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Fisheries science

Fisheries science

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Fisheries science is the academic discipline of managing and understanding fisheries. It is a multidisciplinary science, which draws on the disciplines of oceanography
Oceanography
Oceanography , also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean...

, marine biology
Marine biology
Marine biology is the scientific study of organisms in the ocean or other marine or brackish bodies of water. Given that in biology many phyla, families and genera have some species that live in the sea and others that live on land, marine biology classifies species based on the environment rather...

, marine conservation
Marine conservation
Marine conservation, also known as marine resources conservation, is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas. Marine conservation focuses on limiting human-caused damage to marine ecosystems, and on restoring damaged marine ecosystems...

, ecology
Ecology
Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount , number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems...

, population dynamics
Population dynamics of fisheries
A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial or recreational value. Fisheries can be wild or farmed. Population dynamics describes the ways in which a given population grows and shrinks over time, as controlled by birth, death, and...

, economics
Economics
Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek from + , hence "rules of the house"...

 and management
Management
Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively...

 to attempt to provide an integrated picture of fisheries. In some cases new disciplines have emerged, as in the case of bioeconomics
Bioeconomics
Bioeconomics is closely related to the early development of theories in fisheries economics, initially in the mid 1950s by Canadian economists Scott Gordon and Anthony Scott...

.

Fisheries science is typically taught in a university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

 setting, and can be the focus of an undergraduate, master's
Master's degree
A master's is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice...

 or Ph.D.
Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated as Ph.D., PhD, D.Phil., or DPhil , in English-speaking countries, is a postgraduate academic degree awarded by universities...

 program. Some universities offer fully integrated programs in fisheries science.

Notable contributors



  • Spencer F. Baird – founding scientist of the United States Fish Commission
    United States Fish Commission
    The United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries was established on February 9, 1871 , as an independent commission with a mandate to investigate the causes for the decrease of commercial fish and aquatic animals in U.S...

  • Ludwig von Bertalanffy
    Ludwig von Bertalanffy
    Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy was an Austrian-born biologist known as one of the founders of general systems theory . GST is an interdisciplinary practice that describes systems with interacting components, applicable to biology, cybernetics, and other fields...

     – Austrian
    Austrians
    Austrians are a nation and ethnic group, consisting of the population of the Republic of Austria and its historical predecessor states who share a common Austrian culture and Austrian descent....

    -born biologist and a founder of general systems theory
  • Ray Beverton
    Ray Beverton
    Raymond John Heaphy Beverton, CBE, FRS was an important founder of fisheries science. He is best known for the book On the Dynamics of Exploited Fish Populations which he wrote with Sidney Holt. The book is a cornerstone of modern fisheries science and remains much used today...

     – English fisheries biologist; known for the Beverton–Holt model (with Sidney Holt
    Sidney Holt
    Sidney J. Holt is an important founder of fisheries science. He is best known for the book On the Dynamics of Exploited Fish Populations which he published with Ray Beverton in 1957. The book is a cornerstone of modern fisheries science and remains much used today. Holt served with the FAO in 1953...

    ), credited with being one of the founders of fisheries science
  • Villy Christensen
    Villy Christensen
    Villy Christensen is an ecosystem modeller with a background in fisheries science. He is known for his work as a project leader and core developer of Ecopath, an ecosystem modelling software system widely used in fisheries management. Ecopath was initially an initiative of the NOAA, but since...

     – fisheries scientist and ecosystem model
    Ecosystem model
    An ecosystem model is an abstract, usually mathematical, representation of an ecological system , which is studied to gain a deeper understanding of the real system.Ecosystem models are formed by combining known ecological relations An ecosystem model is an abstract, usually mathematical,...

    er, known for his work on the development of Ecopath
    Ecopath
    Ecopath with Ecosim is a free ecosystem modelling software suite. It was initially a NOAA initiative led by Jeffrey Polovina, but since primarily developed at the Fisheries Centre of the University of British Columbia. In 2007, it was named as one of the ten biggest scientific breakthroughs in...

  • John N. Cobb
    John N. Cobb
    John Nathan Cobb was an author, naturalist, conservationist, canneryman, and educator who attained a high position in academia without the benefit of a college education...

     – founder of the first college of fisheries in the United States, the University of Washington College of Fisheries, in 1919
  • David Cushing
    David Cushing
    David Henry Cushing FRS was an English born fisheries biologist, who is credited with the development the match/mismatch hypothesis as an explanation for reduced fish stocks as associated with climate change. As opposed to other important fisheries biologists, such as Daniel Pauly and Carl J...

     – English born fisheries biologist, who is credited with the development of the match/mismatch
    Match/mismatch
    The match/mismatch hypothesis as described by Durant et al. , “seeks to explain recruitment variation in a population by means of the relation between its phenology—the timing of seasonal activities such as flowering or breeding - and that of species at the immediate lower level”...

     hypothesis
  • Rainer Froese
    Rainer Froese
    Rainer Froese, born 25 August 1950, is a senior scientist at the Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences in Kiel and a Pew Fellow in Marine Conservation. He obtained an MSc in Biology in 1985 at the University of Kiel and a PhD in Biology in 1990 from the University of Hamburg...

     – Known for his work on the development and coordination of FishBase
    FishBase
    FishBase is a comprehensive database of information about fish species . It is the largest and most extensively accessed online database on adult finfish on the web...

  • Gotthilf Hempel
    Gotthilf Hempel
    Gotthilf Hempel is a retired German marine biologist and oceanographer.Hempel studied biology and geology at the universities of Mainz and Heidelberg. In 1952 he gained his Ph.D. with a study on the energetics of grasshopper jumps from Heidelberg University...

     – German
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

     marine biologist and oceanographer, and co-founder of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research
    The Alfred Wegener Institute of Polar and Marine Research is a scientific organization located in Bremerhaven, Germany. The institute was founded in 1980 and is named after revolutionary meteorologist climatologist, and geologist Alfred Wegener...

  • Walther Herwig
    Walther Herwig
    Walther Herwig was a Prussian administrative lawyer, and the founder of the German fisheries science....

     – Prussian lawyer and promoter of high seas fishing and research
  • Ray Hilborn
    Ray Hilborn
    Ray Hilborn is a marine biologist and fisheries scientist, known for his work on conservation and natural resource management in the context of fisheries.He is currently professor of aquatic and fishery science at the University of Washington...

     – Canadian-born fisheries biologist, with strong contributions towards fisheries management
    Fisheries management
    Fisheries management draws on fisheries science in order to find ways to protect fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible. Modern fisheries management is often referred to as a governmental system of appropriate management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management...

  • Johan Hjort
    Johan Hjort
    Johan Hjort FRS was a Norwegian fisheries scientist, marine zoologist, and oceanographer. He was among the most prominent and influential marine zoologists of his time.- The early years :...

     – Norwegian
    Norway
    Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

     fisheries biologist, marine zoologist, and oceanographer
  • Bruno Hofer
    Bruno Hofer
    Bruno Hofer was a German fishery scientist, credited with being the founder of fish pathology.-Career:Hofer was born in Rhein in East Prussia in 1861, and studied Natural Sciences in Königsberg followed by a habilitation thesis in Munich, for which he carried out limnologic studies on East...

     – German
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

     fishery scientist, credited with being the founder of fish pathology
  • Sidney Holt
    Sidney Holt
    Sidney J. Holt is an important founder of fisheries science. He is best known for the book On the Dynamics of Exploited Fish Populations which he published with Ray Beverton in 1957. The book is a cornerstone of modern fisheries science and remains much used today. Holt served with the FAO in 1953...

     – English fisheries biologist; known for the Beverton–Holt model (with Ray Beverton
    Ray Beverton
    Raymond John Heaphy Beverton, CBE, FRS was an important founder of fisheries science. He is best known for the book On the Dynamics of Exploited Fish Populations which he wrote with Sidney Holt. The book is a cornerstone of modern fisheries science and remains much used today...

    ), credited with being one of the founders of fisheries science
  • Uwe Kils
    Uwe Kils
    Uwe Kils is a German marine biologist specializing in Antarctic biology.-Career:His work led to the development of instruments for in situ observation of underwater fauna, including the ecoSCOPE and the first software for full speed video processing...

     – German
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

     marine biologist specializing in planktology
    Planktology
    Planktology is the study of plankton, various microorganisms that inhabit bodies of water. The field encompasses a variety of topics, including primary production, and energy flow. The carbon cycle is a recent area of interest....

    . Inventor of the ecoSCOPE
    EcoSCOPE
    The ecoSCOPE is an optical sensor system, deployed from a small remotely operated vehicle or fibre optic cable, to investigate behavior and microdistribution of small organisms in the ocean.-Deployment:...

  • Leo Margolis
    Leo Margolis
    Leo Margolis, OC, FRSC was a Canadian parasitologist. He was a pioneer in the use of parasites for identification of Pacific Ocean fish stocks...

     – Canadian parasitologist and head of the Pacific Biological Station in Nanaimo, British Columbia
    Nanaimo, British Columbia
    Nanaimo is a city on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. It has been dubbed the "Bathtub Racing Capital of the World" and "Harbour City". Nanaimo is also sometimes referred to as the "Hub City" because of its central location on Vancouver Island and due to the layout of the downtown...

  • R. J. McKay
    R. J. McKay
    R. J. McKay is an Australia-born biologist known for his work in exotic and translocated freshwater fish in Australia. McKay is curator of fishes at the Queensland Museum and his work has been quoted extensively...

     – Australian-born biologist and a specialist in translocated freshwater fishes
  • Ransom A. Myers
    Ransom A. Myers
    Dr. Ransom Aldrich "Ram" Myers, Jr. was a world-renowned marine biologist and conservationist.He was the son of cotton planter, Ransom Aldrich Myers, Sr. and Fay A. Mitchell Myers...

     – Canadian marine biologist and conservationist
  • Daniel Pauly
    Daniel Pauly
    Daniel Pauly is a French-born marine biologist, well-known for his work in studying human impacts on global fisheries. He is a professor and the project leader of the Sea Around Us Project at the Fisheries Centre at the University of British Columbia. He also served as Director of the Fisheries...

     – prominent French
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

    -born fisheries scientist, known for his work studying human impacts on global fisheries
  • Tony J. Pitcher
    Tony J. Pitcher
    Tony J Pitcher is a fisheries scientist, well-known for his work on the impacts of fishing, the management appraisal of fisheries, and how shoaling behaviour impacts fisheries....

     – known for work on the impacts of fishing, management appraisals and the shoaling behavior
    Shoaling and schooling
    In biology, any group of fish that stay together for social reasons are said to be shoaling , and if, in addition, the group is swimming in the same direction in a coordinated manner, they are said to be schooling . In common usage, the terms are sometimes used rather loosely...

     of fish
  • Michael A. Rice
    Michael A. Rice
    Michael Alan Rice, is an American professor of fisheries and aquaculture at the University of Rhode Island and former state representative from South Kingstown, Rhode Island...

     – American known for work on molluscan fisheries
  • Bill Ricker
    Bill Ricker
    William Edwin Ricker, OC, FRSC is an important founder of fisheries science. He is best known for the Ricker model, which he developed in his studies of stock and recruitment in fisheries. The model can be used to predict the number of fish that will be present in a fishery...

     – Canadian fisheries biologist, known for the Ricker model
    Ricker model
    The Ricker model, named after Bill Ricker, is a classic discrete population model which gives the expected number a t+1 of individuals in generation t + 1 as a function of the number of individuals in the previous generation,Here r is interpreted as an intrinsic growth rate and k as...

    , credited with being one of the founders of fisheries science
  • Ed Ricketts
    Ed Ricketts
    Edward Flanders Robb Ricketts commonly known as Ed Ricketts, was an American marine biologist, ecologist, and philosopher...

     – a colourful American
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

     marine biologist and philosopher who introduced ecology
    Ecology
    Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount , number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems...

     to fisheries science.
  • Callum Roberts
    Callum Roberts
    Callum Roberts is a marine conservation biologist, oceanographer, author and research scholar at the University of York, England.His work examines the impact of human activity on marine ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. In St. Lucia and Saba in the Caribbean, he has studied the effects of...

     – British
    British people
    The British are citizens of the United Kingdom, of the Isle of Man, any of the Channel Islands, or of any of the British overseas territories, and their descendants...

     marine conservation biologist, known for his work on the role marine reserves play in protecting marine ecosystems
  • Harald Rosenthal
    Harald Rosenthal
    Harald Rosenthal is a German hydrobiologist and fisheries scientist known for his work in fish farming, ecology, and international cooperation.-Life:...

     – German hydrobiologist known for his work in fish farming
    Fish farming
    Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture, while other methods may fall under mariculture. Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures, usually for food. A facility that releases young fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species'...

     and ecology
  • Carl Safina
    Carl Safina
    Carl Safina is president and co-founder of the , and author of several writings on marine ecology and the ocean, including the award winning and .-Biography:...

     – author of several writings on marine ecology and the ocean
  • Georg Ossian Sars – Norwegian marine biologist credited with the discovery of a number of new species and known for his analysis of cod
    Cod
    Cod is the common name for genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae, and is also used in the common name for various other fishes. Cod is a popular food with a mild flavor, low fat content and a dense, flaky white flesh. Cod livers are processed to make cod liver oil, an important source of...

     fisheries
  • Tore Schweder
    Tore Schweder
    Tore Schweder is a Norwegian statistician and is a professor at the Department of Economics and at the Centre for Ecology and Evolutionary Synthesis at the University of Oslo. Schweder has worked with scientists in a number of fields, including medicine, demography, sociology, economics, ecology,...

     – Norwegian statistician
    Statistician
    A statistician is someone who works with theoretical or applied statistics. The profession exists in both the private and public sectors. The core of that work is to measure, interpret, and describe the world and human activity patterns within it...

     whose work includes the assessment of marine resources
  • Milner Baily Schaefer
    Milner Baily Schaefer
    Milner Baily Schaefer was born in Cheyenne, Wyoming, in 1912 and died at the age of 57 in San Diego, California in 1970. He is notable for his work on the population dynamics of fisheries....

     – notable for his work on the population dynamics of fisheries
    Population dynamics of fisheries
    A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial or recreational value. Fisheries can be wild or farmed. Population dynamics describes the ways in which a given population grows and shrinks over time, as controlled by birth, death, and...

  • Ussif Rashid Sumaila
    Ussif Rashid Sumaila
    Ussif Rashid Sumaila is an associate professor of economics at the University of British Columbia, Canada, and the Director of the Fisheries Centre and Fisheries Economics Research Unit at the UBC Fisheries Centre...

      – noted for his analysis of the economic aspects of fisheries
  • Fred Utter
    Fred M. Utter
    Fred Utter, Ph. D., is an affiliate professor in the School of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences at the University of Washington. Considered the founding father of fishery genetics, in 1959 he began work in the ancestor laboratory of the NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center fishery genetics...

     – noted as the founding father of the field of fishery genetics
  • Carl Walters
    Carl Walters
    Carl Walters is an American born biologist known for his work involving fisheries stock assessments, the adaptive management concept, and ecosystem modeling. Walters has been a professor of Zoology and Fisheries at the University of British Columbia since 1969...

     – American born biologist known for his work involving fisheries stock assessments, the adaptive management concept, and ecosystem model
    Ecosystem model
    An ecosystem model is an abstract, usually mathematical, representation of an ecological system , which is studied to gain a deeper understanding of the real system.Ecosystem models are formed by combining known ecological relations An ecosystem model is an abstract, usually mathematical,...

    ing

Professional societies


Journals


Some journals about fisheries are



See also

  • Aquaculture
    Aquaculture
    Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the...

  • Fisheries management
    Fisheries management
    Fisheries management draws on fisheries science in order to find ways to protect fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible. Modern fisheries management is often referred to as a governmental system of appropriate management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management...


Fisheries and aquaculture research institutes
  • International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
    The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea is the world’s oldest intergovernmental science organization. ICES is headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark, where its multinational Secretariat staff of 51 provide scientific, administrative and secretarial support to the ICES community...


External links