Fernando José Mendes Rosas
is a Portuguese
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...
historian and politician.
Early life and education
Rosas was born on the April 18, 1946. He studied at the Pedro Nunes
Pedro Nunes , was a Portuguese mathematician, cosmographer, and professor, from a New Christian family. Nunes, considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of his time , is best known for his contributions in the technical field of navigation, which was crucial to the Portuguese period of...
high school, and in 1961, he joined the school's Portuguese Communist Party
The Portuguese Communist Party is a major left-wing political party in Portugal. It is a Marxist-Leninist party, and its organization is based upon democratic centralism. The party also considers itself to be patriotic and internationalist....
organization, a party for which he was later a militant.
He entered University of Lisbon's Faculty of Law where he remained as an active militant. He was arrested in the repressive wave of January, 1965, while he was directing the student's association of his Faculty. The Estado Novo
arrested dozens of activists from the main board of student resistance. He was tried and convicted in 1965. He served for a year and three months at a correctional facility. As he left this facility he dedicated himself to supporting activities for arrested politicians.
The events of May 1968, and the Soviet
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....
invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992...
, in August of the same year, led him to opt for the abandonment of the Communist Party. He participated in Portugal's first public manifestation against the War of Vietnam
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...
, supported by sectors that were linked to the Student's Democratic Left-Wing, organization which he helped found in late 1968. It was as a politician responsible for this party that he organized the 1969 manifestations in Lisbon. The second manifestation (with its epicenter in Coimbra
Coimbra is a city in the municipality of Coimbra in Portugal. Although it served as the nation's capital during the High Middle Ages, it is better-known for its university, the University of Coimbra, which is one of the oldest in Europe and the oldest academic institution in the...
, this time) also has his participation.
In August 1971, he was arrested for the second time and led to the headquarters of the PIDE
In 1969, Marcello Caetano changed the name PIDE to DGS . The death of Salazar and the subsequent ascension of Caetano brought some attempts at democratization, in order to avoid popular insurgency against censorship, the ongoing colonial war and the general restriction of civil rights...
. He was submitted to sleep torture for several days and then the courts of the regime convicted him to 14 months at a correctional facility.
When he was freed again, he returned to the anti-fascist activism
Activism consists of intentional efforts to bring about social, political, economic, or environmental change. Activism can take a wide range of forms from writing letters to newspapers or politicians, political campaigning, economic activism such as boycotts or preferentially patronizing...
. In March, 1973, he actively supported the campaign for the accusation of the murder of African Nationalist Politician Amílcar Cabral
Amílcar Lopes da Costa Cabral was a Guinea-Bissauan and Cape Verdean agricultural engineer, writer, and a nationalist thinker and politician. Also known by his nom de guerre Abel Djassi, Cabral led the nationalist movement of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde Islands and the ensuing war of independence...
. After a new prison attempt by the PIDE, he escaped and went "underground
A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to opposing an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign state. It may seek to achieve its objects through either the use of nonviolent resistance or the use of armed force...
" until the Carnation Revolution
The Carnation Revolution , also referred to as the 25 de Abril , was a military coup started on 25 April 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, coupled with an unanticipated and extensive campaign of civil resistance...
on the April 25, 1974.
Up to 1979 he directed the "Luta Popular" newspaper ("People's struggle" in English). He represented this organization for the two times Ramalho Eanes ran for Presidency
The word presidency is often used to describe the administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation...
In 1981, Fernando Rosas returned to University and began dedicating himself to journalism
Journalism is the practice of investigation and reporting of events, issues and trends to a broad audience in a timely fashion. Though there are many variations of journalism, the ideal is to inform the intended audience. Along with covering organizations and institutions such as government and...
as a profession. He coordinated the history page of Diário de Notícias
Diário de Notícias is a Portuguese daily newspaper, founded in Lisbon, on December 29, 1864 by Tomás Quintino Antunes and Eduardo Coelho. It gradually became one of the best known Portuguese newspapers...
and its cultural supplement. His collaboration with DN was kept until 1992, a time when he integrated the fortnightly column of the pages of Público, another newspaper.
In 1986 he finished a Master's Degree
A master's is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice...
in Contemporary History
Contemporary history describes the period timeframe that is without any intervening time closely connected to the present and is a certain perspective of modern history. The term "contemporary history" has been in use at least by the early 19th century. In the widest context of this use,...
(19th and 20th century). He was invited as an assistant professor at the Faculty for Human and Social Sciences of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa. In 1990 he got his Ph.D.
Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated as Ph.D., PhD, D.Phil., or DPhil , in English-speaking countries, is a postgraduate academic degree awarded by universities...
and is today the president of the Instituto de História Contemporânea (Portugal's contemporary history institute), an historical consultant for the Mário Soares
Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares, GColTE, GCC, GColL, KE , Portuguese politician, served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1976 to 1978 and from 1983 to 1985, and subsequently as the 17th President of Portugal from 1986 to 1996.-Family:...
Foundation and the editor of História magazine.
In 1996, he belonged to the Political Committee for the presidential candidature of Portugal's current (2004) President Jorge Sampaio
In 1999, he helped found the Left Bloc
political party, whose Permanent Commission he leads.
In 2001 he ran for President of the Republic, supported by the Bloco de Esquerda. He got 2,9% of the vote
In 2006 he won the title "comendador da Grã-Cruz da Ordem da Liberdade"
Rosas was a deputy for Lisbon in the Assembly of the Republic
The Assembly of the Republic is the Portuguese parliament. It is located in a historical building in Lisbon, referred to as Palácio de São Bento, the site of an old Benedictine monastery...
from 1999 to 2002 and for Setubal since 2005.
- As primeiras eleições legislativas sob o Estado Novo : as eleições de 16 de Dezembro de 1934, Cadernos O Jornal, 1985
- O Estado Novo nos Anos 30, Lisbon, Estampa, 1986
- O salazarismo e a Aliança Luso-Britânica : estudos sobre a política externa do Estado Novo nos anos 30 a 40, Lisbon, Fragmentos 1988
- Salazar e o Salazarismo (with JM Brandão de Brito), Publicacoes Dom Quixote, 1989, ISBN 978-9722007580
- Portugal Entre a Paz e a Guerra (1939/45), Lisbon, Estampa, 1990
- Portugal e o Estado Novo (1930/60), Vol. XII (ed), Nova História de Portugal, (gen. ed. A. H. de Oliveira Marques
António Henrique Rodrigo de Oliveira Marques was a Portuguese historian.- Life :Oliveira Marques was born in the 'freguesia' of S...
e Joel Serra), Lisbon, Editorial Presença, 1992
- O Estado Novo (1926/74), vol. VII, História Portugal (ed. J. Mattoso), 1994
- Dicionário de História do Estado Novo (with JM Brandão de Brito, ed.), Lisbon, Bertrand Editora, 1996
- Portugal e a Guerra Civil de Espanha (ed), Colibri, 1996, ISBN 978-9727720163
- Armindo Monteiro e Oliveira Salazar : correspondência política, 1926-1955 (ed.), Lisbon, Estampa, 1996, ISBN 978-9723311822
- Salazarismo e Fomento Económico, Lisbon, Noticias, 2000
- Portugal Século XX : Pensamento e Acção Política, Lisbon, Noticias, 2004
- Lisboa Revolucionária, Lisbon, Tinta da China, 2007, ISBN 9789728955458
- História da Primeira República Portuguesa (with Maria Fernanda Rollo), Lisbon, Tinta da China, 2009, ISBN 9789728955984