Football at the 1936 Summer Olympics

Football at the 1936 Summer Olympics

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The 1936 Olympic football
Football (soccer)
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

 tournament
, won by Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, has come to share an affinity with the political backdrop against which it was being played; in terms of the history of football
History of football (soccer)
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, can be traced to as far back as the Medieval period in Britain . The modern game of association football originates from the formation of the The Football Association in London, England in 1863 based on multiple efforts to standardise...

, however, the tournament suffered as a reaction to the development of the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
The FIFA World Cup, often simply the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association , the sport's global governing body...

.

The introduction of the first FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
The FIFA World Cup, often simply the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association , the sport's global governing body...

 in 1930 (which had, in itself lead to the absence of a football tournament from the 1932 Games programme) lead to a devaluation in the strength of each subsequent Olympic football tournament. Competing nations would from now on only be permitted to play their best players if those players were amateur or (where national associations were assisted by interested states to traverse such a rule) where professional players were state-sponsored.

The reinstatement of Olympic football was ensured in 1936 because the German organisers were confident that such a competition would be justified by the income it would generate. The fear that any failure by the host side would result in a loss of income had been a matter of contention despite the fact that going into the competition Germany
Germany Olympic football team
The Germany national football team has been active since 1908, and first competed in the Olympic Games in 1912. Olympic football was originally an amateur sport, and as the pre-World War II German national team was also amateur, it was able to send a full national team to the games. After the war,...

 were one of the favourites. (They had only lost at home once in three years). In the event, the early failure of the national side did nothing to deter the supporters, as the bronze and gold medal games were watched by a combined total of 195,000 people.

Background


The Italian side, victors in the 1934 FIFA World Cup
1934 FIFA World Cup
The 1934 FIFA World Cup was the second FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in Italy from 27 May to 10 June 1934....

 and managed by Vittorio Pozzo
Vittorio Pozzo
Vittorio Pozzo 21 December 1968) was an Italian football coach who was most famous for leading the Italian national team to victory in the 1934 FIFA World Cup and 1938 FIFA World Cups; managed the side that won the 1930 and 1935 editions of the Central European International Cup, as well as the...

 were favourites.

Medalists


Bruno Venturini
Bruno Venturini
Bruno Venturini was an Italian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was a member of the Italian team, which won the gold medal in the football tournament.-External links:*...


Alfredo Foni
Alfredo Foni
Alfredo Foni was an Italian footballer in the 1930s and later on a coach. He was born in Udine....


Pietro Rava
Pietro Rava
Pietro Rava was an Italian football defender and coach. He won the 1936 Summer Olympics and the 1938 FIFA World Cup with the Italian national team....


Giuseppe Baldo
Giuseppe Baldo
Giuseppe Baldo was an Italian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was a member of the Italian team, which won the gold medal in the football tournament.-External links:*...


Achille Piccini
Achille Piccini
Achille Piccini was an Italian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics....


Ugo Locatelli
Ugo Locatelli
Ugo Locatelli was an international footballer for Italy who won a Gold medal at the 1936 Summer Olympics and a winner's medal at the 1938 FIFA World Cup.Locatelli was born in Toscolano-Maderno, near Brescia, Lombardy...


Annibale Frossi
Annibale Frossi
Annibale Frossi was an Italian footballer.Frossi is perhaps best known for wearing correctional glasses during his playing years after suffering from myopia from when he was a child...


Libero Marcjhini
Luigi Scarabello
Luigi Scarabello
Luigi Scarabello was an Italian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was a member of the Italian team, which won the gold medal in the football tournament.-External links:*...


Carlo Biagi
Carlo Biagi
Carlo Biagi was an Italian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics. He was a member of the Italy team which won the gold medal in the football tournament and played club football for Pisa SC....


Giulio Cappelli
Giulio Cappelli
Giulio Cappelli was an Italian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was a member of the Italian team, which won the gold medal in the football tournament.-External links:**...


Sergio Bertoni
Sergio Bertoni
Sergio Bertoni was an Italian football player in striker role, and later manager.Born in Pisa, he played for Pisa Calcio and Genoa C.F.C. ....


Alfonso Negro
Alfonso Negro
Alfonso Negro was an American-born Italian soccer player who is believed to be the first American-born player in Serie A and the first American-born player to have play for Italy....


Francesco Gabriotti
Francesco Gabriotti
Francesco Gabriotti was an Italian association football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was a member of the Italian team, which won the gold medal in the football tournament.-External links:...


Franz Fuchsberger
Franz Fuchsberger
Franz Fuchsberger was an Austrian footballer who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.-International career:He was part of the Austrian team, which won the silver medal in the football tournament...

 
Max Hofmeister
Max Hofmeister
Max Hofmeister was an Austrian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was part of the Austrian team, which won the silver medal in the football tournament. He played all four matches as midfielder. Hofmeister died in the early-to-mid 1940s, most probably in combat during World...

 
Eduard Kainberger
Eduard Kainberger
Eduard "Edi" Kainberger was an Austrian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics....


Karl Kainberger
Karl Kainberger
Karl Kainberger was an Austrian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics....


Martin Kargl
Martin Kargl
Martin Kargl was an Austrian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was part of the Austrian team, which won the silver medal in the football tournament. He played all four matches as defender.-External links:*...


Josef Kitzmüller
Josef Kitzmüller
Josef Kitzmüller was an Austrian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was part of the Austrian team, which won the silver medal in the football tournament. He played two matches as forward.-External links:*...


Anton Krenn
Anton Krenn
Anton Krenn was an Austrian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was part of the Austrian team, which won the silver medal in the football tournament. He played all four matches as midfielder.-External links:...


Ernst Künz
Ernst Künz
Ernst Künz was an Austrian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was part of the Austrian team, which won the silver medal in the football tournament. He played all four matches as defender. He died in World War II-External links:*...


Adolf Laudon
Adolf Laudon
Adolf Laudon was an Austrian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was part of the Austrian team, which won the silver medal in the football tournament. He played all four matches as forward and scored one goal.-External links:*...


Franz Mandl
Franz Mandl
Franz Mandl was an Austrian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics....


Klement Steinmetz
Klement Steinmetz
Klement Steinmetz was an Austrian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was part of the Austrian team, which won the silver medal in the football tournament. He played three matches as forward and scored three goals.-External links:*...


Karl Wahlmüller 
Walter Werginz
Walter Werginz
Walter Werginz was an Austrian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was part of the Austrian team, which won the silver medal in the football tournament. He played all four matches as forward and scored two goalsWerginz was killed in the Second World War in Russia.-External...


Henry Johansen
Henry Johansen
Henry "Tippen" Johansen was a Norwegian professional football goalkeeper.-Club career:On club level, he played for Vålerenga from 1923–46.-International career:...


Fredrik Horn
Fredrik Horn
Fredrik Horn was a Norwegian association football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was a member of the Norwegian team, which won the bronze medal in the football tournament.-External links:*...


Nils Eriksen
Nils Eriksen
Nils Kristian "Påsan" Eriksen was a Norwegian football player.At the 1936 Summer Olympics he was a member of the Norwegian team which won the bronze medal in the football tournament. He also took part in the 1938 FIFA World Cup...


Frithjof Ulleberg
Frithjof Ulleberg
Frithjof Ulleberg was a Norwegian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was a member of the Norwegian team, which won the bronze medal in the football tournament....


Jørgen Juve
Jørgen Juve
Jørgen Juve was a Norwegian football player. He played as a striker for Lyn, and also for the Norwegian national team. He is still the highest scoring player ever for Norway, with 33 goals out of just 45 games...


Rolf Holmberg
Rolf Holmberg
Rolf Holmberg was a Norwegian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was a member of the Norwegian team, which won the bronze medal in the football tournament....


Sverre Hansen
Magnar Isaksen
Magnar Isaksen
Magnar Nikolai Isaksen was a Norwegian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was a member of the Norwegian team, which won the bronze medal in the football tournament....


Alf Martinsen
Alf Martinsen
Alf "Kaka" Martinsen was a Norwegian football player.At the 1936 Summer Olympics he was a member of the Norwegian team, which won the bronze medal in the football tournament...


Reidar Kvammen
Reidar Kvammen
Reidar Kvammen was a Norwegian footballer. Kvammen was an inside-forward who played his entire career for Viking, and is regarded as one of Norway's greatest footballers of all time. Kvammen was the first Norwegian footballer to reach 50 caps...


Arne Brustad
Arne Brustad
Arne Brustad was a Norwegian footballer. He is regarded as one of the country's best players of all time.Brustad was an outside-left for Lyn. He won 33 caps for Norway, and scored 17 international goals...


Øivind Holmsen
Øivind Holmsen
Øivind Holmsen was a Norwegian international footballer. He played left back for Lyn and the 1936 Olympic bronze team. He also played in the 1938 FIFA World Cup, and got 36 caps in total.-External links:*...


Odd Frantzen
Odd Frantzen
Odd Frantzen was a Norwegian football player from Bergen who played for SK Hardy. He was capped 20 times for Norway, and scored five international goals. He was a member of Norway's bronze medal winning side at the 1936 Summer Olympics, and also played in the 1938 World Cup...


Magdalon Monsen
Magdalon Monsen
Magdalon Monsen was a Norwegian football player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics.He was a member of the Norwegian team, which won the bronze medal in the football tournament.-External links:*...


Final tournament


The competition began in dramatic circumstances. The Italians, winners against the Americans at the 1934 World Cup now found the Olympic side, with ten changes, a completely different proposition. The Azzurri
Azzurri
Azzurri is the Italian plural form of azzurro, light blue . Light blue was the official color of the Savoia family, Italy's monarchs until 1946. For this reason azure is the color usually worn by Italians in sport events....

 included players such as Alfredo Foni
Alfredo Foni
Alfredo Foni was an Italian footballer in the 1930s and later on a coach. He was born in Udine....

, Pietro Rava
Pietro Rava
Pietro Rava was an Italian football defender and coach. He won the 1936 Summer Olympics and the 1938 FIFA World Cup with the Italian national team....

 and Ugo Locatelli
Ugo Locatelli
Ugo Locatelli was an international footballer for Italy who won a Gold medal at the 1936 Summer Olympics and a winner's medal at the 1938 FIFA World Cup.Locatelli was born in Toscolano-Maderno, near Brescia, Lombardy...

, who would all play in their World Cup victory in Paris. That they eventually prevailed was due to two incidents: the first when their bespectacled forward Frossi scored, the second when Weingartner, the German referee, was literally restrained from sending off Archille Piccini after fouling two Americans. Italian players held both his arms and covered his mouth in protest. Piccini stayed on the park, Italy won.

This was something more than Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 managed in their tie with Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 the next day in Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

. Two-nil up within 45 minutes, their demise was shockingly recorded by the legendary Swedish commentator, Sven Jerring, calling “Japanese, Japanese, Japanese” (Japaner, japaner, japaner…) as they ran out as winners 3-2. It marked the first time an Asian side had participated in either the World Cup or Olympic Games football competition and the first time an Asian side emerged victorious. Their neighbours, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

, lost 0-2 to Great Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

 on the next day. Otherwise there were thumping wins for Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

 and the hosts, 9-0 versus Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Luxembourg , officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg , is a landlocked country in western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. It has two principal regions: the Oesling in the North as part of the Ardennes massif, and the Gutland in the south...

.

First round



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Quarter finals


Italy
Italy national football team
The Italy National Football Team , represents Italy in association football and is controlled by the Italian Football Federation , the governing body for football in Italy. Italy is the second most successful national team in the history of the World Cup having won four titles , just one fewer than...

, now finding their feet against Japan, (and having made but one change to their team) made no mistake in their tie, winning as comprehensively as they had struggled against the Americans. Pozzo’s decision to include Biagi bore instant fruit, Baigi scoring 4 half goals.

The same day at the Poststadion
Poststadion
The Poststadion is a multi-use stadium in the Moabit district of Berlin, Germany, built in 1929 for the sports club of the German Reichspost at the site of a former Prussian Uhlan parade ground. A designated landmark since 1990, its stands and terrace are currently under reconstruction...

, Berlin before a crowd that included Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
Paul Joseph Goebbels was a German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. As one of Adolf Hitler's closest associates and most devout followers, he was known for his zealous oratory and anti-Semitism...

, Goering, Hess
Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Walter Richard Hess was a prominent Nazi politician who was Adolf Hitler's deputy in the Nazi Party during the 1930s and early 1940s...

 and Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

, Germany were knocked out 2-0 by Norway
Norway national football team
The Norway national football team represents Norway in association football and is controlled by the Football Association of Norway, the governing body for football in Norway. Norway's home ground is Ullevaal Stadion in Oslo and their head coach is Egil Olsen...

. Goebbels wrote: 'The Führer is very excited, I can barely contain myself. A real bath of nerves.' There was no real surprise to the result to those outside the higher ranks of the Third Reich. Norway, went onto give Italy a tricky tie in the first round of the 1938 FIFA World Cup
1938 FIFA World Cup
The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third staging of the World Cup, and was held in France from 4 June to 19 June. Italy retained the championship, beating Hungary 4–2 in the final.-Host selection:...

. But Germany lost 2-0 and Hitler, who had never seen a football match before, and had originally planned to watch the rowing, left early in a huff. http://www.guardian.co.uk/sydney/story/0,,366607,00.html The following day at the Hertha Platz, Austria
Austria national football team
The Austria national football team is the association football team that represents the country of Austria in international competition and is controlled by the Austrian Football Association ....

 played Peru in an astonishing game leading to a huge political row not out of keeping with the times.

The match was highly contested, and the game went into overtime when the Peruvians tied the Austrians after being two goals behind. Peru scored 5 goals during overtime, of which 3 were nullified by the referee, and won by the final score of 4-2. The Austrians demanded a rematch on the grounds that Peruvian fans had stormed the field, and because the field did not meet the requirements for a football game. Austria further claimed that the Peruvian players had manhandled the Austrian players and that spectators, one holding a revolver, had "swarmed down on the field." Peru was notified of this situation, and they attempted to go to the assigned meeting but were delayed by a German parade. At the end, the Peruvian defense was never heard, and the Olympic Committee and FIFA
FIFA
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association , commonly known by the acronym FIFA , is the international governing body of :association football, futsal and beach football. Its headquarters are located in Zurich, Switzerland, and its president is Sepp Blatter, who is in his fourth...

 sided with the Austrians. The rematch was scheduled to be taken under close grounds on August 10, and later re-scheduled to be taken on August 11.

As a sign of protest against these actions, which the Peruvians deemed as insulting and discriminatory, the complete Olympic delegations of Peru and Colombia
Colombia national football team
The Colombian national football team represents Colombia in international football competitions and is controlled by the Colombian Football Federation. It is a member of the CONMEBOL...

 left Germany. Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Mexico expressed their solidarity with Peru. Michael Dasso, a member of the Peruvian Olympic Committee, stated: "We've no faith in European athletics. We have come here and found a bunch of merchants." The game was awarded to Austria by default. In Peru, angry crowds protested against the decisions of the Olympic Committee by tearing down an Olympic flag, throwing stones at the German consulate, refusing to load German vessels in the docks of Callao
Callao
Callao is the largest and most important port in Peru. The city is coterminous with the Constitutional Province of Callao, the only province of the Callao Region. Callao is located west of Lima, the country's capital, and is part of the Lima Metropolitan Area, a large metropolis that holds almost...

, and listening to inflammatory speeches which included President Oscar Benavides Larrea's mention of "the crafty Berlin decision." To this day, it is not known with certainty what exactly happened at Germany, but it is popularly believed that Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

 and the Nazi authorities might have had some involvement in this situation.

The last of the quarter-finals had all of the excitement but none of the fall-out; Poland, assisted by their forward, Hubert Gad
Hubert Gad
Hubert Gad, also known as Hubert God was a Polish soccer player, a very skilled and aggressive forward, who for a while was the top scorer of Poland....

, played out a nine-goal party to defeat the British side; at one time they were 5-1 to the better. The Casual
Casuals F.C.
Casuals F.C. were an amateur football club based in London, formed in 1878.They were founder members of the Isthmian League in 1905 and won the FA Amateur Cup in 1936....

's Bernard Joy
Bernard Joy
Bernard Joy was an English footballer and journalist. He is notable for being the last amateur player to play for the England national football team.-Biography:...

 scored two as Britain fought back gamely but they ran out of time. Prior to the Games Daniel Pettit
Daniel Pettit
Sir Daniel Eric Arthur Pettit was an English footballer and industrialist.Having graduated from Quarry Bank High School in 1934, Pettit made a name for himself playing amateur football for Cambridge University, where he was reading History at Fitzwilliam House...

 received a letter from the Football Association
The Football Association
The Football Association, also known as simply The FA, is the governing body of football in England, and the Crown Dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. It was formed in 1863, and is the oldest national football association...

 which dealt mostly with the uniform he would wear. As he explained to the academic Rachel Cutler there was a handwritten PS that said: 'As there is a month to go before we leave for Berlin kindly take some exercise.' The obedient Petit ran around his local park.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/sydney/story/0,,366607,00.html
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Replay

1 Due to a pitch invasion, the match was declared null and void, and ordered to be replayed on August 10. Peru objected to the replay decision and withdrew from the tournament.

Semi finals



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Bronze medal match



The Final (Gold medal match)


Italy now overcame Norway in a match refereed by Dr Peco Bauwens; the Austrians having defeated Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 to attend the final. Not that there was much in it; Frossi again scoring for the Azzuri and getting the winner just as extra-time got underway.

Bracket