Tehran

Tehran

Overview
Tehran ( Tehrān; Tehrani Persian tehˈɾɒːn), sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

 of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 and Tehran Province
Tehran Province
Tehran Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It covers on area of 18,909 square kilometers and is located to the north of the central plateau of Iran....

. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; (7,711,230, in 2,267,892 families, as of the 2006 census) it is also Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.

In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to mass-migration of people from all around Iran.
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Timeline

1979   The Ayatollah Khomeini is welcomed back to Tehran, Iran after nearly 15 years of exile.

1979   Iran hostage crisis begins: a group of Iranians, mostly students, invades the US embassy in Tehran and takes 90 hostages (53 of whom are American).

1979   Iran hostage crisis: In response to the hostage situation in Tehran, US President Jimmy Carter orders a halt to all petroleum imports into the United States from Iran.

1979   Iran hostage crisis: Iranian leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini orders the release of 13 female and black American hostages being held at the US Embassy in Tehran.

1980   The International Court of Justice calls for the release of United States embassy hostages in Tehran, Iran. The hostages would not be freed until the following January.

1981   Tehran releases American hostages after 444 days.

1981   A powerful bomb explodes in Tehran, killing 73 officials of Islamic Republic Party.

 
Encyclopedia
Tehran ( Tehrān; Tehrani Persian tehˈɾɒːn), sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

 of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 and Tehran Province
Tehran Province
Tehran Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It covers on area of 18,909 square kilometers and is located to the north of the central plateau of Iran....

. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; (7,711,230, in 2,267,892 families, as of the 2006 census) it is also Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.

In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to mass-migration of people from all around Iran. The city is home to many historic mosque
Mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word is likely to have entered the English language through French , from Portuguese , from Spanish , and from Berber , ultimately originating in — . The Arabic word masjid literally means a place of prostration...

s, churches, synagogue
Synagogue
A synagogue is a Jewish house of prayer. This use of the Greek term synagogue originates in the Septuagint where it sometimes translates the Hebrew word for assembly, kahal...

s and Zoroastrian
Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster and was formerly among the world's largest religions. It was probably founded some time before the 6th century BCE in Greater Iran.In Zoroastrianism, the Creator Ahura Mazda is all good, and no evil...

 fire temple
Fire temple
A fire temple in Zoroastrianism is the place of worship for Zoroastrians. Zoroastrians revere fire in any form. In the Zoroastrian religion, fire , together with clean water , are agents of ritual purity...

s. Contemporary Tehran is a modern city featuring many structures, of which the Azadi (Freedom) Tower
Azadi Tower
The Azadi Tower , previously known as the Shahyād Āryāmehr , is the symbol of Tehran, the capital of Iran, and marks the entrance to the city.-Construction:...

 and the Milad Tower have come to be symbols of Tehran itself. In 2008 Tehran was the least expensive capital in the world and only the second least expensive city globally based on the cost-of-living index
Cost-of-living index
Cost of living is the cost of maintaining a certain standard of living. Changes in the cost of living over time are often operationalized in a cost of living index. Cost of living calculations are also used to compare the cost of maintaining a certain standard of living in different geographic areas...

; however, prices have dramatically increased during the past years. Because of high inflation, world sanctions and wrong economical policies by the present government the prices have raised more than ever in addition to presenting the best value for money in the world. Furthermore globally it stands 19th by city population, 56th by the size of its GDP and 29th by the population of its metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

. Due to long history of Iran
History of Iran
The history of Iran has been intertwined with the history of a larger historical region, comprising the area from the Danube River in the west to the Indus River and Jaxartes in the east and from the Caucasus, Caspian Sea, and Aral Sea in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman and Egypt...

, there have been many instances of capital city relocations over the ages and Tehran, currently is the 32nd national capital of Iran. The native language of the city is the Tehrani accent
Tehrani accent
Tehrani accent is the most common colloquial variant of the modern Persian language. Compared to literary standard Persian, the Tehrani dialect lacks original Persian diphthongs and tends to fuse certain sounds...

 of Persian, with 98% native speakers and the majority of people in Tehran identify as Persians
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Tehran was called Ray which in the Avesta
Avesta
The Avesta is the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the Avestan language.-Early transmission:The texts of the Avesta — which are all in the Avestan language — were composed over the course of several hundred years. The most important portion, the Gathas,...

 occurs in the form of Ragha.

History



Tehran historically was known as Ray which is etymologically connected to the Old Persian and Avesta
Avesta
The Avesta is the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the Avestan language.-Early transmission:The texts of the Avesta — which are all in the Avestan language — were composed over the course of several hundred years. The most important portion, the Gathas,...

 Rhaga
Ray, Iran
Rey or Ray , also known as Rhages and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County, Tehran Province, Iran, and is the oldest existing city in the province....

. This city was a major area of the Iranian speaking Medes and Achaemenids. In the Zoroastrian Avesta
Avesta
The Avesta is the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the Avestan language.-Early transmission:The texts of the Avesta — which are all in the Avestan language — were composed over the course of several hundred years. The most important portion, the Gathas,...

, Widewdat, i, 15, Ragha is mentioned as the twelfth sacred place created by Ahura-Mazda. In the Old Persian inscriptions (Behistun 2, 10–18), Ragha appears as a province. From Ragha, Darius the Great sent reinforcements to his father Wishtaspa when the latter was putting down the rebellion in Parthia (Behistun 3, 1–10). Damavand
Damavand
Damavand is a city in and the capital of Damavand County, Tehran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 36,433, in 10,279 families....

 mountain located near the city also appears in the Shahnama as the place where Freydun bounds the dragon-fiend Zahak. In the Persian mytho­logical and legendary events. Kayūmarṯ, the Zoroastrian prototype of human beings and the first king in the Shahnama, was said to have resided in Damāvand. In these legends, the foundation of the city of Damavand was attributed to him. Arash
Arash
Arash may refer to:* Arash, a mythological archer in Iranian legend and lore* Arash Mahal, a city in Azerbaijan now named Agdash* Ivan Bultinovich Kitanov aka Gavang Arash, Buddhist priest of Kalmykia* Arash , a ward in Tanzania...

, the archer who sacrificed his body by giving all his strength to the arrow that demarcated Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 and Turan
Turan
Tūrān is the Persian name for Central Asia, literally meaning "the land of the Tur". As described below, the original Turanians are an Iranian tribe of the Avestan age. As a people the "Turanian" are one of the two Iranian peoples both descending from the Persian Fereydun but with different...

; shot his arrow from Mount Damāvand. This Persian legend was celebrated every year in the Tiregan
Tiregan
Tiregân also known as Jashn-e Tiregân is an ancient Iranian festival coinciding with the mid summer festivals. -Overview:...

 festival. A popular feast is reported to have been held in the city of Damavand on 7 Šawwāl 1230/31 August 1815, during which the people celebrated the anniversary of Zahhak
Zahhak
Zahhāk or Zohhāk is an evil figure in Iranian mythology, evident in ancient Iranian folklore as Aži Dahāka, the name by which he also appears in the texts of the Avesta...

s death. In the Zoroastrian legends, the tyrant Zahak is to finally be killed by the Iranian hero Garšāsp before the final days. In some Middle Persian texts, Ray (Ragha) is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster
Zoroaster
Zoroaster , also known as Zarathustra , was a prophet and the founder of Zoroastrianism who was either born in North Western or Eastern Iran. He is credited with the authorship of the Yasna Haptanghaiti as well as the Gathas, hymns which are at the liturgical core of Zoroastrianism...

 although modern historians generally place the birth of Zoraster in Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan or Ancient Khorasan is a historical region of Greater Iran mentioned in sources from Sassanid and Islamic eras which "frequently" had a denotation wider than current three provinces of Khorasan in Iran...

. In one Persian tradition, the legendary king Manūčehr was born in Damavand.

During the Sassanid era, Yazdegerd III in 641 issued from Rayy his last appeal to the nation before fleeing to Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan or Ancient Khorasan is a historical region of Greater Iran mentioned in sources from Sassanid and Islamic eras which "frequently" had a denotation wider than current three provinces of Khorasan in Iran...

. The sanctuary of Bibi Shahr-Banu situated in modern Tehran spur and accessible only to women is associated with the memory of the daughter of Yazdagird who, according to tradition, became the wife of al-Husayn b. Ali, the third Shi'ite Imam. Rayy was the fief of the Persian Mihran family and Siyawakhsh the son of Mihran the son of Bahram Chubin resisted the Arab invasion. Due to this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rayy, they ordered the town to be destroyed and ordered Farrukhan b. Zaynabi b. Kula to rebuilt the town. In the 10th century, Rayy is described in detail in the work of Islamic geographers. Despite the interest of Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

 displayed in Rayy, the number of Arabs there was insignificant, and the population consisted of Persians
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

 of all classes. The Ghuzz Turks
Oghuz Turks
The Turkomen also known as Oghuz Turks were a historical Turkic tribal confederation in Central Asia during the early medieval Turkic expansion....

 laid Rayy to waste in 1035 and in 1042, but the city recovered during the Saljuqid and Khwarazmian era. The Mongols laid Rayy to complete waste and according to Islamc historians of the era, virtually all of its inhabitants were massacared. The city is mentioned in later Safavid chronicles as an unimportant city.

The origin of the name Tehran is unknown. Tehran was well known as a village in the 9th century, but was less well-known than the city of Rhages
Ray, Iran
Rey or Ray , also known as Rhages and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County, Tehran Province, Iran, and is the oldest existing city in the province....

 (Ray) which was flourishing nearby in the early era. Najm al-Din Razi known as Dayya gives the population of Rayy as 500,000 before the Mongol invasion. In the 13th century, following the destruction of Ray by Mongols
Mongols
Mongols ) are a Central-East Asian ethnic group that lives mainly in the countries of Mongolia, China, and Russia. In China, ethnic Mongols can be found mainly in the central north region of China such as Inner Mongolia...

, many of its inhabitants escaped to Tehran. In some sources of the early era, the city is mentioned as "Rhages's Tehran" . The city is later mentioned in Hamdollah Mostowfi
Hamdollah Mostowfi
Hamdollah Mostowfi was a Persian historian, geographer and epic poet.Mostowfi is the author of Nozhat ol-Gholub , Zafar-Nameh , and the Tarikh e Gozideh . His tomb is a structure with a blue turquoise conical dome, at Qazvin.-References and notes:...

's Nuz'hat al-Qulub (written in 1340) as a famous village.

There is also a shrine there, dedicated to commemorate Princess Shahr Banu, eldest daughter of the last ruler of the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
The Sassanid Empire , known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr and Ērān in Middle Persian and resulting in the New Persian terms Iranshahr and Iran , was the last pre-Islamic Persian Empire, ruled by the Sasanian Dynasty from 224 to 651...

. She gave birth to Ali Zayn al Abidin, the fourth holy Imam of the Shia faith. This was through her marriage to Husayn ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali
Hussein ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib ‎ was the son of ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib and Fātimah Zahrā...

, the grandson of Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

, the prophet of Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

. A nearby mountain is also named after her. However, some sources attribute the shrine to the goddess of water and fertility, Anahita
Anahita
Anahita is the Old Persian form of the name of an Iranian goddess and appears in complete and earlier form as ' ; the Avestan language name of an Indo-Iranian cosmological figure venerated as the divinity of 'the Waters' and hence associated with fertility, healing and wisdom...

, claiming it was renamed in Islamic times to protect it from any possible harm after the conversion of Iranians to Islam.

Don Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo
Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo
Ruy González de Clavijo was a Castilian traveller and writer. In 1403-05 Clavijo was the ambassador of Henry III of Castile to the court of Timur, founder and ruler of the Timurid Empire...

, a Castilian
Crown of Castile
The Crown of Castile was a medieval and modern state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then King Ferdinand III of Castile to the vacant Leonese throne...

 ambassador, was probably the first European to visit Tehran, stopping in July 1404, while on a journey to Samarkand
Samarkand
Although a Persian-speaking region, it was not united politically with Iran most of the times between the disintegration of the Seleucid Empire and the Arab conquest . In the 6th century it was within the domain of the Turkic kingdom of the Göktürks.At the start of the 8th century Samarkand came...

 (now in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

) the capital of Timur
Timur
Timur , historically known as Tamerlane in English , was a 14th-century conqueror of West, South and Central Asia, and the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia, and great-great-grandfather of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty, which survived as the Mughal Empire in India until...

, who ruled Iran at the time. At this time, the city of Tehran was unwalled.

In the early of 18th century, Karim Khan Zand
Karim Khan
Karim Khan Zand, , , was a ruler of Iran, and the founder of the Zand Dynasty.He was born to a family of the Zand tribe of Lur or Lak deportees...

 ordered a palace
Palace
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop. The word itself is derived from the Latin name Palātium, for Palatine Hill, one of the seven hills in Rome. In many parts of Europe, the...

, and a government office to be built in Tehran, possibly to declare the city his capital, but later moved his government to Shiraz
Shiraz
Shiraz may refer to:* Shiraz, Iran, a city in Iran* Shiraz County, an administrative subdivision of Iran* Vosketap, Armenia, formerly called ShirazPeople:* Hovhannes Shiraz, Armenian poet* Ara Shiraz, Armenian sculptor...

. Tehran finally became the capital of Iran in 1795, when the Qajar king Agha Mohammad Khan was crowned in the city. It remains the capital to this day.

In the 1920s and 30s, the city essentially was started from scratch under the rule of the Shah of Iran, Reza Shah
Reza Shah
Rezā Shāh, also known as Rezā Shāh Pahlavi and Rezā Shāh Kabir , , was the Shah of the Imperial State of Iran from December 15, 1925, until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on September 16, 1941.In 1925, Reza Shah overthrew Ahmad Shah Qajar, the last Shah of the Qajar...

 Pahlavi. Reza Shah believed that ancient buildings such as large parts of the Golestan Palace
Golestan Palace
Golestān Palace pronounced "Kakheh Golestān" is the former royal Qajar complex in Iran's capital city.The oldest of the historic monuments in Tehran, the Golestan Palace belongs to a group of royal buildings that were once enclosed within the mud-thatched walls of Tehran’s Historic Arg...

, Takieh-ye Dowlat, the Toopkhaneh Square
Toopkhaneh
Toopkhāneh is a major town square and a neighborhood in the south of the central district of the city of Tehran, Iran. built in 1867 by an order of Amir Kabir and Commissioned in 1877....

, the city fortifications and the old citadel among others should not be part of a modern city. They were systematically destroyed and modern buildings with pre-islamic Iranian style, such as the National Bank, Police Headquarter, Telegraph Office and Military Academy were built in their place. The Tehran Bazaar was divided in half and many historic buildings were destroyed in order to build wide straight avenues in the capital. Many examples of Persian Gardens also became targets to new construction projects.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 and Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 troops entered the city. Tehran was the site of the Tehran Conference
Tehran Conference
The Tehran Conference was the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943, most of which was held at the Soviet Embassy in Tehran, Iran. It was the first World War II conference amongst the Big Three in which Stalin was present...

 in 1943, attended by U.S. President
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt , also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war...

, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was the Premier of the Soviet Union from 6 May 1941 to 5 March 1953. He was among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who brought about the October Revolution and had held the position of first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee...

.

In the 1960s and 70s Tehran was rapidly developing under the reign of Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. Modern buildings altered the face of Tehran and ambitious projects were envisioned for the following decades. The majority of these projects were continued after the Islamic Revolution 1979 when Tehran's urbanization has reached its peak, and new government started many other new projects like Milad Tower.

During the 1980–88 Iran–Iraq War, Tehran was the scene of repeated Scud
Scud
Scud is a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War, and exported widely to other countries. The term comes from the NATO reporting name SS-1 Scud which was attached to the missile by Western intelligence agencies...

 missile attacks and air strikes.

Climate


Tehran features a semi-arid, continental
Continentality
Continentality is the tendency of land to experience more thermal variation than water, due to the land's lower specific heat capacity. Continental climate also tends to be dryer than oceanic climate as there is less moisture input to the atmosphere from evaporation...

 climate (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 BSk). Tehran's climate is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Alborz Mountains
Alborz
Alborz , also written as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran stretching from the borders of Azerbaijan and Armenia in the northwest to the southern end of the Caspian Sea, and ending in the east at the borders of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan...

 to its north and the central desert to the south. It can be generally described as mild in the spring and autumn, hot and dry in the summer, and cold in the winter. As a large city with a significant differences in elevation among various districts, the weather
Weather
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather phenomena occur in the troposphere, just below the stratosphere. Weather refers, generally, to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate...

 is often cooler in the hilly north as compared to the flat southern part of Tehran.
Summer is usually hot and dry with very little rain, but relative humidity
Relative humidity
Relative humidity is a term used to describe the amount of water vapor in a mixture of air and water vapor. It is defined as the partial pressure of water vapor in the air-water mixture, given as a percentage of the saturated vapor pressure under those conditions...

 is generally low and the nights are cool. The majority of the light annual precipitation
Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation (also known as one of the classes of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation...

 occurs from late-autumn to mid-spring, but no one month is particularly wet. The hottest month is July (mean minimum temperature 26°C, mean maximum temperature 36°C) and the coldest is January (mean minimum temperature −1°C, mean maximum temperature 8°C).

Although compared with other parts of the country Tehran enjoys a more moderate climate, weather conditions can sometimes be unpredictably harsh. The record high temperature is 43°C and the record low is −15°C. On January 5 & 6, 2008, after years of relatively little snow, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures
Winter storm
A winter storm is an event in which the dominant varieties of precipitation are formed that only occur at low temperatures, such as snow or sleet, or a rainstorm where ground temperatures are low enough to allow ice to form...

 shocked the city covering it in a thick layer of snow and ice, forcing the Council of Ministers to officially declare a state of emergency
State of emergency
A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend some normal functions of the executive, legislative and judicial powers, alert citizens to change their normal behaviours, or order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. It can also be used as a rationale...

 and calling the following two days (January 6 and 7) off for the capital.




Demographics


The city of Tehran had a population of approximately 7,8 million in 2006. With its cosmopolitan atmosphere, Tehran is home to diverse ethnic and linguistics groups from all over the country and represents the ethnic/linguistic composition of Iran (though with a different percentage). The native language of the city is the Tehrani accent
Tehrani accent
Tehrani accent is the most common colloquial variant of the modern Persian language. Compared to literary standard Persian, the Tehrani dialect lacks original Persian diphthongs and tends to fuse certain sounds...

 of Persian and the majority of people in Tehran identify themselves as Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

. Minority groups include Azeri, Kurds
Kurdish people
The Kurdish people, or Kurds , are an Iranian people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey...

, Arab, Baluch
Baloch people
The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau in Western Asia....

, Armenian
Armenians in Iran
Iranian-Armenians , sometimes called Persian-Armenians, are Iranian citizens of Armenian origin. Their number is about 100,000. However, recent estimates put the numbers between 40,000-80,000 due to emigration. They mostly live in Tehran and Jolfa district, Isfahan...

, Bakhtiari, Assyrian
Assyrians in Iran
Assyrians in Iran was a thriving community, but was diminished from around 200,000 prior to the Islamic Revolution in Iran to a mere 50,000....

, Talysh
Talysh people
Talysh are an Iranian people indigenous to a region shared between Azerbaijan and Iran which spans the South Caucasus and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. They speak the Talysh language, one of the Northwestern Iranian languages...

, etc. According to a 2010 census conducted by the Sociology Department of Tehran University in many districts of Tehran across various socio-economic classes in proportion to population sizes of each district and socio-economic class, 63% of people in Tehran were born in Tehran, 98% know Persian, 67% identify themselves as ethnic Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

, 13% understand to some level some European languages.

Tehran saw a drastic change in its ethno-social composition in the early 1980s. Following the political, social and economic consequences of the Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1979 and onwards, many Iranian citizens, mostly Tehranis, left Iran due to mounting political, social and most importantly religious pressure. Many Iranians moved to countries such as Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 and other European countries. The highest Iranian emigration has been to the United States, France
Iranians in France
Iranians in France form one of the smaller communities of Iranians outside of Iran.-Early 20th century:France was a popular destination for Persian international students in the early 20th century. The first government-sponsored Persian students, a group of 20, all went to France in 1926...

 and Canada.

With the start of the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988) following an Iraqi invasion, a second wave of inhabitants fled the city, especially during Iraqi air offensive on the capital. With most major powers backing Iraq at that time, economic isolation caused even more reasons for the inhabitants to leave the city (and the country). Having left all they had and having struggled to adapt to a new country and build a life, most of them never came back when the war was over. During the war, Tehran also received a great number of migrants from the west and the southwest of the country bordering Iraq.

The unstable situation and the war in neighboring Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 and Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 prompted a rush of refugees into the country who came in millions, with Tehran being a magnet for modest workers who helped the city to recover from war wounds, charging far less than local construction workers. Many of these refugees are being repatriated with the assistance of UNHCR but there are still sizable groups of Afghan and Iraqi refugees in Tehran who are reluctant to leave, being pessimistic about the situation in their respective country of origin. Afghan refugees are mostly Persian-speaking Hazara or Tajiks, speaking a dialect of Persian, and Iraqi refugees, who are mainly Shia Islam Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran.Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the...

n Arabic-speakers of Iranian origin.

The majority of Tehranis are believed to be moderate followers of Twelver Shia Islam which is also the state religion but it cannot be confirmed independently for lack of independent statistics. Religious minorities include followers of various sects of Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam. Sunni Muslims are referred to in Arabic as ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah wa āl-Ǧamāʿah or ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah for short; in English, they are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis or Sunnites....

, Mystic Islam
Sufism
Sufism or ' is defined by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a '...

, Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster and was formerly among the world's largest religions. It was probably founded some time before the 6th century BCE in Greater Iran.In Zoroastrianism, the Creator Ahura Mazda is all good, and no evil...

, Judaism
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

, Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 (including the adherents of the Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East
The Assyrian Church of the East, officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East ʻIttā Qaddishtā w-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), is a Syriac Church historically centered in Mesopotamia. It is one of the churches that claim continuity with the historical...

, Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
The Armenian Apostolic Church is the world's oldest National Church, is part of Oriental Orthodoxy, and is one of the most ancient Christian communities. Armenia was the first country to adopt Christianity as its official religion in 301 AD, in establishing this church...

, Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

, Chaldean Catholic Church
Chaldean Catholic Church
The Chaldean Catholic Church , is an Eastern Syriac particular church of the Catholic Church, maintaining full communion with the Bishop of Rome and the rest of the Catholic Church...

, Iranian Protestant churches like Jama'at-e Rabbani (Assemblies of God), Armenian Evangelical Church
Armenian Evangelical Church
The Armenian Evangelical Church was established on July 1, 1846 by thirty-seven men and three women in Constantinople.-History:In the 19th century there was intellectual and spiritual awakening in Constantinople. This awakening and enlightenment pushed the reformists to study the Bible...

, Armenian Brotherhood Church
Armenian Brotherhood Church
The Armenian Brotherhood Church started within the Armenian Evangelical Church in the 19th century....

, Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
The Russian Orthodox Church or, alternatively, the Moscow Patriarchate The ROC is often said to be the largest of the Eastern Orthodox churches in the world; including all the autocephalous churches under its umbrella, its adherents number over 150 million worldwide—about half of the 300 million...

, and the Presbyterian Church) and some from the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
The Bahá'í Faith is a monotheistic religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in 19th-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind. There are an estimated five to six million Bahá'ís around the world in more than 200 countries and territories....

.
Despite being the seat of a theological government and the fact that most important religious unions and academies of the country are based in Tehran, half of the city (northern area) remains the most liberal in the nation, a fact that attracts many young people from elsewhere to study in the capital.

Capital relocation


Plan to move the capital has been discussed many times in prior years. In 2010, the government of Iran announced that "for security and administrative reasons" the plan to move the capital from Tehran has been finalized. The Majlis
Majlis
' , is an Arabic term meaning "a place of sitting", used in the context of "council", to describe various types of special gatherings among common interest groups be it administrative, social or religious in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries...

 named Shahroud, Esfahan and Semnan as three of main candidates to replace Tehran as the capital. There are plans to relocate 163 state firms to the provinces
Provinces of Iran
Iran is subdivided into thirty one provinces , each governed from a local center, usually the largest local city, which is called the capital of that province...

 and several universities from Tehran to avoid damages from a potential earthquake
Earthquake
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time...

. President Ahmadinejad suggested that 5 million residents should migrate out of Tehran.
As a starting point, Iranian authorities are relocating all defense-related industries out of the capital.

Location and subdivisions


Tehran county borders Shemiranat county to the north, Damavand
Damavand
Damavand is a city in and the capital of Damavand County, Tehran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 36,433, in 10,279 families....

 county to the east, Eslamshahr
Eslamshahr
Eslamshahr is a city in and the capital of Eslamshahr County, Tehran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 357,171, in 91,293 families....

, Pakdasht
Pakdasht
Pakdasht is a city in and the capital of Pakdasht County, Tehran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 126,281, in 32,625 families. Pakdasht is located southwest of the capital Tehran. The majority of the population speaks Persian and is Shia.-External links:...

, and Ray
Ray, Iran
Rey or Ray , also known as Rhages and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County, Tehran Province, Iran, and is the oldest existing city in the province....

 counties to the south, and Karaj
Karaj
Karaj is a city in and the capital of Karaj County, Alborz Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,377,450, in 385,955 families, , making it the fifth-largest city in Iran after Tehran, Mashhad, Isfahan and Tabriz.) It is situated west of Tehran, at the foothills of the Alborz...

 and Shahriar counties to the west.

Neighborhoods and districts of Tehran



The city of Tehran is divided into 22 municipal districts, each with its own administrative centers.

Within these 22 districts, Tehran contains the following major neighborhoods:

Abbas Abad
Abbas Abad
Abbās Ābād is a large north-central neighborhood of Tehran, Iran, designated within the Seventh Municipal District of the capital.-History:...

, Afsariyeh
Afsariyeh
Afsariyeh is a neighborhood in south-east of Tehran in Iran....

, Amaniyeh, Amir Abad
Amir Abad
Amir Abad is a district in the city of Tehran, Iran.The main street of Amir Abad is called Kargar Avenue and is one of the longest streets of Tehran, extending from Southern Tehran's Rah Ahan Square to Northern Amir Abad....

, Aryashahr
Sadeghiyeh
Sadeghiyeh is a heavily populated district of Tehran, Iran. It is also called by its pre-revolutionary name Aryashahr, it is one of Tehran's busiest commercial and residential centers. It is connected via Tehran's Metro and monorail lines to other parts of the city...

, Bagh Feiz
Bagh Feiz
Bagh Feiz is a neighbourhood located WEST of the city of Tehran in Iran....

, Baharestan
Baharestan
Baharestan is the name given to the historic Iranian parliament building, inaugurated in 1906...

, Darakeh
Darakeh
Darakeh is a neighbourhood located north of the provincial capital of Tehran, Iran.It is near Evin and Velenjak, and it has a very beautiful hiking area. Its population in 2005 was 1.000.000....

, Darband
Darband (Tehran)
Darband was formerly a village close to Tajrish, Shemiran, and is now a neighbourhood inside Tehran's city limits. It is the beginning of a very popular hiking trail into the Alborz mountain Tochal, which towers over Tehran...

, Dardasht
Dardasht (Tehran)
Dardasht is the name of a neighbourhood in the eastern part of Tehran, Iran.Dardasht is situated near the large Tehranpars quarter.It is also the name of the Tehran Metro station which is the starting point of Tehran Metro's line 2. The Iran University of Science and Technology is also situated...

, Dar Abad, Darrous
Darrous
Darrous is a neighborhood in Shemiran, northern Tehran, Iran. It is considered one of the more affluent areas in the city, many modern and fashionable families reside there...

, Dehkadeh Olampik
Dehkadeh Olampik
Dehkadeh Olampik is a locality west of the city of Tehran in Iran....

, Ekhtiyariyeh, Ekbatan
Ekbatan
Ekbatan Complex is a planned town built as a project of modern apartment buildings in western part of Tehran, Iran. Today it is considered one of Tehran's neighborhoods. It is the largest residential complex in Tehran.- History :...

, Elahiyeh
Elahiyeh
Elahieh is an affluent and upper-class district in northern Tehran. The area is a residential and commercial locale and is filled with the homes and businesses of many politicians, diplomats, expatriates, and artists...

, Evin
Evin
Evin is a neighbourhood in the north of Tehran.The district consists of an old section, filled with orchards and gardens of old houses, and a new section, with towering high rises and gleaming skyscrapers....

, Farmanieh
Farmanieh
Farmanieh is a district located in Shemiran, Tehran, Iran centered around Farmanieh Street. Farmanieh neighborhood extends south all the way to Sadr Expressway, where it becomes Dibaji, and as far north as Niavaran Expressway...

, Fereshteh
Fereshteh
Fereshteh is a feminine given name of Persian origin meaning angel.-People:* Firishta, Persian historian* Fereshteh Ghazi, Iranian journalist* Fereshteh Sadre Orafaee, Iranian actress...

, Gheitariye, Gholhak
Gholhak
Gholhak is a neighbourhood in Northern Tehran,a part of Shemiran, located between Zargandeh/Elahiyeh to the west and Ekhtiarieh/Dolat to the east and is served by Shariati St., which in the old times was known as "Shemiran Road" and later with the construction of highways, "Old Shemiran...

, Gisha
Gisha
Gisha , originally KEYSHA is a neighbourhood in Tehran, Iran. The neighborhood is known as a center for youth recreation, shopping, and dating...

, Gomrok
Gomrok
Gomrok is a town located the south-west of the central district of Tehran in Iran.Gomrok is also famous among Tehranians because of its pre-revolutionary history as a gateway to Tehran's red-light district so called Shahr-e No....

, Hasan Abad
Hasan Abad
Hasan Abad is an old and traditional business area within the Moniriyeh district of Tehran, Iran.The area was originally developed during the Qajar dynasty, when they were beautifying the capital Tehran. There is also a square in the area which carries the same name. The square was composed of four...

, Jamaran
Jamaran
Jamaran is a neighbourhood located north of the city of Tehran in Iran.Jamaran was once an independent village; it is now a part of the North Tehran region. It is best known for being the home of Ayatollah Khomeini during his lifetime...

, Jannat Abad
Jannat Abad
Jannat Abad is a large neighbourhood in Tehran, Iran.It is an area around the Jannat Abad Street located in West Tehran. Jannat Abad street starts from Ayatollah Kashani Freeway. It has several squares. The most famous one is Chahar Bagh....

, Javadiyeh
Javadiyeh
Javadiyeh is a neighbourhood located south of the city of Tehran in Iran. Among area young male residents the neighborhood was nicknamed "Texas" because of the associations of the U.S. state with the Wild West. Hooman Majd, the author Ayatollah Begs to Differ, explained that Javadiyeh was poor and...

, Jomhuri
Jomhuri
Jomhuri is officially known as Jomhuri Islami Avenue which means Islamic republic. Located in the city centre, Jomhuri Avenue is one of Tehran's commercial centres for electronic equipments e.g. computer and mobile phones. It is home to Tehran's biggest mobile phone shopping centre, Alaeddin...

, Jordan
Jordan, Tehran
Jordan is the name of a popular avenue in Tehran, Iran. It is also the name of the district in Northern Tehran through which the avenue runs.-Location:...

, Lavizan
Lavizan
Lavizān is a northeastern neighborhood of Tehran, the capital of Iran.Lavizān area consists of a Residential area and forested Recreation area called Lavizān Forest Park. The neighborhoods surrounding Lavizan are Majidabad, Qanat-kosar, Qasemabad, Deh-e Narmak, Shian, Kuye Nobonyad, Ozgol and...

, Mehran
Mehran (district)
Mehran district is a neighborhood of northern Tehran. The area is named after the Mehran garden. It is located east of Shariati Avenue, west of Niavaran Expressway, north of Resalat Expressway, and southeast of Hemmat Expressway.-References:*...

, Narmak
Narmak
Narmak is a neighbourhood in north-east Tehran, the capital city of Iran.Narmak is the largest neighborhood in Tehran. It is located in region 4&8 of Tehran. It has 100 little squares named by numbers like "meidan 68" and some big squares like HaftHoz and Resalat...

, Navab, Nazi Abad
Nazi Abad
Nazi Abad is a neighborhood to the south of the central district of the city of Tehran in Iran. Although the south part of Tehran is poorer than the north part, Nazi Abad is one of the best neighborhoods.High crime rate and over population is the feature of this district.From "Bazar Avval" to...

, Niavaran
Niavaran
Niavaran is a district in the north of Tehran foothills. Bordering leafy, uphill-winding Darband Street, it can be reached from Tajrish Square, and is close to Darabad at the far north-eastern corner of Greater Tehran....

, Park-e Shahr
Park-e Shahr
Park-e Shahr, with its , is a major park and also a neighbourhood located in the central part of Tehran in Iran....

, Pasdaran, Piroozi, Punak
Punak
Punak is a neighbourhood in north-west Tehran, the capital city of Iran....

, Ray
Ray, Iran
Rey or Ray , also known as Rhages and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County, Tehran Province, Iran, and is the oldest existing city in the province....

, Sa'adat Abad
Sa'adat Abad
Sa'adat Abad is a neighbourhood located North of Shahrak-e Gharb. It is considered as one of the most upscale neighbourhoods of North Tehran...

, Sadeghiyeh
Sadeghiyeh
Sadeghiyeh is a heavily populated district of Tehran, Iran. It is also called by its pre-revolutionary name Aryashahr, it is one of Tehran's busiest commercial and residential centers. It is connected via Tehran's Metro and monorail lines to other parts of the city...

, Seyed Khandan
Seyed khandan
Seyed Khandan is a locality of the city of Tehran in Iran. It is the junction of Shariati Street and Resalat Highway. It is near Resalat district.-History:...

, Sohrevardi, Shahrara
Shahrara
For the neighbourhood in Kabul, see Shahrara, AfghanistanShahrara is a neighbourhood in north-west Tehran, the capital city of Iran. It is centred on the park bounded by Shahrara square and can be found at Google Maps.-References:...

, Shahr-e ziba
Shahr-e ziba
Shahr-e ziba, or Ziba Shahr, is a neighbourhood in north-west Tehran, the capital city of Iran....

, Shahrak-e Gharb
Shahrak-e Gharb
Shahrak-e Gharb is a planned town built as a massive project of modern apartment buildings and villas in the north-western part of Tehran, Iran. Originally built based on the model of upscale American suburbs, today it is considered one of Tehran's neighborhoods...

, Shemiran
Shemiran
Shemiran is the capital of Shemiranat County, Tehran Province, Iran, but is actually located just north of the borders of Tehran County along Chamran Expressway and Sadr Expressway and it is the northernmost district of the city of Tehran....

, Tajrish
Tajrish
Tajrish is a former city in Rudbar Qasran District, Shemiranat County, Tehran Province, Iran, which has since been absorbed into Tehran.Tajrish neighbourhood is located along the northern edge of Tehran...

, Tehranno
Tehranno
Tehranno is one of the eastern neighborhoods in Tehran. It is located in region 13 of Tehran. It has 4 small squares, named Chaychi, Ettela'at, Ashtiani, and Lozi, respectively...

, Tehranpars
Tehranpars
Tehranpars or Tehran Pars is a planned city inside the Greater Tehran Area. It is considered a neighbourhood of Tehran City and lies in Tehran's eastern flank inside the area of the 4th and 8th municipalities of Tehran....

, Tehransar
Tehransar
Tehransar is a neighborhood in western Tehran, the capital of Iran. It is part of municipality region 21, and is home to some of Tehran's richest companies, such as Iran Khodro, Saipa Group, Pars Khodro, Arj, Kerman Khodro, Shahabkhodro, Iran Tire, Minoo Industrial Group, , Daroogar, Pars...

, Vanak
Vanak
Vanak is a neighbourhood in the northern part of Tehran, capital of Iran and there is a square and a street named after it. The word Vanak means "Small Tree" in Persian....

, Velenjak
Velenjak
Velenjak is a neighbourhood, northwest of Tehran, in Iran.- About :Located in the Shemiran area in the northernmost part of Tehran, on the slopes of the Alborz mountain range, Valenjak is known for its beautiful landscape, mild climate, fresh mountain air, springs, and wildlife.Velenjak is located...

, Yaft Abad
Yaft Abad
Yaft Abad is a locality in Tehran, located south-west of the central district of Tehran in Iran....

, Yusef Abad
Yusef Abad
Yusef Abad is a locality of Tehran, consisting of an area developed through parallel streets called Yusef Abad, Ebn e Sina , Jahan Ara, Modabber and Mostowfi; the latter being the most beautiful and consequently the most expensive part of it...

, Zafaraniyeh
Zafaraniyeh
Zafaraniyeh is a neighbourhood in the north of Tehran, Iran. The name's origin lies in the fact that it was the residence of many saffron traders long ago, thus the name Zafaraniyeh...

, etc.

For a map of the relative locations of the neighborhoods and the full list, see List of the localities around Tehran.

Older neighborhoods


Tehran's old city fabric changed dramatically during the Pahlavi
Pahlavi dynasty
The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi (reg. 1925–1941) and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty ...

 era. Some of the older remaining (Qajar era) districts of Tehran are: Oud-lajan, Sangelaj, Bazaar
Tehran's Grand Bazaar
The Grand Bazaar is a historical market situated in the capital of Iran, Tehran. A bazaar is a type of marketplace, although many - such as Tehran's Grand bazaar - fulfill many additional functions rather than merely trade...

, Chaleh Meydan, Dowlat, Pamenar. Chaleh Meydan is the oldest neighborhood of the aforementioned. Districts during Pahlavi era are: Sepah str. (Imam Khomeini), Toopkhaneh
Toopkhaneh
Toopkhāneh is a major town square and a neighborhood in the south of the central district of the city of Tehran, Iran. built in 1867 by an order of Amir Kabir and Commissioned in 1877....

, Laleh-Zaar str. (the architecture of this street was European style) & Eslambol str. (shopping center of northern Tehran). Other old districts are : Doushan-Tappeh, Doulab, Sabzeh-Meydan, Seyed Khandan, Zarab-Khaneh, Galou-Bandaak.

Shopping In Tehran


There are many shopping centres in Tehran; amongst the most popular shopping centers are Golestan Shopping Center
Golestan Shopping Center
The Golestan Shopping centre was built in 1991 .It features 14 thousand square meter of retail in a regional shopping center and an adjoining lifestyle center. Near toMilad Tower, Golestan maintains an established presence in the marketplace. Many well-known brands maintain a presence.Website...

 and Tirajeh Shopping Center & Hyper Star, located in north-western Tehran, and Tandis Center & Safavieh Shopping Center, located in northern Tehran. Almase Iran Shopping Center, located in eastern Tehran, is also popular.

Food and restaurants



Tehran has many modern and chic restaurants, serving both traditional Iranian and cosmopolitan cuisine. The most popular dish of the city is the chelow kabab
Chelow kabab
Chelow kabab is the national dish of Iran. The meal is simple, consisting of steamed, saffroned basmati or Persian rice and kabab, of which there are several distinct Persian varieties...

 (kabob/kebab is originally a Persian word meaning grilled or roasted meat). However, Western-style fast food
Fast food
Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a...

 is becoming popular, especially with the younger generation. Pizza, sandwich and kebab shops make up the majority of other food outlets in the city.

Economy


Tehran is the economic centre of Iran. About 30% of Iran’s public-sector workforce and 45% of large industrial firms are located in Tehran and almost half of these workers work for the government. Most of the remainder of workers are factory workers, shopkeepers, laborers, and transport workers. Few foreign companies operate in Tehran because of the Islamic government
Islamic government
*For the states which call themselves Islamic republics, see Islamic Republic*For the book by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini called Islamic Government, or Islamic Government: Guardianship of the Jurist, see Hokumat-e Islami : Velayat-e faqih ...

's relations to the west. But before the Islamic revolution
Iranian Revolution
The Iranian Revolution refers to events involving the overthrow of Iran's monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and its replacement with an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the...

 many foreign companies were active in this region. Today many modern industries of this city include the manufacturing of automobiles, electronics and electrical equipment, weaponry, textiles, sugar, cement, and chemical products. It is also a leading center for the sale of carpets and furniture. There is an oil refinery near Ray
Ray, Iran
Rey or Ray , also known as Rhages and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County, Tehran Province, Iran, and is the oldest existing city in the province....

, south of the city. Tehran has four airports, including Mehrabad International Airport
Mehrabad International Airport
Mehrabad International Airport is an airport that serves Tehran, Iran. It was the primary airport of Tehran in both international and domestic passenger traffic but has been replaced by Imam Khomeini International Airport in most of its international flights...

, Imam Khomeini International Airport
Imam Khomeini International Airport
Imam Khomeini International Airport is located in Ahmadabad, Iran. The airport is located about southwest of the city near the localities of Robat-Karim and Eslamshahr. It was designed to replace Mehrabad International Airport, which is in the west of the city, now inside the city boundaries...

, Ghal'eh Morghi airfield and Doshan Tapeh airbase.

Tehran relies heavily on private cars, buses, motorcycles, and taxis, and is one of the most car-dependent cities in the world. The Tehran Stock Exchange
Tehran Stock Exchange
The Tehran Stock Exchange is Iran's largest stock exchange, which first opened in 1967. The TSE is based in Tehran. As of July 2010, 337 companies with a market capitalization of US$72 billion were listed on TSE...

, which is a full member of the Federation Internationale des Bourses de Valeurs
World Federation of Exchanges
The World Federation of Exchanges , formerly FIBV - Federation Internationale des Bourses de Valeurs , is an international organization for securities and derivative markets such as stock exchanges....

 (FIBV) and a founding member of the Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges
Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges
The Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges is a non-profit international organization comprising the main stock exchanges in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. It was established on May 16, 1995 with 12 founding members...

, has been one of the world's best performing stock exchanges in recent years.

Cars



According to the head of Tehran Municipality's Environment and Sustainable Development Office, Tehran has a capacity for 700,000 cars but currently more than 3 million cars are on the roads in the capital.

Airport



Tehran is served by two main airports. Mehrabad Airport, an old airport which doubles as a military base is used for domestic and pilgrimage flights. This airport is located in the Western part of the city. Imam Khomeini International Airport
Imam Khomeini International Airport
Imam Khomeini International Airport is located in Ahmadabad, Iran. The airport is located about southwest of the city near the localities of Robat-Karim and Eslamshahr. It was designed to replace Mehrabad International Airport, which is in the west of the city, now inside the city boundaries...

, located 50 kilometers (31 mi) south of the city, handles almost all international flights.

Metro


Tehran claims to have one of the cleanest and most convenient metro systems, in terms of accessibility to different parts of the city, in the region. The feasibility study and conceptual planning of the construction were started in 1970s. In 2001, the first two of the eight projected metro lines were opened. Tehran Metro has four operative lines and is 120 km long with another two lines under construction. Tehran has the longest metro line in the Middle East and currently the fourth longest in Asia.

Train



Tehran also has a central train station with connecting services round the clock to various cities in the country. Tehran-Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 train line is active.

Bus



Tehran's transport system includes conventional buses, trolleybus
Trolleybus
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit...

es and Bus Rapid Transit
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit is a term applied to a variety of public transportation systems using buses to provide faster, more efficient service than an ordinary bus line. Often this is achieved by making improvements to existing infrastructure, vehicles and scheduling...

 (BRT). Buses have served the city since the 1920s. There are four bus terminals that also provide connections at low rates. The terminals are located on the South, East, West, and Bei-haghi Park-Drive.

The trolleybus
Trolleybus
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit...

 system opened in 1992, using a fleet of 65 articulated
Articulated bus
An articulated bus is an articulated vehicle used in public transportation. It is usually a single-deck design, and comprises two rigid sections linked by a pivoting joint...

 trolleybuses built by Skoda
Škoda Works
Škoda Works was the largest industrial enterprise in Austro-Hungary and later in Czechoslovakia, one of its successor states. It was also one of the largest industrial conglomerates in Europe in the 20th century...

. This was the first trolleybus system in Iran and remain's the country's only such system. In 2005, trolleybuses were operating on five routes, all starting at Meydan-e-Emam-Hoseyn (Imam Hossein Square
Imam Hossein Square
Imam Hossein Square is a square in eastern central Tehran, Iran.-Transportation:* Enqelab Street* Damavand Street* 17 Shahrivar Street* Mazandaran Street* Trolleybus routes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5* Tehran BRT Line Imam Hossein Square Station...

) and Imam Hossein station
Imam Hossein Metro Station
Imam Hossein Metro Station is a station in Tehran Metro Line 2. It is located in Imam Hossein Square the junctions of Ayatollah Madani Avenue and Enghelab Street. It is between Shahid Madani Metro Station and Darvaze Shemiran Metro Station. This Station is 23 meters under the ground and it has...

 of the Tehran Metro
Tehran Metro
The Tehran Metro is a rapid transit system serving Tehran, the capital of Iran. The system consists of 4 operational lines, with construction having begun on a further two lines in 2007....

 Line 2. Two routes running northeastwards operate almost entirely in a segregated busway
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit is a term applied to a variety of public transportation systems using buses to provide faster, more efficient service than an ordinary bus line. Often this is achieved by making improvements to existing infrastructure, vehicles and scheduling...

 located in the middle of the wide carriageway
Carriageway
A carriageway consists of a width of road on which a vehicle is not restricted by any physical barriers or separation to move laterally...

 (along Damavand Khiyaban
Damavand Street
Damavand Street is a street in central and eastern Tehran, Iran....

), stopping only at purpose-built stops located about every 500 metres, effectively making these routes trolleybus-BRT
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit is a term applied to a variety of public transportation systems using buses to provide faster, more efficient service than an ordinary bus line. Often this is achieved by making improvements to existing infrastructure, vehicles and scheduling...

 (but they are not called such). The other three trolleybus routes run south from Meydan-e-Emam-Hoseyn and operate in mixed-traffic. Both route sections are served both by limited-stop
Limited-stop
In public transport, a limited-stop bus, tram or train service is a service that operates along the same route as a local bus service, but omits certain stops in order to offer a faster trip between the places served. The term is normally used on routes with a mixture of fast and slow services...

 services and local (making all stops) services. A 3.2-km extension from Meydan-e-Shush to Meydan-e-Rah Ahan and the railway station there opened in March 2010.

Tehran Bus Rapid Transit
Tehran Bus Rapid Transit
Tehran Bus Rapid Transit was officially inaugurated in 2008 in order to facilitate the motor traffic in Tehran. As at 2011, BRT had a network of 100 kilometers which transports 1.8 million passengers on a daily basis.Tehran has 4 BRT line....

 (BRT) was officially inaugurated in 2008 by Tehran's mayor Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf. BRT has three lines with 60 stations in different areas of the city. As at 2011, BRT had a network of 100 kilometers which transports 1.8 million passengers on a daily basis. The city has also developed a bike share system which includes 12 stations in one of Tehran’s districts.

Highways and streets




The metropolis of Tehran enjoys a huge network of highways (280 km) and of interchanges, ramps, and loops (180 km) (panoramic view here). In 2007 there were 130 kilometers of highways and 120 kilometers of ramps and loops under construction.

While the center of the city houses the government ministries and headquarters, the commercial centers are more located toward Valiasr Avenue
Valiasr Street
Valiasr Street is a tree-lined street in Tehran, Iran, dividing the metropolis into western and eastern parts. It is considered one of Tehran's main thoroughfares and commercial centres...

 (formerly known as Pahlavi Avenue), Taleghani Ave
Taleghani Ave
Taleghani Ave in Tehran, prior to the Islamic Revolution Takht-e Jamshid Ave., is located in the center of Tehran and runs West from Ghodss St at the University of Tehran to Shariaty Ave on the East.The former US Embassy is located in the east of this avenue...

, and Beheshti Ave further north. Although administratively separate, Rey
Ray, Iran
Rey or Ray , also known as Rhages and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County, Tehran Province, Iran, and is the oldest existing city in the province....

, Shemiran
Shemiran
Shemiran is the capital of Shemiranat County, Tehran Province, Iran, but is actually located just north of the borders of Tehran County along Chamran Expressway and Sadr Expressway and it is the northernmost district of the city of Tehran....

, and Karaj
Karaj
Karaj is a city in and the capital of Karaj County, Alborz Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,377,450, in 385,955 families, , making it the fifth-largest city in Iran after Tehran, Mashhad, Isfahan and Tabriz.) It is situated west of Tehran, at the foothills of the Alborz...

 are often considered part of the larger Tehran metropolitan area.

Also this is a list of Tehran streets named after international personalities:
  • Henri Corbin Street – downtown Tehran
  • Edward Browne
    Edward Granville Browne
    Edward Granville Browne , born in Stouts Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, England, was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value, mainly in the areas of history and literature...

     Street – near the University of Tehran
  • Gandhi Street – northern Tehran
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah
    Muhammad Ali Jinnah
    Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a Muslim lawyer, politician, statesman and the founder of Pakistan. He is popularly and officially known in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam and Baba-e-Qaum ....

     Expressway – western Tehran
  • Iqbal Lahori
    Muhammad Iqbal
    Sir Muhammad Iqbal , commonly referred to as Allama Iqbal , was a poet and philosopher born in Sialkot, then in the Punjab Province of British India, now in Pakistan...

     Street – eastern Tehran
  • Patrice Lumumba
    Patrice Lumumba
    Patrice Émery Lumumba was a Congolese independence leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. Only ten weeks later, Lumumba's government was deposed in a coup during the Congo Crisis...

     Street – western Tehran
  • Bobby Sands
    Bobby Sands
    Robert Gerard "Bobby" Sands was an Irish volunteer of the Provisional Irish Republican Army and member of the United Kingdom Parliament who died on hunger strike while imprisoned in HM Prison Maze....

     Street – western side of British Embassy
  • Simón Bolívar
    Simón Bolívar
    Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios Ponte y Yeiter, commonly known as Simón Bolívar was a Venezuelan military and political leader...

     Street – north western Tehran

Air pollution


Tehran suffers from severe air pollution
Air pollution
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere....

 and the city is often covered by smog
Smog
Smog is a type of air pollution; the word "smog" is a portmanteau of smoke and fog. Modern smog is a type of air pollution derived from vehicular emission from internal combustion engines and industrial fumes that react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary pollutants that also combine...

 making breathing difficult and causing widespread pulmonary illnesses. It is estimated that about 27 people die each day from pollution-related diseases. According to local officials, 3,600 people died in a single month due to the hazardous air quality. 80% of the city's pollution is due to cars. The remaining 20% is due to industrial pollution. Other estimates suggest that motorcycles alone account for 30% of air and 50% of sound pollution
Sound pollution
Sound pollution may refer to:* Noise pollution, displeasing or disruptive sound of human or machine origin* Sound Pollution...

 in Tehran.

In 2007 Iran imposed fuel rations
2007 Gas Rationing Plan in Iran
2007 Gasoline Rationing Plan in Iran was launched by president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's cabinet to reduce that country's fuel consumption. Although Iran is one of the world's largest producers of petroleum, rapid increases in demand and limited refining capacity has forced the country to import about...

 but the plan has met little success in reducing the pollution levels. In 2011, with the improvements in the public transport system and the rise in fuel prices due to the new subsidies reform plan, the Government is hoping to be able to improve the problems of pollution and traffic.

The air pollution is due to several different reasons.
  • Economical: most Iranian industries are located on the outskirts of Tehran. The city is also overrun with old and aging cars which do not meet today's emission regulations. Furthermore, Iran's busiest airport, Mehrabad International Airport
    Mehrabad International Airport
    Mehrabad International Airport is an airport that serves Tehran, Iran. It was the primary airport of Tehran in both international and domestic passenger traffic but has been replaced by Imam Khomeini International Airport in most of its international flights...

    , is located in the west of the city;
  • Most people are then obliged to either use private cars or hire taxis. This has created severe traffic congestion
    Traffic congestion
    Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. The most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction...

    ;
  • Geographical: Tehran is bound in the north by the massive Alborz
    Alborz
    Alborz , also written as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran stretching from the borders of Azerbaijan and Armenia in the northwest to the southern end of the Caspian Sea, and ending in the east at the borders of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan...

     mountain range that is stopping the flow of the humid Caspian wind. As a result, thermal inversion that traps Tehran's polluted air is frequently observed. The lack of humidity and clouds makes Tehran a very sunny city. The UV radiations then combined with the existing pollutants significantly raise the level of the ozone
    Ozone
    Ozone , or trioxygen, is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope...

    . In fact one of the urban landmarks in central Tehran is a giant air quality gauge. Furthermore, the reportedly poor quality of Iranian-manufactured gasoline may also be contributing to the pollution.


The government, however, is engaged in a battle to reduce the air pollution. It has for instance encouraged taxis and buses to convert from petrol engines to engines that run on compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline , diesel, or propane/LPG. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill...

. Furthermore, since 1979 the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has set up a "Traffic Zone" (طرح ترافیک) covering the city center during peak traffic hours. Entering and driving inside this zone is only allowed with a special permit. The government is also trying to raise people's awareness about the hazards of the pollution. One method that is currently being employed is the installation of Pollution Indicator Boards all around the city to monitor the current level of particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula it is one of several nitrogen oxides. is an intermediate in the industrial synthesis of nitric acid, millions of tons of which are produced each year. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor and is a prominent...

 (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide
Sulfur dioxide
Sulfur dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula . It is released by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide unless the sulfur compounds are removed before burning the fuel...

 (SO2), and carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide , also called carbonous oxide, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly lighter than air. It is highly toxic to humans and animals in higher quantities, although it is also produced in normal animal metabolism in low quantities, and is thought to have some normal...

 (CO). The board also displays the Pollutant Standards Index
Pollutant Standards Index
The Pollutant Standards Index, or PSI, provides a uniform system of measuring pollution levels for the major air pollutants. It is based on a scale devised by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to provide a way for broadcasts and newspapers to report air quality on a daily basis.The...

 (PSI), which is a general indication of air quality based on the measurements of the above-mentioned five pollutants. The Pollution Indicator Boards classify the level of each pollutants as either safe, hazardous or dangerous.

Education and research


Tehran is the largest and most important educational center of Iran. Today there are nearly 50 major colleges and universities total in Greater Tehran
Greater Tehran
Greater Tehran is the metropolitan urban area in Tehran Province that covers the contiguous cities of Tehran, Ray, Shemiranat, and other areas.According to some estimates, Greater Tehran hosts a population of close to 15 million residents....

.

Since the establishment of Darolfonoon in the mid-19th century, Tehran has amassed a large number of institutions of higher education. Some of these institutions have played crucial roles in the unfolding of Iranian political events. Samuel M. Jordan
Samuel M. Jordan
Dr. Samuel Martin Jordan was an American presbyterian missionary in Persia .He is sometimes referred to as the "father of modern education in Iran," though Amir Kabir is generally thought to be more deserving of this title, and indeed within Iran, the title refers to Amir Kabir.After graduating...

, whom Jordan Avenue in Tehran is named after, was also one of the founding pioneers of the American College of Tehran
Alborz High School
Alborz High School , is a college preparatory high school located in the heart of Tehran, Iran. It is named after the Alborz mountain range north of Tehran.- History :...

.
Among major educational institutions located in Tehran, Sharif University of Technology
Sharif University of Technology
Sharif University of Technology is a university of higher education in technology, engineering and physical sciences in Tehran. Sharif University of Technology is one of the most prestigious universities in the country, and is considered Iran's MIT...

, is the most prestigious technological university of Iran and University of Tehran is the largest and oldest state university in Iran and one of the oldest in Central Asia and Middle East.

Amirkabir University of Technology
Amirkabir University of Technology
Amirkabir University of Technology , formerly called the Tehran Polytechnic is a public research university located in Tehran, Iran. AUT is one of the most prestigious universities and the first established technical university in Iran...

 (Tehran Polytechnic), Shahid Beheshti University
Shahid Beheshti University
Shahid Beheshti University was formerly The National University of Iran . The university's name was changed during the cultural revolution in Iranian universities, 1980-82. It is located in Evin District and extends into Velenjak District in northwestern Tehran, Iran, on a main campus of...

 (Melli University), K.N.Toosi University of Technology
K.N.Toosi University of Technology
Khajeh Nasir Toosi University of Technology , is a public university in Tehran, Iran, named after medieval Persian scholar Khajeh Nasir Toosi.-History:...

, Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran University of Science and Technology
The Iran University of Science and Technology is a research institution and university of engineering and science in Iran, offering both undergraduate and postgraduate studies...

, Iran University of Medical Sciences
Iran University of Medical Sciences
Iran University of Medical Sciences was one of the largest medical schools in Iran.Located in Tehran, it was founded in 1974 under the name The Imperial Medical Center, and designed by William Pereira and Associates....

, Shahed University
Shahed University
Shahed University , was founded in 1990. It started its activities by accepting 165 students in seven branches in 1991. It has currently more than 8000 students in 68 branches. Now, like other prominent universities of Iran,it is one of the first options of applicants in the annual nationwide...

 and Tarbiat Modarres University are other highly ranked universities of Iran located in Tehran.

Tehran is also home to Iran's largest military academy, and several religious schools and seminaries.

Sports


Tehran was the first city in the Middle East to host the Asian Games
Asian Games
The Asian Games, officially known as Asiad, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. The Games were regulated by the Asian Games Federation from the first Games in New Delhi, India, until the 1978 Games. Since the 1982 Games they have been organised by the...

. The 7th Asian Summer Games in 1974
1974 Asian Games
The 7th Asian Games were held from September 1, 1974 to September 16, 1974 in Tehran, Iran. The Aryamehr sports complex was made for the Games. The Asian Games were hosted in the Middle East for the first time...

, was held with the participation of 2,363 athletes and officials from 25 countries.


Tehran is also the site of Iran's national football stadium on Azadi Sport Complex with 100,000 seating capacity
Seating capacity
Seating capacity refers to the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, both in terms of the physical space available, and in terms of limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats...

. Azadi Football Stadium is biggest stadium in Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 and Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

 and one of the biggest in the World. Many of the top matches of Iran's Premier League are held here. In 2005, FIFA
FIFA
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association , commonly known by the acronym FIFA , is the international governing body of :association football, futsal and beach football. Its headquarters are located in Zurich, Switzerland, and its president is Sepp Blatter, who is in his fourth...

 ordered Iran to limit spectators allowed into Azadi stadium because of a fatal crush and inadequate safety procedures. Other stadiums in Tehran are Shahid Dastgerdi Stadium
Shahid Dastgerdi Stadium
The Shahid Dastgerdi Stadium is a football stadium located in the Ekbatan area of Tehran, Iran. It was named after a casualty of the Iran–Iraq War.It is currently the home of Steel Azin F.C. football club...

, Takhti Stadium
Takhti Stadium (Tehran)
Takhti Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Tehran, Iran. It is used mostly for football matches. The stadium is able to hold 30,000 people and was opened in 1973....

, and Shahid Shirudi Stadium, among others.

The ski resort of Dizin
Dizin
Dizin is a ski resort situated to the north of Tehran in the Alborz mountain range.The huge Dizin ski resort was established in 1969 . The ski season in Dizin also lasts longer than European ski resorts because of its high altitude.The highest ski lift reaches , making it one of the 40 highest ski...

 is situated to the north of Tehran in the Alborz Mountains. Tochal Ski Resort
Tochal Complex
Tochal Complex is consisted of many recreational and sports facilities located in Velenjak, North of Tehran.-Tochal Telecabin :Tochal Telecabin is probably the world's longest gondola lift lines with a length of 7500 m.. The project started in 1974 and has been open to the public since 1978...

 is the world's fifth highest ski resort, at over 3,730 metres (12,240 ft) at its highest 7th station. The resort was completed in 1976 shortly before the overthrowing of the Shah.

Here, one must first ride the eight kilometre (five mile) long gondola lift which covers a huge vertical and is probably the longest line in the world. The 7th station has three slopes. The resort's longest slope is the south side U shaped slope which goes from the 7th station to 5th station. The other two slopes are located on the north side of the 7th station. Here, there are two parallel chair ski lifts that go up to 3,900 metres (12,795 ft) near Tochal's peak (at 4,000 m/13,125 ft), rising higher than the gondola 7th station. This altitude is higher than any of the European resorts.

From the Tochal peak, one has a spectacular view of the Alborz range, including the 5,671 metre (18,606 ft) high Mount Damavand
Mount Damavand
Mount Damāvand also known as Donbavand, a potentially active volcano and the highest peak in Iran, has a special place in Persian mythology and folklore...

, a dormant volcano.

At the bottom of the lifts in a valley behind the Tochal peak is Tochal Hotel
Tochal Complex
Tochal Complex is consisted of many recreational and sports facilities located in Velenjak, North of Tehran.-Tochal Telecabin :Tochal Telecabin is probably the world's longest gondola lift lines with a length of 7500 m.. The project started in 1974 and has been open to the public since 1978...

, located at 3,500 metres (11,483 ft) altitude. From there a T lift takes skiers up the 3,800 metres (12,500 ft) of Shahneshin peak, where the third slope of Tochal is.

Tochal 7th station has skiing eight months of the year. But there are also some glaciers and year-round snow fields near Tehran where skiing began in 1938, thanks to the efforts of two German railway engineers. Today, 12 ski resorts operate in Iran, but the most famous are Tochal
Tochal
Mount Tochal is a mountain in the Alborz range and a ski resort adjacent to metropolitan Tehran, Iran. The mountain has a 12 km long ridgeline...

, Dizin
Dizin
Dizin is a ski resort situated to the north of Tehran in the Alborz mountain range.The huge Dizin ski resort was established in 1969 . The ski season in Dizin also lasts longer than European ski resorts because of its high altitude.The highest ski lift reaches , making it one of the 40 highest ski...

, and Shemshak
Shemshak
Shemshak is a ski resort situated to the north-east of Tehran in the Alborz mountain range.Shemshak is the second largest ski area in Iran after Dizin and came into operation in 1958. It includes two ski lifts, three dish teleskis and two Hammer teleskis. The slopes lie at an altitude of 2550m to...

, all within one to three hours of Tehran.

Football


Tehran is the host to three major football clubs in Iran's Premier Football League
Iran's Premier Football League
The Iran Pro League , is a professional football league competition for clubs located at the highest level of the Iranian football league system.The league system resembles the system being used in England currently...

, namely:
Club Sport Founded League Head Coach
Esteghlal F.C. Association football 1945 Iran Pro League (IPL) Parviz Mazloumi
Persepolis F.C. Association football 1963 Iran Pro League (IPL) ....
Naft Tehran F.C.
Naft Tehran F.C.
Naft Tehran F.C. is an Iranian football club based in Tehran, Iran. They currently compete in the Iran Pro League.-History:In 1950, National Iranian Oil Company decided on starting a football team...

Association football 1950 Iran Pro League (IPL) Hossein Faraki

Main attractions




See also Architecture of Tehran
Architecture of Tehran
Tehran is a relatively old city. As such, it has an architectural tradition unique to itself.Despite the occurrence of earthquakes during the Qajar period and before, some build...


Tehran is a relatively old city; as such, it has an architectural tradition unique to itself. Archaeological investigations and excavations in Tehran demonstrate that this area was home to civilizations as far back as 6,000 years BC in the village of Rayy which is now incorporated into the city. Tehran served only as a village to a relatively small population for most of its history, but began to take a more considerable role in Iran after it was made the capital in the late 18th century. Despite the occurrence of earthquakes during the Qajar
Qajar dynasty
The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

 period and before, some buildings still remain from Tehran's era of antiquity. Today Tehran is Iran's primate city
Primate city
A primate city is the leading city in its country or region, disproportionately larger than any others in the urban hierarchy. A 'primate city distribution' has one very large city with many much smaller cities and towns, and no intermediate-sized urban centres, in contrast to the linear 'rank-size...

, and has the most modernized infastructure in the country; however, the gentrification
Gentrification
Gentrification and urban gentrification refer to the changes that result when wealthier people acquire or rent property in low income and working class communities. Urban gentrification is associated with movement. Consequent to gentrification, the average income increases and average family size...

 of old neighborhoods and the demolition of buildings of cultural significance has caused concerns.

The Azadi Tower
Azadi Tower
The Azadi Tower , previously known as the Shahyād Āryāmehr , is the symbol of Tehran, the capital of Iran, and marks the entrance to the city.-Construction:...

 has been the longstanding symbol of Tehran. It was constructed to commemorate the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian empire
2,500 year celebration of Iran's monarchy
The 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place October 12–16, 1971, on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Iranian monarchy by Cyrus the Great...

, and was originally named "Shahyad Tower"; after the Iranian revolution
Iranian Revolution
The Iranian Revolution refers to events involving the overthrow of Iran's monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and its replacement with an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the...

, its name changed to "Azadi Tower," meaning "Freedom Tower." The recently constructed Milad Tower may eventually replace the Azadi Tower as Tehran's new symbol. The Milad complex contains the world's sixth tallest tower, several restaurants, a five star hotel, a convention center, a world trade center, and an IT park. Traditionally a low-rise city due to seismic activity in the region, modern high rise developments in Tehran have been undertaken in order to service its growing population. There have been no major quakes in Tehran since 1830.

The tallest residential building in Iran is a 54-story building located North of Youssef Abad district, the Tehran International Tower
Tehran International Tower
The International Tehran Tower is a 54-story building in Tehran, Iran. It is the tallest residential building in Iran.It is located North of Youssef Abad district, close to Kordestan and Resalat Expressway.-Facilities:...

. It is architecturally similar to Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino on the Las Vegas Strip
Las Vegas Strip
The Las Vegas Strip is an approximately stretch of Las Vegas Boulevard in Clark County, Nevada; adjacent to, but outside the city limits of Las Vegas proper. The Strip lies within the unincorporated townships of Paradise and Winchester...

 in the Paradise
Paradise, Nevada
Paradise is an unincorporated town in the Las Vegas metropolitan area in Clark County, Nevada, United States. The population was 223,167 at the 2010 census...

 community of Clark County
Clark County, Nevada
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 1,375,765 people, 512,253 households, and 339,693 families residing within the MSA. The racial makeup of the MSA was 71.6% White , 9.1% Black, 5.7% Asian, 0.8% American Indian and 12.8% of other or mixed race. 22.0% were Hispanic of any race...

, Nevada
Nevada
Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. Appealing to the principle of vertical rather than horizontal expansion of the city, the Tehran International Tower is bound to the North by Youssef Abad, to the South By Hakim Highway, to the East by Kordesstan Highway and to the West by Sheikh Bahai Highway, all of which facilitate access to various parts of the city.

Tourism and attractions



Tehran, as Iran's showcase and capital city, has a wealth of cultural attractions. The Peacock Throne
Peacock Throne
The Peacock Throne, called Takht-e Tâvus in Persian, is the name originally given to a Mughal throne of India, which was later adopted and used to describe the thrones of the Persian emperors from Nader Shah Afshari and erroneously to Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi whose throne was a reconstruction of...

 of the Persian Kings (Shah
Shah
Shāh is the title of the ruler of certain Southwest Asian and Central Asian countries, especially Persia , and derives from the Persian word shah, meaning "king".-History:...

s) can be found in Tehran's Golestan Palace
Golestan Palace
Golestān Palace pronounced "Kakheh Golestān" is the former royal Qajar complex in Iran's capital city.The oldest of the historic monuments in Tehran, the Golestan Palace belongs to a group of royal buildings that were once enclosed within the mud-thatched walls of Tehran’s Historic Arg...

. Some of the well-known museums are National Museum of Iran
National Museum of Iran
The National Museum of Iran is a museum in Tehran, Iran. It is the combination of two museums, the old Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân , and the modernistic white travertine National Arts Museum , inaugurated in 1972...

, Sa'dabad Palaces Complex, Glassware and Ceramics Museum of Iran, The Carpet Museum of Iran
The Carpet Museum of Iran
Located in Tehran, beside Laleh Park, and founded in 1976, the Carpet Museum of Iran exhibits a variety of Persian carpets from all over Iran, dating from 18th century to present....

, Tehran's Underglass painting Museum, Niavaran Palace Complex
Niavaran Palace Complex
thumb|right|350px|The "Kushak" of Ahmad Shah, or [[Ahmad-Shahi Pavilion]] |PavilionNiavarān Palace Complex is a historical complex situated in the northern part of Tehran, Iran. It consists of several buildings and a museum. The Sahebqraniyeh Palace, from the time of Naser al-Din Shah of Qajar...

, and Safir Office Machines Museum
Safir Office Machines Museum
The Safir Office Machines Museum is a private museum located in Tehran, Iran. It was founded in 2008 by Frashad Kamalkhani, the museum owner. It includes a collection of early office machines.-Collection:...

. The Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art
Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art
Tehran's Museum of Contemporary Art is an art museum in Tehran, Iran.Inaugurated in 1977, and built adjacent to Tehran's Laleh Park, the museum was designed by Iranian architect Kamran Diba, who employed elements from traditional Persian architecture. The building can be listed as a contemporary...

 features the works of great artists such as Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso known as Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish expatriate painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the...

 and Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andrew Warhola , known as Andy Warhol, was an American painter, printmaker, and filmmaker who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art...

. The collection of these paintings were selected by the former Empress Farah Diba.

Tehran is also home to the Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels
Iranian Crown Jewels
The Imperial crown jewels of Iran include several elaborate crowns and decorative thrones, thirty tiaras, and numerous aigrettes, a dozen bejewelled swords and shields, a vast number of unset precious gems, numerous plates and other dining services cast in precious metals and encrusted with gems,...

, also called the Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia, it is claimed to be the largest, most dazzling and valuable jewel collection in the world. The collection comprises a set of crowns and thrones, some 30 tiaras, numerous aigrettes, jewel-studded swords and shields, a vast amount of precious loose gems, including the largest collections of emeralds, rubies and diamonds in the world. It also includes other items collected by the Shahs of Iran during the 2,500 year existence of the Iranian Kingdom.
The Imperial Crown Jewels are still on display in the Iranian Central Bank in Tehran.

Tehran International Book Fair
Tehran International Book Fair
Tehran International Book Fair is an annual international book fair held in Tehran, Iran. Held in a 120,000 square meter venue at Tehran's Grand Prayer Grounds, the event also provides an opportunity for publishers to discuss future cooperation...

 (TIBF) Is known to the International Publishing World as the most important publishing event in Asia and the Middle East.

Recreation


The most popular social activity, especially among the younger generation is cinema
Movie theater
A movie theater, cinema, movie house, picture theater, film theater is a venue, usually a building, for viewing motion pictures ....

. Most cinema theatres are located downtown. The Azadi Cinema
Azadi Cinema
Azadi Cinema is a cineplex building located at Beheshti Street in Tehran. It serves for movie premieres and various entertainment events.-History:...

 was inaugurated in 2008. It is the largest cinema theatre in Tehran with ten salons. The Eram Zoo and Eram City Game are also popular meeting points, especially for families with children. A new larger zoo is planned for 2010.

Artists often mingle at the House Of Artists. Theatre Shahr was opened in 1962. It is the largest theatre in Tehran and the Middle East. Tehran TV 1, Tehran Cinema TV, Omid TV and Tehran Show TV are among the most popular TV stations in Tehran. Tehran TV2, Tehran TV3 and Tehran Sport are planned to be launched in 2010.

The following table shows some places for outdoors activities in Tehran:
Tochal
Tochal
Mount Tochal is a mountain in the Alborz range and a ski resort adjacent to metropolitan Tehran, Iran. The mountain has a 12 km long ridgeline...

 Ski resort
Darband
Darband
Darband may refer to:* Darband, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a Union Council of Mansehra District, Pakistan* Darband , a town or district in Tajikistan's Region of Republican Subordination* Darband , a village attached to Iran's capital Tehran...

 hiking trail
Chitgar Park
Chitgar Park
Chitgar Forest Park is situated in Tehran province, Iran. It is an artificial forest and covers an area of 14.5 square kilometers west of Tehran. It lies within the borders of Tehran's district 22. It also has different ramps and facilities for cycling and skating...

Niavaran Park
Niavaran Park
Niavaran Park is a public park in Tehran. It is located within the Niavaran district and is situated immediately south of the Niavaran Palace Complex. Niavaran Park is one of the most famous parks in Iran, many teenagers gather around to socialize or take a stroll. Niavaran Park has a small roller...

Sa'ei Park Daneshju Park Goft-o-gū Park
Mellat Park
Mellat Park
Mellat Park is a park in Tehran, the capital city of Iran.Known as the Shahanshahi Park prior to the revolution of 1979, it is one of the largest recreation areas in Tehran...

Laleh Park
Laleh Park
right|thumb|300px|Laleh Park's southwestern entrance with a statue of [[Biruni]], a medieval Persian astronomer.Laleh Park , is a large recreation area of the Iranian capital Tehran....

Jamshidieh Park
Jamshidieh Park
Jamshidieh Park , is a park located in the neighbourhood of Niavaran at the base of Kolakchal mountain.-History:The premises was established as a private garden by the Qajar prince and engineer Jamshid Davallu Qajar during the Pahlavi era, the garden was dedicated to Farah Diba, the empress of Iran...

Shatranj Park Darabad
Darabad
Darabad is a quarter in north-eastern Tehran, the capital city of Iran.Darabad is a former village on the slopes of the Alborz mountain range to the northeast of Tehran, which has become part of the Greater Tehran area as a result of rapid expansion of the Tehran Metropolis...

 hiking trail
Darakeh
Darakeh
Darakeh is a neighbourhood located north of the provincial capital of Tehran, Iran.It is near Evin and Velenjak, and it has a very beautiful hiking area. Its population in 2005 was 1.000.000....

 hiking trail
Jahan-e Kudak Park
Azadi sports complex Enghelab Sports Complex and Golf course Latyan Lake
Latyan Dam
Latyan Dam is a dam located less than 25 km from Tehran. It is one of the main sources of water for Tehran metropolitan region.-Geology:...

Lavizan
Lavizan
Lavizān is a northeastern neighborhood of Tehran, the capital of Iran.Lavizān area consists of a Residential area and forested Recreation area called Lavizān Forest Park. The neighborhoods surrounding Lavizan are Majidabad, Qanat-kosar, Qasemabad, Deh-e Narmak, Shian, Kuye Nobonyad, Ozgol and...

 Forest Park
Vardavard Forest Park Khajeer National Park Kavir National Park
Kavir National Park
Kavir National Park is a protected ecological zone in northern Iran. It has an area of 4,000 square kilometers . The park is located 120 kilometers south of Tehran and 100 kilometers east of Qom, and it sits on the western end of one of Iran's two major deserts, the Dasht-e Kavir...

Tar Lake Amir Kabir Lake Lar Protected Natural Habitat Varjeen Protected Natural Habitat Pardisan
Pardisan
Pardisun park Pardisun park Pardisun park (also called Shahrak-e Gharb's Forest Park , is a multi-purpose complex covering more than 270 hectares located in north-west Tehran.This complex is primarily an educational, research and cultural...

Tangeh Savashi
Tangeh Savashi
Tangeh Savashi or Tangeh Vashi is a popular tourist attraction in the Tehran Province of Iran ....

Farahzad
Farahzad
Farahzad is a neighborhood in West Tehran, the capital city of Iran.It is located in the North West of Old Tehran, it is one of the oldest villages of Tehran. The village is over 1500 years old....





Religious Centers



There are many religious centers scattered around the city from old to newly built centers. There are mosques, churches, and synagogues where followers of these religions can practice their faith.

The Friday prayer
Jumu'ah
Jumu'ah is a congregational prayer that Muslims hold every Friday, just after noon in lieu of dhuhr...

 in Tehran is usually hosted by University of Tehran which is led by a Friday prayer leader and on special occasions by the Supreme Leader of Iran
Supreme Leader of Iran
The Supreme Leader of Iran is the highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The post was established by the constitution in accordance with the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists...

.
Hundreds of thousands of people participate in the prayers, during which the city of Tehran comes to a standstill.

Sister cities


Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

 Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

 London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

 Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

  Minsk
Minsk
- Ecological situation :The ecological situation is monitored by Republican Center of Radioactive and Environmental Control .During 2003–2008 the overall weight of contaminants increased from 186,000 to 247,400 tons. The change of gas as industrial fuel to mazut for financial reasons has worsened...

  Havana
Havana
Havana is the capital city, province, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. The city proper has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, and it spans a total of — making it the largest city in the Caribbean region, and the most populous...

  Dubai
Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

  Dushanbe
Dushanbe
-Economy:Coal, lead, and arsenic are mined nearby in the cities of Nurek and Kulob allowing for the industrialization of Dushanbe. The Nurek Dam, the world's highest as of 2008, generates 95% of Tajikistan's electricity, and another dam, the Roghun Dam, is planned on the Vakhsh River...

 Pretoria
Pretoria
Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the executive and de facto national capital; the others are Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital.Pretoria is...

 Caracas
Caracas
Caracas , officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela; natives or residents are known as Caraquenians in English . It is located in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range...

 Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

 Dhaka
Dhaka
Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka Division. Dhaka is a megacity and one of the major cities of South Asia. Located on the banks of the Buriganga River, Dhaka, along with its metropolitan area, had a population of over 15 million in 2010, making it the largest city...

  Brasília
Brasília
Brasília is the capital city of Brazil. The name is commonly spelled Brasilia in English. The city and its District are located in the Central-West region of the country, along a plateau known as Planalto Central. It has a population of about 2,557,000 as of the 2008 IBGE estimate, making it the...



Graffiti in Tehran



Many styles of Graffiti are seen in Tehran. Many are slogans painted by governmental organizations. In recent years Tehran Municipality has been using graffiti in order to beautify the city.

Events

  • The 7th Asian Games
    Asian Games
    The Asian Games, officially known as Asiad, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. The Games were regulated by the Asian Games Federation from the first Games in New Delhi, India, until the 1978 Games. Since the 1982 Games they have been organised by the...

     were held from September 1, 1974 to September 16, 1974 in Tehran, Iran
    Iran
    Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

    . The Azadi sports complex was made for the Games. The Asian Games were hosted in the Middle East for the first time. Tehran, the capital of Iran, played host to 3,010 athletes coming from 25 countries/NOCs, the highest number of participants since the inception of the Games.
  • The 1976 AFC Asian Cup
    1976 AFC Asian Cup
    -Group B:---------Knockout stage:-Semi-finals:-----Third place play-off:-Final:-Goalscorers:3 goals: Gholam Hossein Mazloumi Nasser Nouraei Fathi Kamel2 goals: Alireza Azizi Alireza Khorshidi Hassan Roshan...

     was the sixth edition of the Asian Nations Cup, the football (soccer) championship of Asia (AFC). It was hosted by Iran
    Iran
    Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

    . The field of six teams was split into two groups of three. Iran won their third title in a row, beating Kuwait
    Kuwait
    The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

     in the final 1-0.
  • The first West Asian Games
    West Asian Games
    West Asian Games are a bi-annual multi-sport event held among the athletes from West Asia.At present, WAG are joined by thirteen members namely Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.The West Asian Games were first...

     was first organized in Tehran from 19 to 28 November 1997. It was considered the first of their kind. The success of the games led to the creation of the West Asian Games Federation (WAGF) and the intention of hosting the games every two year.
  • Tehran was the host city for the 4th West Asian Games
    West Asian Games
    West Asian Games are a bi-annual multi-sport event held among the athletes from West Asia.At present, WAG are joined by thirteen members namely Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.The West Asian Games were first...

     in 20

See also


  • Architecture of Tehran
    Architecture of Tehran
    Tehran is a relatively old city. As such, it has an architectural tradition unique to itself.Despite the occurrence of earthquakes during the Qajar period and before, some build...

  • City Council of Tehran
    City Council of Tehran
    The City Council of Tehran is the elected council that presides over the city of Tehran, elects the Mayor of Tehran, and budgets of the Municipality of Tehran.The council is composed of fifteen members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms...

  • Graffiti in Tehran
    Graffiti in Tehran
    Graffiti in Tehran consists of different styles. Some are slogans painted by governmental organizations and some are works of art by citizens. during the last few years Tehran Municipality has been drawing graffiti in order to beautify the city. A large number of governmental graffiti is about the...

  • International rankings of Iran
  • Tehran International Fairgrounds
    Iran International Exhibitions Company
    The Iran International Exhibitions Company oversees and operates all international and specialized exhibitions held in Iran. Site features exhibitions calendar and provides trade laws and regulations. IIEC is affiliated with the Iranian Ministry of Commerce.IIEC is located at the Tehran permanent...

  • Tehran Stock Exchange
    Tehran Stock Exchange
    The Tehran Stock Exchange is Iran's largest stock exchange, which first opened in 1967. The TSE is based in Tehran. As of July 2010, 337 companies with a market capitalization of US$72 billion were listed on TSE...


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