Khoy

Khoy

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Khoy is a city in and the capital of Khoy County
Khoy County
Khoy County is a county in West Azerbaijan Province in Iran. At the 2006 census, the county's population Khoy County is a county in West Azerbaijan Province in Iran. At the 2006 census, the county's population Khoy County is a county in West Azerbaijan Province in Iran. At the 2006 census, the...

, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. At the 2006 census, its population was 178,708, in 45,090 families.

Khoy is located north of the province's capital and largest city Urmia
Urmia
- Demographics :According to official census of 2006, the population of Urmia is about 871,204.- Language :The population of Urmia is mainly Azerbaijani people, with Kurdish, Assyrian Christian, and Armenian minorities...

, and 807 km north-west to Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

. The region's economy is based around agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

, particularly the production of fruit, grain, and timber. Xoy is nicknamed as the Sunflower
Sunflower
Sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence . The sunflower got its name from its huge, fiery blooms, whose shape and image is often used to depict the sun. The sunflower has a rough, hairy stem, broad, coarsely toothed, rough leaves and circular heads...

 city of Iran. As of 2006 census, the city had a population of 178,708, with an estimated 2008 population of 484,409. Azerbaycan Türkçesi
Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani or Azeri or Torki is a language belonging to the Turkic language family, spoken in southwestern Asia by the Azerbaijani people, primarily in Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran...

 is spoken in Xoy, while nearly all inhabitants can also converse in Persian. The main religion is Shia Islam.

Architecture


Xoy was fortified at various times in its history, most recently by the Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

 in the Nineteenth Century. It is well known for the tomb of Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
Shams-i-Tabrīzī or Shams al-Din Mohammad was a Persian Muslim, who is credited as the spiritual instructor of Mewlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhi, also known as Rumi and is referenced with great reverence in Rumi’s poetic collection, in particular Diwan-i Shams-i Tabrīzī...

, renowned Iranian poet and mystic.

History


Xoy was located on the Silk Road
Silk Road
The Silk Road or Silk Route refers to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa...

. It has been the capital of the Emirate of Xoy (Her), born out of the Armenian
Armenia
Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

 Vaspurakan
Vaspurakan
Vaspurakan was the first and biggest province of Greater Armenia, which later became an independent kingdom during the Middle Ages, centered around Lake Van...

 Kingdom between 908 and 1021. Between 1208 and 1210 it was occupied by the forces of Tamar of Georgia
Tamar of Georgia
Tamar , of the Bagrationi dynasty, was Queen Regnant of Georgia from 1184 to 1213. Tamar presided over the "Golden age" of the medieval Georgian monarchy...

.

On 15 July 1478 (14 Rabi' II 883), in the Battle of Xoy, Sultan Khalil (Khalil Mirza) was killed and his forces dispersed by generals Bayandur and Sulayman Beg leading the confederated forces of Yaqub ibn Uzun Hasan Ak Koyunlu, who then took the Ak Koyunlu
Ak Koyunlu
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans , was an Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled parts of present-day Eastern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, northern Iraq, and Iran from 1378 to 1508.-History:According to chronicles from the Byzantine Empire, the Aq Qoyunlu...

 throne.

Xoy again came under Turkic rule during the Seljuq
Great Seljuq Empire
The Great Seljuq Empire was a medieval Persianate, Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks. The Seljuq Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to eastern Anatolia and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf...

 period. After the death of Turkish Emperor Nadir Shah Afshar in 1747, Xoy broke away from central government of Iran like several other states, including Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 and some of northern Caucasian Khanates
Khanates of the Caucasus
Khanates of the Caucasus were Persian ruled principalities on the territory of modern day Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia and Dagestan from the Safavid dynasty era to 1806. These principalities arose during the domination of Iran. During the period of Iranian domination, head of principality was a Khan...

 , and become the Khanate of Xoy (1747–1813) which was loyal to center only when it was powerful (like Karim Khan
Karim Khan
Karim Khan Zand, , , was a ruler of Iran, and the founder of the Zand Dynasty.He was born to a family of the Zand tribe of Lur or Lak deportees...

) and autonomous when the central role was weak . The returning of Xoy to central government of Iran was during the beginning of Qajar period . Until 1828 Xoy had a big number of Armenians. In 1828 some of them immigrated to the Eastern Armenia (Russian Empire). During World War I Turks killed much of the Armenians in Xoy. Nowadays there is a small Armenian population living here.
Xoy was attacked by Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 in 1827. In 1911 it was occupied by Ottoman
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 troops, followed in World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 by Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n troops, who withdrew in 1917. In World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 it was again occupied by Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 troops, who remained until 1946.

Famous places


  • Tomb of Shams Tabrizi
    Shams Tabrizi
    Shams-i-Tabrīzī or Shams al-Din Mohammad was a Persian Muslim, who is credited as the spiritual instructor of Mewlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhi, also known as Rumi and is referenced with great reverence in Rumi’s poetic collection, in particular Diwan-i Shams-i Tabrīzī...

    , Shams Tabrizi Tower
  • Bastam and Bolourabad historical castles
  • Khatoon [old] bridge
  • Old stone gate of the city
  • Old bazaar of Xoy
  • Motallebkhan Mosque
  • َAvrin Mountain
  • Ghotour Iron Bridge
  • S.t. Sourp Serkis Church
  • Pouryaieh Valli Tomb

Famous people

  • Grand Ayatollah Abul-Qassim Khoei
  • Mohammad-Amin Riahi
    Mohammad-Amin Riahi
    Mohammad-Amin Riahi was a prominent Iranian literary scholar of Persian literature, a historian, writer and statemens. Apart from being one of the authors of Dehkhoda Dictionary and Encyclopædia Iranica, he was the author and editor of several well-known scholarly books...

  • Abbas Zaryab Khoi
    Abbas Zaryab Khoi
    Abbas Zaryab was a distinguished historian, translator, literature Professor and Iranologist. He was the author of several books, including a life of Muhammad, and articles in the Persian encyclopedia , Western peer reviewed Journals as well as Iranica.-Biography:Abbas Zaryab Khoi was born in...

  • Gholamreza Aghazadeh
  • Behrouz Vossoughi
    Behrouz Vossoughi
    -Career:He started acting in films with Samuel Khachikian's Toofan dar shahr-e ma. He has over 40 years of experience in the motion picture industry, with featured appearances in more than 90 films. His work has earned him recognition at several international film festivals...


External links