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The Naskapi are the indigenous Innu
The Innu are the indigenous inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan , which comprises most of the northeastern portions of the provinces of Quebec and some western portions of Labrador...

 inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan
Nitassinan is the ancestral homeland of the Innu, an Aboriginal people of Eastern Quebec and Labrador, Canada. The territory covers the eastern portion of the Labrador peninsula....

, which comprises most of what other Canadians refer to as eastern Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

 and Labrador
Labrador is the distinct, northerly region of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It comprises the mainland portion of the province, separated from the island of Newfoundland by the Strait of Belle Isle...

, Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...


Innu people are frequently divided into two groups, the Montagnais who live along the north shore of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence , the world's largest estuary, is the outlet of North America's Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean...

, in Quebec, and the less numerous Naskapi who live farther north. The Innu themselves recognize several distinctions (e.g. Mushuau Innuat, Maskuanu Innut, Uashau Innuat) based on different regional affiliations and various dialects of the Innu language.

The word "Naskapi" (meaning "people beyond the horizon") first made an appearance in the 17th century and was subsequently applied to Innu groups beyond the reach of missionary influence, most notably those living in the lands which bordered Ungava Bay
Ungava Bay
Ungava Bay is a large bay in northeastern Canada separating Nunavik from Baffin Island. The bay is shaped like a rounded square with a side length of about and has an area of approximately...

 and the northern Labrador coast, near the Inuit
The Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada , Denmark , Russia and the United States . Inuit means “the people” in the Inuktitut language...

 communities of northern Quebec and northern Labrador. The Naskapi are traditionally nomadic peoples, in contrast with the territorial Montagnais. Mushuau Innuat (plural), while related to the Naskapi, split off from the tribe in the 20th century and were subject to a government relocation program at Davis Inlet. The Naskapi language and culture is quite different from the Montagnais, in which the dialect changes from y to n as in "Iiyuu" versus "Innu"http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Montagns.html. Some of the families of the Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach have close relatives in the Cree
The Cree are one of the largest groups of First Nations / Native Americans in North America, with 200,000 members living in Canada. In Canada, the major proportion of Cree live north and west of Lake Superior, in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Northwest Territories, although...

 village of Whapmagoostui
Whapmagoostui, Quebec
Whapmagoostui |beluga]]") is the northernmost Cree village in Quebec, located at the mouth of the Great Whale River on the coast of Hudson Bay in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada. About 500 people, mostly Inuit, live in the neighbouring northern village of Kuujjuarapik. The community is only accessible by...

, on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay , sometimes called Hudson's Bay, is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada. It drains a very large area, about , that includes parts of Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta, most of Manitoba, southeastern Nunavut, as well as parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota,...


Post-European Contact

The earliest written reference to Naskapis appears around 1643, when the Jesuit André Richard referred to the "Ounackkapiouek", but little is known about the group to which Richard was referring, other than that they were one of many "small nations" situated somewhere north of Tadoussac. The word "Naskapi" appeared for the first time in 1733, at which time the group so described was said to number approximately forty families and to have an important camp at Lake Achouanipi. At approximately the same time, in 1740, Joseph Isbister, the manager of the Hudson’s Bay Company’s post at Eastmain, reported being told that there were Indians, whom he called "Annes-carps" to the northeast of Richmond Gulf. In later years those Indians came to be called variously "Nascopie" and "Nascappe". Not many years later, in 1790, the Periodical Accounts of the Moravian Missionaries described a group of Indians living west of Okak as "Nascopies". The Naskapis came under the influence of Protestant missionaries, and remain Protestant to this day. In addition to their native tongue, they speak English, in contrast to their Montagnais cousins who are for the most part Roman Catholic, speaking the native language and French. It should be noted that the Montagnais are far more numerous than the Naskapis.

The years 1831 onwards were characterized by the first regular contacts between the Naskapis and western society, when the Hudson’s Bay Company established its first trading post at Old Fort Chimo.

The relationship between the Naskapis and the Hudson’s Bay Company was not an easy one. It was difficult for the Naskapis to integrate commercial trapping, especially of marten in Winter, into their seasonal round of subsistence activities, for the simple reason that the distribution of marten was in large measure different from the distribution of essential sources of food at that season. In consequence, the Naskapis did not prove to be the regular and diligent trappers that the traders must have hoped to find, and the traders seem to have attributed this fact to laziness or intransigence on the part of Naskapis.


Between 1831 and 1956, the Naskapis were subjected to several major relocations, all of which reflected not their needs or interests, but those of the Hudson’s Bay Company. The major moves were:
  • 1842 – Fort Chimo to Fort Nascopie
  • 1870 – Fort Nascopie to Fort Chimo
  • 1915 – Fort Chimo to Fort McKenzie
  • 1948 – Fort McKenzie to Fort Chimo
  • 1956 – Fort Chimo to Schefferville

Numerous cases have been documented in which the Hudson’s Bay Company relocated the Naskapis from post to post purely for its own commercial purposes and without any concern as to whether the areas where the posts were situated offered the Naskapis the possibility of harvesting the fish and game that they required for food as well as the fur-bearers that the Company sought. In several instances, individual managers, apparently dissatisfied with the Naskapis’ seeming lack of commitment to trapping withheld from them the ammunition that they needed to hunt for food, thereby directly causing a considerable number of deaths from starvation.

20th century

By the late 1940s, the pressures of the fur trade, high rates of mortality and debilitation from diseases communicated by Europeans, and the effects of the virtual disappearance of the George River Caribou Herd had reduced the Naskapis to a state where their very survival was threatened.

The Naskapis had received "relief" from the Federal Government as early as the end of the 19th century, but their first regular contacts with the Federal Government began only in 1949, when Colonel H.M. Jones, Superintendent of Welfare Services in Ottawa, and M. Larivière of the Abitibi Indian Agency visited them in Fort Chimo and arranged for the issuing of welfare to them.

In the early 1950s, the Naskapis made a partially successful effort to re-establish themselves at Fort McKenzie, where they had already lived between 1916 and 1948, and to return to an economy based substantially on hunting, fishing, and commercial trapping. They could no longer be entirely self-sufficient, however, and the high cost of resupplying them, combined with the continuing high incidence of tuberculosis and other factors, obliged them to return to Fort Chimo after only two years.

Move to Schefferville

For reasons that are not entirely clear, virtually all of the Naskapis moved from Fort Chimo to the recently founded iron-ore mining community of Schefferville in 1956. Two principal schools of thought about this move exist. One of them holds that the Naskapis were induced, if not ordered, to move by officials of Indian and Northern Affairs, while the other believes that the Naskapis themselves decided to move in the hope of finding employment, housing, medical assistance, and educational facilities for their children

Although officials of Indian and Northern Affairs were certainly aware of the intention of the Naskapis to move from Fort Chimo to Schefferville and may even have instigated that move, they appear to have done little or nothing to prepare for their arrival there, not even by warning the representatives of the Iron Ore Company of Canada
Iron Ore Company of Canada
Iron Ore Company of Canada is a Canadian-based producer of iron ore. The company was founded in 1949 from a partnership of Canadian and American M.A. Hanna Company...

 ("IOCC") or the municipality of Schefferville.

The Naskapis left Fort Chimo on foot to make the 400 miles (643.7 km) journey to Schefferville overland. By the time they reached Wakuach Lake, some 70 miles (113 km) north of Schefferville, most of them were in a pitiable state, exhausted, ill, and close to starvation.

A successful rescue effort was mounted, but the only homes that awaited the Naskapis were the shacks that they built for themselves on the edge of Knob Lake
Knob Lake
Knob Lake is the central lake in Three Lakes Valley in northeast Signy Island. The name was given to the lake by the United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee because there is a glacier-scoured rock knob forming a small island near the south end of the lake....

, near the railroad station, with scavenged and donated materials. A short time later, in 1957, under the pretext that the water at Knob Lake was contaminated, the municipal authorities moved them to a site adjacent to John Lake, some four miles (6 km) north-north-east of Schefferville, where they lived without benefit of water sewage, or electricity, and where, despite their hopes in coming to Schefferville, there was no school for their children and no medical facility.

The Naskapis shared the site at John Lake with a group of Montagnais, who had moved voluntarily from Sept-Îles
Sept-Îles, Quebec
For the islands in north of Brittany, see JentilezSept-Îles is a city in the Côte-Nord region of eastern Quebec, Canada. It is the northernmost town in Quebec with any significant population...

 to Schefferville with the completion of the railroad in the early 1950s.

Initially, the Naskapis lived in tiny shacks that they built for themselves, but by 1962 Indian and Northern Affairs had built 30 houses for them, and a further four were under construction at a cost of 5,000$ each.

Move to Matimekosh

In 1969, Indian and Northern Affairs acquired from the reluctant Municipality of Schefferville, a marshy, 39 acres (157,827.5 m²) site north of the town centre and adjacent to Pearce Lake. By 1972, 43 row-housing units had been built there for the Naskapis, and a further 63 for Montagnais, and most of the Naskapis and Montagnais moved to this new site, known today as Matimekosh.

For the first time in their lengthy history of relocations, the Naskapis were consulted in the planning of their new home. Indian and Northern Affairs sent officials to explain the new community to the Naskapis, a brochure was published, models built, and progress reports issued. Particular interest among the Naskapis centred on the type of housing that they would receive. Possibly for financial reasons, Indian and Northern Affairs wanted them to live in row houses, whereas the Naskapis had a strong preference for detached, single-family residences. In the event, Council was persuaded to accept row housing, but it did so only on the condition that the houses were adequately sound-proofed, which turned out not to be the case.

Perhaps because it was the first such process in which they had been involved, the Naskapis placed considerable faith in the consultation undertaken by Indian and Northern Affairs. It is a source of considerable bitterness even today that, in the minds of many Naskapis, not all of the promises or reassurances that were made were lived up to. Two examples are most commonly cited: the insistence of Indian and Northern Affairs’ representatives that the Naskapis live in row houses that, in the event, proved not to be adequately soundproofed and that had a variety of other faults; and the fact that the brochure prepared by Indian and Northern Affairs showed a fully landscaped site with trees and bushes, whereas no landscaping was done, and no trees or bushes were ever planted.

Incidents like those may seem very minor to persons with long experience of large and impersonal institutions such as government departments, but they happened to the Naskapis when they were in a very formative stage of their relations with Indian and Northern Affairs and when they had still not forgotten their callous treatment by the Hudson’s Bay Company. It should not come as a surprise, therefore, that these matters are still spoken of frequently today and that they maintain very considerable importance and significance for many Naskapis.

James Bay Agreement

A pivotal event in the history of the Naskapis occurred in early 1975, when, after separate visits to Schefferville by Billy Diamond
Billy Diamond
Billy Diamond was the chief of the Waskaganish, Quebec Cree in 1970, and grand chief of the Grand Council of the Crees from 1974 to 1984. In May 2008, Diamond suffered from a stroke which left him paralysed completely on his left side. On November 21, 2008 he recovered and credits Jesus Christ for...

, Grand Chief, Grand Council of the Crees
Grand Council of the Crees
The Grand Council of the Crees , or the GCC, is the political body that represents the approximately 16,357 Crees or “Iyyu” / “Iynu” of the Eeyou Istchee territory in the James Bay and Nunavik regions of Northern Quebec, Canada...

 (of Quebec) ("GCCQ"), and Charlie Watt
Charlie Watt
Charlie Watt is a Canadian Senator.A hunter and businessman by profession, Watt is an Inuk and served as Northern officer with the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs from 1969 to 1979. He founded the Northern Quebec Inuit Association in the 1970s...

, President, Northern Quebec Inuit Association ("NQIA"), the Naskapis decided to become involved in the negotiations leading to the signature of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement ("JBNQA").

The Naskapis entered into a contract with the NQIA, under which the latter was to provide logistical support, legal advice, and representation to a small team of Naskapi negotiators based in Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

. That arrangement was not very successful, however, and the JBNQA was signed on 11 November 1975, without the Naskapis.

Shortly before the signing of the JBNQA, realizing that the demands on the Inuit were too great to allow them to represent the interests of the Naskapis in addition to their own interests, the Naskapi negotiators retained their own non-Native advisors and started to function as an independent negotiating body.

The signatories of the JBNQA were fully aware that it provided for the extinguishment of the Naskapis’ Aboriginal rights in the Territory without granting them any compensatory rights or benefits. They also knew that the Naskapis, unlike certain others of Quebec’s First Nations at that time, were willing to negotiate a settlement of their Aboriginal claims.

Thus, although the Naskapis had never filed a formal statement of claim or similar document, except for a draft history prepared by the late Dr Alan Cooke, the parties to the JBNQA accepted the legitimacy of their claims, and they entered into an agreement-in-principle with the Naskapis in the Spring of 1977 to negotiate an agreement that would have the same principal features as the JBNQA. The result of the negotiations was the Northeastern Quebec Agreement ("NEQA"), which was executed on 31 January 1978.

Section 20 of the NEQA offered the Naskapis the possibility of relocating from the Matimekosh Reserve to a new site.

Move to Kawawachikamach

Between 1978 and 1980, technical and socio-economic studies of the potential sites for the permanent Naskapi community were carried out. On 31 January 1980, the Naskapis voted overwhelmingly to relocate to the present site of Kawawachikamach. Kawawachikamach was built, largely by Naskapis, between 1980 and 1983. The planning and building of Kawawachikamach provided an excellent opportunity to give Naskapis training and experience in administration and in trades related to construction and maintenance.

Between 1981 and 1984, the self-government legislation promised by Canada in Section 7 of the NEQA was negotiated. The outcome of those negotiations was the Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act ("CNQA"), which was assented to by Parliament on 14 June 1984.

The overriding purpose of the CNQA was to make the NNK and the James Bay Cree Bands largely self-governing. In addition to the powers then exercised by Band Councils under the Indian Act
Indian Act
The Indian Act , R.S., 1951, c. I-5, is a Canadian statute that concerns registered Indians, their bands, and the system of Indian reserves...

, most of the powers that had until then been exercised by the Minister of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development ("DIAND") under the Indian Act were transferred to the NNK and to the James Bay Cree Bands, to be exercised by their elected Councils. The NNK and the James Bay Cree Bands were also given powers not found in the Indian Act, powers normally exercised by non-Native municipalities throughout Canada.

The NEQA had been negotiated under the assumption that Schefferville would continue to be an active centre of mining, outfitting, and exploration for the foreseeable future. Enquiries by the Government of Quebec
Government of Quebec
The Government of Quebec refers to the provincial government of the province of Quebec. Its powers and structure are set out in the Constitution Act, 1867....

 to the Iron Ore Company of Canada
Iron Ore Company of Canada
Iron Ore Company of Canada is a Canadian-based producer of iron ore. The company was founded in 1949 from a partnership of Canadian and American M.A. Hanna Company...

 ("IOCC") in the late 1970s had apparently confirmed that assumption. Nevertheless, IOCC announced in 1982 its intention to close the mines at Schefferville immediately.

The closing of the mines at Schefferville had profound implications for the implementation of the NEQA, particularly for those provisions dealing with health and social services and with training and job-creation. Consequently, in the late 1980s, the NNK and the Government of Canada undertook a joint evaluation of Canada’s discharging of its responsibilities under the NEQA. The evaluation was motivated more by the change in the circumstances of Schefferville and of the Naskapis than by any belief on the part of the Naskapis that Canada had wilfully neglected any of its responsibilities under the NEQA.

Northeastern Quebec Agreement

The outcome of those negotiations was the Agreement Respecting the Implementation of the Northeastern Quebec Agreement ("ARINEQA"), which was executed in September 1990. Among other things, the ARINEQA established the model for funding capital and O&M expenditures over five-year periods, created a Dispute Resolution Mechanism for disputes arising from the interpretation, administration, and implementation of the NEQA, the JBNQA, and the ARINEQA, and created a working group to address employment for Naskapis.

Economic and Community Development

The Naskapis are now developing their homeland, notably through economic development and community reinforcement.

Economic Development Projects
  • Schefferville Airport Corporation - Runway Maintenance (with Naskapi Development Corp./Montagnais of Matimekosh/Lac John )
  • James Bay TransTaiga Road Maintenance (with Naskapi Adoshouana Services/NDC subsidiary)
  • Naskapi Typonomy Project (with Naskapi Adoshouana Services/NDC subsidiary)
  • Menihek Power Dam and Facilities (with Kawawachikamach Energy Services Inc.)
  • Enterprise, Resource, Planning, and Management Software (Naskapi Imuun Inc. (Naskapi Nation))

Sectors of Activity currently being developed:
  • Commercialization of Caribou (Naskapi Caribou Meat Company/Nunavik Arctic Foods)
  • Caribou Hunting and Fishing Operations (TUKTU- Hunting/Fishing Club/Naskapi Management Serv.)

Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach

The Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach (the "Nation") (originally known as the “Naskapis de Schefferville Indian Band” and later as the “Naskapi Band of Quebec”) is a First Nation with a population of approximately 850 registered Indians, who are also beneficiaries of the Northeastern Quebec Agreement ("NEQA"). The majority reside in Kawawachikamach, Quebec, located approximately 16 kilometres (10 mi) northeast of Schefferville. The village covers an area of approximately 40 acres (16.2 ha) and is situated on 16 square miles (41.4 km²) of Category IA-N land. There is ample room for expansion, whether for residential, commercial, or industrial purposes.

The vast majority of the residents of Kawawachikamach are Naskapi. Naskapi is their principal language. It is spoken by all of them and written by many. English is their second language, although many younger persons also speak some French. The Naskapis still preserve many aspects of their traditional way of life and culture. Like many northern communities, the Naskapis rely on subsistence hunting, fishing, and trapping for a large part of their food supply and for many raw materials. Harvesting is at the heart of Naskapi spirituality.

Kawawachikamach is linked to Schefferville by a gravel-surfaced all-season road. Rail transportation is available on a weekly basis between Schefferville, Wabush and Labrador City, and Sept-Îles. The train is equipped to transport passengers and freight, including large vehicles, gasoline and fuel oil, and refrigerated goods. Schefferville, which has a 5000 feet (1,524 m) paved landing strip, is connected to points south by means of year-round, five-day-per-week service.

Mushuau Innu First Nation

The Mushuau Innu First Nation
Mushuau Innu First Nation
The Mushuau Innu First Nation is located in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The First Nation has one reserve, it has an area of roughly 43 square kilometres, centred around the community of Natuashish since 2002, when they moved from the prior community of Davis Inlet.The...

(is located int canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the easternmost province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it incorporates the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador with a combined area of . As of April 2011, the province's estimated population is 508,400...

, Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

. In 1967 the Mushuau Innu were settled in Utshimassits (Davis Inlet
Davis Inlet, Newfoundland and Labrador
Davis Inlet was a Naskapi community in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, formerly inhabited by the Mushuau Innu First Nation.-Settlement:...

) on Iluikoyak Island located off the coast of Labrador Peninsula
Labrador Peninsula
The Labrador Peninsula is a large peninsula in eastern Canada. It is bounded by the Hudson Bay to the west, the Hudson Strait to the north, the Labrador Sea to the east, and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the south-east...

, inhibited the ability of the Mushuau Innu to continue their traditional means of providing food by hunting caribou on the mainland, therefore they were relocated in the winter of 2002/2003 to their new main settlement Natuashish
Natuashish, Newfoundland and Labrador
Natuashish is an Naskapi community in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The community is inhabited by the Mushuau Innu First Nation....

 (speak: ‘Nat-wah-sheesh’), about 295 km north of Happy Valley-Goose Bay and 80 km southeast of Nain
Nain, Newfoundland and Labrador
Nain or Naina is the northernmost town of any size in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, located about 370 kilometres by air from Happy Valley-Goose Bay. The town was established as a Moravian mission in 1771 by Jens Haven and other missionaries...

, Natuashish located on the mainland is only 15 km west of Utshimassits, ethnically they are Naskapi, speaking the Eastern Dialect (Mushuau Innu or Davis Inlet variety) of Iyuw Imuun
Naskapi language
Naskapi is an Algonquian language spoken by the Naskapi in Quebec and Labrador, Canada. It is written in Eastern Cree syllabics....

 and writing in Eastern Cree syllabics
Eastern Cree syllabics
Eastern Cree syllabics are a variant of Canadian Aboriginal syllabics used to write all the Cree dialects from Moosonee, Ontario to Kawawachikamach on the Quebec–Labrador border in Canada that use syllabics....

, but split off and headed to Eastern Labrador
Labrador is the distinct, northerly region of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It comprises the mainland portion of the province, separated from the island of Newfoundland by the Strait of Belle Isle...

, very few (if any) are able to write in syllabics any more, the majority of the tribe is Catholic, which use the Montagnais Bible
The Bible refers to any one of the collections of the primary religious texts of Judaism and Christianity. There is no common version of the Bible, as the individual books , their contents and their order vary among denominations...

 (which does not use syllabics) and therefore use the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most recognized alphabet used in the world today. It evolved from a western variety of the Greek alphabet called the Cumaean alphabet, which was adopted and modified by the Etruscans who ruled early Rome...

, Reservation: Natuashish #2, ca. 43 km², Population: 777)

Past name spelling variations

  • Es-ko-piks—Walch, Charte von America. (Augsburg, 1805).
  • Nascapee—Hodges, Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, 2:30. (Washington, 1910).
  • Nascopi—Stearns, Labrador: a sketch of its people, its industries and its natural history, 262. (Boston, 1884).
  • Nascopie—McLean, Notes of a twenty-five years' service in the Hudson's Bay territory, 2:53. (London, 1849).
  • Nascupi—Stearns, Labrador: a sketch of its people, its industries and its natural history, 262. (Boston, 1884).
  • Naskapis—Hocquart (1733) quoted by Hind, Explorations in the interior of the Labrador peninsula, the country of the Montagnais and Nasquapee Indians, 2. (London, 1863).
  • Naskapit—Kingsley, The Standard Natural History, 6:149. (Boston, 1885).
  • Naskopie—Turner in 11th Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, 183. (Washington, 1894).
  • Naskopis—Kingsley, The Standard Natural History, 6:149. (Boston, 1885).
  • Naskupis—Hocquart (1733) quoted by Hind, Explorations in the interior of the Labrador peninsula, the country of the Montagnais and Nasquapee Indians, 2:96. (London, 1863).
  • Nasquapees—Stearns, Labrador: a sketch of its people, its industries and its natural history, 262. (Boston, 1884).
    • Naspapees—Stearns, Labrador: a sketch of its people, its industries and its natural history, 262. (Boston, 1884).
  • Nasquapicks—Cartwright (1774), quoted by Hind, Explorations in the interior of the Labrador peninsula, the country of the Montagnais and Nasquapee Indians, 2:101. (London, 1863).
  • Ne né not—Turner in 11th Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, 183. (Washington, 1894).
  • Neskaupe—Kingsley, The Standard Natural History, 6:148. (Boston, 1885).
  • Ounachkapiouek—Jesuit Relations for 1643, 38. (Québec, 1858).
  • Ounadcapis—Stearns, Labrador: a sketch of its people, its industries and its natural history, 262, (Boston, 1884).
  • Ounascapis—Hind, Explorations in the interior of the Labrador peninsula, the country of the Montagnais and Nasquapee Indians, 1:275. (London, 1863).
  • Ounescapi—Bellin, Partie orientale de la Nouvelle France ou de Canada. (1855).
    • Cuneskapi—Laure (1731) quoted by Hind, Explorations in the interior of the Labrador peninsula, the country of the Montagnais and Nasquapee Indians, 1:34 (London, 1863)
  • Scoffies—Gallatin in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 2:103 (1848)
  • Secoffee—Brinton, Library of aboriginal American literature: The Lenâpé and their legends., 5:11 (Philadelphia, 1885)
  • Shoüdamunk—Gatschet in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 409. (Philadelphia, 1855). From the Beothuk language
    Beothuk language
    The Beothuk language , also called Beothukan, was spoken by the indigenous Beothuk people of Newfoundland. The Beothuk have been extinct since 1829 and there are few written accounts of their language, little is known about it. There have been claims of links with the neighbouring Algonquian...

    , "Good Indians".
  • Skoffie—writer c. 1799 in Massachusetts Historical Society Collection (First series), 6:16. (Boston, 1800).
  • Unescapis—La Tour, [Carte de] L'Amérique Septentoinale, ou se remarquent les États Unis. (Paris, 1779).
  • Ungava Indians—McLean, Notes of a twenty-five years' service in the Hudson's Bay territory, 2:53. (London, 1849).