, 1.5% Native American, 8.2% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 21.9% Hispanic or Latino, and 8.3%...

, Scottsdale
Scottsdale, Arizona
Scottsdale is a city in the eastern part of Maricopa County, Arizona, United States, adjacent to Phoenix. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2010 the population of the city was 217,385...

, Gilbert
Gilbert, Arizona
-Demographics:As of July 1, 2009, Maricopa Association of Governments, Census 2000. United States Census Bureau. there were 217,521 people, 74,147 housing units, and 3.01 persons per household....

, Tempe
Tempe, Arizona
Tempe is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, with the Census Bureau reporting a 2010 population of 161,719. The city is named after the Vale of Tempe in Greece. Tempe is located in the East Valley section of metropolitan Phoenix; it is bordered by Phoenix and Guadalupe on the west, Scottsdale...

, Peoria
Peoria, Arizona
Peoria is a city in Maricopa and Yavapai counties in the U.S. state of Arizona. Located primarily in Maricopa County, it is a major suburb of Phoenix. According to 2010 Census Bureau releases, the population of the city is 154,065. Peoria is currently the sixth largest city in Arizona for land...

, Surprise
Surprise, Arizona
Surprise is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA. The population was 30,848 at the 2000 census; however, rapid growth has boosted the city's population to 117,517 at the 2010 census, an increase of 281%...

 and then by Yuma
Yuma, Arizona
Yuma is a city in and the county seat of Yuma County, Arizona, United States. It is located in the southwestern corner of the state, and the population of the city was 77,515 at the 2000 census, with a 2008 Census Bureau estimated population of 90,041....

 in Yuma County.

Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states
Contiguous United States
The contiguous United States are the 48 U.S. states on the continent of North America that are south of Canada and north of Mexico, plus the District of Columbia....

 admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912. Arizona is noted for its desert
Desert
A desert is a landscape or region that receives an extremely low amount of precipitation, less than enough to support growth of most plants. Most deserts have an average annual precipitation of less than...

 climate, exceptionally hot summers, and mild winters, but it also features pine
Pine
Pines are trees in the genus Pinus ,in the family Pinaceae. They make up the monotypic subfamily Pinoideae. There are about 115 species of pine, although different authorities accept between 105 and 125 species.-Etymology:...

 forests and mountain ranges in the northern high country, with much cooler weather than in the lower deserts.

Arizona is one of the Four Corners states. It borders New Mexico
New Mexico
New Mexico is a state located in the southwest and western regions of the United States. New Mexico is also usually considered one of the Mountain States. With a population density of 16 per square mile, New Mexico is the sixth-most sparsely inhabited U.S...

, Utah
Utah
Utah is a state in the Western United States. It was the 45th state to join the Union, on January 4, 1896. Approximately 80% of Utah's 2,763,885 people live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. This leaves vast expanses of the state nearly uninhabited, making the population the...

, Nevada
Nevada
Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

, and California, touches Colorado
Colorado
Colorado is a U.S. state that encompasses much of the Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains...

, and has a 389 miles (626 km) international border
Border
Borders define geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states and other subnational entities. Some borders—such as a state's internal administrative borders, or inter-state borders within the Schengen Area—are open and...

 with the states of Sonora
Sonora
Sonora officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo....

 and Baja California
Baja California
Baja California officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is both the northernmost and westernmost state of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1953, the area was known as the North...

 in Mexico. It is the largest landlocked U.S. state by population. In addition to the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon National Park
Grand Canyon National Park is the United States' 15th oldest national park and is located in Arizona. Within the park lies the Grand Canyon, a gorge of the Colorado River, considered to be one of the Wonders of the World. The park covers of unincorporated area in Coconino and Mohave counties.Most...

, many other national forests
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of federal lands in the United States.National Forests are largely forest and woodland areas owned by the federal government and managed by the United States Forest Service, part of the United States Department of Agriculture. Land management of these areas...

, parks, and monuments are located in the state, while more than a quarter of its territory is Federal Trust Land which serves as the home of the Navajo Nation
Navajo Nation
The Navajo Nation is a semi-autonomous Native American-governed territory covering , occupying all of northeastern Arizona, the southeastern portion of Utah, and northwestern New Mexico...

, the Hopi tribe
Hopi Reservation
The Hopi Reservation, or simply Hopi, is a Native American reservation for the Hopi and Arizona Tewa people, surrounded entirely by the Navajo Nation, in Navajo and Coconino counties of Arizona, USA. The site in north-eastern Arizona has a land area of 2,531.773 sq mi and as of the 2000 census had...

, the Tohono O'odham
Tohono O'odham
The Tohono O'odham are a group of Native American people who reside primarily in the Sonoran Desert of the southeastern Arizona and northwest Mexico...

, Apache
Apache
Apache is the collective term for several culturally related groups of Native Americans in the United States originally from the Southwest United States. These indigenous peoples of North America speak a Southern Athabaskan language, which is related linguistically to the languages of Athabaskan...

 and Yaqui people and various Yuman tribes, such as the Yavapai
Yavapai people
Yavapai are an indigenous people in Arizona. Historically, the Yavapai were divided into four geographical bands that considered themselves separate peoples: the Tolkapaya, or Western Yavapai, the Yavapé, or Northwestern Yavapai, the Kwevkapaya, or Southeastern Yavapai, and Wipukpa, or Northeastern...

, Quechan and Hualapai.

Etymology


The general consensus is that the name of the state comes from an earlier Spanish name, Arizonac, derived from the O'odham
O'odham language
O'odham is an Uto-Aztecan language of southern Arizona and northern Sonora where the Tohono O'odham and Pima reside. As of the year 2000, there were estimated to be approximately 9750 speakers in the United States and Mexico combined, although there may be more due to underreporting...

 name meaning "small spring", which initially applied only to an area near the Mexican silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora
Planchas de Plata, Sonora
Planchas de Plata , sometimes called Bolas de Plata is a historic silver-mining district near Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, and a few miles south of the border with the US state of Arizona. Native silver was discovered here in 1736 by Antonio Siraumea, a Yaqui Indian, on the Rancho Arizona of Bernardo...

 This is supported by the fact that that area is still known as in the O'odham language. Other possible origins that have been proposed are the Spanish phrase 'árida zona' (arid zone), shortened to Arizona or the Basque
Basque language
Basque is the ancestral language of the Basque people, who inhabit the Basque Country, a region spanning an area in northeastern Spain and southwestern France. It is spoken by 25.7% of Basques in all territories...

 phrase aritz ona, "the good oak."

Geography


See also lists of counties, islands, rivers, lakes, state parks, national parks, and national forests.


Arizona is located in the Southwestern United States as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the sixth largest state in area, after New Mexico
New Mexico
New Mexico is a state located in the southwest and western regions of the United States. New Mexico is also usually considered one of the Mountain States. With a population density of 16 per square mile, New Mexico is the sixth-most sparsely inhabited U.S...

 and before Nevada
Nevada
Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

. Of the state's 113998 square miles (295,253.5 km²), approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is public forest and park land, state trust land and Native American reservations.

Arizona is best known for its desert
Desert
A desert is a landscape or region that receives an extremely low amount of precipitation, less than enough to support growth of most plants. Most deserts have an average annual precipitation of less than...

 landscape
Landscape
Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land, including the physical elements of landforms such as mountains, hills, water bodies such as rivers, lakes, ponds and the sea, living elements of land cover including indigenous vegetation, human elements including different forms of...

, which is rich in xerophyte
Xerophyte
A xerophyte or xerophytic organism is a plant which has adapted to survive in an environment that lacks water, such as a desert. Xerophytic plants may have adapted shapes and forms or internal functions that reduce their water loss or store water during long periods of dryness...

 plants such as the cactus
Cactus
A cactus is a member of the plant family Cactaceae. Their distinctive appearance is a result of adaptations to conserve water in dry and/or hot environments. In most species, the stem has evolved to become photosynthetic and succulent, while the leaves have evolved into spines...

. It is also known for its climate, which presents exceptionally hot summers and mild winters. Less well known is the pine-covered high country of the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
The Colorado Plateau, also called the Colorado Plateau Province, is a physiographic region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. The province covers an area of 337,000 km2 within western Colorado, northwestern New Mexico,...

 in the north-central portion of the state, which contrasts with the desert Basin and Range region in the southern portions of the state (see Arizona Mountains forests
Arizona Mountains forests
The Arizona Mountains forests are a temperate coniferous forests ecoregion of the southwest United States with a rich variety of woodland habitats and wildlife.-Setting:...

).

Like other states of the Southwest, Arizona has an abundance of topographical characteristics in addition to its desert
Desert
A desert is a landscape or region that receives an extremely low amount of precipitation, less than enough to support growth of most plants. Most deserts have an average annual precipitation of less than...

 climate. Mountains and plateaus are found in more than half of the state. Despite the state's aridity, 27% of Arizona is forest, a percentage comparable to modern day France or Germany. The largest stand in the world of Ponderosa pine
Ponderosa Pine
Pinus ponderosa, commonly known as the Ponderosa Pine, Bull Pine, Blackjack Pine, or Western Yellow Pine, is a widespread and variable pine native to western North America. It was first described by David Douglas in 1826, from eastern Washington near present-day Spokane...

 trees is contained in Arizona.

The Mogollon Rim
Mogollon Rim
The Mogollon Rim is a topographical and geological feature running across the U.S. state of Arizona. It extends approximately from northern Yavapai County eastward to near the border with New Mexico.-Description:...

, a 1998 feet (609 m) escarpment
Escarpment
An escarpment is a steep slope or long cliff that occurs from erosion or faulting and separates two relatively level areas of differing elevations.-Description and variants:...

, cuts across the central section of the state and marks the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau, where the state experienced its second worst forest fire ever
Rodeo-Chediski fire
The Rodeo–Chediski Fire was a wildfire that burned in east-central Arizona beginning on June 18, 2002, and was not controlled until July 7. It was the worst forest fire in Arizona's recorded history until June 14th, 2011 when the Wallow Fire surpassed Rodeo-Chediski as the largest fire in Arizona...

 in 2002.

Arizona belongs firmly within the Basin and Range region of North America. The region was shaped by prehistoric volcanism
Volcanism
Volcanism is the phenomenon connected with volcanoes and volcanic activity. It includes all phenomena resulting from and causing magma within the crust or mantle of a planet to rise through the crust and form volcanic rocks on the surface....

, followed by the cooling-off and related subsidence
Subsidence
Subsidence is the motion of a surface as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea-level. The opposite of subsidence is uplift, which results in an increase in elevation...

.
The Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in the United States in the state of Arizona. It is largely contained within the Grand Canyon National Park, the 15th national park in the United States...

 is a colorful, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado River, in northern Arizona. The canyon is one of the seven natural wonders of the world and is largely contained in the Grand Canyon National Park
Grand Canyon National Park
Grand Canyon National Park is the United States' 15th oldest national park and is located in Arizona. Within the park lies the Grand Canyon, a gorge of the Colorado River, considered to be one of the Wonders of the World. The park covers of unincorporated area in Coconino and Mohave counties.Most...

—one of the first national parks in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt was the 26th President of the United States . He is noted for his exuberant personality, range of interests and achievements, and his leadership of the Progressive Movement, as well as his "cowboy" persona and robust masculinity...

 was a major proponent of designating the Grand Canyon area, visiting on numerous occasions to hunt mountain lion and enjoy the scenery.

The canyon was created by the Colorado River
Colorado River
The Colorado River , is a river in the Southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately long, draining a part of the arid regions on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. The watershed of the Colorado River covers in parts of seven U.S. states and two Mexican states...

 cutting a channel over millions of years, and is about 277 miles (445.8 km) long, ranges in width from 4 to 18 mi (6.4 to 29 ) and attains a depth of more than 1 miles (1.6 km). Nearly 2 billion years of the Earth
Earth
Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets...

's history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment
Sediment
Sediment is naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of fluids such as wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particle itself....

 as the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
The Colorado Plateau, also called the Colorado Plateau Province, is a physiographic region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. The province covers an area of 337,000 km2 within western Colorado, northwestern New Mexico,...

s have uplifted.

Arizona is home to one of the most well-preserved meteorite impact sites in the world. The Barringer Meteorite Crater (better known simply as "Meteor Crater
Meteor Crater
Meteor Crater is a meteorite impact crater located approximately east of Flagstaff, near Winslow in the northern Arizona desert of the United States. Because the US Department of the Interior Division of Names commonly recognizes names of natural features derived from the nearest post office, the...

") is a gigantic hole in the middle of the high plains of the Colorado Plateau, about 25 miles (40.2 km) west of Winslow
Winslow, Arizona
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 9,520 people, 2,754 households, and 1,991 families residing in the city. The population density was 773.1 people per square mile . There were 3,198 housing units at an average density of 259.7 per square mile...

. A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 150 feet (45.7 m) above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) wide, and 570 feet (173.7 m) deep.

Arizona is one of two states that does not observe Daylight Saving Time
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time —also summer time in several countries including in British English and European official terminology —is the practice of temporarily advancing clocks during the summertime so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less...

, except in the Navajo Nation
Navajo Nation
The Navajo Nation is a semi-autonomous Native American-governed territory covering , occupying all of northeastern Arizona, the southeastern portion of Utah, and northwestern New Mexico...

, located in the northeastern region of the state. The other state is Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

.

Climate



Due to its large area and variations in elevation the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions. In the lower elevations, the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and hot summers. Typically, from late fall to early spring, the weather is mild, averaging a minimum of 60 °F (15.6 °C). November through February are the coldest months with temperatures typically ranging from 40–75 °F (4–24 °C), although occasional frost
Frost
Frost is the solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. It is formed when solid surfaces are cooled to below the dew point of the adjacent air as well as below the freezing point of water. Frost crystals' size differ depending on time and water vapour available. Frost is also usually...

s are not uncommon. About midway through February, the temperatures start to rise again with warm days, and cool breezy nights. The summer months of June through September bring a dry heat ranging from 90–128 °F (32–53 °C), with occasional high temperatures exceeding 128 °F (53.3 °C) having been observed in the desert area. Arizona's all time record high is 128 °F (53.3 °C) recorded at Lake Havasu City
Lake Havasu City, Arizona
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 41,938 people, 17,911 households, and 12,716 families residing in the city. The population density was 974.4 people per square mile . There were 23,018 housing units at an average density of 534.8 per square mile...

 on June 29, 1994 and July 5, 2007; the all time record low of -40 F was recorded at Hawley Lake on January 7, 1971.

Due to the primarily dry climate, large temperature swings often occur between day and night in less developed areas of the desert. The swings can be as large as in the summer months. In the state's urban centers, the effects of local warming
Urban heat island
An urban heat island is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas. The phenomenon was first investigated and described by Luke Howard in the 1810s, although he was not the one to name the phenomenon. The temperature difference usually is larger at night...

 result in much higher measured nighttime lows than in the recent past.

Arizona has an average annual rainfall of 12.7 inches (322.6 mm), which comes during two rainy seasons, with cold front
Cold front
A cold front is defined as the leading edge of a cooler mass of air, replacing a warmer mass of air.-Development of cold front:The cooler and denser air wedges under the less-dense warmer air, lifting it...

s coming from the Pacific Ocean during the winter and a monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 in the summer. The monsoon season occurs towards the end of summer. In July or August, the dewpoint rises dramatically for a brief period. During this time, the air contains large amounts of water vapor
Water vapor
Water vapor or water vapour , also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. It is one state of water within the hydrosphere. Water vapor can be produced from the evaporation or boiling of liquid water or from the sublimation of ice. Under typical atmospheric conditions, water vapor is continuously...

. Dewpoints as high as 81 °F (27 °C) have been recorded during the Phoenix
Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

 monsoon season. This hot moisture brings lightning
Lightning
Lightning is an atmospheric electrostatic discharge accompanied by thunder, which typically occurs during thunderstorms, and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or dust storms...

, thunderstorm
Thunderstorm
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, a lightning storm, thundershower or simply a storm is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere known as thunder. The meteorologically assigned cloud type associated with the...

s, wind, and torrential, if usually brief, downpours. These downpours often cause flash flood
Flash flood
A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas—washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins. It may be caused by heavy rain associated with a storm, hurricane, or tropical storm or meltwater from ice or snow flowing over ice sheets or snowfields...

s, which can turn deadly. In an attempt to deter drivers from crossing flooding streams, the Arizona Legislature
Arizona Legislature
The Arizona Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Arizona. It is a bicameral legislature that consists of a lower house, the House of Representatives, and an upper house, the Senate. There are 60 Representatives and 30 Senators...

 enacted the Stupid Motorist Law
Stupid Motorist Law
The "Stupid Motorist Law", which corresponds to section 28-910 of the Arizona Revised Statutes, states that any motorist who becomes stranded after driving around barricades to enter a flooded stretch of roadway may be charged for the cost of his/her rescue....

. It is rare for tornado
Tornado
A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as a twister or a cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology in a wider...

es and hurricanes to occur in Arizona, but there are records of both occurring.

The northern third of Arizona is a plateau
Plateau
In geology and earth science, a plateau , also called a high plain or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain. A highly eroded plateau is called a dissected plateau...

 at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers. Extreme cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below 0 °F (-17.8 °C) to the Northern parts of the state.

Indicative of the variation in climate, Arizona is the state which has both the metropolitan area with the most days over 100 °F (37.8 °C) (Phoenix
Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

), and the metropolitan area in the lower 48 states with nearly the most days with a low temperature below freezing (Flagstaff
Flagstaff, Arizona
Flagstaff is a city located in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States. In 2010, the city's population was 65,870. The population of the Metropolitan Statistical Area was at 134,421 in 2010. It is the county seat of Coconino County...

).

History




Marcos de Niza
Marcos de Niza
Fray Marcos de Niza was a Franciscan friar. He was born in Nice , which was at that time under the control of the Italian House of Savoy....

, a Spanish Franciscan
Franciscan
Most Franciscans are members of Roman Catholic religious orders founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. Besides Roman Catholic communities, there are also Old Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, ecumenical and Non-denominational Franciscan communities....

, explored parts of the area in 1539 and met some of its original native
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 inhabitants, probably the Sobaipuri
Sobaipuri
The Sobaipuri are one of many indigenous groups occupying Sonora at the time Europeans first entered the American Southwest. They were a Piman group who occupied southern Arizona and northern Sonora in the 15th-19th centuries...

. The expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado y Luján was a Spanish conquistador, who visited New Mexico and other parts of what are now the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542...

 entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola
Quivira and Cíbola
Quivira is a place first mentioned by Francisco Vazquez de Coronado in 1541, who visited it during his searches for the mythical "Seven Cities of Gold". The location and identity of the "Quivirans" has been much debated over a wide area, including Kansas, Nebraska, and Missouri...

. Father Kino
Eusebio Kino
Eusebio Francisco Kino S.J. was an Italian Roman Catholic priest who became famous in what is now northwestern Mexico and the southwestern United States in the region then known as the Pimaria Alta...

 was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

, he led the development of a chain of missions and converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta
Pimería Alta
The Pimería Alta , an area of the 18th century Sonora y Sinaloa Province in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, encompassed parts of what are today southern Arizona in the United States and northern Sonora in Mexico....

 (now southern Arizona and northern Sonora
Sonora
Sonora officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo....

) in the 1690s and early 18th century. Spain founded presidios (fortified towns) at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from Spain
Spanish Empire
The Spanish Empire comprised territories and colonies administered directly by Spain in Europe, in America, Africa, Asia and Oceania. It originated during the Age of Exploration and was therefore one of the first global empires. At the time of Habsburgs, Spain reached the peak of its world power....

 in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of the Territory of
Nueva California, also known as Alta California
Alta California
Alta California was a province and territory in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and later a territory and department in independent Mexico. The territory was created in 1769 out of the northern part of the former province of Las Californias, and consisted of the modern American states of California,...

. In the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
The Mexican–American War, also known as the First American Intervention, the Mexican War, or the U.S.–Mexican War, was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S...

 (1847), the U.S. occupied Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what later became Arizona. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) specified that the sum of $15 million U.S. dollars in compensation (equivalent to about $ in present day terms) be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853 the land below the Gila River
Gila River
The Gila River is a tributary of the Colorado River, 650 miles long, in the southwestern states of New Mexico and Arizona.-Description:...

 was acquired from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase
Gadsden Purchase
The Gadsden Purchase is a region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that was purchased by the United States in a treaty signed by James Gadsden, the American ambassador to Mexico at the time, on December 30, 1853. It was then ratified, with changes, by the U.S...

. Arizona was administered as part of the Territory of New Mexico until southern New Mexico seceded from the Union as the Confederate Territory of Arizona
Arizona Territory (CSA)
The Territory of Arizona was a territory claimed by the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, between 1861 and 1865. It consisted of the portion of the New Mexico Territory south of the 34th parallel north including parts of the modern states of New Mexico and Arizona. Its...

 on March 16, 1861. Arizona was recognized as a Confederate Territory by presidential proclamation of Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Finis Davis , also known as Jeff Davis, was an American statesman and leader of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, serving as President for its entire history. He was born in Kentucky to Samuel and Jane Davis...

 on February 14, 1862. This is the first official use of the name. A new Arizona Territory
Arizona Territory
The Territory of Arizona was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from February 24, 1863 until February 14, 1912, when it was admitted to the Union as the 48th state....

, consisting of the western half of New Mexico Territory was declared in Washington, D.C., on February 24, 1863. The new boundaries would later form the basis of the state.

Although names including "Gadsonia", "Pimeria", "Montezuma" and "Arizuma" had been considered for the territory, when President Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

 signed the final bill, it read "Arizona", and the name became permanent. (Montezuma
Montezuma (mythology)
Montezuma was the name of a heroic-god in the mythology of certain Amerindian tribes of the Southwest United States, notably the Tohono O'odham and Pueblo peoples — not to be confused with the two historical Aztec Emperors of the same name in Mexico, Moctezuma I and Moctezuma II.-Tohono O'odham...

 was not the Aztec
Aztec
The Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the late post-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology.Aztec is the...

 Emperor, but the sacred name of a divine hero to the Pima
Pima
The Pima are a group of American Indians living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona. The long name, "Akimel O'odham", means "river people". They are closely related to the Tohono O'odham and the Hia C-ed O'odham...

 people of the Gila
Gila River Valley
The Gila River Valley is a multi-sectioned valley of the Gila River, mostly in Arizona. The Gila River forms in western New Mexico and flows west across southern-eastern, south-central, and southwestern Arizona; it changes directions across the state, and defines specific areas and valleys...

 valley, and was probably considered—and rejected—for its sentimental value before the name "Arizona" was settled upon.)

Brigham Young
Brigham Young
Brigham Young was an American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a settler of the Western United States. He was the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death in 1877, he founded Salt Lake City, and he served as the first governor of the Utah...

 sent Mormon
Mormon
The term Mormon most commonly denotes an adherent, practitioner, follower, or constituent of Mormonism, which is the largest branch of the Latter Day Saint movement in restorationist Christianity...

s to Arizona in the mid-to-late 19th century. They founded Mesa
Mesa, Arizona
According to the 2010 Census, the racial composition of Mesa was as follows:* White: 77.1% * Hispanic or Latino : 26.54%* Black or African American: 3.5%* Two or more races: 3.4%* Native American: 2.4%...

, Snowflake
Snowflake, Arizona
Snowflake is a town in Navajo County, Arizona, United States. It was founded in 1878 by Erastus Snow and William Jordan Flake, Mormon pioneers and colonizers. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the town is 4,958....

, Heber
Heber-Overgaard, Arizona
Heber-Overgaard is a census-designated place in Navajo County, Arizona, United States. Situated atop the Mogollon Rim, the community lies at an elevation of around . The population was 2,722 at the 2000 census....

, Safford
Safford, Arizona
- History :Safford was founded by Joshua Eaton Bailey, Hiram Kennedy and Edward Tuttle, who came from Gila Bend, in southwestern Arizona. They left Gila Bend in the winter of 1873-74; their work on canals and dams having been destroyed by high water the previous summer...

 and other towns. They also settled in the Phoenix Valley (or "Valley of the Sun"), Tempe
Tempe, Arizona
Tempe is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, with the Census Bureau reporting a 2010 population of 161,719. The city is named after the Vale of Tempe in Greece. Tempe is located in the East Valley section of metropolitan Phoenix; it is bordered by Phoenix and Guadalupe on the west, Scottsdale...

, Prescott
Prescott, Arizona
Prescott is a city in Yavapai County, Arizona, USA. It was designated "Arizona's Christmas City" by Arizona Governor Rose Mofford in the late 1980s....

, and other areas. The Mormons settled what became known as Northern Arizona
Northern Arizona
Northern Arizona is an unofficial, colloquially-defined region of the U.S. state of Arizona. It is dominated by the Colorado Plateau, the southern border of which in Arizona is called the Mogollon Rim. In the West lies the Grand Canyon, which was cut by the flow of the Colorado River while the...

 and northern New Mexico, but these areas were located in a part of the former New Mexico Territory
New Mexico Territory
thumb|right|240px|Proposed boundaries for State of New Mexico, 1850The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of...

.

During the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920, a few battles were fought in the Mexican towns just across the border from Arizona border settlements. Throughout the revolution, Arizonans were enlisting in one of the several armies fighting in Mexico. The Battle of Ambos Nogales in 1918, other than Pancho Villa's 1916 Columbus Raid in New Mexico, was the only significant engagement on U.S. soil between United States and Mexican forces. The battle resulted in an American victory. After U.S. soldiers were fired on by Mexican Federal troops, the American garrison then launched an assault into Nogales Mexico. The Mexicans eventually surrendered after both sides sustained heavy casualties. A few months earlier, just west of Nogales, an Indian War battle occurred, thus being the last engagement in the American Indian Wars which lasted from 1775 to 1918. The participants in the fight were U.S. soldiers stationed on the border and Yaqui Indians who were using Arizona as a base to raid the nearby Mexican settlements, as part of their wars against Mexico.

Arizona became a U.S. state on February 14, 1912. This resulted in the end to the territorial colonization of Continental America. Arizona was the 48th state admitted into the U.S. and the last of the contiguous states
Contiguous United States
The contiguous United States are the 48 U.S. states on the continent of North America that are south of Canada and north of Mexico, plus the District of Columbia....

 to be admitted.


Cotton farming and copper mining, two of Arizona's most important statewide industries, suffered heavily during the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

, but it was during the 1920s and 1930s that tourism began to be the important Arizona industry it is today. Dude ranches such as the K L Bar and Remuda in Wickenburg, along with the Flying V and Tanque Verde in Tucson, gave tourists the chance to experience the flavor and life of the "old West." Several upscale hotels and resorts opened during this period, some of which are still top tourist draws to this day; they include the Arizona Biltmore Hotel
Arizona Biltmore Hotel
The Arizona Biltmore Hotel is a resort located in Phoenix near 24th Street and Camelback Road. It recently joined the Hilton Hotels' luxury collection The Waldorf-Astoria Collection and was also featured on the Travel Channel show Great Hotels....

 in central Phoenix (opened 1929) and the Wigwam Resort on the west side of the Phoenix area (opened 1936).

Arizona was the site of German and Italian POW camps during World War II and Japanese
Japanese American
are American people of Japanese heritage. Japanese Americans have historically been among the three largest Asian American communities, but in recent decades have become the sixth largest group at roughly 1,204,205, including those of mixed-race or mixed-ethnicity...

 U.S.-resident internment camps. The camps were abolished after World War II. The Phoenix area site was purchased after the war by the Maytag
Maytag
Maytag Corporation is an American home and commercial appliance company, headquartered in Newton, Iowa, that is a division of the Whirlpool Corporation.-Company history:...

 family (of major home appliance
Home appliance
Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking or cleaning. Home appliances can be classified into:*Major appliances, or White goods*Small appliances, or Brown goods...

 fame), and is currently utilized as the Phoenix Zoo
Phoenix Zoo
The Phoenix Zoo opened in 1962 and is the largest non-profit zoo in the United States. Located in Phoenix, Arizona, the zoo was founded by Robert Maytag, a member of the Maytag family, and operates on of land in the Papago Park area of Phoenix. It has been designated as a Phoenix Point of...

. A Japanese American internment
Japanese American internment
Japanese-American internment was the relocation and internment by the United States government in 1942 of approximately 110,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese who lived along the Pacific coast of the United States to camps called "War Relocation Camps," in the wake of Imperial Japan's attack on...

 camp was located on Mount Lemmon
Mount Lemmon
Mount Lemmon is in the Santa Catalina Mountains located in the Coronado National Forest north of Tucson, Arizona, United States. It is above sea-level, and receives approximately 180 inches of snow annually. Mount Lemmon was named in honor of botanist Sarah Lemmon, who trekked to the top of...

, just outside of the state's southeastern city of Tucson. Another POW camp was located near the Gila River
Gila River
The Gila River is a tributary of the Colorado River, 650 miles long, in the southwestern states of New Mexico and Arizona.-Description:...

 in eastern Yuma County
Yuma County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*70.4% White*2.0% Black*1.6% Native American*1.2% Asian*0.2% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*3.8% Two or more races*20.8% Other races*59.7% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

. Because of wartime fears of Japanese invasion of the west coast, all Japanese residents in western Arizona were required to reside in the war camps.

Arizona was also home to the Phoenix Indian School
Steele Indian School Park
Steele Indian School Park is located on the northeast corner of Indian School Road and Central Avenue in Phoenix, Arizona.The park is on the site of the Phoenix Indian School, one of several boarding schools owned and operated by the U.S. government, designed in the late 19th century to socialize...

, one of several federal institutions designed to forcibly assimilate native children into Anglo-American culture. Children were often enrolled into these schools against the wishes of their parents and families. Attempts to suppress native identities included forcing the children to cut their hair and take on English names.

Arizona's population grew tremendously after World War II, in part because of the development of air conditioning
Air conditioning
An air conditioner is a home appliance, system, or mechanism designed to dehumidify and extract heat from an area. The cooling is done using a simple refrigeration cycle...

, which made the intense summers more comfortable. According to the Arizona Blue Book (published by the Arizona Secretary of State's office each year), the state population in 1910 was 294,353. By 1970, it was 1,752,122. The percentage growth each decade averaged about 20% in the earlier decades and about 60% each decade thereafter.

The 1960s saw the establishment of retirement communities, special age-restricted subdivisions catering exclusively to the needs of senior citizens who wanted to escape the harsh winters of the Midwest and the Northeast
Northeastern United States
The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States as defined by the United States Census Bureau.-Composition:The region comprises nine states: the New England states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; and the Mid-Atlantic states of New...

. Sun City
Sun City, Arizona
Sun City is a census-designated place and unincorporated town in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States. The population was 38,309 at the 2000 census...

, established by developer Del Webb
Del Webb
Delbert Eugene Webb was an American construction magnate, real estate developer and sports-team owner, who is most significant for founding and developing the retirement community of Sun City, Arizona.-Early life:...

 and opened in 1960, was one of the first such communities. Green Valley
Green Valley, Arizona
Green Valley is a census-designated place in Pima County, Arizona, United States. The population was 17,283 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Green Valley is located at ....

, south of Tucson, was another such community and was designed to be a retirement subdivision for Arizona's teachers. (Many senior citizens arrive in Arizona each winter and stay only during the winter months; they are referred to as snowbirds
Snowbird (people)
The term snowbird is used to describe people from the U.S. Northeast, U.S. Midwest, or Canada who spend a large portion of winter in warmer locales such as California, Arizona, Florida, Texas, the Carolinas, or elsewhere along the Sun Belt region of the southern and southwest United States,...

.)

In March 2000, Arizona was the site of the first legally binding election to nominate a candidate for public office ever held over the internet. In the 2000 Arizona Democratic Primary, under worldwide attention, Al Gore defeated Bill Bradley, and voter turnout increased more than 500% over the 1996 primary.

Three ships named USS Arizona
USS Arizona
Arizona has been the name of three ships of the United States Navy. was laid down in 1858 and served in the American Civil War. was a steam frigate launched in 1865 as the USS Neshaminy...

 have been christened in honor of the state, although only USS
Arizona (BB-39)
USS Arizona (BB-39)
USS Arizona, a , was built for the United States Navy in the mid-1910s. Named in honor of the 48th state's recent admission into the union, the ship was the second and last of the Pennsylvania class of "super-dreadnought" battleships. Although commissioned in 1916, the ship remained stateside...

 was so named after statehood was achieved.

Demographics




Arizona remained sparsely settled for most of the 19th century. The 1860 census reported the population of "Arizona County" to be 6,482, of whom 4,040 were listed as "Indians", 21 as "free colored" and 2,421 as "white". As of 2006, Arizona had an estimated population of 6,166,318. Arizona's continued population growth
Population growth
Population growth is the change in a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals of any species in a population using "per unit time" for measurement....

 is putting an enormous stress on the state's water supplies.

The population of the Phoenix metropolitan area increased by 45.3% from 1991 through 2001, helping to make Arizona the second fastest growing state in the nation in the 1990s (the fastest was Nevada
Nevada
Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

). Currently, the population of the Phoenix metropolitan area is estimated to be over 4.3 million.

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Arizona had a population of 6,392,017. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 73.0% White
White American
White Americans are people of the United States who are considered or consider themselves White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa...

 (57.8% Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic Whites
Non-Hispanic Whites or White, Not Hispanic or Latino are people in the United States, as defined by the Census Bureau, who are of the White race and are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity. Hence the designation is exclusive in the sense that it defines who is not included as opposed to who is...

 Alone), 4.1% Black or African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

, 4.6% Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 and Alaska Native, 2.8% Asian
Asian American
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians as "Asian” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,...

, 0.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 11.9% from Some Other Race, and 3.4% from Two or More Races. Hispanics
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic or Latino Americans are Americans with origins in the Hispanic countries of Latin America or in Spain, and in general all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino.1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins...

 or Latinos of any race made up 29.6% of the state's population.

Arizona's five largest ancestry groups, as of 2009, are:
  1. Mexican
    Mexican American
    Mexican Americans are Americans of Mexican descent. As of July 2009, Mexican Americans make up 10.3% of the United States' population with over 31,689,000 Americans listed as of Mexican ancestry. Mexican Americans comprise 66% of all Hispanics and Latinos in the United States...

     (27.4%);
  2. German
    German American
    German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry and comprise about 51 million people, or 17% of the U.S. population, the country's largest self-reported ancestral group...

     (16.0%);
  3. Irish
    Irish American
    Irish Americans are citizens of the United States who can trace their ancestry to Ireland. A total of 36,278,332 Americans—estimated at 11.9% of the total population—reported Irish ancestry in the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau...

     (10.8%);
  4. English (10.1%);
  5. Italian
    Italian American
    An Italian American , is an American of Italian ancestry. The designation may also refer to someone possessing Italian and American dual citizenship...

     (4.6%).


Arizona is home to the largest number of speakers of Native American languages
Indigenous languages of the Americas
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. These indigenous languages consist of dozens of distinct language families as well as many language...

 in the 48 contiguous states, with over 85,000 individuals speaking Navajo
Navajo language
Navajo or Navaho is an Athabaskan language spoken in the southwestern United States. It is geographically and linguistically one of the Southern Athabaskan languages .Navajo has more speakers than any other Native American language north of the...

, and 10,403 persons reporting Apache
Western Apache language
The Western Apache language is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken by over 12,000 of the Western Apache peoples living primarily in east central Arizona...

 as the language spoken at home in 2005.

In 2010, illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 7.9% of the population. This was the second highest percentage of any state in the nation.

Religion


As of the year 2000, the RCMS reported that the three largest denominational groups in Arizona are Catholic, Evangelical Protestant and Mainline Protestant. The Catholic Church has the highest number of adherents in Arizona (at 974,883), followed by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 251,974 members reported and the Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
The Southern Baptist Convention is a United States-based Christian denomination. It is the world's largest Baptist denomination and the largest Protestant body in the United States, with over 16 million members...

, reporting 138,516 adherents. The religious body with the largest number of congregations is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (with 643 congregations) followed by the Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
The Southern Baptist Convention is a United States-based Christian denomination. It is the world's largest Baptist denomination and the largest Protestant body in the United States, with over 16 million members...

 (with 323 congregations).

According to a 2007 survey conducted by The Pew Forum, the religious affiliation of the People of Arizona are:
  • Roman Catholic – 25%
  • Protestant
    Protestantism
    Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

    – 40%
    • Mainline – 15%
    • Evangelical – 23%
    • Other Protestant – 2%
  • LDS (Mormon) – 4%
  • Jehovah Witness – 1%
  • Jewish – 1%
  • Buddhist – 1%
  • Other Religions – 4%
  • Unaffiliated – 22%
  • Don't Know/Refused – 2%

Economy


The 2006 total gross state product
Gross state product
Gross state product is a measurement of the economic output of a state or province...

 was $232 billion. If Arizona (and each of the other U.S. states) were an independent country along with all existing countries (2005), it would have the 61st largest economy in the world (CIA – The World Factbook). This figure gives Arizona a larger economy than such countries as Ireland, Finland, and New Zealand. Arizona currently has the 21st largest economy among states in the United States. As a percentage of its overall budget, Arizona's projected $1.7 billion deficit for 2009 is one of the largest in the country, behind such states as Texas, California, Michigan, and Florida, to name a few.

The state's per capita income is $40,828, ranking 39th in the U.S. The state had a median household income
Median household income
The median household income is commonly used to generate data about geographic areas and divides households into two equal segments with the first half of households earning less than the median household income and the other half earning more...

 of $50,958 making it 22nd in the country and just shy of the U.S. national median. Early in its history, Arizona's economy relied on the "five C's": copper (see Copper mining in Arizona
Copper mining in Arizona
-Jerome:Native Americans used copper minerals of the Verde district at modern-day Jerome as pigment to decorate skin and textiles. The first European to visit the area is thought to be Spanish explorer Antonio de Espejo, who found silver at a location in central Arizona in 1583...

), cotton, cattle, citrus
Citrus
Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. Citrus is believed to have originated in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeastern India, Myanmar and the Yunnan province of China...

, and climate
Climate
Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods...

 (tourism). At one point Arizona was the largest producer of cotton in the country. Copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open-pit and underground mines, accounting for two-thirds of the nation's output.

Employment


The state government is Arizona's largest employer, while Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. , branded as Walmart since 2008 and Wal-Mart before then, is an American public multinational corporation that runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouse stores. The company is the world's 18th largest public corporation, according to the Forbes Global 2000...

 is the state's largest private employer, with 17,343 employees (2008). As of June 2010, the state's unemployment rate is 9.6%.

Nearly 70 percent of the land in Arizona is owned by the U.S. government, which leases a portion of the public domain
Public domain (land)
Public domain is a term used to describe lands that were not under private or state ownership during the 18th and 19th centuries in the United States, as the country was expanding. These lands were obtained from the 13 original colonies, from Native American tribes, or from purchase from other...

 to ranchers or miners.

Largest employers


According to the Arizona Republic, the largest employers in the state as of 2010 were:
Rank Company Employees Industry
1 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. 30,000 Discount retailer
2 Banner Health
Banner health
Banner Health is a non-profit health system in the United States, based in Phoenix, Arizona. It operates 23 hospitals as well as specialized facilities...

28,353 Health care
3 Wells Fargo & Co.
Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo & Company is an American multinational diversified financial services company with operations around the world. Wells Fargo is the fourth largest bank in the U.S. by assets and the largest bank by market capitalization. Wells Fargo is the second largest bank in deposits, home...

14,000 Financial services
Financial services
Financial services refer to services provided by the finance industry. The finance industry encompasses a broad range of organizations that deal with the management of money. Among these organizations are credit unions, banks, credit card companies, insurance companies, consumer finance companies,...

4 Bank of America Corp.
Bank of America
Bank of America Corporation, an American multinational banking and financial services corporation, is the second largest bank holding company in the United States by assets, and the fourth largest bank in the U.S. by market capitalization. The bank is headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina...

13,000 Financial services
Financial services
Financial services refer to services provided by the finance industry. The finance industry encompasses a broad range of organizations that deal with the management of money. Among these organizations are credit unions, banks, credit card companies, insurance companies, consumer finance companies,...

5 McDonald's Corp.
McDonald's
McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 64 million customers daily in 119 countries. Headquartered in the United States, the company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant operated by the eponymous Richard and Maurice McDonald; in 1948...

12,770 Food service
6 Apollo Group Inc. 12,000 Educational services
For-profit education
For-profit education refers to educational institutions operated by private, profit-seeking businesses....

7 Kroger Co.
Kroger
The Kroger Co. is an American supermarket chain founded by Bernard Kroger in 1883 in Cincinnati, Ohio. It reported US$ 76.7 billion in sales during fiscal year 2009. It is the country's largest grocery store chain and its second-largest grocery retailer by volume and second-place general retailer...

12,000 Grocery store
Grocery store
A grocery store is a store that retails food. A grocer, the owner of a grocery store, stocks different kinds of foods from assorted places and cultures, and sells these "groceries" to customers. Large grocery stores that stock products other than food, such as clothing or household items, are...

s
8 Raytheon Co.
Raytheon
Raytheon Company is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was previously involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007...

11,500 Defense
Defense industry
The defense industry, also called the military industry, comprises government and commercial industry involved in research, development, production, and service of military materiel, equipment and facilities...

 (missile manufacturing)
9 JP Morgan Chase & Co. 10,500 Financial services
Financial services
Financial services refer to services provided by the finance industry. The finance industry encompasses a broad range of organizations that deal with the management of money. Among these organizations are credit unions, banks, credit card companies, insurance companies, consumer finance companies,...

10 Honeywell International Inc.
Honeywell
Honeywell International, Inc. is a major conglomerate company that produces a variety of consumer products, engineering services, and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments....

9,716 Aerospace manufacturing
11 Intel Corp. 9,700 Semiconductor manufacturing
12 Target Corp.
Target Corporation
Target Corporation, doing business as Target, is an American retailing company headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota. It is the second-largest discount retailer in the United States, behind Walmart. The company is ranked at number 33 on the Fortune 500 and is a component of the Standard & Poor's...

9,300 Discount retailer
13 US Airways
US Airways
US Airways, Inc. is a major airline based in the U.S. city of Tempe, Arizona. The airline is an operating unit of US Airways Group and is the sixth largest airline by traffic and eighth largest by market value in the country....

8,926 Airline
Airline
An airline provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit...

14 Catholic Healthcare West
Catholic Healthcare West
Catholic Healthcare West is a California-based not-for-profit public benefit corporation that operates hospitals in California, Arizona, and Nevada. As such, it is exempt from federal and state income taxes...

8,291 Health care
15 Home Depot Inc.
The Home Depot
The Home Depot is an American retailer of home improvement and construction products and services.The Home Depot operates 2,248 big-box format stores across the United States , Canada , Mexico and China, with a 12-store chain...

8,000 Retail
Retail
Retail consists of the sale of physical goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a department store, boutique or kiosk, or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser. Retailing may include subordinated services, such as delivery. Purchasers may be...

 home improvement
Home improvement
Home improvement, home renovation or remodeling is the process of renovating or making additions to one's home.-Types of home improvement:...

 
16 Walgreen Co.
Walgreens
Walgreen Co. , doing business as Walgreens , is the largest drugstore chain in the United States of America. As of August 31st, the company operates 8,210 locations across all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Founded in Chicago, Illinois in 1901, and has since expanded...

7,750 Retail
Retail
Retail consists of the sale of physical goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a department store, boutique or kiosk, or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser. Retailing may include subordinated services, such as delivery. Purchasers may be...

 drugstore
Pharmacy
Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...

s
17 Safeway Stores Inc. 7,500 Grocery store
Grocery store
A grocery store is a store that retails food. A grocer, the owner of a grocery store, stocks different kinds of foods from assorted places and cultures, and sells these "groceries" to customers. Large grocery stores that stock products other than food, such as clothing or household items, are...

s
18 American Express Co.
American Express
American Express Company or AmEx, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Three World Financial Center, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States. Founded in 1850, it is one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The company is best...

7,465 Financial services
Financial services
Financial services refer to services provided by the finance industry. The finance industry encompasses a broad range of organizations that deal with the management of money. Among these organizations are credit unions, banks, credit card companies, insurance companies, consumer finance companies,...

19 Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc.
Freeport-McMoRan
Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc., often called simply Freeport, is the world's lowest-cost copper producer and one of the world's largest producers of gold...

7,000 Mining
Mining
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body, vein or seam. The term also includes the removal of soil. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock...

 
20 Pinnacle West Capital Corp. 6,900 Electric utility
Electric utility
An electric utility is a company that engages in the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity for sale generally in a regulated market. The electrical utility industry is a major provider of energy in most countries. It is indispensable to factories, commercial establishments,...

21 Bashas'
Bashas'
Bashas is a family-owned grocery store chain, primarily located in Arizona with two locations outside the state; one each in Needles, California, and Crownpoint, New Mexico. Its headquarters are in unincorporated Maricopa County, Arizona, near Chandler....

6,641 Grocery store
Grocery store
A grocery store is a store that retails food. A grocer, the owner of a grocery store, stocks different kinds of foods from assorted places and cultures, and sells these "groceries" to customers. Large grocery stores that stock products other than food, such as clothing or household items, are...

s
22 Scottsdale Healthcare 6,556 Health care
23 UA Healthcare 6,000 Health care
24 Circle K Corp.
Circle K
Circle K is an international chain of convenience stores, founded in 1951, in El Paso, Texas, United States. It is owned and operated by the Canadian-based Alimentation Couche-Tard.-Overview:...

5,690 Convenience store
Convenience store
A convenience store, corner store, corner shop, commonly called a bodega in Spanish-speaking areas of the United States, is a small store or shop in a built up area that stocks a range of everyday items such as groceries, toiletries, alcoholic and soft drinks, and may also offer money order and...

s
25 General Dynamics
General Dynamics
General Dynamics Corporation is a U.S. defense conglomerate formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2008 it is the fifth largest defense contractor in the world. Its headquarters are in West Falls Church , unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia, in the Falls Church area.The company has...

5,026 Defense
Defense industry
The defense industry, also called the military industry, comprises government and commercial industry involved in research, development, production, and service of military materiel, equipment and facilities...

, information systems
Information systems
Information Systems is an academic/professional discipline bridging the business field and the well-defined computer science field that is evolving toward a new scientific area of study...

 and technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

26 Boeing Co. 4,800 Aerospace manufacturing
27 (tie) Carondelet Health Network 4,690 Health care
27 (tie) Mayo Foundation 4,522 Health care
29 CVS Caremark Corp.
CVS Caremark
CVS Caremark Corporation is an integrated pharmacy services provider, combining a United States pharmaceutical services company with a U.S. pharmacy chain...

4,500 Pharmaceutical services (including retail drugstores)
30 Salt River Project
Salt River Project
The Salt River Project is the umbrella name for two separate entities: the Salt River Project Agricultural Improvement and Power District, an agency of the state of Arizona that serves as an electrical utility for the Phoenix metropolitan area, and the Salt River Valley Water Users' Association, a...

4,346 Utility
Utility
In economics, utility is a measure of customer satisfaction, referring to the total satisfaction received by a consumer from consuming a good or service....

 supplier
31 Costco Inc.
Costco
Costco Wholesale Corporation is the largest membership warehouse club chain in the United States. it is the third largest retailer in the United States, where it originated, and the ninth largest in the world...

4,151 Membership warehouse club
Warehouse club
A warehouse club is a retail store, usually selling a wide variety of merchandise, in which customers are required to buy large, wholesale quantities of the store's products, which makes these clubs attractive to both bargain hunters and small business owners. The clubs are able to keep prices low...

/discount retailer
32 Abrazo Health Care
Abrazo Health Care
Abrazo Health Care is the second largest health care delivery system in Arizona, United States. Abrazo Health Care is located in Phoenix, Arizona and was established in 2003. The Abrazo system comprises five acute care hospitals and one cardiovascular-specialty hospital...

4,089 Health care
33 Albertsons Inc. 4,000 Grocery store
Grocery store
A grocery store is a store that retails food. A grocer, the owner of a grocery store, stocks different kinds of foods from assorted places and cultures, and sells these "groceries" to customers. Large grocery stores that stock products other than food, such as clothing or household items, are...

s, retail
Retail
Retail consists of the sale of physical goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a department store, boutique or kiosk, or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser. Retailing may include subordinated services, such as delivery. Purchasers may be...

 drugstore
Pharmacy
Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...

s
34 FedEx Corp.
FedEx
FedEx Corporation , originally known as FDX Corporation, is a logistics services company, based in the United States with headquarters in Memphis, Tennessee...

3,918 Courier
Courier
A courier is a person or a company who delivers messages, packages, and mail. Couriers are distinguished from ordinary mail services by features such as speed, security, tracking, signature, specialization and individualization of express services, and swift delivery times, which are optional for...

, logistics
Logistics
Logistics is the management of the flow of goods between the point of origin and the point of destination in order to meet the requirements of customers or corporations. Logistics involves the integration of information, transportation, inventory, warehousing, material handling, and packaging, and...

 services
35 Southwest Airlines Co.
Southwest Airlines
Southwest Airlines Co. is an American low-cost airline based in Dallas, Texas. Southwest is the largest airline in the United States, based upon domestic passengers carried,...

3,857 Airline
Airline
An airline provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit...

 
36 Marriott International
Marriott International
Marriott International, Inc. is a worldwide operator and franchisor of a broad portfolio of hotels and related lodging facilities. Founded by J. Willard Marriott, the company is now led by son J.W. Marriott, Jr...

3,522 Resorts and hotels
Lodging
Lodging is a type of residential accommodation. People who travel and stay away from home for more than a day need lodging for sleep, rest, safety, shelter from cold temperatures or rain, storage of luggage and access to common household functions.Lodgings may be self catering in which case no...

37 Qwest Communications Inc.
Qwest
Qwest Communications International, Inc. was a large United States telecommunications carrier. Qwest provided local service in 14 western U.S. states: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.On April...

3,200 Telecommunications
38 United Parcel Service
United Parcel Service
United Parcel Service, Inc. , typically referred to by the acronym UPS, is a package delivery company. Headquartered in Sandy Springs, Georgia, United States, UPS delivers more than 15 million packages a day to 6.1 million customers in more than 220 countries and territories around the...

3,170 Package delivery
Package delivery
Package delivery or parcel delivery is the shipping of packages or high value mail as single shipments. While the service is provided by most postal systems, private package delivery services have also existed in competition with and in place of public postal services.-Package delivery in the...

39 John C. Lincoln Health Network 3,166 Health care
40 USAA
USAA
United Services Automobile Association is a Fortune 500 financial services company offering banking, investing, and insurance to people and families that serve, or served, in the United States military. In 2011, there were 8.4 million members. The company reported a net worth of $19.3 billion in...

3,045 Financial services
Financial services
Financial services refer to services provided by the finance industry. The finance industry encompasses a broad range of organizations that deal with the management of money. Among these organizations are credit unions, banks, credit card companies, insurance companies, consumer finance companies,...

41 Charles Schwab & Co. Inc. 3,001 Financial services
Financial services
Financial services refer to services provided by the finance industry. The finance industry encompasses a broad range of organizations that deal with the management of money. Among these organizations are credit unions, banks, credit card companies, insurance companies, consumer finance companies,...

42 Freescale Semiconductor
Freescale Semiconductor
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. is a producer and designer of embedded hardware, with 17 billion semiconductor chips in use around the world. The company focuses on the automotive, consumer, industrial and networking markets with its product portfolio including microprocessors, microcontrollers,...

3,000 Semiconductor manufacturing
43 IBM Corp.
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas...

3,000 Technology services
44 Cox Communications Inc.
Cox Communications
Cox Communications is a privately owned subsidiary of Cox Enterprises providing digital cable television, telecommunications and wireless services in the United States...

2,997 Telecommunications
45 TMC HealthCare 2,966 Health care
46 Verizon Wireless
Verizon Wireless
Cellco Partnership, doing business as Verizon Wireless, is one of the largest mobile network operators in the United States. The network has 107.7 million subscribers as of 2011, making it the largest wireless service provider in America....

2,901 Mobile network operator
Mobile network operator
A mobile network operator , also known as mobile phone operator , carrier service provider , wireless service provider, wireless carrier, or cellular company, or mobile network carrier is a telephone company that provides services for mobile phone subscribers.One essential...

47 Cigna HealthCare of AZ
CIGNA
Cigna , headquartered in Bloomfield, Connecticut, is a global health services company, owing to its expanding international footprint and the fact that it provides administrative services only to approximately 80 percent of its clients...

2,865 Health care
48 Grand Canyon University
Grand Canyon University
Grand Canyon University is a for-profit Christian university located in Phoenix, Arizona. It is owned by Grand Canyon Education . GCU was founded in 1949 as a non-profit liberal arts college. Grand Canyon Education, Inc. purchased Grand Canyon University in February 2004...

 
2,818 Educational services
For-profit education
For-profit education refers to educational institutions operated by private, profit-seeking businesses....

 
49 Starbucks Coffee Co.
Starbucks
Starbucks Corporation is an international coffee and coffeehouse chain based in Seattle, Washington. Starbucks is the largest coffeehouse company in the world, with 17,009 stores in 55 countries, including over 11,000 in the United States, over 1,000 in Canada, over 700 in the United Kingdom, and...

2,783 Food service
50 Go Daddy Group Inc.
Go Daddy
Go Daddy is an Internet domain registrar and Web hosting company that also sells e-business related software and services. In 2010, it reached more than 45 million domain names under management. Go Daddy is currently the largest ICANN-accredited registrar in the world, and is four times the size of...

2,754 Domain name registry
Domain name registry
A domain name registry is a database of all domain names registered in a top-level domain. A registry operator, also called a network information center , is the part of the Domain Name System of the Internet that keeps the database of domain names, and generates the zone files which convert...

/Web hosting service
Web hosting service
A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their own website accessible via the World Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server they own or lease for use by their clients as well as providing Internet...



In Southern Arizona the top ten largest public employers as of 2011 were:
Ranking Institution/Agency Employees (2011)
1 University of Arizona
University of Arizona
The University of Arizona is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. The University of Arizona was the first university in the state of Arizona, founded in 1885...

10,481
2 State of Arizona 8,866
3 Davis–Monthan Air Force Base 8,462
4 Tucson Unified School District
Tucson Unified School District
Tucson Unified School District is the largest school district of Tucson, Arizona in terms of enrollment. As of 2006 TUSD has more than 60,000 students and approximately 3,700 faculty members....

6,709
5 U.S. Army Intelligence Center
United States Army Intelligence Center
The United States Army Intelligence Center of Excellence is the United States Army's school for professional training of military intelligence personnel...

 and Fort Huachuca
Fort Huachuca
Fort Huachuca is a United States Army installation under the command of the United States Army Installation Management Command. It is located in Cochise County, in southeast Arizona, about north of the border with Mexico. Beginning in 1913, for 20 years the fort was the base for the "Buffalo...

6,225
6 Pima County
Pima County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*74.3% White*3.5% Black*3.3% Native American*2.6% Asian*0.2% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*3.7% Two or more races*12.4% Other races*34.6% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

6,403
7 City of Tucson 4,930
8 Tohono O'odham Nation 4,350
9 United States Border Patrol
United States Border Patrol
The United States Border Patrol is a federal law enforcement agency within U.S. Customs and Border Protection , a component of the Department of Homeland Security . It is an agency in the Department of Homeland Security that enforces laws and regulations for the admission of foreign-born persons to...

3,530
10 Pinal County
Pinal County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*72.4% White*4.6% Black*5.6% Native American*1.7% Asian*0.4% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*3.8% Two or more races*11.5% Other races*28.5% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

2,340

Taxation


Arizona collects personal income tax
Income tax
An income tax is a tax levied on the income of individuals or businesses . Various income tax systems exist, with varying degrees of tax incidence. Income taxation can be progressive, proportional, or regressive. When the tax is levied on the income of companies, it is often called a corporate...

es in five brackets: 2.87%, 3.20%, 3.74%, 4.72% and 5.04%. The state transaction privilege tax
Transaction privilege tax
Transaction privilege tax refers to a gross receipts tax levied by the state of Arizona on certain persons for the privilege of conducting business in the state. TPT differs from the “true” sales tax imposed by many other U.S. states as it is imposed upon the seller or lessor rather than the...

 is 6.6%; however, county and municipal sales taxes generally add an additional 2%.

The state rate on transient lodging (hotel/motel
Motel
A motor hotel, or motel for short, is a hotel designed for motorists, and usually has a parking area for motor vehicles...

) is 7.27%. The state of Arizona does not levy a state tax on food for home consumption or on drugs prescribed by a licensed physician or dentist. However, some cities in Arizona do levy a tax on food for home consumption.

All fifteen Arizona counties levy a tax. Incorporated municipalities also levy transaction privilege taxes which, with the exception of their hotel/motel tax, are generally in the range of 1-to-3%. These added assessments could push the combined sales tax rate to as high as 10.7%.
Single Tax Rate Joint Tax Rate
0 – $10,000 2.870% 0 – $20,000 2.870%
$10,000 – $25,000 3.200% $20,001 – $50,000 3.200%
$25,000 – $50,000 3.740% $50,001 – $100,000 3.740%
$50,000 – $150,001 4.720% $100,000 – $300,001 4.720%
$150,001 + 5.040% $300,001 + 5.040%

Transportation




Interstate Highways


Interstate 8
Interstate 8
Interstate 8 is an Interstate Highway in the southwestern United States. It runs from the southern edge of Mission Bay at Sunset Cliffs Blvd, in San Diego, California, almost at the Pacific Ocean, to the junction with Interstate 10, just southeast of Casa Grande, Arizona...

 | Interstate 10
Interstate 10
Interstate 10 is the fourth-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, after I-90, I-80, and I-40. It is the southernmost east–west, coast-to-coast Interstate Highway, although I-4 and I-8 are further south. It stretches from the Pacific Ocean at State Route 1 in Santa Monica,...

 | Interstate 15
Interstate 15
Interstate 15 is the fourth-longest north–south Interstate Highway in the United States, traveling through the states of California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Idaho, and Montana from San Diego to the Canadian border...

 | Interstate 17
Interstate 17
Interstate 17 , also known as the Black Canyon Freeway, is an intrastate Interstate Highway located entirely within the state of Arizona, United States. I-17's southern terminus lies within Phoenix, at Interstate 10, and its northern terminus is in Flagstaff, at Interstate 40...

 | Interstate 19
Interstate 19
Interstate 19 is an intrastate Interstate Highway located entirely within the state of Arizona. I-19 runs from Nogales, roughly 1,500 feet from the Mexican border, to Tucson, at Interstate 10...

 | Interstate 40
Interstate 40
Interstate 40 is the third-longest major east–west Interstate Highway in the United States, after I-90 and I-80. Its western end is at Interstate 15 in Barstow, California; its eastern end is at a concurrency of U.S. Route 117 and North Carolina Highway 132 in Wilmington, North Carolina...


U.S. Routes


U.S. Route 60
U.S. Route 60
U.S. Route 60 is an east–west United States highway, running from the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast in Virginia to western Arizona. Despite the final "0" in its number, indicating a transcontinental designation, the 1926 route formerly ended in Springfield, Missouri, at its intersection...

 | U.S. Route 64
U.S. Route 64
U.S. Route 64 is an east–west United States highway that runs for 2,326 miles from eastern North Carolina to just southwest of the Four Corners in northeast Arizona. The western terminus is at U.S. Route 160 in Teec Nos Pos, Arizona. The highway's eastern terminus is at NC 12 and U.S. Route...

 | U.S. Route 70
U.S. Route 70
U.S. Route 70 is an east–west United States highway that runs for 2,385 miles from eastern North Carolina to east-central Arizona. As can be derived from its number, it is a major east–west highway of the Southern and Southwestern United States...

 | U.S. Route 89
U.S. Route 89
U.S. Route 89 is a north–south United States Highway with two sections, and one former section. The southern section runs for 848 miles from Flagstaff, Arizona, to the southern entrance of Yellowstone National Park...

 | U.S. Route 66
U.S. Route 66
U.S. Route 66 was a highway within the U.S. Highway System. One of the original U.S. highways, Route 66 was established on November 11, 1926 -- with road signs erected the following year...



U.S. Route 91
U.S. Route 91
U.S. Route 91 is a north–south United States highway. The highway currently serves as a connection between the Cache Valley area of Utah and Idaho to the Salt Lake and Idaho Falls population centers. Prior the mid-1970s, U.S. 91 was an international commerce route from Long Beach, California...

 | U.S. Route 93
U.S. Route 93
U.S. Route 93 is a major north–south United States highway in the western United States. The southern terminus is at U.S. Route 60 in Wickenburg, Arizona. The northern terminus is at the Canadian border north of Eureka in Lincoln County, Montana, where the roadway continues into Roosville,...

 | U.S. Route 95
U.S. Route 95
U.S. Route 95 is a north–south U.S. highway in the western United States. Unlike many other US highways, it has not seen deletion or replacement on most of its length by an encroaching Interstate highway corridor, due to its mostly rural course...

 | U.S. Route 160
U.S. Route 160
U.S. Route 160 is a 1,465 mile long east–west United States highway in the Midwestern United States. The western terminus of the route is at U.S. Route 89 five miles west of Tuba City, Arizona. The eastern terminus is at U.S...

 | U.S. Route 163
U.S. Route 163
U.S. Route 163 is a U.S. Highway that runs from US 160 northward to US 191 in the U.S. states of Arizona and Utah. The southernmost of its length is within the Navajo Nation. The highway forms part of the Trail of the Ancients, a National Scenic Byway...



U.S. Route 180
U.S. Route 180
U.S. Route 180 is an east–west United States highway. Like many three-digit routes, US 180 no longer meets its "parent", US 80. US 80 was decommissioned west of Mesquite, Texas, and was replaced in Texas by Interstate 20 and Interstate 10. The highway's eastern terminus is in Hudson Oaks,...

 | U.S. Route 191
U.S. Route 191
U.S. Route 191 is a spur of U.S. Route 91 that has two branches. The southern branch runs for 1,465 miles from Douglas, Arizona on the Mexican border to the southern part of Yellowstone National Park. The northern branch runs for 440 miles from the northern part of Yellowstone National Park to...

 | U.S. Route 466
U.S. Route 466
U.S. Route 466 was an east–west United States highway. Though it reached a length of around 500 miles , the route was co-signed with other US routes for much of its length. When California deleted most of its U.S...

 | U.S. Route 491
U.S. Route 491
U.S. Route 491 is a north–south U.S. Highway serving the Four Corners region of the United States. One of the newest designations in the U.S. Highway System, it was created in 2003 as a renumbering of U.S. Route 666...



Main interstate routes include Interstate 17
Interstate 17
Interstate 17 , also known as the Black Canyon Freeway, is an intrastate Interstate Highway located entirely within the state of Arizona, United States. I-17's southern terminus lies within Phoenix, at Interstate 10, and its northern terminus is in Flagstaff, at Interstate 40...

, and Interstate 19
Interstate 19
Interstate 19 is an intrastate Interstate Highway located entirely within the state of Arizona. I-19 runs from Nogales, roughly 1,500 feet from the Mexican border, to Tucson, at Interstate 10...

 running north-south, Interstate 40
Interstate 40 in Arizona
Interstate 40 is an east–west Interstate Highway that has a section in the U.S. state of Arizona connecting sections in California to New Mexico. It enters Arizona from the west at a crossing of the Colorado River southwest of Kingman...

, Interstate 8, and Interstate 10
Interstate 10 in Arizona
In the U.S. state of Arizona, Interstate 10, the major east–west Interstate Highway in the southern United States, runs east from California, enters Arizona and continues through Phoenix and Tucson and exits at the border with New Mexico.-Route description:...

 running east-west, and a short stretch of Interstate 15
Interstate 15 in Arizona
Interstate 15 is an Interstate Highway, running from San Diego, California, United States, to the Canadian border, through Mohave County in northwest Arizona. Despite being isolated from the rest of Arizona, in the remote Arizona Strip, and short in length at , it remains notable for its scenic...

 running northeast/southwest through the extreme northwestern corner of the state. In addition, the various urban areas are served by complex networks of state routes and highways, such as the Loop 101, which is part of Phoenix's vast freeway system.

Public transportation, Amtrak, and intercity bus


The Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas are served by public bus transit systems. Yuma and Flagstaff also have public bus systems. Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines, Inc., based in Dallas, Texas, is an intercity common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 3,700 destinations in the United States, Canada and Mexico, operating under the well-known logo of a leaping greyhound. It was founded in Hibbing, Minnesota, USA, in 1914 and...

 serves Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma, and several smaller communities statewide.

A light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 system called Valley Metro Rail
METRO Light Rail (Phoenix)
Metro Light Rail is a 32 km light rail line operating in the U.S. state of Arizona. Part of the Valley Metro public transit system, it serves the cities of Phoenix, Tempe, and Mesa. Construction began in March 2005; operation started December 27, 2008...

 has recently been completed in Phoenix; it connects Central Phoenix with the nearby cities of Mesa and Tempe. The system officially opened for service in December 2008.

In May 2006, voters in Tucson approved a Regional Transportation Plan (a comprehensive bus transit/streetcar/roadway improvement program), and its funding via a new half-cent sales tax increment. The centerpiece of the plan is a light rail streetcar system (possibly similar to the Portland Streetcar
Portland Streetcar
The Portland Streetcar is a streetcar system in Portland, Oregon, that opened in 2001 and serves areas surrounding downtown Portland. It is currently a single line that is almost long and serves some 12,000 daily riders, but a second line is expected to open in 2012.As with the heavier-duty MAX...

 in Oregon) that will travel through the downtown area, connecting the main University of Arizona
University of Arizona
The University of Arizona is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. The University of Arizona was the first university in the state of Arizona, founded in 1885...

 campus with the Rio Nuevo master plan area on the western edge of downtown.

Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 Southwest Chief
Southwest Chief
The Southwest Chief is a passenger train operated by Amtrak on a 2256-mile BNSF route through the Midwestern and Southwestern United States. It runs from Chicago, Illinois, to Los Angeles, California, passing through Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California...

route serves Northern AZ, stopping at Winslow
Winslow (Amtrak station)
The Winslow Amtrak station compound is located at 501 East Second Street in Winslow, Arizona. The buildings are part of the La Posada Historic District.-Hotel:...

, Flagstaff
Flagstaff (Amtrak station)
The Flagstaff Amtrak station is located at 1 East Route 66 in Flagstaff, Arizona. The station, formerly the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway depot, doubles as a visitor center and is located in the midst of the shops, cafes, and boutiques of downtown Flagstaff...

, Williams
Williams Junction (Amtrak station)
The Williams Junction is located southeast of Williams, Arizona. This station is not accessible to private vehicles; passengers are transferred via an Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach shuttle to Williams, Arizona which travels in part on a gravel road to connect with the Grand Canyon Railway...

 and Kingman
Kingman (Amtrak station)
The Kingman Amtrak station is located in the historic Kingman Railroad Depot at 400 E. Andy Devine Ave in Kingman, Arizona. Amtrak's Southwest Chief trains stop at the Kingman Station once daily in each direction...

. The
Texas Eagle
Texas Eagle
The Texas Eagle is a 1306-mile passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the central and western United States. Trains run daily between Chicago, Illinois, and San Antonio, Texas, and continue to Los Angeles, California, 2728 miles total, three days a week...

and Sunset Limited
Sunset Limited
The Sunset Limited is a passenger train that for most of its history has run between New Orleans, Louisiana and Los Angeles, California, and that from early 1993 through late August 2005 also ran east of New Orleans to Jacksonville, Florida, making it during that time the only true transcontinental...

 routes serve South-Central Arizona, stopping at Tucson
Tucson (Amtrak station)
Amtrak serves the Tucson depot three times a week with the Sunset Limited and Texas Eagle.The depot was built in 1907 by the Southern Pacific Railroad. It was designed by the SP's architect, Daniel J. Patterson who designed a number of depots during the same era, including the San Antonio Station....

, Maricopa
Maricopa (Amtrak station)
The Maricopa is located at 19427 N. John Wayne Parkway in Maricopa, Arizona which is in Pinal County, Arizona. Maricopa was added as a stop for the Sunset Limited after Amtrak was forced to withdraw service from Phoenix due to deteriorated track conditions on a secondary Union Pacific Railroad...

, Yuma
Yuma (Amtrak station)
Yuma is served by Amtrak at the platforms adjacent to the station building site, 281 South Gila Street in Yuma, Arizona, United States. Passenger rail service is provided thrice-weekly in each direction by the Sunset Limited, combined with the Texas Eagle over this portion of its route...

 and Benson. Phoenix's Amtrak service was canceled in 1996, and now an Amtrak bus runs between Phoenix and the station in Maricopa.

Aviation



Airports with regularly scheduled commercial flights include: Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport
Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport
Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport is a joint civil-military public airport located southeast of the central business district of the city of Phoenix, in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States...

 (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX) in Phoenix (the largest airport and the major international airport in the state); Tucson International Airport
Tucson International Airport
Tucson International Airport is a joint civil-military public airport located six miles south of the central business district of Tucson, in Pima County, Arizona, United States, and is the second largest and busiest airport in Arizona, after Sky Harbor International Airport in Phoenix.- Overview...

 (IATA: TUS, ICAO: KTUS) in Tucson; Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport
Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport
Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport , formerly Williams Gateway Airport and Williams Air Force Base , is a commercial airport located in the southeastern area of the city of Mesa, Arizona, and southeast of Phoenix, in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States. The airport is owned and operated by the...

 (IATA: AZA, ICAO: KIWA) in Mesa; Yuma International Airport
Yuma International Airport
Yuma International Airport , a shared-use airport together with Marine Corps Air Station Yuma, is located three nautical miles south of the central business district of Yuma, a city in Yuma County, Arizona, United States...

 (IATA: NYL, ICAO: KNYL) in Yuma; Prescott Municipal Airport (PRC) in Prescott; Flagstaff Pulliam Airport
Flagstaff Pulliam Airport
Flagstaff Pulliam Airport is a city-owned public-use airport located four nautical miles south of the central business district of Flagstaff, a city in Coconino County, Arizona, United States...

 (IATA: FLG, ICAO: KFLG) in Flagstaff, and Grand Canyon National Park Airport
Grand Canyon National Park Airport
Grand Canyon National Park Airport is a state-owned public-use airport located in Tusayan, a CDP in unincorporated Coconino County, Arizona, United States. It is near Grand Canyon National Park, seven miles from the South Rim of the Grand Canyon...

 (IATA: GCN, ICAO: KGCN, FAA: GCN), a small, but busy, single-runway facility providing tourist flights, mostly from Las Vegas. Phoenix Sky Harbor is currently 7th busiest airport in the world in terms of aircraft movements, and 17th for passenger traffic.

Other significant airports without regularly scheduled commercial flights include Scottsdale Municipal Airport (IATA: SCF, ICAO: KSDL) in Scottsdale, and Deer Valley Airport (IATA: DVT, ICAO: KDVT, FAA: DVT) home to two flight training academies and the Nation's busiest general aviation airport.

Law and government



Capitol complex


The state capital of Arizona is Phoenix
Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

. The original Capitol building, with its distinctive copper dome, was dedicated in 1901 (construction was completed for $136,000 in 1900), when the area was still a territory. Phoenix became the official state capital with Arizona's admission to the union in 1912.

The House of Representatives
Arizona House of Representatives
The Arizona House of Representatives is the lower house of the Arizona Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Arizona. Its members are elected to two-year terms with a term limit of four consecutive terms...

 and Senate
Arizona Senate
The Arizona Senate is part of the Arizona Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Arizona. The Senate consists of 30 members representing an equal amount of constituencies across the state, with each district having average populations of 219,859 . Members serve two-year terms with...

 buildings were dedicated in 1960, and an Executive Office Building was dedicated in 1974 (the ninth floor of this building is where the Office of the Governor is located). The original Capitol building was converted into a museum.

The Capitol complex is fronted and highlighted by the richly landscaped Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza
Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza
The Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza is an urban park and gathering place, located in front of the Arizona state capitol complex in downtown Phoenix, Arizona. It serves as a home to a number of memorials honoring prominent figures in Arizona history as well as memorializing significant wars and other...

, named after Wesley Bolin
Wesley Bolin
Wesley Bolin was a Democratic Party politician who served as the 15th governor of the U.S. state of Arizona between 1977 and 1978. His five months in office mark the shortest term in office for any Arizona governor....

, a governor who died in office in the 1970s. Numerous monuments and memorials are on the site, including the anchor and signal mast from the USS Arizona
USS Arizona (BB-39)
USS Arizona, a , was built for the United States Navy in the mid-1910s. Named in honor of the 48th state's recent admission into the union, the ship was the second and last of the Pennsylvania class of "super-dreadnought" battleships. Although commissioned in 1916, the ship remained stateside...

 (one of the U.S. Navy ships sunk in Pearl Harbor
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941...

), a granite version of the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
The Ten Commandments, also known as the Decalogue , are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and most forms of Christianity. They include instructions to worship only God and to keep the Sabbath, and prohibitions against idolatry,...

, and the Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum
Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum
The Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum is a 14,870-seat multi-purpose indoor arena in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, located on the grounds of the Arizona State Fair...

.

State legislative branch


The Arizona Legislature
Arizona Legislature
The Arizona Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Arizona. It is a bicameral legislature that consists of a lower house, the House of Representatives, and an upper house, the Senate. There are 60 Representatives and 30 Senators...

 is bicameral (like the legislature of every other state except Nebraska
Nebraska
Nebraska is a state on the Great Plains of the Midwestern United States. The state's capital is Lincoln and its largest city is Omaha, on the Missouri River....

) and consists of a thirty-member Senate
Arizona Senate
The Arizona Senate is part of the Arizona Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Arizona. The Senate consists of 30 members representing an equal amount of constituencies across the state, with each district having average populations of 219,859 . Members serve two-year terms with...

 and a 60-member House of Representatives
Arizona House of Representatives
The Arizona House of Representatives is the lower house of the Arizona Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Arizona. Its members are elected to two-year terms with a term limit of four consecutive terms...

. Each of the thirty legislative districts has one senator and two representatives. Legislators are elected for two-year terms.

Each Legislature covers a two-year period. The first session following the general election is known as the first regular session, and the session convening in the second year is known as the second regular session. Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January and adjourns sine die (terminates for the year) no later than Saturday of the week in which the 100th day from the beginning of the regular session falls. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House, by rule, may extend the session up to seven additional days. Thereafter, the session can only be extended by a majority vote of members present of each house.

The current majority party is the Republican Party, which has held power in both houses since 1993.

Arizona state senators and representatives are elected for two year terms and are limited to four consecutive terms in a chamber, though there is no limit on the total number of terms. When a lawmaker is term-limited from office, it is not uncommon for him or her to run for election in the other chamber.

The fiscal year 2006–07 general fund budget, approved by the Arizona Legislature in June 2006, is slightly less than $10 billion. Besides the money spent on state agencies, it also includes more than $500 million in income- and property tax cuts, pay raises for government employees, and additional funding for the K–12 education system.

State executive branch


Arizona’s executive branch is headed by a governor, who is elected to a four-year term. The governor may serve any number of terms, though no more than two in a row. Arizona is one of the few states that does not maintain a governor’s mansion. During office the governors reside within their private residence, and all executive offices are housed in the executive tower at the state capitol. The current governor of Arizona is Jan Brewer
Jan Brewer
Janice Kay "Jan" Brewer is the 22nd and current Governor of the U.S. state of Arizona and a member of the Republican Party. She is the fourth woman, and third consecutive woman, to hold the office...

 (R). She assumed office after Janet Napolitano
Janet Napolitano
Janet Napolitano is the third and current United States Secretary of Homeland Security, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama. She is the fourth person to hold the position, which was created after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. A member of the Democratic Party, she was the 21st...

 had her nomination by Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

 for Secretary of Homeland Security
United States Secretary of Homeland Security
The United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet. The position was created by the...

 confirmed by the United States Senate
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

. Arizona has had four female governors including the current Governor Jan Brewer
Jan Brewer
Janice Kay "Jan" Brewer is the 22nd and current Governor of the U.S. state of Arizona and a member of the Republican Party. She is the fourth woman, and third consecutive woman, to hold the office...

, more than any other state.

Other elected executive officials include the Secretary of State
Secretary of State (U.S. state government)
Secretary of State is an official in the state governments of 47 of the 50 states of the United States, as well as Puerto Rico and other U.S. possessions. In Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, this official is called the Secretary of the Commonwealth...

, State Treasurer
State Treasurer
In the state governments of the United States, 49 of the 50 states have the executive position of treasurer. Texas abolished the position of Texas State Treasurer in 1996....

, State Attorney General, Superintendent of Public Instruction
State education agency
A state education agency , or state department of education, is a formal governmental label for the state-level government agencies within each U.S...

, State Mine Inspector and a five member Corporation Commission
Arizona Corporation Commission
The Arizona Corporation Commission is the Public Utilities Commission of the State of Arizona, established by Article 15 of the Arizona Constitution. There are currently five members of the commission . Arizona is one of only a handful of states with elected commissioners...

. All elected officials hold a term of four years, and are limited to two consecutive terms (except the office of the state mine inspector, which is exempt from term limits).

Arizona is one of seven states that do not have a specified lieutenant governor. The secretary of state is the first in line to succeed the governor in the event of death, disability, resignation, or removal from office. The line of succession also includes the attorney general, state treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Since 1977, four secretaries of state and one attorney general have risen to Arizona's governorship through these means.

Current elected officials

  • Governor of Arizona: Jan Brewer
    Jan Brewer
    Janice Kay "Jan" Brewer is the 22nd and current Governor of the U.S. state of Arizona and a member of the Republican Party. She is the fourth woman, and third consecutive woman, to hold the office...

     (R)
  • Secretary of State: Ken Bennett
    Ken Bennett
    Ken Bennett is a Republican politician and businessman who served as president of the Arizona Senate, and is currently serving as the Secretary of State of Arizona.-Biography:...

     (R)
  • Attorney General: Tom Horne
    Tom Horne
    Thomas Charles "Tom" Horne is the current Arizona Attorney General. He served as the Arizona Department of Education Superintendent of Public Instruction from 2003 to 2011.-Early Life and Education:...

     (R)
  • State Treasurer: Doug Ducey
    Doug Ducey
    Doug Ducey is the 32nd State Treasurer of Arizona. He was elected on November 2, 2010 and took office January 3, 2011.-Personal:Ducey was born and raised in Toledo, Ohio. He is married to his wife of 20 years, Angela...

     (R)
  • Superintendent of Public Instruction: John Huppenthal
    John Huppenthal
    John Huppenthal is the current Arizona Superintendent of Public Instruction.His political career includes serving as City Councilman, State Representative, and State Senator. Huppenthal was also a Senior Planning Analyst for Salt River Project.- Personal :Huppenthal was born in Michigan City,...

     (R)
  • State Mine Inspector: Joe Hart
    Joe Hart (politician)
    Joe Hart is the current Arizona state mine inspector. A Republican, he was first elected in 2006 as a former state representative and broadcast company owner.-Electoral history:- References :* - External links :*...

     (R)
  • Corporation Commissioners: Gary Pierce
    Gary Pierce
    Gary Pierce is a member of the Arizona Corporation Commission and a former member of the Arizona House of Representatives. Mr. Pierce was elected to the Arizona Corporation Commission in 2006....

     (R), Kristin Mayes (R), Bob Stump (R), Sandra D. Kennedy (D), and Paul Newman
    Paul Newman (politician)
    Paul Newman is a member of the Arizona Corporation Commission. He was a three term Arizona state representative representing Santa Cruz, Greenlee, Cochise, and Graham counties in Arizona from 1993-1998. Subsequently, he was elected to two terms as Cochise County Supervisor and lived in Bisbee, AZ...

    . (D)

State judicial branch


The Arizona Supreme Court
Arizona Supreme Court
The Arizona Supreme Court is the state supreme court of the U.S. state of Arizona. It consists of a Chief Justice, a Vice Chief Justice, and three associate justices. Each justice is appointed by the governor of Arizona from a list recommended by a bipartisan commission. Justices stand for...

 is the highest court in Arizona. The court currently consists of one chief justice, a vice chief justice, and three associate justices. Justices are appointed by the governor from a list recommended by a bi-partisian commission, and are re-elected after the initial two years following their appointment. Subsequent re-elections occur every six years. The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in death penalty cases, but almost all other appellate cases go through the Arizona Court of Appeals
Arizona Court of Appeals
The Arizona Court of Appeals is the intermediate appellate court for the State of Arizona. It is divided into two divisions, with a total of twenty-two judges on the court: sixteen in Division One, based in Phoenix, and six in Division Two, based in Tucson....

 beforehand. The court has original jurisdiction in a few other circumstances, as outlined in the state constitution. The court may also declare laws unconstitutional, but only while seated en banc
En banc
En banc, in banc, in banco or in bank is a French term used to refer to the hearing of a legal case where all judges of a court will hear the case , rather than a panel of them. It is often used for unusually complex cases or cases considered to be of greater importance...

. The court meets in the Arizona Supreme Court Building at the capitol complex (at the southern end of Wesley Bolin Plaza).

The Arizona Court of Appeals, further divided into two divisions, is the intermediate court in the state. Division One is based in Phoenix, consists of sixteen judges, and has jurisdiction in the Western and Northern regions of the state, along with the greater Phoenix area. Division Two is based in Tucson, consists of six judges, and has jurisdiction over the Southern regions of the state, including the Tucson area. Judges are selected in a method similar to the one used for state supreme court justices.

Each county of Arizona has a superior court, the size and organization of which are varied and generally depend on the size of the particular county.

Counties


Arizona is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties
County (United States)
In the United States, a county is a geographic subdivision of a state , usually assigned some governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 of the 50 states; Louisiana is divided into parishes and Alaska into boroughs. Parishes and boroughs are called "county-equivalents" by the U.S...

. As of 1983 there were 15 counties in the state, ranging in size from 1238 square miles (3,206.4 km²) to 18661 square miles (48,331.8 km²).
ARIZONA COUNTIES
County name County seat Year founded 2000 population Percent of total Area (sq. mi.) Percent of total
Apache
Apache County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*23.3% White*0.2% Black*72.9% Native American*0.3% Asian*0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*2.0% Two or more races*1.3% Other races*5.8% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

St. Johns
St. Johns, Arizona
St. Johns is the county seat of Apache County, Arizona, United States. It is located along U.S. Route 180, mostly west of where that highway intersects with U.S. Route 191. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 3,538....

1879 69,423 1.17 % 11,218 9.84 %
Cochise
Cochise County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*78.5% White*4.2% Black*1.2% Native American*1.9% Asian*0.3% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*4.0% Two or more races*9.6% Other races*32.4% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

Bisbee
Bisbee, Arizona
Bisbee is a city in Cochise County, Arizona, United States, 82 miles southeast of Tucson. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 6,177...

1881 117,755 1.98 % 6,219 5.46 %
Coconino
Coconino County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*61.7% White*1.2% Black*27.3% Native American*1.4% Asian*0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*3.1% Two or more races*5.2% Other races*13.5% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

Flagstaff
Flagstaff, Arizona
Flagstaff is a city located in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States. In 2010, the city's population was 65,870. The population of the Metropolitan Statistical Area was at 134,421 in 2010. It is the county seat of Coconino County...

1891 127,450 1.96 % 18,661 16.37 %
Gila
Gila County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*76.8% White*0.4% Black*14.8% Native American*0.5% Asian*0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*2.0% Two or more races*5.4% Other races*17.9% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

Globe
Globe, Arizona
Globe has an arid climate, characterized by hot summers and moderate to warm winters. Globe's arid climate is somewhat tempered by its elevation, however, leading to slightly cooler temperatures and slightly more precipitation than Phoenix or Yuma....

1881 51,335 0.86 % 4,796 4.21 %
Graham
Graham County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*72.1% White*1.8% Black*14.4% Native American*0.5% Asian*0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*2.8% Two or more races*8.3% Other races*30.4% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

Safford
Safford, Arizona
- History :Safford was founded by Joshua Eaton Bailey, Hiram Kennedy and Edward Tuttle, who came from Gila Bend, in southwestern Arizona. They left Gila Bend in the winter of 1873-74; their work on canals and dams having been destroyed by high water the previous summer...

1881 33,489 0.56 % 4,641 4.07 %
Greenlee
Greenlee County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*77.2% White*1.1% Black*2.3% Native American*0.5% Asian*0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*3.8% Two or more races*15.0% Other races*47.9% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

Clifton
Clifton, Arizona
Clifton is a town in and the county seat of Greenlee County, Arizona, United States, along the San Francisco River. The population of the town was 3,311 at the 2010 census. It was a site of the Arizona Copper Mine Strike of 1983....

1909 8,547 0.14 % 1,848 1.62 %
La Paz
La Paz County, Arizona
La Paz County is a county in the western part of the U.S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census its population was 20,489. The county seat is Parker...

Parker
Parker, Arizona
Parker is a town in and the county seat of La Paz County, Arizona, United States, on the Colorado River in Parker Valley. The population was 3,140 at the 2000 census.-History:...

1983 19,715 0.33 % 4,513 3.96 %
Maricopa
Maricopa County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*73.0% White*5.0% Black*2.1% Native American*3.5% Asian*0.2% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*3.5% Two or more races*12.7% Other races*29.6% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

Phoenix
Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

1871 3,072,149 65.34 % 9,224 8.09 %
Mohave
Mohave County, Arizona
Mohave County is located in the northwestern corner of the U.S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 200,186, an increase of 45,154 people since the 2000 census count of 155,032. The county seat is Kingman...

Kingman
Kingman, Arizona
Kingman is located in a desert climate on the edge of the Mojave Desert, but its higher elevation and location between the Colorado Plateau and the Lower Colorado River Valley tempers summer high temperatures and contributes to winter cold and rare snowfall. Summer daytime highs reach above 90 °F ...

1864 155,032 2.61 % 13,470 11.82 %
Navajo
Navajo County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*49.3% White*0.9% Black*43.4% Native American*0.5% Asian*0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*2.5% Two or more races*3.3% Other races*10.8% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

Holbrook
Holbrook, Arizona
-Historical events:*During 1881 & 1882, railroad tracks were laid down and a railroad station was built. The community was then named Holbrook after the first engineer of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad...

1895 97,470 1.64 % 9,959 8.74 %
Pima
Pima County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*74.3% White*3.5% Black*3.3% Native American*2.6% Asian*0.2% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*3.7% Two or more races*12.4% Other races*34.6% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

Tucson
Tucson, Arizona
Tucson is a city in and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States. The city is located 118 miles southeast of Phoenix and 60 miles north of the U.S.-Mexico border. The 2010 United States Census puts the city's population at 520,116 with a metropolitan area population at 1,020,200...

1864 843,746 14.21 % 9,189 8.06 %
Pinal
Pinal County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*72.4% White*4.6% Black*5.6% Native American*1.7% Asian*0.4% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*3.8% Two or more races*11.5% Other races*28.5% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

Florence
Florence, Arizona
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 17,054 people, 2,226 households, and 1,540 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,056.2 people per square mile . There were 3,216 housing units at an average density of 387.7 per square mile...

1875 179,727 3.03 % 5,374 4.71 %
Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*73.5% White*0.4% Black*0.7% Native American*0.5% Asian*0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*2.0% Two or more races*22.9% Other races*82.8% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

Nogales
Nogales, Arizona
Nogales is a city in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, United States. The population was 21,017 at the 2010 census. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 20,833. The city is the county seat of Santa Cruz County....

1899 36,381 0.65 % 1,238 1.09 %
Yavapai
Yavapai County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*89.3% White*0.6% Black*1.7% Native American*0.8% Asian*0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*2.5% Two or more races*5.0% Other races*13.6% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

Prescott
Prescott, Arizona
Prescott is a city in Yavapai County, Arizona, USA. It was designated "Arizona's Christmas City" by Arizona Governor Rose Mofford in the late 1980s....

1865 167,517 2.82 % 8,128 7.13 %
Yuma
Yuma County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*70.4% White*2.0% Black*1.6% Native American*1.2% Asian*0.2% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*3.8% Two or more races*20.8% Other races*59.7% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

Yuma
Yuma, Arizona
Yuma is a city in and the county seat of Yuma County, Arizona, United States. It is located in the southwestern corner of the state, and the population of the city was 77,515 at the 2000 census, with a 2008 Census Bureau estimated population of 90,041....

1864 160,026 2.69 % 5,519 4.84 %
Totals: 15 5,938,664 113,997

Federal representation


Arizona's two United States Senators are John McCain
John McCain
John Sidney McCain III is the senior United States Senator from Arizona. He was the Republican nominee for president in the 2008 United States election....

 (R), the 2008 Republican Presidential Nominee, and Jon Kyl
Jon Kyl
Jon Llewellyn Kyl is the junior U.S. Senator from Arizona and the Senate Minority Whip, the second-highest position in the Republican Senate leadership. In 2010 he was recognized by Time magazine as one of the 100 most influential people in the world for his persuasive role in the Senate.The son...

 (R).

Arizona's representatives in the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

 are Paul A. Gosar (R-1), Trent Franks
Trent Franks
Trent Franks is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 2003. He is a member of the Republican Party.The district takes in the entire northwestern corner of the state, including Kingman and Lake Havasu City, but most of its vote is cast in the western Phoenix suburbs.-Early life, education and...

 (R-2), Ben Quayle
Ben Quayle
Benjamin Eugene "Ben" Quayle is an American politician and U.S. Representative for Arizona's 3rd congressional district. He is a member of the Republican Party. Ben Quayle is son of former U.S. Vice President Dan Quayle and former U. S...

 (R-3), Ed Pastor
Ed Pastor
Edward Lopez "Ed" Pastor is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 1991. He is a member of the Democratic Party.The district includes most of southern, western, and downtown Phoenix, along with a portion of Glendale....

 (D-4), David Schweikert
David Schweikert
David Schweikert is the U.S. Representative for . He is a member of the Republican Party. He previously served two terms in the Arizona State House of Representatives , was chairman of the state Board of Equalization , and was the elected Maricopa County Treasurer . He ran for the U.S...

 (R-5), Jeff Flake
Jeff Flake
Jeffrey Lane "Jeff" Flake is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 2001. He is a member of the Republican Party. He was featured in the documentary series How Democracy Works Now: Twelve Stories....

 (R-6), Raul Grijalva
Raul Grijalva
Raúl M. Grijalva is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 2003. He is a member of the Democratic Party.The district includes half of metro Tucson, all of Yuma and Nogales, and some peripheral parts of metro Phoenix.-Early life, education and career:...

 (D-7), and Gabrielle Giffords
Gabrielle Giffords
Gabrielle Dee "Gabby" Giffords is an American politician. A Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives, she has represented since 2007. She is the third woman in Arizona's history to be elected to the U.S. Congress...

 (D-8). Arizona gained two seats in the House of Representatives due to redistricting
Redistricting
Redistricting is the process of drawing United States electoral district boundaries, often in response to population changes determined by the results of the decennial census. In 36 states, the state legislature has primary responsibility for creating a redistricting plan, in many cases subject to...

 based on Census 2000.

Political culture

Presidential elections results
Year Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

Democratic
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

2008 53.60% 1,230,111 45.12% 1,034,707
2004 54.87% 1,104,294 44.40% 893,524
2000 50.95% 781,652 44.67% 685,341
1996 44.29% 622,073 46.52% 653,288
1992 38.47% 572,086 36.52% 543,050
1988 59.95% 702,541 38.74% 454,029
1984 66.42% 681,416 32.54% 333,854
1980 60.61% 529,688 28.24% 246,843
1976 56.37% 418,642 39.80% 295,602
1972 61.64% 402,812 30.38% 198,540
1968 54.78% 266,721 35.02% 170,514
1964 50.45% 242,535 49.45% 237,753
1960 55.52% 221,241 44.36% 176,781


See also: Elections in Arizona, Political party strength in Arizona
Political party strength in Arizona
-Overview:The U.S. state of Arizona is the home of Senators Barry Goldwater and John McCain, and the state is widely regarded as a Republican Party stronghold. Recent demographic trends, however, have altered this somewhat, bolstering the numbers of both independent voters and Democrats...




From statehood through the late 1940s, Arizona was primarily dominated by the Democratic Party. During this time period, the Democratic candidate for the presidency carried the state each election, with the only exceptions being the elections of 1920
United States presidential election, 1920
The United States presidential election of 1920 was dominated by the aftermath of World War I and a hostile response to certain policies of Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic president. The wartime economic boom had collapsed. Politicians were arguing over peace treaties and the question of America's...

, 1924
United States presidential election, 1924
The United States presidential election of 1924 was won by incumbent President Calvin Coolidge, the Republican candidate.Coolidge was vice-president under Warren G. Harding and became president in 1923 when Harding died in office. Coolidge was given credit for a booming economy at home and no...

 and 1928
United States presidential election, 1928
The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith. The Republicans were identified with the booming economy of the 1920s, whereas Smith, a Roman Catholic, suffered politically from Anti-Catholic prejudice, his anti-prohibitionist stance, and...

—all three of which were national Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

 landslides.

Since the election
United States presidential election, 1952
The United States presidential election of 1952 took place in an era when Cold War tension between the United States and the Soviet Union was escalating rapidly. In the United States Senate, Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin had become a national figure after chairing congressional...

 of Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was the 34th President of the United States, from 1953 until 1961. He was a five-star general in the United States Army...

 in 1952, however, the state has voted consistently Republican in national politics, with the Republican candidate winning it in most presidential elections. Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
Richard Milhous Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. The only president to resign the office, Nixon had previously served as a US representative and senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961 under...

 and Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Ronald Wilson Reagan was the 40th President of the United States , the 33rd Governor of California and, prior to that, a radio, film and television actor....

 won Arizona by particularly large margins. The sole exception to this trend was the victory of Democrat Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

 in 1996
United States presidential election, 1996
The United States presidential election of 1996 was a contest between the Democratic national ticket of President Bill Clinton of Arkansas and Vice President Al Gore of Tennessee and the Republican national ticket of former Senator Bob Dole of Kansas for President and former Housing Secretary Jack...

. Clinton also came within about a percentage point of gaining Arizona's electoral votes in 1992
United States presidential election, 1992
The United States presidential election of 1992 had three major candidates: Incumbent Republican President George Bush; Democratic Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton, and independent Texas businessman Ross Perot....

. However, the closest loss by a Democrat was by Lyndon Johnson in 1964
United States presidential election, 1964
The United States presidential election of 1964 was held on November 3, 1964. Incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson had come to office less than a year earlier following the assassination of his predecessor, John F. Kennedy. Johnson, who had successfully associated himself with Kennedy's...

, who lost the state by slightly over 5,000 votes to Senator Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
Barry Morris Goldwater was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona and the Republican Party's nominee for President in the 1964 election. An articulate and charismatic figure during the first half of the 1960s, he was known as "Mr...

, an Arizona native. This was also the most closely contested state in that year's presidential election.

In recent years, the Republican Party has also dominated Arizona politics in general. The fast-growing Phoenix and Tucson suburbs became increasingly friendly to Republicans from the 1950s onward. During this time, many "Pinto Democrats," or conservative Democrats from rural areas, became increasingly willing to support Republicans at the state and national level. While the state normally supports Republicans at the federal level, Democrats are often competitive in statewide elections, as in 2006, when Janet Napolitano
Janet Napolitano
Janet Napolitano is the third and current United States Secretary of Homeland Security, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama. She is the fourth person to hold the position, which was created after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. A member of the Democratic Party, she was the 21st...

 was handily reelected the state's governor.

On March 4, 2008, John McCain
John McCain
John Sidney McCain III is the senior United States Senator from Arizona. He was the Republican nominee for president in the 2008 United States election....

 effectively clinched the Republican nomination for 2008, becoming the first presidential nominee from the state since Barry Goldwater in 1964.

Arizona politics are dominated by a longstanding rivalry between its two largest counties, Maricopa County and Pima County--home to Phoenix and Tucson, respectively. The two counties have almost 75 percent of the state's population and cast almost 80 percent of the state's vote. They also elect a substantial majority of the state legislature.

Maricopa County is home to almost 60 percent of the state's population, and most of the state's elected officials live there. It has voted Republican in every presidential election since 1948. This includes the 1964
United States presidential election, 1964
The United States presidential election of 1964 was held on November 3, 1964. Incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson had come to office less than a year earlier following the assassination of his predecessor, John F. Kennedy. Johnson, who had successfully associated himself with Kennedy's...

 run of native son Barry Goldwater; he would not have carried his home state had it not been for a 20,000-vote margin in Maricopa County. Similarly, while McCain won Arizona by eight percentage points in 2008, the margin would have likely been far closer if not for a 130,000-vote margin in Maricopa County.

In contrast, Pima County, home to Tucson, and most of southern Arizona have historically been more Democratic. While Tucson's suburbs lean Republican, they hold to a somewhat more moderate brand of Republicanism than is common in the Phoenix area.

Arizona rejected an anti-gay marriage amendment in a referendum as part of the 2006 elections. Arizona was the first state in the nation to do so. Same-sex marriage
Recognition of same-sex unions in Arizona
Same-sex marriage, civil union, and domestic partnership are currently not provided for in the state of Arizona. While same-sex marriage was constitutionally banned in 2008, Arizona is currently the only state to have rejected a same-sex marriage ban in the United States. Voters rejected the ban ...

 was already illegal in Arizona, but this amendment would have denied any legal or financial benefits to unmarried homosexual or heterosexual couples. In 2008, Arizona voters passed Proposition 102
Arizona Proposition 102 (2008)
Arizona Proposition 102 was an amendment to the constitution of the state of Arizona adopted by a referendum held in 2008. It added Article 30 of the Arizona Constitution, which says:"Only a union of one man and one woman shall be valid or recognized as a marriage in this state."- Overview :On...

, an amendment to the state constitution to define marriage as a union of one man and one woman, though by a narrower majority than similar votes in a number of other states.

In 2010, Arizona passed the toughest illegal immigration legislation in the nation, igniting a fierce debate between supporters and detractors of the law.

Important cities and towns




Phoenix
Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

, located in Maricopa County
Maricopa County, Arizona
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*73.0% White*5.0% Black*2.1% Native American*3.5% Asian*0.2% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*3.5% Two or more races*12.7% Other races*29.6% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

, is the largest city in Arizona and also the state capital. Other prominent cities in the Phoenix metro area include Mesa
Mesa, Arizona
According to the 2010 Census, the racial composition of Mesa was as follows:* White: 77.1% * Hispanic or Latino : 26.54%* Black or African American: 3.5%* Two or more races: 3.4%* Native American: 2.4%...

 (the third largest city in Arizona), Glendale
Glendale, Arizona
Glendale is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, located about nine miles northwest from Downtown Phoenix. According to 2010 Census Bureau, the population of the city is 226,721....

, Peoria
Peoria, Arizona
Peoria is a city in Maricopa and Yavapai counties in the U.S. state of Arizona. Located primarily in Maricopa County, it is a major suburb of Phoenix. According to 2010 Census Bureau releases, the population of the city is 154,065. Peoria is currently the sixth largest city in Arizona for land...

, Chandler
Chandler, Arizona
-Demographics:As of the Census of 2010, there were 236,123 people, 86,924 households, and 60,212 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 73.3% White, 4.8% Black or African American, 1.5% Native American, 8.2% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 21.9% Hispanic or Latino, and 8.3%...

, Sun City
Sun City, Arizona
Sun City is a census-designated place and unincorporated town in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States. The population was 38,309 at the 2000 census...

, Sun City West
Sun City West, Arizona
Sun City West is a census-designated place in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States. The population was 26,344 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Sun City West is located at ....

, Fountain Hills, Surprise
Surprise, Arizona
Surprise is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA. The population was 30,848 at the 2000 census; however, rapid growth has boosted the city's population to 117,517 at the 2010 census, an increase of 281%...

, Gilbert
Gilbert, Arizona
-Demographics:As of July 1, 2009, Maricopa Association of Governments, Census 2000. United States Census Bureau. there were 217,521 people, 74,147 housing units, and 3.01 persons per household....

, El Mirage
El Mirage, Arizona
El Mirage is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States. According to Census 2010, the population of the city is 31,767.-Geography:El Mirage is located at ....

, Avondale
Avondale, Arizona
Avondale is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, adjacent to Phoenix, Arizona. According to 2010 Census Bureau, the population of the city is 76,238.Avondale is the home of Phoenix International Raceway, an auto racing facility...

, Tempe
Tempe, Arizona
Tempe is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, with the Census Bureau reporting a 2010 population of 161,719. The city is named after the Vale of Tempe in Greece. Tempe is located in the East Valley section of metropolitan Phoenix; it is bordered by Phoenix and Guadalupe on the west, Scottsdale...

, Tolleson
Tolleson, Arizona
Tolleson is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 6,812.-Geography:Tolleson is located at ....

 and Scottsdale
Scottsdale, Arizona
Scottsdale is a city in the eastern part of Maricopa County, Arizona, United States, adjacent to Phoenix. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2010 the population of the city was 217,385...

, with a total metropolitan population of just over 4.3 million.

Tucson
Tucson, Arizona
Tucson is a city in and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States. The city is located 118 miles southeast of Phoenix and 60 miles north of the U.S.-Mexico border. The 2010 United States Census puts the city's population at 520,116 with a metropolitan area population at 1,020,200...

 is the state's second largest city, and is located in Pima County, approximately 110 miles (177 km) southeast of the Phoenix metropolitan area. The Tucson metropolitan area crossed the one-million-resident threshold in early 2007. It is home to the University of Arizona
University of Arizona
The University of Arizona is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. The University of Arizona was the first university in the state of Arizona, founded in 1885...

, which, along with Arizona State University in Tempe, are considered the state's flagship universities.

The Prescott
Prescott, Arizona
Prescott is a city in Yavapai County, Arizona, USA. It was designated "Arizona's Christmas City" by Arizona Governor Rose Mofford in the late 1980s....

 metropolitan area includes the cities of Prescott, Sedona
Sedona, Arizona
Sedona is a city that straddles the county line between Coconino and Yavapai counties in the northern Verde Valley region of the U.S. state of Arizona...

, Cottonwood
Cottonwood, Arizona
Cottonwood is a city in Yavapai County, Arizona, United States. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 11,171.-Geography:Cottonwood is located at ....

, Camp Verde
Camp Verde, Arizona
Camp Verde is a town in Yavapai County, Arizona, United States. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the town is 10,610....

 and numerous other towns spread out over the 8123 square miles (21,038.5 km²) of Yavapai County area. With 212,635 residents, this cluster of towns forms the third largest metropolitan area in the state. The city of Prescott (population 41,528) lies approximately 100 miles (160.9 km) northwest of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Situated in pine tree forests at an elevation of about 5500 feet (1,676.4 m), Prescott enjoys a much cooler climate than Phoenix, with average summer highs in the upper 80s Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit is the temperature scale proposed in 1724 by, and named after, the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit . Within this scale, the freezing of water into ice is defined at 32 degrees, while the boiling point of water is defined to be 212 degrees...

 and winter temperatures averaging 50 °F (10 °C).

Yuma
Yuma, Arizona
Yuma is a city in and the county seat of Yuma County, Arizona, United States. It is located in the southwestern corner of the state, and the population of the city was 77,515 at the 2000 census, with a 2008 Census Bureau estimated population of 90,041....

 is center of the fourth largest metropolitan area in Arizona. It is located near the borders of California and Mexico. It is one of the hottest cities in the United States with the average July high of 107 °F (41.7 °C). (The same month's average in Death Valley
Death Valley
Death Valley is a desert valley located in Eastern California. Situated within the Mojave Desert, it features the lowest, driest, and hottest locations in North America. Badwater, a basin located in Death Valley, is the specific location of the lowest elevation in North America at 282 feet below...

 is 115 °F (46.1 °C).) The city also features sunny days about 90% of the year. The Yuma Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 160,000. Yuma also attracts many winter visitors from all over the United States.

Flagstaff
Flagstaff, Arizona
Flagstaff is a city located in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States. In 2010, the city's population was 65,870. The population of the Metropolitan Statistical Area was at 134,421 in 2010. It is the county seat of Coconino County...

 is the largest city in northern Arizona, and is situated at an elevation of nearly 7000 feet (2,133.6 m). With its large Ponderosa Pine forests, snowy winter weather and picturesque mountains, it is a stark contrast to the desert regions typically associated with Arizona. It sits at the base of the San Francisco Peaks
San Francisco Peaks
The San Francisco Peaks are a volcanic mountain range located in north central Arizona, just north of Flagstaff.The highest summit in the range, Humphreys Peak, is the highest point in the state of Arizona at in elevation. The San Francisco Peaks are the remains of an eroded stratovolcano...

 the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona, with Humphreys Peak
Humphreys Peak
Humphreys Peak is the highest natural point in the U.S. state of Arizona, with an elevation of and is located within the Kachina Peaks Wilderness in the Coconino National Forest, about north of Flagstaff, Arizona. Humphreys Peak is the highest of a group of extinct volcanic peaks known as the...

, the highest point in Arizona at 12633 feet (3,850.5 m). Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to numerous tourist attractions including: Grand Canyon National Park
Grand Canyon National Park
Grand Canyon National Park is the United States' 15th oldest national park and is located in Arizona. Within the park lies the Grand Canyon, a gorge of the Colorado River, considered to be one of the Wonders of the World. The park covers of unincorporated area in Coconino and Mohave counties.Most...

, Sedona, and Oak Creek Canyon
Oak Creek Canyon
Oak Creek Canyon is a river gorge located along the Mogollon Rim in northern Arizona located between the cities of Flagstaff and Sedona. The canyon is often described as a smaller cousin of the Grand Canyon because of its scenic beauty...

. Historic U.S. Route 66
U.S. Route 66
U.S. Route 66 was a highway within the U.S. Highway System. One of the original U.S. highways, Route 66 was established on November 11, 1926 -- with road signs erected the following year...

 is the main east-west street in the town. Flagstaff is home to 57,391 residents and the main campus of Northern Arizona University
Northern Arizona University
Northern Arizona University is a public university located in Flagstaff, Arizona, United States. It is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, and has 39 satellite campuses in the state of Arizona. The university offers both undergraduate and graduate degrees.As of...

.

Elementary and secondary education


Public schools in Arizona are separated into about 220 local school districts which operate independently, but are governed in most cases by elected county school superintendents; these are in turn overseen by the Arizona State Board of Education (a division of the Arizona Department of Education
Arizona Department of Education
Arizona Department of Education is an Arizona state agency overseeing public education. It is headquartered at 1535 West Jefferson Street in Downtown Phoenix, Arizona, United States.-External links:*...

) and the state Superintendent of Public Instruction (elected in partisan elections every even-numbered year when there is not a presidential election, for a four-year term). In 2005, a School District Redistricting Commission was established with the goal of combining and consolidating many of these districts.

Higher education




Arizona is served by three public universities: The University of Arizona
University of Arizona
The University of Arizona is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. The University of Arizona was the first university in the state of Arizona, founded in 1885...

, Arizona State University
Arizona State University
Arizona State University is a public research university located in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area of the State of Arizona...

, and Northern Arizona University
Northern Arizona University
Northern Arizona University is a public university located in Flagstaff, Arizona, United States. It is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, and has 39 satellite campuses in the state of Arizona. The university offers both undergraduate and graduate degrees.As of...

. These schools are governed by the Arizona Board of Regents
Arizona Board of Regents
The Arizona Board of Regents is the governing body of Arizona's public university system, providing policy guidance to Arizona State University, Northern Arizona University, the University of Arizona and their branch campuses.-Organization:...

.

Private higher education in Arizona is dominated by a large number of for-profit and "chain" (multi-site) universities. Only one traditional (single-site, non-profit, four-year) private college exists in Arizona (Prescott College
Prescott College
Prescott College is a private liberal arts college in Prescott, Arizona, founded in 1966. It is a non-profit organization which has an undergraduate body of roughly 800 students, and an average student to faculty ratio of 7:1 in on-campus classrooms...

).
Arizona has a wide network of two-year vocational schools and community colleges. These colleges were governed historically by a separate statewide Board of Directors but, in 2002, the state legislature transferred almost all oversight authority to individual community college districts. The Maricopa County Community College District includes 11 community colleges throughout Maricopa County and is one of the largest in the nation.

Public universities in Arizona

  • Arizona State University
    Arizona State University
    Arizona State University is a public research university located in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area of the State of Arizona...

    , (Sun Devils) Tempe/Phoenix/Mesa
  • Northern Arizona University
    Northern Arizona University
    Northern Arizona University is a public university located in Flagstaff, Arizona, United States. It is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, and has 39 satellite campuses in the state of Arizona. The university offers both undergraduate and graduate degrees.As of...

    , (Lumberjacks) Flagstaff/Yuma
  • University of Arizona
    University of Arizona
    The University of Arizona is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. The University of Arizona was the first university in the state of Arizona, founded in 1885...

    , (Wildcats
    Arizona Wildcats
    -Athletic program:The University of Arizona participates in the NCAA's Division I-A in the Pacific-12 Conference Arizona participates in the conference's South Division, along with Arizona State, Colorado, UCLA, USC, and Utah...

    ) Tucson/Sierra Vista and UA Agricultural Center in Yuma

Private colleges and universities in Arizona

  • American Indian College
    American Indian College
    American Indian College is a private Christian college located in Phoenix, Arizona. Created for the purpose of "equipping Native Americans for Christian service," AIC currently educates students from about 25 tribes, but now also welcomes students of all ethnicities...

  • Apollo College
    Apollo College
    Carrington College, formerly known as Apollo College, is a privately held, for-profit institution of higher education. Carrington College, along with co-operating division Carrington College California, is owned and operated by Carrington Colleges Group, Inc. a subsidiary of DeVry Inc. Carrington...

  • Art Center College of Design
    The Art Center Design College
    The Art Center Design College is a private college based out of Tucson, Arizona with a branch campus located in Albuquerque, New Mexico....

  • Art Institute of Tucson
    The Art Institute of Tucson
    The Art Institute of Tucson – is one of The Art Institutes, a system of more than 40 educational institutions located throughout North America, providing education in design, media arts, fashion and culinary arts....

  • Art Institute of Phoenix
    The Art Institute of Phoenix
    The Art Institute of Phoenix – is one of The Art Institutes, a system of more than 40 educational institutions located throughout North America, providing education in design, media arts, fashion and culinary arts....

  • A.T. Still University
    A.T. Still University
    A.T. Still University is the world's first osteopathic medical school. Founded in 1892 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still , the school is based in Kirksville, Missouri, and has other campuses in Arizona...

  • Brown Mackie College
    Brown Mackie College
    Brown Mackie College is a collection of for-profit educational institutions for career preparation in the business, legal, health sciences, information technology, and creative fields. The system of schools has locations throughout the United States. The schools are owned by Education Management...

  • Collins College
  • Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
  • Grand Canyon University
    Grand Canyon University
    Grand Canyon University is a for-profit Christian university located in Phoenix, Arizona. It is owned by Grand Canyon Education . GCU was founded in 1949 as a non-profit liberal arts college. Grand Canyon Education, Inc. purchased Grand Canyon University in February 2004...

  • International Baptist College
    International Baptist College
    International Baptist College is an Independent Fundamental Baptist Bible college and graduate school in Chandler, Arizona, offering graduate and undergraduate degrees in pastoral ministry, missions, music ministry and Christian education...

  • Lamson College
  • Midwestern University
    Midwestern University
    Midwestern University is a graduate degree-granting institution specializing in the health sciences with eight colleges and two campuses....

  • Northcentral University
    Northcentral University
    Northcentral University is a private, for-profit, accredited university based in Prescott Valley, Arizona, that offers distance education. It was established in 1996 and is currently owned by Rockbridge Growth Equity, LLC, Falcon Investments, LLC, and the school's founder, Donald Hecht...

  • Ottawa University
    Ottawa University
    Ottawa University is a private, non-profit, faith-based liberal arts college located in Ottawa, Kansas. It was founded in 1865 and is affiliated with the American Baptist Churches USA...

  • University of Phoenix
    University of Phoenix
    The University of Phoenix is a for-profit institution of higher learning. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Apollo Group Inc. which is publicly traded , an S&P 500 corporation based in Phoenix, Arizona...

  • Phoenix School of Law
    Phoenix School of Law
    The Phoenix School of Law is a private, for-profit law school located in Phoenix, Arizona. Founded in 2005 and accredited by the American Bar Association in 2010, PhoenixLaw is the only private law school in Arizona...

  • Prescott College
    Prescott College
    Prescott College is a private liberal arts college in Prescott, Arizona, founded in 1966. It is a non-profit organization which has an undergraduate body of roughly 800 students, and an average student to faculty ratio of 7:1 in on-campus classrooms...

  • Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine
    Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine
    Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine is a naturopathic medical school located in Tempe, Arizona, United States. Founded in 1992. SCNM is one of seven accredited naturopathic medical school in North America.-Overview of academics:...

  • Southwestern College
    Southwestern College (Arizona)
    Arizona Christian University is a private, non-profit Christian university located in Phoenix, Arizona.- History of ACU :...

  • Thunderbird School of Global Management
    Thunderbird School of Global Management
    Thunderbird School of Global Management is a private business school whose main campus is located in Glendale, Arizona. Founded in 1946 by retired U.S...

  • University of Advancing Technology
    University of Advancing Technology
    University of Advancing Technology is a private, family owned institution of higher education located in Tempe, Arizona. Founded in 1983, UAT is a university with multiple areas of study in technical fields, while retaining liberal arts requirements in the Fine Arts and Humanities...

  • Western Governors University
    Western Governors University
    Western Governors University is a private, nonprofit, American online university with nearly 30,000 students across the United States and in military bases overseas, as of December 2011. It is a competency-based university...

  • Western International University
    Western International University
    The Western International University is a regionally accredited for-profit university owned by the Apollo Group. Western International University is a college for adult learners and allows adults to remain responsible for their careers and family life by offering online and evening programs.Western...


  • Community colleges

    • Arizona Western College
      Arizona Western College
      Arizona Western College is a public community college located in Yuma, Arizona, United States. AWC offers classes in San Luis, Somerton, Marine Corp Air Station , Wellton, Dateland, and La Paz....

    • Central Arizona College
      Central Arizona College
      Central Arizona College is a public community college located in Coolidge, Arizona. "CAC," as the school is commonly known, serves the population of Pinal County.The school's sports teams are called the Vaqueros and the colors are green and gold...

    • Cochise College
      Cochise College
      Cochise College is a two year college in Arizona. Founded in 1964, the school has campuses in Sierra Vista and Douglas, and centers in Benson, Willcox, Fort Huachuca, and Nogales....

    • Coconino Community College
      Coconino Community College
      Coconino Community College is a community college serving Coconino County in the northern part of the U.S. state of Arizona. CCC is a college that serves more than 10,000 learners annually. CCC is open to everyone, not just Coconino County residents....

    • Diné College
      Diné College
      Diné College is a two-year, tribally controlled community college, serving the 27,000 square-mile Navajo Indian Reservation, which spans the states of Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah....

    • Eastern Arizona College
      Eastern Arizona College
      Eastern Arizona College , is a community college located in Graham County, Arizona. The main campus is in Thatcher, with satellite locations in Gila County, and Greenlee County...

    • Chandler-Gilbert Community College
      Chandler-Gilbert Community College
      Chandler–Gilbert Community College is a community college in the Maricopa County Community College District.- History :CGCC was founded in 1985 as an extension of Mesa Community College...

    • Estrella Mountain Community College
      Estrella Mountain Community College
      Estrella Mountain Community College is a community college in Avondale, Arizona, USA, serving the West Valley community since 1990, and at the Avondale campus since 1992...

    • GateWay Community College
      GateWay Community College
      GateWay Community College is an urban campus established in 1968 located in Phoenix, Arizona near Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport. GateWay is one of ten regionally accredited colleges in the Maricopa County Community College District. The Maricopa Skill Center is a division of GateWay...

    • Glendale Community College
  • Maricopa County Community College District
    Maricopa County Community College District
    The Maricopa County Community College District, in Maricopa County, Arizona, is the largest community college district in the United States. The district serves Maricopa County, the county that includes and surrounds Phoenix and is the most populous of the state's counties...

  • Mesa Community College
    Mesa Community College
    Mesa Community College in Mesa, Arizona, is the largest of the 10 community colleges in the Maricopa County Community College District and is the largest in the United States. MCC began in 1963 as a branch of Phoenix College and later granted independent status in 1965.MCC offers more than 200...

  • Mohave Community College
    Mohave Community College
    Mohave Community College is a two-year, public community college with campuses in Kingman, Lake Havasu City, Bullhead City, and Colorado City, serving Mohave County, Arizona and the surrounding communities. MCC is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, which is...

  • Northland Pioneer College
    Northland Pioneer College
    Northland Pioneer College is a regionally accredited, publicly supported, comprehensive community college serving a large and diverse area in Navajo County, Arizona...

  • Paradise Valley Community College
    Paradise Valley Community College
    Paradise Valley Community College is a 2-year community college in Phoenix, Arizona. It is located in the North Phoenix neighborhood. A branch campus, , opened in August 2009 in the far northern section of Scottsdale, Arizona to serve this rapidly growing area...

  • Phoenix College
    Phoenix College
    Phoenix College is a community college located in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Founded in 1920, it is one of the oldest community colleges in the country....

  • Pima Community College
    Pima Community College
    Pima Community College is an American two-year institution of higher education in Pima County, Arizona serving the Tucson metropolitan area. The community college district consists of six campuses, four education centers, and several adult education learning centers. It provides traditional and...

  • Rio Salado Community College
    Rio Salado Community College
    Rio Salado College, known as "the college within everyone's reach," is the largest of the 10 Maricopa Community Colleges and has never built a traditional campus...

  • Scottsdale Community College
    Scottsdale Community College
    Scottsdale Community College, is located in Salt River, Arizona, a suburb/rural area of Phoenix. Scottsdale Community College is a two-year college located on the eastern boundary of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, on 160 acres of land belonging to the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...

  • South Mountain Community College
    South Mountain Community College
    South Mountain Community College is a community college in Phoenix, Arizona. It is part of the Maricopa County Community College District and was established by the governing board of the District on April 18, 1978. The college takes its name from South Mountain, which is a few kilometers to the...

  • Yavapai College
    Yavapai College
    Yavapai College is a community college located in Yavapai County, Arizona. The main Campus is in Prescott, with locations in Clarkdale, Prescott Valley, Chino Valley, and Sedona.-History:...


  • Sports


    Professional sports teams in Arizona include:
    Club Sport League Championships
    Arizona Cardinals
    Arizona Cardinals
    The Arizona Cardinals are a professional American football team based in Glendale, Arizona, a suburb of Phoenix. They are currently members of the Western Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League...

    Football
    American football
    American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

    National Football League
    National Football League
    The National Football League is the highest level of professional American football in the United States, and is considered the top professional American football league in the world. It was formed by eleven teams in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association, with the league changing...

    2 (1925
    1925 NFL season
    The 1925 NFL season was the 6th regular season of the National Football League. Five new teams entered the league: New York Giants, Detroit Panthers, Pottsville Maroons, Providence Steam Roller, and a new Canton Bulldogs team...

    , 1947
    1947 NFL season
    The 1947 NFL season was the 28th regular season of the National Football League. The league expanded the regular season by one game from eleven games per team to twelve, a number that remained constant until the 1961 season....

    )
    Arizona Diamondbacks
    Arizona Diamondbacks
    The Arizona Diamondbacks are a professional baseball team based in Phoenix. They play in the West Division of Major League Baseball's National League. From 1998 to the present, they have played in Chase Field...

    Baseball Major League Baseball
    Major League Baseball
    Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

    1 (2001
    2001 World Series
    -Game 1:Saturday, October 27, 2001 at Bank One Ballpark in Phoenix, ArizonaArizona showed no fear and chased Yankees starter Mike Mussina after just three innings. The Yankees gave up five unearned runs and the Diamondbacks rode Curt Schilling's seven strong innings to a 9–1 rout...

    )
    Phoenix Coyotes
    Phoenix Coyotes
    The Phoenix Coyotes are a professional ice hockey team based in Glendale, Arizona. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . They play their home games at Jobing.com Arena....

    Ice hockey
    Ice hockey
    Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

    National Hockey League
    National Hockey League
    The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

    0
    Phoenix Suns
    Phoenix Suns
    The Phoenix Suns are a professional basketball team based in Phoenix, Arizona. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association and the only team in their division not to be based in California. Their home arena since 1992 has been the US...

    Basketball National Basketball Association
    National Basketball Association
    The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

    0
    Arizona Rattlers
    Arizona Rattlers
    The Arizona Rattlers are a professional arena football team based in Phoenix, Arizona. They are currently members of the Western Division of the National Conference in the Arena Football League . The Rattlers were founded in 1992 as an expansion team. They play their home games at US Airways Center...

    Arena Football
    Arena football
    Arena football is a variety of gridiron football played by the Arena Football League . It is a proprietary game, the rights to which are owned by Gridiron Enterprises, and is played indoors on a smaller field than American or Canadian outdoor football, resulting in a faster and higher-scoring game....

    Arena Football League 2 (1994
    ArenaBowl VIII
    ArenaBowl VIII was the Arena Football League's eighth ArenaBowl. The game featured the #3 Arizona Rattlers of the American Conference against the #1 Orlando Predators of the National Conference...

    , 1997
    ArenaBowl XI
    ArenaBowl XI was the Arena Football League's eleventh ArenaBowl. The game featured two American Conference teams, the #2 Iowa Barnstormers against the #1 Arizona Rattlers...

    )
    Arizona Sundogs
    Arizona Sundogs
    The Arizona Sundogs are a double-A minor-league professional ice hockey team based in Prescott Valley, Arizona that began play in the Central Hockey League in 2006 and celebrated its fifth anniversary season in 2010-11...

    Ice hockey
    Ice hockey
    Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

    Central Hockey League
    Central Hockey League
    The Central Hockey League is a mid-level professional hockey league, owned by Global Entertainment Corporation. Its current champions are the Bossier-Shreveport Mudbugs, which defeated the Colorado Eagles four games to three in the 2011 playoffs....

    1 (2007–08
    Arizona Sundogs
    The Arizona Sundogs are a double-A minor-league professional ice hockey team based in Prescott Valley, Arizona that began play in the Central Hockey League in 2006 and celebrated its fifth anniversary season in 2010-11...

    )
    Phoenix Mercury
    Phoenix Mercury
    The Phoenix Mercury is a professional basketball team based in Phoenix, Arizona, playing in the Western Conference in the Women's National Basketball Association . The team was founded before the league's inaugural 1997 season began; it is one of the eight original franchises...

    Basketball Women's National Basketball Association
    Women's National Basketball Association
    The Women's National Basketball Association is a women's professional basketball league in the United States. It currently is composed of twelve teams. The league was founded on April 24, 1996 as the women's counterpart to the National Basketball Association...

    2 (2007
    2007 WNBA season
    -External links:* * * * * * * *...

    , 2009
    2009 WNBA season
    The 2009 WNBA Season is the 13th season of the Women's National Basketball Association. It is the first WNBA season ever without a Houston franchise, the Comets having folded in December 2008...

    )
    Phoenix Monsoon
    Phoenix Monsoon (Soccer Team)
    Phoenix Monsoon is an Outdoor/Indoor Professional Soccer team based in Phoenix Arizona. They will play indoors in 2011-2012 and plan to play outdoors in 2012.- History :...

    Indoor Soccer
    Indoor soccer
    Indoor soccer or arena soccer, or six-a-side football in the United Kingdom, is a game derived from association football adapted for play in an indoor arena such as a turf-covered hockey arena or skating rink. The most important difference in play is that the indoor field is surrounded by a wall...

    Professional Arena Soccer League 0
    Tucson Padres Baseball Pacific Coast League
    Pacific Coast League
    The Pacific Coast League is a minor-league baseball league operating in the Western, Midwestern and Southeastern United States. Along with the International League and the Mexican League, it is one of three leagues playing at the Triple-A level, which is one step below Major League Baseball.The...

    0
    Yuma Scorpions
    Yuma Scorpions
    The Yuma Scorpions are a professional baseball team based in Yuma, Arizona, in the United States. The Scorpions are a member of the Western Division of the independent North American League. From the 2005 season to the present, the Scorpions have played their home games at Desert Sun Stadium at the...

    Baseball Golden Baseball League
    Golden Baseball League
    The Golden Baseball League, based in San Ramon, California, was an independent baseball league. It later merged with the Northern League and the United Baseball League to form the North American League in the western United States, western Canada and Mexico....

    1 (2007
    Yuma Scorpions
    The Yuma Scorpions are a professional baseball team based in Yuma, Arizona, in the United States. The Scorpions are a member of the Western Division of the independent North American League. From the 2005 season to the present, the Scorpions have played their home games at Desert Sun Stadium at the...

    )


    Due to its numerous golf courses, Arizona is home to several stops on the PGA Tour
    PGA Tour
    The PGA Tour is the organizer of the main men's professional golf tours in the United States and North America...

    , most notably the Phoenix Open, held at the TPC of Scottsdale
    TPC of Scottsdale
    TPC of Scottsdale is a 36-hole golf complex located in Scottsdale, Arizona.The resort, which opened in 1986, is part of the Tournament Players Club network of golf courses operated by the PGA Tour...

    , and the WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship
    WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship
    The WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship is one of the annual World Golf Championships. It is a knockout event and is staged in January or February each year...

     at the Ritz-Carlton Golf Club
    Ritz-Carlton Golf Club
    The Ritz-Carlton Golf Club is a golf course in Marana, Arizona, designed by Jack Nicklaus. Beginning in 2009, this course is the host course of the WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship, which is a match play tournament for golfers on the PGA Tour and the PGA European Tour...

     in Marana
    Maraña
    Maraña is a small village in Spain in the province of León, in the Picos de Europa, close to Asturias.The major festival is August 15, the Festival of Our Lady of Riosol-External links:*Location of Maraña...

    .

    With three state universities and several community colleges, college sports are also prevalent in Arizona. The intense rivalry between Arizona State University
    Arizona State University
    Arizona State University is a public research university located in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area of the State of Arizona...

     and the University of Arizona
    University of Arizona
    The University of Arizona is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. The University of Arizona was the first university in the state of Arizona, founded in 1885...

     predates Arizona's statehood, and is the oldest rivalry in the NCAA
    National Collegiate Athletic Association
    The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a semi-voluntary association of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States...

    . The thus aptly named Territorial Cup
    Territorial Cup
    The Territorial Cup is a trophy that is awarded to the winner of an American college football rivalry game, commonly referred to as "The Duel in the Desert," played annually between the Arizona State Sun Devils football team of Arizona State University and the Arizona Wildcats football team of the...

    , first awarded in 1889 and certified as the oldest trophy in college football, is awarded to the winner of the “Duel in the Desert,” the annual football game between the two schools. Arizona also hosts several bowl game
    Bowl game
    In North America, a bowl game is commonly considered to refer to one of a number of post-season college football games. Prior to 2002, bowl game statistics were not included in players' career totals and the games were mostly considered to be exhibition games involving a payout to participating...

    s in the Bowl Championship Series
    Bowl Championship Series
    The Bowl Championship Series is a selection system that creates five bowl match-ups involving ten of the top ranked teams in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision , including an opportunity for the top two to compete in the BCS National Championship Game.The BCS relies on a combination of...

    . The Fiesta Bowl
    Fiesta Bowl
    The Fiesta Bowl, now sponsored by Frito-Lay and named with their Tostitos brand, is a United States college football bowl game played annually at the University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona. Between its origination in 1971 and 2006, the game was hosted in Tempe, Arizona at Sun Devil...

    , originally held at Sun Devil Stadium
    Sun Devil Stadium
    Sun Devil Stadium is an outdoor football stadium, located on the campus of Arizona State University, in Tempe, Arizona, United States. The stadium's current seating capacity is 71,706 and the playing surface is natural grass...

    , will now be held at the University of Phoenix Stadium
    University of Phoenix Stadium
    University of Phoenix Stadium, opened August 1, 2006, is a multipurpose football stadium located in Glendale, Arizona. It is the home of the Arizona Cardinals of the National Football League and the annual Fiesta Bowl...

     in Glendale
    Glendale, Arizona
    Glendale is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, located about nine miles northwest from Downtown Phoenix. According to 2010 Census Bureau, the population of the city is 226,721....

    . The University of Phoenix Stadium was also home to the 2007 BCS National Championship Game
    2007 BCS National Championship Game
    The 2007 BCS National Championship Game, sponsored by Tostitos, was an American football game played at the University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona, on January 8, 2007. The BCS No. 2 Florida Gators defeated the No. 1 Ohio State Buckeyes, 41–14. The Buckeyes secured a spot by finishing...

     and hosted Super Bowl XLII
    Super Bowl XLII
    Super Bowl XLII was an American football game on February 3, 2008 that featured the National Football Conference champion New York Giants and the American Football Conference champion New England Patriots to decide the National Football League champion for the 2007 season...

     on February 3, 2008. The Insight Bowl
    Insight Bowl
    The Insight Bowl is an NCAA college football bowl game played in Arizona since 1989. From 1989 to 1999, the games were played at Arizona Stadium in Tucson. The game moved to Phoenix in 2000 and was played at Chase Field until 2005. After the 2005 playing the Insight Bowl moved to Sun Devil Stadium...

     is also held at Sun Devil Stadium
    Sun Devil Stadium
    Sun Devil Stadium is an outdoor football stadium, located on the campus of Arizona State University, in Tempe, Arizona, United States. The stadium's current seating capacity is 71,706 and the playing surface is natural grass...

    .

    Besides being home to spring training, Arizona is also home to two other baseball leagues, Arizona Fall League
    Arizona Fall League
    The Arizona Fall League is an off-season league owned and operated by Major League Baseball which operates during the fall in Arizona, United States at five spring training complexes...

     and Arizona Winter League
    Arizona Winter League
    The Arizona Winter League is the short-season instructional independent winter professional baseball league affiliated with the independent North American League...

    . The Fall League was founded in 1992 and is a minor league
    Minor league
    Minor leagues are professional sports leagues which are not regarded as the premier leagues in those sports. Minor league teams tend to play in smaller, less elaborate venues, often competing in smaller cities. This term is used in North America with regard to several organizations competing in...

     baseball league designed for players to refine their skills and perform in game settings in front of major and minor league baseball scouts and team executives, who are in attendance at almost every game. The league got exposure when Michael Jordan
    Michael Jordan
    Michael Jeffrey Jordan is a former American professional basketball player, active entrepreneur, and majority owner of the Charlotte Bobcats...

     started his time in baseball with the Scottsdale Scorpions
    Scottsdale Scorpions
    The Scottsdale Scorpions are a baseball team that plays in the East Division of the Arizona Fall League located in Scottsdale, Arizona. They play their home games at Scottsdale Stadium....

    . The Arizona Winter League, founded in 2007, is a professional baseball league of four teams for the independent Golden Baseball League
    Golden Baseball League
    The Golden Baseball League, based in San Ramon, California, was an independent baseball league. It later merged with the Northern League and the United Baseball League to form the North American League in the western United States, western Canada and Mexico....

    . The games are played in Yuma
    Yuma, Arizona
    Yuma is a city in and the county seat of Yuma County, Arizona, United States. It is located in the southwestern corner of the state, and the population of the city was 77,515 at the 2000 census, with a 2008 Census Bureau estimated population of 90,041....

     at the Desert Sun Stadium
    Desert Sun Stadium
    Desert Sun Stadium is a stadium in Yuma, Arizona. It is primarily used for baseball, and is the home field of the North American League's Yuma Scorpions minor league baseball team and plays host to the Arizona Winter League and Arizona Summer League. The stadium, which originally opened in 1969,...

    , but added two new teams in the California desert, and one more in Sonora
    Sonora
    Sonora officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo....

     for the 2008 season.

    Spring training



    Arizona is a popular location for Major League Baseball
    Major League Baseball
    Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

     spring training
    Spring training
    In Major League Baseball, spring training is a series of practices and exhibition games preceding the start of the regular season. Spring training allows new players to try out for roster and position spots, and gives existing team players practice time prior to competitive play...

    , as it is the site of the Cactus League. The only other location for spring training is in Florida with the Grapefruit League. The Los Angeles Dodgers
    Los Angeles Dodgers
    The Los Angeles Dodgers are a professional baseball team based in Los Angeles, California. The Dodgers are members of Major League Baseball's National League West Division. Established in 1883, the team originated in Brooklyn, New York, where it was known by a number of nicknames before becoming...

     have a new spring training facility in Phoenix
    Phoenix, Arizona
    Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

     owned by Glendale
    Glendale, Arizona
    Glendale is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, located about nine miles northwest from Downtown Phoenix. According to 2010 Census Bureau, the population of the city is 226,721....

     which opened in 2009, making them the 14th team in Arizona. Spring training has been somewhat of a tradition in Arizona since 1947 (i.e. the Cleveland Indians in Tucson until 1991, and the San Diego Padres in Yuma
    Yuma, Arizona
    Yuma is a city in and the county seat of Yuma County, Arizona, United States. It is located in the southwestern corner of the state, and the population of the city was 77,515 at the 2000 census, with a 2008 Census Bureau estimated population of 90,041....

     until 1992) despite the fact that the state did not have its own major league team until the state was awarded the Diamondbacks
    Arizona Diamondbacks
    The Arizona Diamondbacks are a professional baseball team based in Phoenix. They play in the West Division of Major League Baseball's National League. From 1998 to the present, they have played in Chase Field...

     in Phoenix
    Phoenix, Arizona
    Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

     as an expansion team. The state hosts the following teams:

    Visual arts and museums



    Phoenix Art Museum
    Phoenix art museum
    The Phoenix Art Museum is the Southwest United States' largest art museum for visual art. Located in Phoenix, Arizona, the museum is . It displays international exhibitions alongside its comprehensive collection of more than 18,000 works of American, Asian, European, Latin American, Western...

    , located on the historic Central Avenue corridor in Phoenix, is the Southwest’s largest collection of visual art from across the world. The museum displays international exhibitions along side the Museum’s collection of more than 18,000 works of American, Asian, European, Latin American, Western American, modern and contemporary art, and fashion design. With a community education mandate since 1951, Phoenix Art Museum holds a year-round program of festivals, live performances, independent art films and educational programs. The museum also has PhxArtKids, an interactive space for children; photography exhibitions through the Museum’s partnership with the Center for Creative Photography
    Center for Creative Photography
    The Center for Creative Photography , established in 1975 and located on the University of Arizona campus, is a research facility and archival repository containing the full archives of over sixty of the most famous American photographers including those of Edward Weston, Harry Callahan and Garry...

    ; the landscaped Sculpture Garden and dining at Arcadia Farms.

    Arizona is a recognized center of Native American art, with a number of galleries showcasing historical and contemporary works. The Heard Museum
    Heard Museum
    The Heard Museum of Native Cultures and Art is a museum located in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. There is also the Heard Museum North Scottsdale branch in Scottsdale and the Heard Museum West branch in Surprise....

    , also located in Phoenix, is a major repository of Native American art. Some of the signature exhibits include a full Navajo hogan, the Mareen Allen Nichols Collection containing 260 pieces of contemporary jewelry, the Barry Goldwater
    Barry Goldwater
    Barry Morris Goldwater was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona and the Republican Party's nominee for President in the 1964 election. An articulate and charismatic figure during the first half of the 1960s, he was known as "Mr...

     Collection of 437 historic Hopi kachina dolls
    Hopi Kachina dolls
    Hopi Kachina Dolls are effigies made of cottonwood that embody the characteristics of the ceremonial Kachina, the masked spirits of the Hopi Native American tribe...

    , and an exhibit on the 19th century boarding school experiences of Native Americans. The Heard Museum has about 250,000 visitors a year.

    Sedona
    Sedona, Arizona
    Sedona is a city that straddles the county line between Coconino and Yavapai counties in the northern Verde Valley region of the U.S. state of Arizona...

    , Jerome
    Jerome, Arizona
    Jerome is a town in Yavapai County, Arizona, United States. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the town is 353.-History:...

    , and Tubac
    Tubac, Arizona
    Tubac is a census-designated place in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, United States. The population was 949 at the 2000 census. The place name Tubac is an English borrowing from a Hispanicized form of the O'odham name, which translates into English as "rotten". The original O'odham name is written...

     are known as a budding artist colonies, and small arts scenes exist in the larger cities and near the state universities.

    Film



    Several major Hollywood films, such as Billy Jack
    Billy Jack
    Billy Jack is a 1971 action film. It is the second, and highest grossing, in a series of motion pictures centering on a character of the same name, played by Tom Laughlin who also directed and co-wrote the script. Filming began in Prescott, Arizona, in fall 1969, but the movie was not completed...

    , U Turn, Waiting to Exhale
    Waiting to Exhale
    Waiting to Exhale is a 1995 romance film starring Whitney Houston and Angela Bassett, directed by Forest Whitaker. The movie was adapted from the 1992 novel of the same name by Terry McMillan. Loretta Devine, Lela Rochon, Dennis Haysbert, Michael Beach, Gregory Hines, Donald Faison and Mykelti...

    , Just One of the Guys
    Just One of the Guys
    Just One of the Guys is a 1985 comedy film, directed by Lisa Gottlieb. The film is marketed with the tagline "Terri Griffith is about to go where no woman has gone before." This movie ranked number 48 on Entertainment Weeklys list of the "50 Best High School Movies".-Plot:Terry Griffith is an...

    , Can't Buy Me Love
    Can't Buy Me Love (film)
    Can't Buy Me Love is a 1987 teen comedy feature film starring Patrick Dempsey and Amanda Peterson in a story about a nerd at a high school in Tucson, Arizona who gives a cheerleader $1,000 to pretend to be his girlfriend for a month. The film was directed by Steve Rash.-Plot:Ronald Miller is a...

    , Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure
    Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure
    Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure is a 1989 American science fiction–comedy buddy film and the first film in the Bill & Ted franchise in which two metalhead slackers travel through time to assemble a menagerie of historical figures for their high school history presentation.The film was written by...

    , The Scorpion King
    The Scorpion King
    The Scorpion King is a 2002 American action film directed by Chuck Russell, starring Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson, Kelly Hu, Grant Heslov, and Michael Clarke Duncan...

    , The Banger Sisters
    The Banger Sisters
    The Banger Sisters is a 2002 American comedy film produced by Fox Searchlight Pictures about the reunion of two middle-aged women who used to be friends and groupies when they were young. The movie starred Goldie Hawn, Susan Sarandon and Geoffrey Rush...

    , Used Cars
    Used Cars
    Used Cars is a 1980 comedy satire film. It stars Kurt Russell, Jack Warden , Deborah Harmon, and Gerrit Graham.Kurt Russell portrays a devious car salesman working for affable but monumentally unsuccessful used car dealer Luke Fuchs . Luke's principal rival, located directly across the street, is...

    , and Raising Arizona
    Raising Arizona
    Raising Arizona is a 1987 comedy film directed by the Coen Brothers and starring Nicolas Cage, Holly Hunter, William Forsythe, John Goodman, Frances McDormand and Randall "Tex" Cobb. Not a blockbuster at the time of its release, it has since achieved cult status...

    have been made there (as indeed have many Westerns
    Western (genre)
    The Western is a genre of various visual arts, such as film, television, radio, literature, painting and others. Westerns are devoted to telling stories set primarily in the latter half of the 19th century in the American Old West, hence the name. Some Westerns are set as early as the Battle of...

    ). The 1993 science fiction movie Fire in the Sky
    Fire in the Sky
    Fire in the Sky is a 1993 film based on an alleged extraterrestrial encounter, directed by Robert Lieberman, and written by Tracy Tormé based on Travis Walton's book The Walton Experience. The film stars Robert Patrick in the leading role as Walton's best friend and future brother-in-law, Mike...

    , which was actually based on a reported alien abduction in the town of Snowflake
    Snowflake, Arizona
    Snowflake is a town in Navajo County, Arizona, United States. It was founded in 1878 by Erastus Snow and William Jordan Flake, Mormon pioneers and colonizers. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the town is 4,958....

    , was set in Snowflake, but filmed in the Oregon towns of Oakland
    Oakland, Oregon
    Oakland is a city in Douglas County, Oregon, United States located two miles from Interstate 5. The population was 954 at the 2000 census.-History:...

    , Roseburg
    Roseburg, Oregon
    Roseburg is a city in the U.S. state of Oregon. It is the county seat of Douglas County. The population was 21,181 at the 2010 census.-History:...

    , and Sutherlin
    Sutherlin, Oregon
    Sutherlin is a city in Douglas County, Oregon, United States. The population was 6,669 at the 2000 census. Nearby features include Cooper Creek Reservoir, the Umpqua River, a few golf courses, and numerous vineyards.-Geography:...

    .

    The climax of the 1977 Clint Eastwood
    Clint Eastwood
    Clinton "Clint" Eastwood, Jr. is an American film actor, director, producer, composer and politician. Eastwood first came to prominence as a supporting cast member in the TV series Rawhide...

     film The Gauntlet takes place in downtown Phoenix. The final segments of the 1984 film Starman
    Starman (film)
    John Carpenter's Starman is a 1984 science-fiction fantasy film directed by John Carpenter that tells the story of an alien who has come to Earth in response to the invitation found on the gold phonograph record installed on the Voyager 2 space probe.The screenplay was written by Bruce A. Evans,...

    take place at Meteor Crater
    Meteor Crater
    Meteor Crater is a meteorite impact crater located approximately east of Flagstaff, near Winslow in the northern Arizona desert of the United States. Because the US Department of the Interior Division of Names commonly recognizes names of natural features derived from the nearest post office, the...

     outside Winslow
    Winslow, Arizona
    -Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 9,520 people, 2,754 households, and 1,991 families residing in the city. The population density was 773.1 people per square mile . There were 3,198 housing units at an average density of 259.7 per square mile...

    . The Jeff Foxworthy
    Jeff Foxworthy
    Jeffrey Marshall "Jeff" Foxworthy is an American comedian, television and radio personality and author. He is a member of the Blue Collar Comedy Tour, a comedy troupe which also comprises Larry the Cable Guy, Bill Engvall and Ron White. Known for his "you might be a redneck" one-liners, Foxworthy...

     comedy documentary movie Blue Collar Comedy Tour
    Blue Collar Comedy Tour: The Movie
    Blue Collar Comedy Tour: The Movie is a 2003 stand-up comedy film from Warner Bros. Pictures. It stars renowned comedians Jeff Foxworthy and Bill Engvall and fellow Blue Collar comics Ron White and Larry The Cable Guy. The movie is similar in nature to that of The Original Kings of Comedy...

    was filmed almost entirely at the Dodge Theatre. Arguably one of the most famous examples could be Alfred Hitchcock
    Alfred Hitchcock
    Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock, KBE was a British film director and producer. He pioneered many techniques in the suspense and psychological thriller genres. After a successful career in British cinema in both silent films and early talkies, Hitchcock moved to Hollywood...

    's classic film Psycho
    Psycho (1960 film)
    Psycho is a 1960 American suspense/psychological horror film directed by Alfred Hitchcock and starring Janet Leigh and Anthony Perkins. The film is based on the screenplay by Joseph Stefano, who adapted it from the 1959 novel of the same name by Robert Bloch...

    . Not only was some of the film shot in Phoenix, but the main character is from there as well.

    Some of the television shows filmed or set in Arizona include The New Dick Van Dyke Show
    The New Dick Van Dyke Show
    The New Dick Van Dyke Show is an American sitcom starring Dick Van Dyke that aired on CBS from 1971 to 1974. This was Van Dyke's first return to series television since The Dick Van Dyke Show.-Production:...

    , Medium
    Medium (TV series)
    Medium is an American television drama series that premiered on NBC on January 3, 2005, and ended on CBS on January 21, 2011. Themed on supernatural gifts, its lead character, Allison DuBois , is a medium employed as a consultant for the Phoenix, Arizona district attorney's office...

    , Alice
    Alice (TV series)
    Alice is an American sitcom television series that ran from August 31, 1976 to July 2, 1985 on CBS. The series was based on the 1974 film Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore. The show stars Linda Lavin in the title role, a widow who moves with her young son to start her life over again, and finds a job...

    , The First 48
    The First 48
    The First 48 is an American documentary television series that airs on A&E. Filmed in various cities in the United States, the series offers an insider's look at the real-life world of homicide investigators...

    , Insomniac with Dave Attell
    Insomniac with Dave Attell
    Insomniac with Dave Attell was a television show on Comedy Central hosted by comedian Dave Attell which ran from August 5, 2001 until November 11, 2004. In the typical Insomniac, Attell goes through a particular city at night, starting out with a minute or so of his performance at a comedy club and...

    , COPS
    COPS (TV series)
    Cops is an American documentary/reality television series that follows police officers, constables, and sheriff's deputies during patrols and other police activities...

    , and America's Most Wanted
    America's Most Wanted
    America's Most Wanted is an American television program produced by 20th Television, and was the longest-running program of any kind in the history of the Fox Television Network until it was announced on May 16, 2011 that the series was canceled after twenty-three years, with the final episode...

    . The 1974 film Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore
    Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore
    Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore is a 1974 American drama film directed by Martin Scorsese and written by Robert Getchell. It stars Ellen Burstyn as a widow who travels with her preteen son across the American Southwest in search of a better life, along with Alfred Lutter as her son and Kris...

    , for which Ellen Burstyn
    Ellen Burstyn
    Ellen Burstyn is a leading American actress of film, stage, and television. Burstyn's career began in theatre during the late 1950s, and over the next ten years she appeared in several films and television series before joining the Actors Studio in 1967...

     won the Academy Award for Best Actress
    Academy Award for Best Actress
    Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role is one of the Academy Awards of merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to recognize an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance while working within the film industry...

    , and also starred Kris Kristofferson
    Kris Kristofferson
    Kristoffer "Kris" Kristofferson is an American musician, actor, and writer. He is known for hits such as "Me and Bobby McGee", "For the Good Times", "Sunday Mornin' Comin' Down", and "Help Me Make It Through the Night"...

    , was set in Tucson, the TV sitcom Alice
    Alice (TV series)
    Alice is an American sitcom television series that ran from August 31, 1976 to July 2, 1985 on CBS. The series was based on the 1974 film Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore. The show stars Linda Lavin in the title role, a widow who moves with her young son to start her life over again, and finds a job...

    , which was based on the movie was set in Phoenix. Also the movie, Twilight
    Twilight (2008 film)
    Twilight is a 2008 American romantic vampire film based on Stephenie Meyer's popular novel of the same name. Directed by Catherine Hardwicke, the film stars Kristen Stewart and Robert Pattinson. It is the first film in The Twilight Saga film series...

    was filmed in Phoenix at the beginning and the end of the movie.

    Music



    Arizona is prominently featured in the lyrics of many Country and Western songs, such as Jamie O'Neal
    Jamie O'Neal
    Jamie O'Neal is a contemporary country singer and songwriter who has had success in the United States. She was born Jamie Murphy in Sydney, Australia, to parents Jimmy and Julie Murphy, who were also professional musicians...

    's hit ballad "There Is No Arizona
    There Is No Arizona
    "There Is No Arizona" is the debut single by Australian country music artist Jamie O'Neal. Released in August 2000, the song is from O'Neal's Shiver album...

    ". George Strait
    George Strait
    George Harvey Strait is an American country music singer, actor, and music producer. Strait is referred to as the "King of Country," and critics call Strait a living legend. He is known for his unique style of western swing music, bar-room ballads, honky-tonk style, and fresh yet traditional...

    's "Oceanfront Property" uses "ocean front property in Arizona" as a metaphor for a sucker proposition. The line "see you down in Arizona Bay" is used in a Tool
    Tool (band)
    Tool is an American rock band from Los Angeles, California. Formed in 1990, the group's line-up has included drummer Danny Carey, guitarist Adam Jones, and vocalist Maynard James Keenan. Since 1995, Justin Chancellor has been the band's bassist, replacing their original bassist Paul D'Amour...

     song in reference to the possibility that L.A. will one day fall into the ocean.

    "Arizona" was the title of a popular song recorded by Mark Lindsay
    Mark Lindsay
    Mark Lindsay is an American musician, best known as the singer for the group Paul Revere & the Raiders.-Biography:Lindsay was born in Eugene, Oregon and was the second of eight children...

    . Arizona is also mentioned by the hit song "Take It Easy
    Take It Easy
    "Take It Easy" is the title of a song written by Jackson Browne and Glenn Frey, and most famously recorded by the Eagles . It was the band's first single, released on May 1, 1972. It also was the opening track on the band's debut album Eagles and it has become one of their signature songs, included...

    " written by Jackson Browne
    Jackson Browne
    Jackson Browne is an American singer-songwriter and musician who has sold over 17 million albums in the United States alone....

     and Glenn Frey
    Glenn Frey
    Glenn Lewis Frey is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and actor, best known as a founding member of the Eagles. Frey formed the Eagles after he met drummer Don Henley in 1970 and the two eventually joined Linda Ronstadt's backup band for her summer tour. The Eagles formed in 1971 and...

     and performed by the Eagles. The song includes the lines:
    Well, I'm a standin' on a corner in Winslow, Arizona
    Winslow, Arizona
    -Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 9,520 people, 2,754 households, and 1,991 families residing in the city. The population density was 773.1 people per square mile . There were 3,198 housing units at an average density of 259.7 per square mile...

    ,
    and such a fine sight to see
    It's a girl, my Lord, in a flatbed Ford,
    slowin' down to take a look at me


    Arizona's budding music scene is helped by emerging bands, as well as some well-known artists. The Gin Blossoms
    Gin Blossoms
    Gin Blossoms is an American pop rock band formed in 1987, in Tempe, Arizona. They took their name from a photo of W.C. Fields which bore the caption "W.C. Fields with gin blossoms", referring to what appeared to be the actor's gin-ravaged nose, but was actually a skin condition known as rosacea...

    , Chronic Future
    Chronic Future
    Chronic Future was a band from Scottsdale, Arizona. The band was formed in 1995 when their average age was 14. They achieved a short period of mainstream success with the album Lines in My Face, as well as the album's hit single, "Time and Time Again"...

    , Roger Clyne and the Peacemakers
    Roger Clyne and the Peacemakers
    Roger Clyne and the Peacemakers is a rock band from Tempe, Arizona, USA. The band is typically referred to by the fans as the abbreviation "RCPM"...

    , Jimmy Eat World
    Jimmy Eat World
    Jimmy Eat World is an American alternative rock band from Mesa, Arizona, that formed in 1993. The band is composed of lead vocalist and guitarist Jim Adkins, guitarist and backing vocalist Tom Linton, bassist Rick Burch and drummer Zach Lind....

    , Caroline's Spine
    Caroline's Spine
    Caroline's Spine is an alternative rock band based in Phoenix, Arizona. The group's touring schedule in the mid 1990s landed them a record deal with Hollywood Records. They have released several studio albums and shared billings with such bands as Aerosmith, Kiss, and Queensrÿche...

    , and others began their careers in Arizona. Also, a number of punk
    Punk rock
    Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed between 1974 and 1976 in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Rooted in garage rock and other forms of what is now known as protopunk music, punk rock bands eschewed perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock...

     bands got their start in Arizona, including JFA
    JFA (band)
    JFA is a hardcore punk band formed in 1981, with roots in Arizona and in Southern California skateboard culture. The original members include Brian Brannon , Don "dred" Pendleton , Michael Cornelius , and Mike "Bam-Bam" Sversvold . Alan Bishop of Sun City Girls also played bass for a while...

    , The Feederz
    The Feederz
    Feederz were a punk rock band from Arizona. They were known for their song Jesus Entering from the Rear, which featured on Alternative Tentacles', their Let Them Eat Jellybeans compilation, and for their provocative album covers. Feederz had strong Situationist tendencies, verging into communism...

    , Sun City Girls
    Sun City Girls
    The Sun City Girls were an American experimental rock band, formed in 1979 in Phoenix, Arizona. From 1981 the group consisted of Alan Bishop , his brother Richard Bishop , and the late Charles Gocher . Their name was inspired by Sun City, Arizona, an Arizona retirement community...

    , The Meat Puppets, and more recently Authority Zero
    Authority Zero
    Authority Zero is a punk rock band from Mesa, Arizona. The band's style is rooted in reggae and skate punk, with Bad Religion, Pennywise, and Sublime cited as influences. The band also draws from Spanish/Portuguese influences.-History:...

    . There is also a hardcore metal scene with artists such as blessthefall
    Blessthefall
    Blessthefall is an American metalcore band from Phoenix, Arizona, currently signed to Fearless Records. The band was founded in 2003 by guitarist Mike Frisby, drummer Matt Traynor, and bassist Jared Warth. Their debut album, His Last Walk, with original vocalist Craig Mabbitt, was released April...

    , Scary Kids Scaring Kids
    Scary Kids Scaring Kids
    Scary Kids Scaring Kids was an American post-hardcore band formed in Gilbert, Arizona in 2002. The band's name comes from the Cap'n Jazz song of the same name...

    , The Maine
    The Maine (band)
    The Maine is an American rock band from Tempe, Arizona. They were formed in January 21st, 2007, they released EP Stay Up, Get Down in the same year. On December 11 2007, The Maine made their debut with a five song EP called The Way We Talk produced by Matt Grabe...

    , Eyes Set To Kill
    Eyes Set to Kill
    Eyes Set to Kill is an American metalcore band from Tempe, Arizona. Sisters Alexia and Anissa Rodriguez, along with former vocalist Lindsey Vogt started the band in 2003. Lindsey Vogt departed the band in mid-2007 due to issues with management...

    , The Bled
    The Bled
    The Bled is a hardcore band from Tucson, Arizona. The group formed in 2001, originally under the name "The Radiation Defiance Theory", but changed it because of its length...

    , Greeley Estates
    Greeley Estates
    Greeley Estates is an American metalcore band from Phoenix, Arizona. Formed in 2002, the band has released five full-length studio albums and one EP...

    , The Stiletto Formal
    The Stiletto Formal
    The Stiletto Formal was a self-proclaimed "eccentric rock and roll" band from Phoenix, Arizona, and were one of the few rock bands featuring a cello and other exotic instruments and effects as an integral part of their sound. In addition, unusual time signatures, and Kyle Howard's falsetto provided...

     However, there is also an indie rock
    Indie rock
    Indie rock is a genre of alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom and the United States in the 1980s. Indie rock is extremely diverse, with sub-genres that include lo-fi, post-rock, math rock, indie pop, dream pop, noise rock, space rock, sadcore, riot grrrl and emo, among others...

     scene with artist such as The Format
    The Format
    The Format was an American indie rock band formed by Arizona natives Nate Ruess and Sam Means. The band announced a hiatus on February 4, 2008. Their style can be considered a mixture of indie, alternative, punk and folk music, with elements of 1960s and 1970s pop music...

     and Fine China
    Fine China (band)
    Fine China was an American indie rock band from Phoenix, Arizona, comprising Rob Withem , Greg Markov , and Thom Walsh . The band was formed in 1996 as a project of acquaintances , but turned serious once the band started booking gigs...



    Arizona also has its share of singers and other musicians. Singer, songwriter and guitarist Michelle Branch
    Michelle Branch
    Michelle Jacquet DeSevren Branch is an American singer-songwriter, guitarist and actress. During the early 2000s, she released two top-selling albums, The Spirit Room and Hotel Paper, and was subsequently nominated for the Grammy Award for Best New Artist in 2003...

     is from Sedona
    Sedona, Arizona
    Sedona is a city that straddles the county line between Coconino and Yavapai counties in the northern Verde Valley region of the U.S. state of Arizona...

    . Chester Bennington
    Chester Bennington
    Chester Charles Bennington is an American musician, singer-songwriter and actor. He is best known as the lead vocalist and songwriter of the rock band Linkin Park....

    , the lead vocalist of Linkin Park
    Linkin Park
    Linkin Park is an American rock band from Agoura Hills, California. Formed in 1996, the band rose to international fame with their debut album, Hybrid Theory, which was certified Diamond by the RIAA in 2005 and multi-platinum in several other countries...

    , Bob Stubbs a former member and drummer of the band Social Distortion
    Social Distortion
    Social Distortion is an American punk rock band formed in 1978 in Fullerton, California. The band currently consists of Mike Ness , Jonny Wickersham , Brent Harding and David Hidalgo, Jr...

     lives in Arizona, and mash-up
    Mashup (music)
    A mashup or bootleg is a song or composition created by blending two or more pre-recorded songs, usually by overlaying the vocal track of one song seamlessly over the instrumental track of another...

     artist DJ Z-Trip
    DJ Z-Trip
    Zach Sciacca, better known as Z-Trip, is an American DJ and producer. He is best known as a pioneer of the mashup movement.A Phoenix, Arizona native, who now resides in Los Angeles, California, he was known early in his career for performing with the Bombshelter DJs . He became widely known when...

     are both from Phoenix
    Phoenix, Arizona
    Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

    . One of Arizona's better known musicians would be shock rock
    Shock rock
    Shock rock is an umbrella term for artists who combine rock music with elements of theatrical shock value in live performances.-History:Screamin' Jay Hawkins was arguably the first shock rocker...

    er Alice Cooper
    Alice Cooper
    Alice Cooper is an American rock singer, songwriter and musician whose career spans more than four decades...

    , who helped define the genre. Maynard James Keenan
    Maynard James Keenan
    Maynard James Keenan is an American rock singer, songwriter, musician, record producer, winemaker, and actor. Originally from Ohio, Keenan spent his high school and college years in Michigan. After serving in the Army in the early 1980s, he attended Kendall College of Art and Design in Grand Rapids...

    , the lead singer of the bands, Tool
    Tool (band)
    Tool is an American rock band from Los Angeles, California. Formed in 1990, the group's line-up has included drummer Danny Carey, guitarist Adam Jones, and vocalist Maynard James Keenan. Since 1995, Justin Chancellor has been the band's bassist, replacing their original bassist Paul D'Amour...

    , A Perfect Circle
    A Perfect Circle
    A Perfect Circle is an American rock supergroup formed in 1999 by guitarist Billy Howerdel and Tool vocalist Maynard James Keenan. The original incarnation of the band also included Paz Lenchantin on bass, Troy Van Leeuwen on guitar, and Tim Alexander on drums...

    , and Puscifer
    Puscifer
    Puscifer is a side project of Maynard James Keenan from the bands Tool and A Perfect Circle. As Keenan is the only permanent member and he considers the project to be his "creative subconscious", Puscifer could also be considered a pseudonym for his solo work....

    , calls the town of Jerome his current home. Other notable singers include country
    Country music
    Country music is a popular American musical style that began in the rural Southern United States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from Western cowboy and folk music...

     singer Marty Robbins
    Marty Robbins
    Martin David Robinson , known professionally as Marty Robbins, was an American singer, songwriter, and multi-instrumentalist...

    , folk
    Folk music
    Folk music is an English term encompassing both traditional folk music and contemporary folk music. The term originated in the 19th century. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted by mouth, as music of the lower classes, and as music with unknown composers....

     singer Katie Lee
    Katie Lee (singer)
    -Biography:Katie Lee is an Arizona folk singer, writer, actress and photographer.She graduated from the University of Arizona with a Bachelor of Fine Arts. After that, she went on to study with two of the most successful folksingers of the 1940s, Burl Ives and Josh White...

    , Fleetwood Mac
    Fleetwood Mac
    Fleetwood Mac are a British–American rock band formed in 1967 in London.The only original member present in the band is its eponymous drummer, Mick Fleetwood...

    's Stevie Nicks
    Stevie Nicks
    Stephanie Lynn "Stevie" Nicks is an American singer-songwriter, best known for her work with Fleetwood Mac and an extensive solo career, which collectively have produced over forty Top 50 hits and sold over 140 million albums...

    , CeCe Peniston
    CeCe Peniston
    CeCe Peniston is an African American recording artist and former beauty queen. At the beginning of the nineties, she was considered to be one of the most successful dance club artists in the history of the U.S...

    , Rex Allen
    Rex Allen
    Rex Elvie Allen was an American film actor, singer and songwriter, known as the Arizona Cowboy, particularly known as the narrator in many Disney nature and Western film productions. For contributions to the recording industry, Allen was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.-Family...

    , 2007 American Idol
    American Idol (Season 6)
    The sixth season of American Idol premiered on the Fox Broadcasting Company as a two-night, four-hour premiere special on January 16 and January 17, and ran until May 23, 2007. Simon Cowell, Paula Abdul, and Randy Jackson returned to judge once again, and Ryan Seacrest returned as host...

    winner Jordin Sparks
    Jordin Sparks
    Jordin Brianna Sparks is an American pop / R&B singer-songwriter and actress. She hails from Glendale, Arizona who rose to fame as the winner of the sixth season of American Idol. Sparks won when she was 17 years old, making her the youngest winner in Idol history...

    , and Linda Ronstadt
    Linda Ronstadt
    Linda Ronstadt is an American popular music recording artist. She has earned eleven Grammy Awards, two Academy of Country Music awards, an Emmy Award, an ALMA Award, numerous United States and internationally certified gold, platinum and multiplatinum albums, in addition to Tony Award and Golden...

    .

    Arizona is also known for its heavy metal
    Heavy metal music
    Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the Midlands of the United Kingdom and the United States...

     scene, centered in and around Phoenix, which includes bands such as Job for a Cowboy
    Job for a Cowboy
    Job for a Cowboy is a American death metal band from Glendale, Arizona. Formed in 2003, the band's debut album Genesis was released in 2007, peaking at #54 on the US Billboard 200 and selling 13,000 copies in its first week of release. The second album, 2009's Ruination, sold 10,600 copies in...

    , Knights of the Abyss
    Knights of the Abyss
    Knights of the Abyss is an American deathcore band from Glendale, Arizona, formed in 2005.-Biography:Knights of the Abyss was formed in 2005 after drummer Andy Rysdam had left his former band Job for a Cowboy. They have recorded two full-length albums, which were released by Siege of Amida Records...

    , Eyes Set To Kill
    Eyes Set to Kill
    Eyes Set to Kill is an American metalcore band from Tempe, Arizona. Sisters Alexia and Anissa Rodriguez, along with former vocalist Lindsey Vogt started the band in 2003. Lindsey Vogt departed the band in mid-2007 due to issues with management...

    , blessthefall
    Blessthefall
    Blessthefall is an American metalcore band from Phoenix, Arizona, currently signed to Fearless Records. The band was founded in 2003 by guitarist Mike Frisby, drummer Matt Traynor, and bassist Jared Warth. Their debut album, His Last Walk, with original vocalist Craig Mabbitt, was released April...

    , and Abigail Williams
    Abigail Williams (band)
    Abigail Williams is an American metal band, originally from Phoenix, Arizona, but now based in Los Angeles. Formed in 2004, the group would suffer constant changes to their line-up...

    . The band Soulfly
    Soulfly
    Soulfly is a heavy metal band formed in 1997 based in Phoenix, Arizona. The original lyrical content revolved around spirituality and religious themes, with later albums encompassing other themes including war, violence, aggression, hatred and anger. Soulfly is led by former Sepultura frontman Max...

     calls Phoenix home and Megadeth
    Megadeth
    Megadeth is an American heavy metal band from Los Angeles, California which was formed in 1983 by guitarist/vocalist Dave Mustaine, bassist Dave Ellefson and guitarist Greg Handevidt, following Mustaine's expulsion from Metallica. The band has since released 13 studio albums, three live albums, two...

     lived in Phoenix for about a decade.

    Notable people


    Some famous Arizonans involved in politics and government are:
    • Former United States Secretary of Transportation Mary Peters
      Mary Peters (politician)
      Mary E. Peters served as the United States Secretary of Transportation under President George W. Bush from 2006 to 2009. She is the second woman to hold the position.-Public service career:...

    • Former Supreme Court
      Supreme Court of the United States
      The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all state and federal courts, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases...

       Justice Sandra Day O'Connor
      Sandra Day O'Connor
      Sandra Day O'Connor is an American jurist who was the first female member of the Supreme Court of the United States. She served as an Associate Justice from 1981 until her retirement from the Court in 2006. O'Connor was appointed by President Ronald Reagan in 1981...

    • Former Supreme Court
      Supreme Court of the United States
      The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all state and federal courts, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases...

       Chief Justice William Rehnquist
      William Rehnquist
      William Hubbs Rehnquist was an American lawyer, jurist, and political figure who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States...

    • Former U.S. Senator Dennis DeConcini
      Dennis DeConcini
      Dennis Webster DeConcini is a former Democratic U.S. Senator from Arizona. Son of former Arizona Supreme Court Judge Evo Anton DeConcini, he represented Arizona in the United States Senate from 1977 until 1995....

    • Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio
      Joe Arpaio
      Joseph M. "Joe" Arpaio is the elected Sheriff of Maricopa County in the U.S. state of Arizona. First voted into office in 1992, Arpaio is responsible for law enforcement in Maricopa County. This includes management of the Maricopa County Sheriff's Office, county jail, courtroom security,...

    • Former Graham County
      Graham County, Arizona
      -2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*72.1% White*1.8% Black*14.4% Native American*0.5% Asian*0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*2.8% Two or more races*8.3% Other races*30.4% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

       Sheriff Richard Mack
      Richard Mack
      Richard Ivan Mack, popularly known as Sheriff Mack, is a former sheriff of Graham County, Arizona and Libertarian candidate for United States Senate election in Arizona, 2006. He is also a member of the Oath Keepers....

    • National Education Association President Dennis Van Roekel
      Dennis Van Roekel
      Dennis Van Roekel is President of the 3.2 million-member National Education Association. As NEA president, he leads the largest labor union in the United States.-Background:...

    • Junior Republican Senator Jon Kyl
      Jon Kyl
      Jon Llewellyn Kyl is the junior U.S. Senator from Arizona and the Senate Minority Whip, the second-highest position in the Republican Senate leadership. In 2010 he was recognized by Time magazine as one of the 100 most influential people in the world for his persuasive role in the Senate.The son...

      , current Senate Minority Whip, the No.2 Republican in the Senate
      United States Senate
      The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

      .
    • Presidential candidate (2000), (2008) and Senior Republican Senator John McCain
      John McCain
      John Sidney McCain III is the senior United States Senator from Arizona. He was the Republican nominee for president in the 2008 United States election....

    • Presidential candidate (1964) and former U.S. Senator Barry Goldwater
      Barry Goldwater
      Barry Morris Goldwater was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona and the Republican Party's nominee for President in the 1964 election. An articulate and charismatic figure during the first half of the 1960s, he was known as "Mr...

    • Former Governor, Secretary of the Interior, and Presidential candidate (1988) Bruce Babbitt
      Bruce Babbitt
      Bruce Edward Babbitt , a Democrat, served as United States Secretary of the Interior and as the 16th governor of Arizona, from 1978 to 1987.-Biography:...

    • Presidential candidate (1976) and former Arizona congressman Mo Udall
      Mo Udall
      Morris King "Mo" Udall was an American politician who served as a U.S. Representative from Arizona from May 2, 1961 to May 4, 1991...

       and his brother Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall
      Stewart Udall
      Stewart Lee Udall was an American politician. After serving three terms as a congressman from Arizona, he served as Secretary of the Interior from 1961 to 1969, under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B...

    • Former U.S. Senator Carl Hayden
    • Former United States Solicitor General
      United States Solicitor General
      The United States Solicitor General is the person appointed to represent the federal government of the United States before the Supreme Court of the United States. The current Solicitor General, Donald B. Verrilli, Jr. was confirmed by the United States Senate on June 6, 2011 and sworn in on June...

       Rex E. Lee
      Rex E. Lee
      Rex Edwin Lee from St. Johns, Arizona was a Constitutional lawyer, a law clerk for former U.S. Supreme Court Justice Byron White, and the United States Solicitor General under the Reagan administration. He argued 59 cases before the U.S. Supreme Court...

      .
    • Former Governor and Secretary of Homeland Security in the Obama Administration Janet Napolitano
      Janet Napolitano
      Janet Napolitano is the third and current United States Secretary of Homeland Security, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama. She is the fourth person to hold the position, which was created after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. A member of the Democratic Party, she was the 21st...



    Arizona notables in culture and the arts include:
    • Labor leader and civil rights pioneer Cesar Estrada Chavez was from San Luis, near Yuma
    • Actor Gail Edwards
      Gail Edwards
      Gail June Edwards is a retired American actress best known for her roles as Dot Higgins in ABC's It's a Living, Sharon Lemure in NBC's Blossom, and Vicky Larson in ABC's Full House.-Early life and career:...

    • Author Zane Grey
      Zane Grey
      Zane Grey was an American author best known for his popular adventure novels and stories that presented an idealized image of the Old West. Riders of the Purple Sage was his bestselling book. In addition to the success of his printed works, they later had second lives and continuing influence...

    • Architect Frank Lloyd Wright
      Frank Lloyd Wright
      Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. Wright believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture...

    • Film director Steven Spielberg
      Steven Spielberg
      Steven Allan Spielberg KBE is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, video game designer, and studio entrepreneur. In a career of more than four decades, Spielberg's films have covered many themes and genres. Spielberg's early science-fiction and adventure films were seen as an...

       grew up in Scottsdale, as did David Spade
      David Spade
      David Wayne Spade is an American actor, comedian and television personality who first became famous in the 1990s as a cast member on Saturday Night Live, and from 1997 until 2003 when he starred as Dennis Finch on Just Shoot Me!. He also starred as C.J...

       and Wonder Woman
      Wonder Woman
      Wonder Woman is a DC Comics superheroine created by William Moulton Marston. She first appeared in All Star Comics #8 . The Wonder Woman title has been published by DC Comics almost continuously except for a brief hiatus in 1986....

      star Lynda Carter
      Lynda Carter
      Lynda Jean Carter is an American actress and singer, best known for being Miss World USA and as the star of the 1970s television series The New Original Wonder Woman and The New Adventures of Wonder Woman ....

      .
    • Musicians Chester Bennington
      Chester Bennington
      Chester Charles Bennington is an American musician, singer-songwriter and actor. He is best known as the lead vocalist and songwriter of the rock band Linkin Park....

       of Linkin Park
      Linkin Park
      Linkin Park is an American rock band from Agoura Hills, California. Formed in 1996, the band rose to international fame with their debut album, Hybrid Theory, which was certified Diamond by the RIAA in 2005 and multi-platinum in several other countries...

      , Alice Cooper
      Alice Cooper
      Alice Cooper is an American rock singer, songwriter and musician whose career spans more than four decades...

       and Stevie Nicks
      Stevie Nicks
      Stephanie Lynn "Stevie" Nicks is an American singer-songwriter, best known for her work with Fleetwood Mac and an extensive solo career, which collectively have produced over forty Top 50 hits and sold over 140 million albums...

       of Fleetwood Mac
      Fleetwood Mac
      Fleetwood Mac are a British–American rock band formed in 1967 in London.The only original member present in the band is its eponymous drummer, Mick Fleetwood...

      , of Phoenix
    • Musicians Maynard James Keenan
      Maynard James Keenan
      Maynard James Keenan is an American rock singer, songwriter, musician, record producer, winemaker, and actor. Originally from Ohio, Keenan spent his high school and college years in Michigan. After serving in the Army in the early 1980s, he attended Kendall College of Art and Design in Grand Rapids...

      , the lead singer of the bands, Tool
      Tool (band)
      Tool is an American rock band from Los Angeles, California. Formed in 1990, the group's line-up has included drummer Danny Carey, guitarist Adam Jones, and vocalist Maynard James Keenan. Since 1995, Justin Chancellor has been the band's bassist, replacing their original bassist Paul D'Amour...

      , A Perfect Circle
      A Perfect Circle
      A Perfect Circle is an American rock supergroup formed in 1999 by guitarist Billy Howerdel and Tool vocalist Maynard James Keenan. The original incarnation of the band also included Paz Lenchantin on bass, Troy Van Leeuwen on guitar, and Tim Alexander on drums...

      , and Puscifer
      Puscifer
      Puscifer is a side project of Maynard James Keenan from the bands Tool and A Perfect Circle. As Keenan is the only permanent member and he considers the project to be his "creative subconscious", Puscifer could also be considered a pseudonym for his solo work....

      , of Jerome
    • Musicians Linda Ronstadt
      Linda Ronstadt
      Linda Ronstadt is an American popular music recording artist. She has earned eleven Grammy Awards, two Academy of Country Music awards, an Emmy Award, an ALMA Award, numerous United States and internationally certified gold, platinum and multiplatinum albums, in addition to Tony Award and Golden...

       of Tucson, Michelle Branch
      Michelle Branch
      Michelle Jacquet DeSevren Branch is an American singer-songwriter, guitarist and actress. During the early 2000s, she released two top-selling albums, The Spirit Room and Hotel Paper, and was subsequently nominated for the Grammy Award for Best New Artist in 2003...

       of Sedona, Authority Zero
      Authority Zero
      Authority Zero is a punk rock band from Mesa, Arizona. The band's style is rooted in reggae and skate punk, with Bad Religion, Pennywise, and Sublime cited as influences. The band also draws from Spanish/Portuguese influences.-History:...

       of Mesa, Gin Blossoms
      Gin Blossoms
      Gin Blossoms is an American pop rock band formed in 1987, in Tempe, Arizona. They took their name from a photo of W.C. Fields which bore the caption "W.C. Fields with gin blossoms", referring to what appeared to be the actor's gin-ravaged nose, but was actually a skin condition known as rosacea...

       of Tempe, Chronic Future
      Chronic Future
      Chronic Future was a band from Scottsdale, Arizona. The band was formed in 1995 when their average age was 14. They achieved a short period of mainstream success with the album Lines in My Face, as well as the album's hit single, "Time and Time Again"...

       of Scottsdale
    • Musicians band Jimmy Eat World
      Jimmy Eat World
      Jimmy Eat World is an American alternative rock band from Mesa, Arizona, that formed in 1993. The band is composed of lead vocalist and guitarist Jim Adkins, guitarist and backing vocalist Tom Linton, bassist Rick Burch and drummer Zach Lind....

       (Members – Jim Adkins, Tom Linton, Rick Burch and Zach Lind)
    • Musicians Curt Kirkwood
      Curt Kirkwood
      Curtis Matthew Kirkwood is an American singer, guitarist, and songwriter. He grew up in Phoenix, Arizona, but currently resides in Austin, Texas....

       and Cris Kirkwood
      Cris Kirkwood
      Christopher "Cris" Kirkwood is an American musician who is the bassist and a founding member of the Meat Puppets, an alternative punk rock band.-Biography:...

       of alternative rock
      Alternative rock
      Alternative rock is a genre of rock music and a term used to describe a diverse musical movement that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular by the 1990s...

       band Meat Puppets
      Meat Puppets
      The Meat Puppets are an American rock band formed in January 1980, in Phoenix, Arizona. The group's original lineup was Curt Kirkwood , his brother Cris Kirkwood , and Derrick Bostrom . The Kirkwood brothers met Bostrom while attending Brophy Prep High School in Phoenix...

    • Poet Jim Simmerman
      Jim simmerman
      Jim Simmerman was a poet and editor from the United States.-Biography:Simmerman was born in Boulder, Colorado, in 1952. He received his MFA in Poetry from University of Iowa in 1980...

       of Flagstaff
    • Frederick Sommer
      Frederick Sommer
      Frederick Sommer , was an artist born in Angri, Italy and raised in Brazil. He earned a M.A. degree in Landscape Architecture from Cornell University where he met Frances Elisabeth Watson whom he married in 1928; they had no children...

       an artist/photographer moved to Tucson in 1931 and lived in Prescott from 1935–1999
    • band Stellar Kart
      Stellar Kart
      Stellar Kart is a Christian pop punk band from Phoenix, Arizona, USA . The band is signed to INO Records and released its first album in February 2005. Some of the singles from their debut album, All Gas. No Brake - including "Finish Last" and "Life Is Good" - have been played on Christian radio...

       (Members – Adam Agee, Jordan Messer, Brian Calcara and Jon Howard)


    For a complete list, see List of people from Arizona.

    State symbols


    • Arizona state amphibian: Arizona Treefrog (Hyla eximia
      Hyla eximia
      Hyla eximia is a species of frog in the Hylidae family.It is endemic to Mexico.Its natural habitats are temperate forests, subtropical or tropical moist montanes, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, rivers, intermittent rivers, swamps, freshwater marshes, and intermittent freshwater...

      )
    • Arizona state bird: Cactus Wren
      Cactus Wren
      The Cactus Wren is a species of wren that is native to the southwestern United States southwards to central Mexico.-Description:...

       (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus)
    • Arizona state butterfly: Two-tailed Swallowtail
      Two-tailed Swallowtail
      The Two-tailed Swallowtail is a species of the Papilionidae family found in western North America from British Columbia to Central America.-Description:...

       (Papilio multicaudata)
    • Arizona state colors: Federal Blue and old gold
      Old Gold
      Old gold is a dark yellow, which varies from light olive or olive brown to deep or strong yellow. The widely-accepted color "Old gold" is on the darker rather than the lighter side of this range....

    • Arizona state fish: Arizona Trout (Oncorhynchus gilae apache)
    • Arizona state flag: Flag of the State of Arizona
    • Arizona state flower: Saguaro blossom
      Saguaro
      The saguaro is a large, tree-sized cactus species in the monotypic genus Carnegiea. It is native to the Sonoran Desert in the U.S. state of Arizona, the Mexican state of Sonora, a small part of Baja California in the San Felipe Desert and an extremely small area of California, U.S...

       (Carnegiea gigantea)
    • Arizona state fossil: Petrified wood
      Petrified wood
      Petrified wood is the name given to a special type of fossilized remains of terrestrial vegetation. It is the result of a tree having turned completely into stone by the process of permineralization...

    • Arizona state gemstone: Turquoise
      Turquoise
      Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula CuAl648·4. It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized as a gem and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique hue...

    • Arizona state mammal: Ringtail
      Ring-tailed Cat
      The ringtail is a mammal of the raccoon family , native to arid regions of North America. It is also known as the ringtail cat, ring-tailed cat or miner's cat, and is also sometimes mistakenly called a "civet cat"...

       (Bassariscus astutus)
    • Arizona state motto: Ditat Deus (Latin God enriches)
    • Arizona state neckwear: Bola tie
      Bola tie
      A bolo tie is a type of necktie consisting of a piece of cord or braided leather with decorative metal tips or aglets secured with an ornamental clasp or slide....

    • Arizona state reptile: Arizona Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi
      Crotalus willardi
      Crotalus willardi is a venomous pitviper species found in the southwestern United States and Mexico. It is the most recent rattlesnake species to be discovered in the United States. Its specific name is in honor of its discoverer, Professor Frank C. Willard. Five subspecies are currently...

      )
    • Arizona state seal: Great Seal of the State of Arizona
    • Arizona state slogan: Grand Canyon State
    • Arizona state songs: "Arizona March Song" (by Margaret Rowe Clifford) and "Arizona" (by Rex Allen, Jr.)
    • Arizona state tree: Blue Palo Verde (Parkinsonia florida
      Parkinsonia florida
      Parkinsonia florida is a species of palo verde native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico...

      )
    • Arizona state gun: Colt Single Action Army revolver
      Colt Single Action Army
      The Colt Single Action Army is a single action revolver with a revolving cylinder holding six metallic cartridges. It was designed for the U.S...



    See also




    Further reading

    • Bayless, Betsy, 1998, Arizona Blue Book, 1997–1998. Phoenix, Arizona.
    • McIntyre, Allan J., 2008, The Tohono O'odham and Pimeria Alta. Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina. (ISBN 978-0-7385-5633-8).
    • Miller, Tom (editor), 1986, Arizona: The Land and the People. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. (ISBN 978-0-8165-1004-7).
    • Officer, James E., 1987, Hispanic Arizona, 1536–1856. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. (ISBN 978-0-8165-0981-2).
    • Thomas, David M. (editor), 2003, Arizona Legislative Manual. In Arizona Phoenix, Arizona, Arizona Legislative Council. Google Print. Retrieved January 16, 2006.
    • Trimble, Marshall, 1998, Arizona, A Cavalcade of History. Treasure Chest Publications, Tucson, Arizona. (ISBN 978-0-918080-43-1).
    • Woosley, Anne I., 2008, Early Tucson. Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina. (ISBN 978-0-7385-5646-8).

    Official state government website


    Other references


    Tourism information