Coimbra

Coimbra

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Coimbra is a city in the municipality of Coimbra
Coimbra Municipality
Coimbra is a municipality in central Portugal, whose core is the city of Coimbra. It is in the district of Coimbra, being the principal centre in the Centro region, the seat of the Baixo Mondego subregion and former capital of Portugal during the Middle Ages...

 in Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

. Although it served as the nation's capital during the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
The High Middle Ages was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries . The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, which by convention end around 1500....

, it is better-known for its university, the University of Coimbra, which is one of the oldest in Europe and the oldest academic institution in the Portuguese-speaking
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

 world.

According 2001 Census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

, provided by the Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 Instituto Nacional de Estatística
Instituto Nacional de Estatística
The Instituto Nacional de Estatística is the National Statistical Institute of Portugal. Its headquarters are located in Lisbon. It also calls itself Statistics Portugal in English. The first census in Portugal was carried out in 1864...

(National Institute of Statistics), the city proper had a population of 101,069. The city of Coimbra is one of the most important urban centres in Portugal (after the much larger cities of Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon is the capital city and largest city of Portugal with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of , making it the 9th most populous urban...

 and Porto
Porto
Porto , also known as Oporto in English, is the second largest city in Portugal and one of the major urban areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Its administrative limits include a population of 237,559 inhabitants distributed within 15 civil parishes...

), playing a central role in the northern-central littoral and interior of the country. It is the principal centre in the Centro region, the District of Coimbra and the Baixo Mondego
Baixo Mondego
Baixo Mondego is a Portuguese NUTS3 subregion that comprises the lower part of the Mondego River. It is a subregion of the Centro Region and is centered on the historical city of Coimbra...

 subregion.

There are many archaeological structures which date to the Roman era
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

, when Coimbra was the settlement of Aeminium
Aeminium
Aeminium was the ancient name of the city of Coimbra, in Portugal.The Romans founded the civitas of Aeminium in this place at the time of Augustus, which came under the protection of nearby Conimbriga situated some 15 km away to the south....

, such as its well-preserved aqueduct
Aqueduct
An aqueduct is a water supply or navigable channel constructed to convey water. In modern engineering, the term is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose....

 and cryptoporticus
Cryptoporticus
In Ancient Roman architecture a cryptoporticus is a covered corridor or passageway. The usual English is "cryptoportico". The cryptoportico is a semi-subterranean gallery whose vaulting supports portico structures aboveground and which is lit from openings at the tops of its arches...

. Similarly, buildings from the period when Coimbra served as the capital of Portugal (from 1131 to 1255) still remain. During the Late Middle-Ages, with its decline as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal
Kingdom of Portugal
The Kingdom of Portugal was Portugal's general designation under the monarchy. The kingdom was located in the west of the Iberian Peninsula, Europe and existed from 1139 to 1910...

, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre, helped by the University finally established there in 1537. The University
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

, one of the oldest in Europe, apart from attracting many European and international student
International student
According to Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development , international students are those who travel to a country different from their own for the purpose of tertiary study. Despite that, the definition of international students varies in each country in accordance to their own national...

s, is visited by tourists for its monuments and history.

History




The city, located over a hill by the river Mondego, was called Aeminium
Aeminium
Aeminium was the ancient name of the city of Coimbra, in Portugal.The Romans founded the civitas of Aeminium in this place at the time of Augustus, which came under the protection of nearby Conimbriga situated some 15 km away to the south....

in Roman times. During late Antiquity
Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world...

 it became the seat of a Diocesis
Roman province
In Ancient Rome, a province was the basic, and, until the Tetrarchy , largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of Italy...

 substituting the nearby city
City
A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.For example, in the U.S...

 of Conímbriga
Conímbriga
Conímbriga is one of the largest Roman settlements in Portugal, and is classified as a National Monument. Conímbriga lies 16 km from Coimbra and less than 2 km from Condeixa-a-Nova. The site also has a museum that displays objects found by archaeologists during their excavations,...

, which had been captured and partially plundered by invading Germanic peoples
Migration Period
The Migration Period, also called the Barbarian Invasions , was a period of intensified human migration in Europe that occurred from c. 400 to 800 CE. This period marked the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages...

 in 465 and 468, adopting later the name of the destroyed city. After the Roman city of Civita Aeminium, between 586 and 640, the Visigoths altered the name of the town to Emínio. The Moors occupied Coimbra  around the year 711, turning it into an important commercial link between the Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

 North
North
North is a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography.North is one of the four cardinal directions or compass points. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to east and west.By convention, the top side of a map is north....

 and Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 South
South
South is a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography.South is one of the four cardinal directions or compass points. It is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to east and west.By convention, the bottom side of a map is south....

. The city was reconquered by Ferdinand I of León
Ferdinand I of León
Ferdinand I , called the Great , was the Count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the King of León after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037. According to tradition, he was the first to have himself crowned Emperor of Spain , and his heirs carried on the tradition...

 in 1064.

After being reconquered
Reconquista
The Reconquista was a period of almost 800 years in the Middle Ages during which several Christian kingdoms succeeded in retaking the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula broadly known as Al-Andalus...

 by the Christians, Coimbra became the capital
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

 of a new County
County
A county is a jurisdiction of local government in certain modern nations. Historically in mainland Europe, the original French term, comté, and its equivalents in other languages denoted a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of a count A county is a jurisdiction of local government in certain...

 (County of Coimbra
County of Coimbra
The County of Coimbra was a political entity instituted as a subsidiary county for the prince Ardavast or Sisebuto son of King Wittiza until the fall of Visigothic Hispania by Abderraman III ruler of Al-Andalus. The first counts established a long and great dynasty which were several families and...

), governed by the Mozarab
Mozarab
The Mozarabs were Iberian Christians who lived under Arab Islamic rule in Al-Andalus. Their descendants remained unconverted to Islam, but did however adopt elements of Arabic language and culture...

 Sesnando (Sisnando Davides
Sisnando Davides
Sisnando Davides was a Mozarab nobleman and military leader of the Reconquista, born in Tentúgal, near Coimbra...

), later incorporated into the County of Portugal. In the mid-12th century, the first Portuguese King, Afonso Henriques, turned Coimbra into the capital of the new Kingdom
Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which the office of head of state is usually held until death or abdication and is often hereditary and includes a royal house. In some cases, the monarch is elected...

, a condition the city would keep until the year 1255. Many important monuments of the city date from this early period, like the Old Cathedral
Old Cathedral of Coimbra
The Old Cathedral of Coimbra is one of the most important Romanesque Roman Catholic buildings in Portugal. Construction of the Sé Velha began some time after the Battle of Ourique , when Count Afonso Henriques declared himself King of Portugal and chose Coimbra as capital...

, the Church of St. James (Igreja de Santiago) and the Santa Cruz Monastery
Santa Cruz Monastery
The Santa Cruz Monastery, The Santa Cruz Monastery, The Santa Cruz Monastery, (English: Monastery of the Holy Cross, Portuguese: Mosteiro de Santa Cruz, best known as Igreja (Church) de Santa Cruz is a National Monument in Coimbra, Portugal. Because the first two kings of Portugal are buried in the...

, which was the most important Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 monastic institution at the time.

As early as the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, Coimbra was divided into an upper city (Cidade Alta or Almedina), where the aristocracy
Aristocracy
Aristocracy , is a form of government in which a few elite citizens rule. The term derives from the Greek aristokratia, meaning "rule of the best". In origin in Ancient Greece, it was conceived of as rule by the best qualified citizens, and contrasted with monarchy...

 and the clergy
Clergy
Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. A clergyman, churchman or cleric is a member of the clergy, especially one who is a priest, preacher, pastor, or other religious professional....

 lived, and the low city (Cidade Baixa) by the Mondego River, where most commercial activities took place. The city was encircled by a fortified wall, of which some remnants are still visible like the Almedina Gate (Porta da Almedina). The most important work in Gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 style in the city is the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha
Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha
The ruins of the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha are located in the city of Coimbra, in Portugal. The monastery was built in the 14th century on the left bank of the Mondego River, but had to be abandoned in the 17th century due to frequent floods...

, founded on the left side of the river Mondego by Queen Elizabeth
Elizabeth of Aragon
Elizabeth of Aragon, also known as Saint Elizabeth of Portugal, T.O.S.F. , was queen consort of Portugal, a tertiary of the Franciscan Order and is venerated as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church.-Biography:Elizabeth was a descendant of one of the most powerful families in Europe:...

 in the first half of the 14th century. The Monastery
Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha
The ruins of the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha are located in the city of Coimbra, in Portugal. The monastery was built in the 14th century on the left bank of the Mondego River, but had to be abandoned in the 17th century due to frequent floods...

 was located too close to the river, and frequent floods forced the nuns to abandon it in the 17th century, when the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Nova
Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Nova
The Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Nova is a monastery in Coimbra, Portugal. It was built to replace the mediaeval Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha, located nearby, which at the time was prone to frequent flooding by the waters of the Mondego river. The monastery was built in the 17th and 18th...

 was built uphill. The Queen's magnificent gothic tomb was also transferred to the new convent. The ruins of the old convent were unearthed in the 2000s, and can be seen today in the left bank of the river.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, during the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration and the Great Navigations , was a period in history starting in the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans engaged in intensive exploration of the world, establishing direct contacts with...

, Coimbra was again one of the main artistic centres of Portugal thanks to both local and royal patronage
Patronage
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings or popes have provided to musicians, painters, and sculptors...

. Coimbra bishops, religious orders and King Manuel I
Manuel I of Portugal
Manuel I , the Fortunate , 14th king of Portugal and the Algarves was the son of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, , by his wife, Infanta Beatrice of Portugal...

 supported artists like Diogo Pires
Diogo Pires
José Diego Pires is Brazilian football player, who plays for ŠK Slovan Bratislava.He has a gifted left foot, one of the main free kick takers.-External links:* at transfermarkt.de...

 (father and son), Marcos Pires, João de Castilho, Diogo de Castilho and the Frenchmen, João de Ruão and Nicholas of Chanterene, among others, who left important manueline
Manueline
The Manueline, or Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the discoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral...

 and renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 works in the town. Dating from this period are the remodelling (in manueline style) of the Santa Cruz Monastery
Santa Cruz Monastery
The Santa Cruz Monastery, The Santa Cruz Monastery, The Santa Cruz Monastery, (English: Monastery of the Holy Cross, Portuguese: Mosteiro de Santa Cruz, best known as Igreja (Church) de Santa Cruz is a National Monument in Coimbra, Portugal. Because the first two kings of Portugal are buried in the...

, including the tombs of Kings Afonso Henriques and Sancho I
Sancho I of Portugal
Sancho I , nicknamed the Populator , second monarch of Portugal, was born on 11 November 1154 in Coimbra and died on 26 March 1212 in the same city. He was the second but only surviving legitimate son and fourth child of Afonso I of Portugal by his wife, Maud of Savoy. Sancho succeeded his father...

, the renaissance Manga Fountain, the altarpieces and triumphal portal of the Old Cathedral
Old Cathedral of Coimbra
The Old Cathedral of Coimbra is one of the most important Romanesque Roman Catholic buildings in Portugal. Construction of the Sé Velha began some time after the Battle of Ourique , when Count Afonso Henriques declared himself King of Portugal and chose Coimbra as capital...

, among other works.

The University of Coimbra, was founded as Studium Generale
Studium Generale
Studium generale is the old customary name for a Medieval university.- Definition :There is no clear official definition of what constituted a Studium generale...

 in Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon is the capital city and largest city of Portugal with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of , making it the 9th most populous urban...

 in 1290 by King Dinis I. The University
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

 was relocated to Coimbra in 1308, but in 1338 the King
King
- Centers of population :* King, Ontario, CanadaIn USA:* King, Indiana* King, North Carolina* King, Lincoln County, Wisconsin* King, Waupaca County, Wisconsin* King County, Washington- Moving-image works :Television:...

 D. Afonso IV make the University return to Lisbon. The University was definitively transferred to the premises of Coimbra Royal Palace in 1537 by King John III
John III of Portugal
John III , nicknamed o Piedoso , was the fifteenth King of Portugal and the Algarves. He was the son of King Manuel I and Maria of Aragon, the third daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile...

. Since then, the city life has revolved around the state-run university, and for many decades, several colleges (colégios) created to provide an alternative to the official form of teaching and established by the religious orders in the city, which were later gradually discontinued through the times with the secularization of teaching in Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

. Built in the 18th century, the Joanina Library (Biblioteca Joanina), a Baroque
Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 library
Library
In a traditional sense, a library is a large collection of books, and can refer to the place in which the collection is housed. Today, the term can refer to any collection, including digital sources, resources, and services...

, is other notable landmark of the ancient university. The Baroque
Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 University Tower (Torre da Universidade), from the school of the German architect Ludovice
Ludovice
Johann Friedrich Ludwig , known in Portugal as João Frederico Ludovice, was a German born architect and goldsmith.Ludovice was born in Hohenhart. In 1698 he went to Italy, where he married and converted to Catholicism, changing his name to Ludovici...

 and built between 1728 and 1733, is the city's «ex-libris».

In 1772, the prime-minister of king José I, the Marquis of Pombal, undertook a deep reform of the University, where the study of the sciences assumed vast importance. The collections of scientific instruments and material acquired since then are nowadays gathered in the Science Museum of the University of Coimbra
Science Museum of the University of Coimbra
The Science Museum of the University of Coimbra ' gathers the historical scientific collections of several units of the University of Coimbra, in Coimbra, Portugal...

, and constitute one of the most important historical science collections in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

.

The first half of the 19th century was a difficult period for Coimbra, being invaded by French troops under the command of Andoche Junot and André Masséna
André Masséna
André Masséna 1st Duc de Rivoli, 1st Prince d'Essling was a French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars....

 during the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
The Peninsular War was a war between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when French and Spanish armies crossed Spain and invaded Portugal in 1807. Then, in 1808, France turned on its...

. A force of 4,000 Portuguese militia
Militia
The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary citizens to provide defense, emergency law enforcement, or paramilitary service, in times of emergency without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. It is a polyseme with...

 led by Nicholas Trant
Nicholas Trant
Nicholas Trant , a British officer, led Portuguese irregular troops in several actions during the Peninsular War. His most famous exploits were the recapture of Coimbra from the French in October 1810 and the successful defense of the line of the Mondego River in March 1811.-Peninsular War:While a...

 dealt Masséna a heavy blow when it recaptured the city on 6 October 1810. In March 1811, the militia successfully held the place against the retreating French army
Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionised European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to...

. The city recovered in the second half of the century with infrastructure improvements like the telegraph, gas light, the railway system and a railway bridge over the Mondego river.

Apart from the monuments already mentioned, it is also worth a visit to the New Cathedral of Coimbra
New Cathedral of Coimbra
The New Cathedral of Coimbra is the current bishopric seat of the city of Coimbra, in Portugal. The Cathedral is located near the historical University of Coimbra in the upper part of the town ....

 (17th century) and the Machado de Castro Museum, the second most important one in Portugal, housed in the former Palace of the Bishops. The city also houses the University of Coimbra General Library
University of Coimbra General Library
The University of Coimbra General Library is the central library of the University of Coimbra, in Coimbra, Portugal....

, Portuguese second biggest library, after the National Library in Lisbon, and the Botanical Garden of the University of Coimbra
Botanical Garden of the University of Coimbra
The Botanical Garden of the University of Coimbra is a botanical garden in Coimbra, Portugal. It was founded in 1772-1774 and it was integrated in the Natural History Museum established by the Marquis of Pombal...

 from the 18th century.

Coimbra is also known for the reduced child-scale buildings in the Portugal dos Pequenitos
Portugal dos Pequenitos
Portugal dos Pequenitos is a theme park in Coimbra....

park, an educational theme park built during the Estado Novo. Its buildings are scale copies of Portuguese architectural landmarks and were completed in the 1950s.

Geography



The historic city of Coimbra is located in central Portugal, 120 km south of Porto
Porto
Porto , also known as Oporto in English, is the second largest city in Portugal and one of the major urban areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Its administrative limits include a population of 237,559 inhabitants distributed within 15 civil parishes...

, 195 km north of Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon is the capital city and largest city of Portugal with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of , making it the 9th most populous urban...

. One of Portugal's biggest crossroads, Coimbra is served by the A1
A1 - Auto-estrada do Norte
The A1 is the principal motorway in Portugal. It connects Lisbon, the capital, to Porto, the country's second-largest city, and serves other important cities like Coimbra and Leiria. A1 is operated by Brisa - Auto-estradas de Portugal, S.A....

, the main highway of Portugal. It is set by the Mondego River, about 40 km east of Figueira da Foz
Figueira da Foz
Figueira da Foz , also known as Figueira for short, is a municipality in the Coimbra District, in Portugal. It is located at the mouth of the Mondego River, 40 km west of Coimbra, and sheltered by hills ....

, a neighbour coastal city with several beaches, summer and seaport facilities on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

. Just outside the municipality, there are also several picturesque mountain towns such as Lousã and Penacova
Penacova
Penacova Municipality is a municipality in the Coimbra District, in Portugal. It has a population of 16,725 and an area of 220 km2. The seat is the town of Penacova.-Parishes:* Carvalho* Figueira de Lorvão* Friúmes* Lorvão* Oliveira do Mondego* Paradela...

 and spa towns and villages such as Luso
Luso, Portugal
Luso is a Portuguese town of the municipality of Mealhada, Aveiro district, renowned by its mineral waters. Águas do Luso, one of the largest Portuguese companies providing mineral water is based there.-Notes and references:...

, Buçaco and Curia
Curia
A curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i.e. more or less a tribe, and with a metonymy it came to mean also the meeting place where the tribe discussed its affairs...

.

With a dense urban grid the city of Coimbra is famous for its monuments, churches, libraries, museums, parks, nightlife, healthcare and shopping facilities, but above all for its intense cultural life, centered on the University of Coimbra, one of the oldest universities in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

. This relevance within the context of the country's cultural life can be seen in the large number of writers, artists and academics connected with the city, which has thus secured throughout its history a reputation as the Lusa Atenas (Lusitanian Athens
Athens
Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

). For details, see the 'Culture' and 'Famous inhabitants' sections below.

The city of Coimbra (the built-up urban area) consists of six civil parishes:
  • Almedina
  • Santa Clara
  • Santa Cruz
    Santa Cruz (Coimbra)
    Santa Cruz is an urban-rural Portuguese civil parish in the municipality of Coimbra. In 2001, its population was 6866 inhabitants, in an area of 5.56 km² that parallels the north margin of the Mondego River, extending to the village of Adémia in Trouxemil .-History:After the Christian conquest...

  • Santo António dos Olivais
    Santo António dos Olivais
    Santo António dos Olivais, commonly shortened to Olivais, is a urban civil parish in the municipality of Coimbra, making-up the historic city of Coimbra. In 2001, its population was over 39,516 inhabitants, in an area east of University Hill in Coimbra, covering 19.13 km²...

  • São Bartolomeu
  • Sé Nova

Economy




The wealth of the city rests mostly on its University of Coimbra with about 20,000 students – the city has a total of 35,000 higher education students considering the other higher education institutions based there – but also in shopping, technology and health sciences industry, administrative offices, financial services, law firms and specialized medical care. The city has many private clinics, medical offices and two large independent state hospital centres: the H.U.C. – Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra
Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra
The Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra , in Coimbra, Portugal is a university hospital belonging to the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Coimbra...

, which is a university hospital
University hospital
A university hospital is an institution which combines the services of a hospital with the education of medical students and with medical research. These hospitals are typically affiliated with a medical school or university...

, and the C.H.C. – Centro Hospitalar de Coimbra
Centro Hospitalar de Coimbra
The Centro Hospitalar de Coimbra is a hospital centre in Coimbra, Portugal. This complex has a broad range of clinical services and medical specialties distributed across three main hospitals: Hospital Geral , also known as Hospital dos Covões, Maternidade Bissaya Barreto and Hospital Pediátrico...

, which includes a general hospital. Coimbra has also the regional branch of the national cancer
Cancer
Cancer , known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a large group of different diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invade nearby parts of the body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the...

 hospital – the I.P.O. – Instituto Português de Oncologia
Instituto Português de Oncologia
The Instituto Português de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, also known as Instituto Português de Oncologia and ' , is a state-run cancer hospital and research organization from Portugal. The I.P.O. has autonomous regional branches in Lisbon, Porto and Coimbra.-External links:***...

, as well as a military hospital
Military hospital
Military hospital is a hospital, which is generally located on a military base and is reserved for the use of military personnel, their dependents or other authorized users....

. The Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal
Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal
The Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal, I.P. is a Portuguese government-owned organization under direct supervision of the Portuguese Ministry of the Justice, which provides forensic science services to the police forces and government agencies of Portugal. The national headquarters of the...

, the state-run forensic science institute of Portugal, is headquartered in Coimbra.

Notable companies based in the municipality of Coimbra include software companies Critical Software
Critical Software
Critical Software is a Portuguese information systems and software company, headquartered in Coimbra. Critical Software specialises in the development and deployment of software solutions or COTS based systems...

 and Ciberbit
Ciberbit
Ciberbit, Produções de Software S.A. is a Portuguese software and multimedia developer based in Coimbra. It developed the CBRetail Software, a powerful tool aimed at people in the area of commerce or retail...

 which have their global headquarters in the city, mechanical and electronics engineering company Active Space Technologies
Active Space Technologies
Active Space Technologies is a European company, with main offices in Portugal and Germany, headquartered in Coimbra, which offers products and services in the fields of thermo-mechanical engineering , electronics engineering , as well as management support services for technology...

, telemetry
Telemetry
Telemetry is a technology that allows measurements to be made at a distance, usually via radio wave transmission and reception of the information. The word is derived from Greek roots: tele = remote, and metron = measure...

 and Machine to Machine
Machine to Machine
Machine-to-Machine refers to technologies that allow both wireless and wired systems to communicate with other devices of the same ability...

 company ISA
ISA (company)
ISA - Intelligent Sensing Anywhere is a Portugal-based global company specialized in telemetry and M2M communications, headquartered in Coimbra. ISA is a global leader...

, Cimpor
Cimpor
Cimpor - Cimentos de Portugal is the largest Portuguese cement group, operating in eleven countries - Portugal, Spain, Morocco, Brazil, Tunisia, Turkey, Cape Verde, Mozambique, China, Egypt and South Africa, involved in manufacturing and marketing cement, hydraulic lime, concrete and aggregates,...

's cement
Cement
In the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term opus caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed...

 factory in Souselas (CIMPOR Souselas), the pan-European service facility of Olympus Corporation
Olympus Corporation
is a Japan-based manufacturer of optics and reprography products. Olympus was established on 12 October 1919, initially specializing in microscope and thermometer businesses. Its global headquarters are in Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan, while its USA operations are based in Center Valley, Pennsylvania,...

, the pharmaceuticals companies Bluepharma
Bluepharma
Bluepharma is a pharmaceutical company of Portuguese ownership, which is located in Coimbra, Portugal.-History:...

 and BASI
Laboratórios BASI
Laboratórios BASI, usually known as BASI for short, is a Portuguese pharmaceutical company located in Coimbra. BASI produces and markets its own range of products in addition to marketing licensed products.-Research and trials:...

, the iron
Iron
Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

 foundry
Foundry
A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings. Metals are cast into shapes by melting them into a liquid, pouring the metal in a mold, and removing the mold material or casting after the metal has solidified as it cools. The most common metals processed are aluminum and cast iron...

 Fucoli-Somepal
Fucoli-Somepal
Fucoli-Somepal is an iron foundry company headquartered in Coimbra, Portugal. The company has its industrial facilities in two locations: Coimbra , and Mealhada .-History:The company had its origins in the 1940s, being today a result of a merging process of Fucoli and Somepal...

 and several ceramic
Ceramic
A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous...

s, food processing
Food processing
Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food or to transform food into other forms for consumption by humans or animals either in the home or by the food processing industry...

 (Probar
Probar
Probar - Indústria Alimentar, SA is a Portuguese company headquartered in Coimbra, which produces cold meat products. Its products include a wide range of processed meat, like sausages, smoked meats, sliced and wafer thin meats, fresh sausages and ready meals, and barbecue sausages, as well as dry,...

 produces cold meat products and Dan Cake produces sponge cake
Sponge cake
Sponge cake is a cake based on flour , sugar, and eggs, sometimes leavened with baking powder which has a firm, yet well aerated structure, similar to a sea sponge. A sponge cake may be produced by either the batter method, or the foam method. Typicially the batter method in the U.S. is known as a...

s and swiss roll
Swiss roll
A Swiss roll or jelly roll is a type of sponge cake roll. The thin cake is made of eggs, flour and sugar and baked in a very shallow rectangular baking tray, called a sheet pan. The cake is removed from the pan and spread with jam or buttercream, rolled up, and served in circular slices.The...

s), textiles, wine
Wine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

, civil and engineering construction, architecture, public works and housing construction firms. Handicraft
Handicraft
Handicraft, more precisely expressed as artisanic handicraft, sometimes also called artisanry, is a type of work where useful and decorative devices are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools. It is a traditional main sector of craft. Usually the term is applied to traditional means...

 industry is well represented by traditional tapestry
Tapestry
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom, however it can also be woven on a floor loom as well. It is composed of two sets of interlaced threads, those running parallel to the length and those parallel to the width ; the warp threads are set up under tension on a...

 and pottery
Pottery
Pottery is the material from which the potteryware is made, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made is also called a pottery . Pottery also refers to the art or craft of the potter or the manufacture of pottery...

 manufacture, and the surroundings of the city have besides forestry
Forestry
Forestry is the interdisciplinary profession embracing the science, art, and craft of creating, managing, using, and conserving forests and associated resources in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human benefit. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands...

, dynamic horticulture
Horticulture
Horticulture is the industry and science of plant cultivation including the process of preparing soil for the planting of seeds, tubers, or cuttings. Horticulturists work and conduct research in the disciplines of plant propagation and cultivation, crop production, plant breeding and genetic...

 production, vineyards and livestock
Livestock
Livestock refers to one or more domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor. The term "livestock" as used in this article does not include poultry or farmed fish; however the inclusion of these, especially poultry, within the meaning...

 raising. The Instituto Pedro Nunes
Instituto Pedro Nunes
Instituto Pedro Nunes is a non-profit private organization for innovation and technology transfer based in Coimbra, Portugal. It is named after the Portuguese 16th century mathematician and professor Pedro Nunes, who lived in the city of Coimbra and worked for the local university.-IPN profile:The...

(Pedro Nunes Institute), a business incubator
Business incubator
Business incubators are programs designed to accelerate the successful development of entrepreneurial companies through an array of business support resources and services, developed and orchestrated by incubator management and offered both in the incubator and through its network of contacts...

, dynamically hosts several start-up
Startup company
A startup company or startup is a company with a limited operating history. These companies, generally newly created, are in a phase of development and research for markets...

s which are usually dedicated to technology-related businesses and became independent spin-off
Research spin-off
A research spin-off is a company that falls into at least one of the four following categories:#Companies that have an equity investment from a national library or university#Companies that license technology from a public research institute or university...

 companies headquartered across the whole region.

Coimbra has a fresh produce open-air market on every 7th and 23rd days of the month at Feira dos 7 e dos 23, and a large fresh produce market in downtown at Mercado D. Pedro V. The Baixa (downtown) of Coimbra has many coffeehouse
Coffeehouse
A coffeehouse or coffee shop is an establishment which primarily serves prepared coffee or other hot beverages. It shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant, but it is different from a cafeteria. As the name suggests, coffeehouses focus on...

s and bakeries, and features several specialty shops selling all kind of products in typical old-fashioned architectural surroundings. Large commercial facilities with car park, include a medium-sized shopping center (CoimbraShopping); two larger shopping centers with hypermarket
Hypermarket
In commerce, a hypermarket is a superstore combining a supermarket and a department store. The result is an expansive retail facility carrying a wide range of products under one roof, including full groceries lines and general merchandise...

, restaurant
Restaurant
A restaurant is an establishment which prepares and serves food and drink to customers in return for money. Meals are generally served and eaten on premises, but many restaurants also offer take-out and food delivery services...

s, movie theater
Movie theater
A movie theater, cinema, movie house, picture theater, film theater is a venue, usually a building, for viewing motion pictures ....

s and several shops with a selection of some of Portugal's and the world's most famous and stylish international brands (Centro Comercial Dolce Vita and Forum Coimbra); and two retail park
Retail park
In the United Kingdom, a retail park is a grouping of many retail warehouses and superstores with associated car parking. Its North American equivalent is a power centre. Retail parks are found on the fringes of most large towns and cities in highly accessible locations and are aimed at households...

s found on the fringes of the city, offering an alternative to the busy city centre (Retail Park Mondego in Taveiro, and Coimbra Retail Park in Eiras).

Transportation


The two banks of Mondego river at Coimbra, are linked by three main bridges: the Ponte do Açude; the Ponte de Santa Clara (Santa Clara bridge), which is the oldest, and the Ponte Rainha Santa also known as Ponte Europa, finished in 2004. The Ponte Pedonal de Pedro e Inês was is the ultimate bridge being constructed and is the only footbridge in the city.

The city is internally connected by an extensive bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

 network, the SMTUC (Serviços Municipalizados de Transportes Urbanos de Coimbra, Coimbra Municipality Urban Transport Services) and the Coimbra trolleybus system
Trolleybuses in Coimbra
The Coimbra trolleybus system forms part of the public transport network in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. Opened in 1947, it supplemented, and then eventually replaced, the Coimbra tramway network.-History:...

 (the only such system in Portugal). In the past, the city also had a tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

 network (some are now parked inside a transportation museum). Taxicab
Taxicab
A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice...

s are also available, and are recognizable as cream
Cream (colour)
Cream is the colour of the cream produced by cattle grazing on natural pasture with plants rich in yellow carotenoid pigments, some of which are incorporated into the cream, to give a yellow tone to white. Cream is the pastel colour of yellow, much like as pink is to red. Cream is used as a skin...

 or black and green (black car with green rooftop) taxis. The city is a hub for interregional bus services for all the country and abroad. A light-rail metro system, Metro Mondego
Metro Mondego
The Metro Mondego, part of the mass transit public transport system of Coimbra, Portugal, is a light-rail network that run above ground in Coimbra into the city's suburbs. Studies and planning are in progress but the Metro Mondego is not expected to be fully operational for some years...

, is currently being built.

Coimbra has several rail stations. The principal station Coimbra-B is on the main line between Porto
Porto
Porto , also known as Oporto in English, is the second largest city in Portugal and one of the major urban areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Its administrative limits include a population of 237,559 inhabitants distributed within 15 civil parishes...

 and Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon is the capital city and largest city of Portugal with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of , making it the 9th most populous urban...

. From this, a small spur runs to Coimbra-A, the main station in the city centre. A small regional rail line (Linha da Lousã) also runs from Coimbra Parque at the south edge of the city centre. From Coimbra-Parque is possible to travel to Miranda do Corvo
Miranda do Corvo
Miranda do Corvo is a Portuguese town and municipality in the Coimbra district of Portugal.Miranda do Corvo literally means "View over the Corvo River." The town has a beautiful church situated on a hill overlooking the area. A large "Rio de Janeiro"-type statue of Jesus also looks out over the...

, Lousã and Serpins, among others. Also it is possible to travel by train between Coimbra and Figueira da Foz
Figueira da Foz
Figueira da Foz , also known as Figueira for short, is a municipality in the Coimbra District, in Portugal. It is located at the mouth of the Mondego River, 40 km west of Coimbra, and sheltered by hills ....

 (Ramal de Alfarelos), and Coimbra, Guarda
Guarda, Portugal
Guarda is a city in Guarda Municipality, Portugal. The city has a population of 32 111Guarda was founded in 1199 by the second king of Portugal, Sancho I....

 and Vilar Formoso
Vilar Formoso
Vilar Formoso is a town and civil parish in the municipality of Almeida, Portugal. One of the most important border crossings between Portugal and Spain is located just next to the town...

 (Linha da Beira Alta [international]).

Coimbra is served by motorway A1
A1 - Auto-estrada do Norte
The A1 is the principal motorway in Portugal. It connects Lisbon, the capital, to Porto, the country's second-largest city, and serves other important cities like Coimbra and Leiria. A1 is operated by Brisa - Auto-estradas de Portugal, S.A....

 which connects Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon is the capital city and largest city of Portugal with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of , making it the 9th most populous urban...

 to Porto
Porto
Porto , also known as Oporto in English, is the second largest city in Portugal and one of the major urban areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Its administrative limits include a population of 237,559 inhabitants distributed within 15 civil parishes...

.

A regional airfield is located in Cernache (Aeródromo Municipal Bissaya Barreto) (CBP) [PCO], 7.5 km SW of the city downtown. With a 920 metre runway and Flight Information Service
Flight Information Service
A flight information service is a form of air traffic service which is available to any aircraft within a flight information region , as agreed internationally by ICAO....

 until the sunset, this regional airport has all the fundamental facilities for private flights.

Education



Coimbra has been called A cidade dos estudantes (The city of the students) or Lusa-Atenas (Lusitan-Athens), mainly because it is the site of the oldest and one of the largest universities in Portugal – the University of Coimbra, a public university
Public university
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities. A national university may or may not be considered a public university, depending on regions...

 whose origins can be traced back to the 13th century. Nowadays, it has students from 70 different nationalities; almost 10% of its students are foreigners, making it Portugal's most international university.

Coimbra is also the place where the oldest and biggest university students' union
Students' union
A students' union, student government, student senate, students' association, guild of students or government of student body is a student organization present in many colleges and universities, and has started appearing in some high schools...

 of Portugal was founded – the Associação Académica de Coimbra
Associação Académica de Coimbra
The Coimbra Academic Association is the students' union of the University of Coimbra . Founded in Coimbra on November 3, 1887, it is the oldest students' union in Portugal...

(Academic Association of Coimbra), established in 1887.

Besides that, there are also some other schools and institutes of higher education in the city: the Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, a public polytechnic
Polytechnic (Portugal)
A polytechnic is a higher education educational institution in Portugal created in the 1980s. After 1998 they were upgraded to institutions which are allowed to confer licenciatura degrees. Before then, they only awarded short-cycle degrees which were known as bacharelatos and didn't provide...

 institute; the Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra
Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra
The Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra is a public nursing school in Coimbra, Portugal.-History:It was created after the 2004 decree law Decreto-Lei nº 175/2004 de 21 de Julho through the merging of the two previous nursing schools of Coimbra: the Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Bissaya...

, a public nursing school
Nursing school
A nursing school is a type of educational institution, or part thereof, providing education and training to become a fully qualified nurse. The nature of nursing education and nursing qualifications varies considerably across the world.-United Kingdom:...

; and some private higher education institutions such as the Instituto Superior Miguel Torga; the Instituto Superior Bissaya Barreto; the Escola Universitária Vasco da Gama and finally, the Escola Universitária das Artes de Coimbra, an art school
Art school
Art school is a general term for any educational institution with a primary focus on the visual arts, especially illustration, painting, photography, sculpture, and graphic design. The term applies to institutions with elementary, secondary, post-secondary or undergraduate, or graduate or...

.

A large number of higher education students from all of Portugal chose Coimbra's higher learning institutions to study, due to the wide availability of degrees offered in different fields, the student-friendly environment of the city, and the prestige of many of its learning institutions allied to the ancient tradition of Coimbra as the historical capital of higher studies in Portugal.

The city has also a large number of public and private basic and secondary schools, among these some of the best-ranked in the country, like Escola Secundária Infanta D. Maria (public), Escola Secundária José Falcão (public), "Escola EB2/3 Martim de Freitas" (public) and Colégio Rainha Santa Isabel (private), as well as several kindergartens and nurseries. There is also the Coimbra Hotel and Tourism School.

Coimbra fado


Fado de Coimbra (Coimbra Fado) is a highly stylized genre of fado
Fado
Fado is a music genre which can be traced to the 1820s in Portugal, but probably with much earlier origins. Fado historian and scholar, Rui Vieira Nery, states that "the only reliable information on the history of Fado was orally transmitted and goes back to the 1820s and 1830s at best...

born in the city of Coimbra. Guitar player Carlos Paredes
Carlos Paredes
Carlos Paredes, ComSE, was a virtuoso Portuguese guitar player, born in Coimbra, son of the equally famous Artur Paredes. He is credited with popularising the medium internationally during the 20th century, being frequently considered to be the most talented Portuguese musician in the 20th century...

 and singer Zeca Afonso
Zeca Afonso
José Manuel Cerqueira Afonso dos Santos, known as Zeca Afonso or just Zeca , was born in Aveiro, Portugal, the son of José Nepomuceno Afonso, a judge, and Maria das Dores. Zeca is among the most influential folk and political musicians in Portuguese history...

, are among its most renowned and historical figures.

Orfeon Académico de Coimbra
Orfeon Académico de Coimbra
Orfeon Académico de Coimbra is the oldest and one of the most famous academic choirs in Portugal. It was established in 1880 by the then University of Coimbra's law student João Arroio, with the name Sociedade Choral do Orpheon Académico....

, the oldest and most famous academic choir
Choir
A choir, chorale or chorus is a musical ensemble of singers. Choral music, in turn, is the music written specifically for such an ensemble to perform.A body of singers who perform together as a group is called a choir or chorus...

 in Portugal, an autonomous organization of the students' union Associação Académica de Coimbra
Associação Académica de Coimbra
The Coimbra Academic Association is the students' union of the University of Coimbra . Founded in Coimbra on November 3, 1887, it is the oldest students' union in Portugal...

, established in 1880 by a law student of the University of Coimbra (UC), and the fado section of UC's Associação Académica de Coimbra
Associação Académica de Coimbra
The Coimbra Academic Association is the students' union of the University of Coimbra . Founded in Coimbra on November 3, 1887, it is the oldest students' union in Portugal...

itself, are important organizations in Coimbra fado promotion and preservation.

According to tradition, to applaud fado in Lisbon one would clap his hands, while in Coimbra cough as if clearing the throat is the typical way.

Student festivals



Coimbra is also known for its university students' festivals. Two are held every year. The first one, Latada or Festa das Latas ("The Tin Can Parade") is a homecoming
Homecoming
Homecoming is the tradition of welcoming back alumni of a school. It most commonly refers to a tradition in many universities, colleges and high schools in North America...

 parade that occurs at the beginning of the academic year, and is a welcome to the new university students (Caloiros).

The Festa das Latas goes back to the 19th century when the Coimbra students felt the need to express their joy at finishing the school year in as loud a way as possible, using everything at their disposal that would make noise, namely tin cans. The highlight of this festival, which now takes place at the beginning of the academic year (November) is the special parade known as the Latada. After marching through the streets of the city the new students are "baptized" in the Mondego River thus entering into the Coimbra academic fraternity. The 2nd year's students are awarded their Grelos (a small ribbon). The Grelo is a small, woollen ribbon with the color(s) of the student's faculty that is attached to a student's briefcase. Previous to this, at the morning the students must have visited the Dom Pedro V market where they must get a turnip
Turnip
The turnip or white turnip is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulbous taproot. Small, tender varieties are grown for human consumption, while larger varieties are grown as feed for livestock...

 to sustain the Caloiros during the day's festivities. Besides the tin cans they have tied to their legs, the new students wear all kinds of costumes made up according to the creativity and imagination of their godmothers or godfathers who are older students. They also carry placards with ironic criticisms alluding to certain teachers, the educational system, national events and leaders.

The second one, Queima das Fitas
Queima das Fitas
The Queima das Fitas is a traditional festivity of the students of some Portuguese universities, organized originally by the students of the University of Coimbra.- History :...

("The Burning of the Ribbons"), takes place at the end of the second semester (usually in the beginning of May) and it is one of the biggest student parties in all Europe. It lasts for 8 days, one for each University of Coimbra's Faculty: Letras (Letters), Direito (Law), Medicina (Medicine), Ciências e Tecnologia (Sciences and Technology), Farmácia (Pharmacy), Economia (Economics), Psicologia e Ciências da Educação (Psychology and Education Sciences) and Ciências do Desporto e Educação Física (Sports Sciences and Physical Education).

Although being University of Coimbra's festivals, other higher education students of Coimbra such as the polytechnic's students or private institution's students, are invited every year by the University of Coimbra students who manage and organise this events, to participate in the Tin Can Parade and also in the Burning of the Ribbons. The academic festivities are opened to the entire city community and attract a large number of national and international tourists as well.

Reportedly, during Queima das Fitas, more beer is drank during one week than Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest, or Wiesn, is a 16–18 day beer festival held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany, running from late September to the first weekend in October. It is one of the most famous events in Germany and is the world's largest fair, with more than 5 million people attending every year. The...

 in Munich, Germany.

Music acts


Coimbra has a lively music scene that caters for most tastes with lots of festivals and events beyond the academic festivals and the traditional Coimbra fado
Coimbra Fado
Coimbra Fado is a genre of fado originating in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. It was adopted as the music of the university students of this city, also known as Student Fado , but is usually considered the typical music of Coimbra itself.It is performed with the traditional Guitarra de Coimbra...

 genre. It boasts several live music venues, and some of the most popular club nights and music festivals in Portugal. Moreover, the Conservatório de Música de Coimbra, the music-related departments of the Associação Académica de Coimbra
Associação Académica de Coimbra
The Coimbra Academic Association is the students' union of the University of Coimbra . Founded in Coimbra on November 3, 1887, it is the oldest students' union in Portugal...

 and the music programmes of the Faculty of Letters of the University of Coimbra are regularly cited among the top music schools in the country. Modern bands and artists with some degree of recognition in the Portuguese music scene include André Sardet
André Sardet
André Sardet is a Portuguese singer and musician, born in the city of Coimbra in 8 January 1976. "Acústico" , his most successful work to date, sold over 120,000 copies, and was recorded live at AAC's Teatro Académico de Gil Vicente, in Coimbra. "Feitiço" is among his best known hits.-Personal...

, Bunnyranch, WrayGunn
Wraygunn
Wraygunn are a Portuguese band formed in Coimbra, in early 1999. Their music is a mix of rock, soul, gospel and blues. Paulo Furtado says their sound is something like Elvis singing in a space shuttle...

 and JP Simões
JP Simões
JP Simões is a Portuguese singer and musician. He was born in Coimbra, Portugal, in 1970. Due to the Carnation Revolution of 1974 and subsequent turmoil, at age five he emigrated to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where he stayed about a year...

.

Media


The Centro region is the third-largest regional media market in Portugal. The Portuguese public radio and television broadcaster Rádio e Televisão de Portugal
Rádio e Televisão de Portugal
Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, S.A.,commonly known as RTP, is Portugal's public service broadcasting organization. It operates four terrestrial television channels and three national radio channels, as well as several satellite and cable offerings....

has regional offices and studios in Coimbra. The Diário de Coimbra
Diário de Coimbra
Diário de Coimbra is one of the three main newspapers of Coimbra, Portugal.Its current editor-in-chief is Adriano Lucas....

and the Diário As Beiras are the two major newspapers based in Coimbra. The students' union of the University of Coimbra has also notable media like the Rádio Universidade de Coimbra
Radio Universidade de Coimbra
Coimbra University Radio is a university radio station of the Coimbra Academic Association of the University of Coimbra in Coimbra, Portugal. It broadcasts on 107.9 FM . The Center of Experimental Radio was founded in the 40's, but it is only on March, 1st 1986...

radio station and A Cabra newspaper.

Leisure



Accommodation


There is a wide variety of accommodation available, ranging from the camping
Camping
Camping is an outdoor recreational activity. The participants leave urban areas, their home region, or civilization and enjoy nature while spending one or several nights outdoors, usually at a campsite. Camping may involve the use of a tent, caravan, motorhome, cabin, a primitive structure, or no...

-park or one of the many inexpensive hostels to the charming downtown hotels and international chain hotels.

Parks/gardens


Coimbra has many attractive and pleasant green spaces such as parks, playgrounds, gardens and forest
Forest
A forest, also referred to as a wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees. As with cities, depending where you are in the world, what is considered a forest may vary significantly in size and have various classification according to how and what of the forest is composed...

s. The most famous park in the city is probably the Botanical Garden of the University of Coimbra
Botanical Garden of the University of Coimbra
The Botanical Garden of the University of Coimbra is a botanical garden in Coimbra, Portugal. It was founded in 1772-1774 and it was integrated in the Natural History Museum established by the Marquis of Pombal...

, the fifth oldest in the world.

The city's green areas also include the Mata Nacional do Choupal, the Mata Nacional de Vale de Canas, Jardim da Sereia (also known as Jardim de Santa Cruz), Penedo da Saudade
Penedo da Saudade
Penedo da Saudade is the name of an historical public garden in Coimbra, Portugal. The garden have partial views of Coimbra skyline and the Coimbra City Stadium. According to the legend, nothing remained the same after the death of Inês de Castro. It used to be a relaxing and isolated place, where...

, Parque Manuel Braga, Parque Verde do Mondego and Choupalinho. Quinta das Lágrimas
Quinta das Lágrimas
Quinta das Lágrimas is an estate in Coimbra, Portugal. It was classified in 1977 as an "Imóvel de Interesse Publico" by the IPPAR. It includes 12 ha of gardens and a palace that has been converted into a luxury hotel.-History:The origin of the estate is uncertain...

, a 19th century palace and estate, which was transformed into a hotel and golf resort, contains also a large park. Also noteworthy is the Paul de Arzila
Paul de Arzila
Paul de Arzila is a Portuguese natural reserve occupying an area in Coimbra municipality , and neighbouring municipalities of Condeixa-a-Nova and Montemor-o-Velho. It is a biogenetical reserve with an area of 150 ha framed in a protected area of 535 ha, where 119 species of birds, 12 of mammals,...

, a natural reserve occupying an area in Coimbra municipality (in Arzila), and in the neighbouring municipalities of Condeixa-a-Nova
Condeixa-a-Nova
Condeixa-a-Nova , also known as Condeixa, is a town and a municipality in the district of Coimbra, Portugal. It is located 15 km south of Coimbra, and in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Coimbra...

 and Montemor-o-Velho
Montemor-o-Velho
Montemor-o-Velho is a town and municipality of the Coimbra District, in Portugal. It has roughly 30,000 inhabitants.-Demographics:-Parishes:* Abrunheira* Arazede* Carapinheira* Ereira* Gatões* Liceia* Meãs do Campo* Montemor-o-Velho* Pereira...

.

Not far away from the urban center, close to the city itself, and fully set in the municipality of Coimbra, there are plenty of mountain and river landscapes. These include the river beach of Palheiros do Zorro in the parish of Torres do Mondego.

Sport



Coimbra is home to Associação Académica de Coimbra - O.A.F. (known simply as Académica), a professional football
Football (soccer)
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

 autonomous organism of the University of Coimbra students' union Associação Académica de Coimbra
Associação Académica de Coimbra
The Coimbra Academic Association is the students' union of the University of Coimbra . Founded in Coimbra on November 3, 1887, it is the oldest students' union in Portugal...

, founded in 1872 and having its current statute of autonomous football organization since the 1980s. Académica football team plays in the Portuguese Liga
Portuguese Liga
The Primeira Liga , formerly called Primeira Divisão, currently named Liga ZON Sagres after their main sponsors, is the top professional association football division of the Portuguese football league system...

 at the Estádio Cidade de Coimbra
Estádio Cidade de Coimbra
The Estádio Finibanco Cidade de Coimbra is a stadium in Coimbra, Portugal. This stadium belongs to the Municipality of Coimbra and is mainly used by the Académica de Coimbra's football team...

. Clube de Futebol União de Coimbra
Clube de Futebol União de Coimbra
Clube de Futebol União de Coimbra, usually known as União de Coimbra , is a sports club in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. The club was founded in 1919 and has a large array of sports departments which includes football, futsal, basketball, aikido, volleyball and swimming.The main football team of...

, another sports club with tradition in the city, owner of a football team which plays in the Portuguese Second Division
Portuguese Second Division
The Portuguese Second Division is a football league in Portugal, situated at the third level of the Portuguese football league system...

, is other important club of Coimbra.
Coimbra also has one of the largest multisports clubs in Portugal: the University of Coimbra's students' union Associação Académica de Coimbra
Associação Académica de Coimbra
The Coimbra Academic Association is the students' union of the University of Coimbra . Founded in Coimbra on November 3, 1887, it is the oldest students' union in Portugal...

, includes sections dedicated to a wide array of sports such as rugby, volleyball, handball, rink hockey, basketball, baseball, tennis, swimming, rowing, among many others.

The Estádio Cidade de Coimbra
Estádio Cidade de Coimbra
The Estádio Finibanco Cidade de Coimbra is a stadium in Coimbra, Portugal. This stadium belongs to the Municipality of Coimbra and is mainly used by the Académica de Coimbra's football team...

(30,000 seats), which was a site of 2004 European Football Championship and includes olympic swimming pools (Piscinas Municipais), as well as a multiuse sports facility (Pavilhão Multiusos de Coimbra
Pavilhão Multiusos de Coimbra
Pavilhão Multiusos de Coimbra is a multipurpose sports arena in Coimbra, Portugal adjacent to the Estádio Cidade de Coimbra stadium and the municipal swimming pools . Built in 2003, it is venue for Académica de Coimbra/Dolcevita basketball team, among other teams and events. Its owner is Coimbra's...

), located both near the stadium; the Estádio Municipal Sérgio Conceição
Estádio Municipal Sérgio Conceição
Estádio Municipal Sérgio Conceição is a football stadium in Taveiro, in the city of Coimbra, Portugal...

; and the Estádio Universitário de Coimbra, an extensive sports complex of the university on Mondego's left bank, are the main athletics and sports venues in Coimbra. The Pavilhão Jorge Anjinho sports arena (headquarters of Associação Académica de Coimbra - O.A.F.), Pavilhão dos Olivais, and Pavilhão do C.F. União de Coimbra, are other places where some of the most important indoor sports clashes involving teams of Coimbra are played.

Major sports teams based in Coimbra include:
Team Sport League Venue
Associação Académica de Coimbra - O.A.F. Football Portuguese Liga
Portuguese Liga
The Primeira Liga , formerly called Primeira Divisão, currently named Liga ZON Sagres after their main sponsors, is the top professional association football division of the Portuguese football league system...

Estádio Cidade de Coimbra
Estádio Cidade de Coimbra
The Estádio Finibanco Cidade de Coimbra is a stadium in Coimbra, Portugal. This stadium belongs to the Municipality of Coimbra and is mainly used by the Académica de Coimbra's football team...

Associação Académica de Coimbra - Secção de Basquetebol Basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

Portuguese Basketball League (LCB)
Portuguese Basketball League (LCB)
The Liga Portuguesa de Basquetebol is the top men’s basketball league in Portugal. From the 2008-09 season onwards, the competition will be organized once again by the Federação Portuguesa de Basquetebol after 13 seasons. This was caused by the fold of the LCB, after many years of financial...

Pavilhão Multiusos de Coimbra
Pavilhão Multiusos de Coimbra
Pavilhão Multiusos de Coimbra is a multipurpose sports arena in Coimbra, Portugal adjacent to the Estádio Cidade de Coimbra stadium and the municipal swimming pools . Built in 2003, it is venue for Académica de Coimbra/Dolcevita basketball team, among other teams and events. Its owner is Coimbra's...

Associação Académica de Coimbra - Secção de Rugby Rugby
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

Campeonato Nacional Honra/Super Bock
Campeonato Nacional Honra/Super Bock
The Portuguese top division of rugby union is a competition organised by the Portuguese Rugby Federation. The current champions are Direito, from Lisbon. The league consists of 8 teams.-Teams 2008/09:-External links:*...

Estádio Universitário de Coimbra
Associação Académica de Coimbra - Secção de Voleibol Volleyball
Volleyball
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.The complete rules are extensive...

Portuguese Volleyball League A1
Portuguese Volleyball League A1
The Portuguese Volleyball League A1 is the top men's volleyball league in Portugal. The competition, which is organised by the Portuguese Volleyball Federation, was called Honor Division in 1983-84 and 1986-88...

Estádio Universitário de Coimbra
C.F. União de Coimbra Football Portuguese Third Division
Portuguese Third Division
The Terceira Divisão Portuguesa is the fourth level of the Portuguese football league system. The Third Division was initially the third level of the Portuguese pyramid but with the creation of the Liga de Honra in 1990–91, it became the fourth level...

Estádio Sérgio Conceição
Agrária
Agrária
Agrária is the rugby union sports team of the student's union of the Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra , based in Coimbra, Portugal. The Agrária rugby team has been a major contender in the Portuguese top level rugby union championships. It has men, women and children rugby teams.-External links:...

Rugby
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

Campeonato Nacional de Rugby I Divisão
Campeonato Nacional de Rugby I Divisão
The Campeonato Nacional de Rugby I Divisão is the second tier competition of the Portuguese domestic rugby championship and is organised by the Portuguese Rugby Federation. The winner gets promoted to the Campeonato Nacional Honra/Super Bock and the last positioned team gets relegated to the...

Campo da Escola Agrária

Famous people




  • Afonso Henriques, first king of Portugal
    Portugal
    Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

    . He is buried at the Santa Cruz Monastery
    Santa Cruz Monastery
    The Santa Cruz Monastery, The Santa Cruz Monastery, The Santa Cruz Monastery, (English: Monastery of the Holy Cross, Portuguese: Mosteiro de Santa Cruz, best known as Igreja (Church) de Santa Cruz is a National Monument in Coimbra, Portugal. Because the first two kings of Portugal are buried in the...

     in Coimbra.
  • Sancho I
    Sancho I of Portugal
    Sancho I , nicknamed the Populator , second monarch of Portugal, was born on 11 November 1154 in Coimbra and died on 26 March 1212 in the same city. He was the second but only surviving legitimate son and fourth child of Afonso I of Portugal by his wife, Maud of Savoy. Sancho succeeded his father...

    , second king of Portugal
    Portugal
    Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

    , son of Afonso Henriques. He is buried at the Santa Cruz Monastery
    Santa Cruz Monastery
    The Santa Cruz Monastery, The Santa Cruz Monastery, The Santa Cruz Monastery, (English: Monastery of the Holy Cross, Portuguese: Mosteiro de Santa Cruz, best known as Igreja (Church) de Santa Cruz is a National Monument in Coimbra, Portugal. Because the first two kings of Portugal are buried in the...

     in Coimbra.
  • Afonso II, third Portuguese king (1211), was born and died in Coimbra
  • Sancho II
    Sancho II of Portugal
    Sancho II , nicknamed "the Pious" and "the Caped" or "the Capuched" , , fourth King of Portugal, was the eldest son of Afonso II of Portugal by his wife, Infanta Urraca of Castile...

    , fourth king of Portugal, was born in Coimbra on September 8, 1209
  • Afonso III, the youngest brother of Sancho II, fifth king of Portugal, was born in Coimbra on August 15, 1210
  • Elizabeth of Portugal (Holy Queen Isabel), wife of King Denis I
    Denis of Portugal
    Dinis , called the Farmer King , was the sixth King of Portugal and the Algarve. The eldest son of Afonso III of Portugal by his second wife, Beatrice of Castile and grandson of king Alfonso X of Castile , Dinis succeeded his father in 1279.-Biography:As heir to the throne, Infante Dinis was...

    . She was buried at the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha
    Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha
    The ruins of the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha are located in the city of Coimbra, in Portugal. The monastery was built in the 14th century on the left bank of the Mondego River, but had to be abandoned in the 17th century due to frequent floods...

    .
  • Pedro I
    Peter I of Portugal
    Peter I , called the Just , was the eighth King of Portugal and the Algarve from 1357 until his death. He was the third but only surviving son of Afonso IV of Portugal and his wife, princess Beatrice of Castile....

    , king of Portugal
    Portugal
    Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

    .
  • José de Anchieta
    José de Anchieta
    José de Anchieta was a Canarian Jesuit missionary to Brazil in the second half of the 16th century. A highly influential figure in Brazil's history in the 1st century after its discovery on April 22, 1500 by a Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral, Anchieta was one of the founders of...

    , Spanish Jesuit, humanist
    Renaissance humanism
    Renaissance humanism was an activity of cultural and educational reform engaged by scholars, writers, and civic leaders who are today known as Renaissance humanists. It developed during the fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth centuries, and was a response to the challenge of Mediæval...

     and writer
    Writer
    A writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....

    .
  • Anthony of Lisbon, Catholic
    Catholic
    The word catholic comes from the Greek phrase , meaning "on the whole," "according to the whole" or "in general", and is a combination of the Greek words meaning "about" and meaning "whole"...

     saint.
  • Francisco Álvares
    Francisco Álvares
    Francisco Álvares was a Portuguese missionary and explorer. In 1515 he traveled to Ethiopia as part of the Portuguese embassy to emperor Lebna Dengel accompanied by returning Ethiopian ambassador Matheus. The embassy arrived only in 1520 to Ethiopia where he joined long sought Portuguese envoy...

    , Portuguese missionary
    Missionary
    A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism or ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin...

     and explorer.
  • Luís Vaz de Camões, Portuguese poet
    Poet
    A poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...

     and author of the Lusiad.
  • Francisco de Sá de Miranda
    Francisco de Sá de Miranda
    Francisco de Sá de Miranda was a Portuguese poet of the Renaissance.-Life:Sá de Miranda was the son of a canon of Coimbra belonging to the ancient and noble family of Sa...

    , Portuguese poet of the Renaissance.
  • Mem de Sá
    Mem de Sá
    Mem de Sá was a Governor-General of Brazil from 1557-1572.He was born in Coimbra, Portugal, around 1500, the year of discovery of Brazil by a naval fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral....

    , Governor-General of Brazil.
  • António Nobre
    António Nobre
    António Pereira Nobre was a Portuguese poet. He died of tuberculosis in Foz do Douro, Porto, in 1900, after trying to recover in a number of places. His masterpiece Só , was the only book he published.-Northern Portugal:Nobre was a member of a wealthy family...

    , Portuguese poet
    Poet
    A poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...

    .
  • Mário Simões Dias
    Mário Simões Dias
    Mário Simões Dias de Figueiredo was a Portuguese musicologist and professional violinist , as well as a prolific music critic and poet...

    , violin
    Violin
    The violin is a string instrument, usually with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is the smallest, highest-pitched member of the violin family of string instruments, which includes the viola and cello....

    ist and musicologist
    Musicology
    Musicology is the scholarly study of music. The word is used in narrow, broad and intermediate senses. In the narrow sense, musicology is confined to the music history of Western culture...

    .
  • Al Berto
    Al Berto
    Al Berto was the pseudonym used by the Portuguese poet Alberto Raposo Pidwell Tavares .-Works:*À Procura do Vento num Jardim d'Agosto, 1977.*Meu Fruto de Morder, Todas as Horas, 1980....

    , Portuguese poet
    Poet
    A poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...

    .
  • Lúcia dos Santos, Carmelite nun
    Nun
    A nun is a woman who has taken vows committing her to live a spiritual life. She may be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent...

     and one of the three visionaries of Fátima
    Fatima
    -People:* Fatima , a female given name of Arabic origin* Fatima bint Muhammad, daughter of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad* Fatima Jinnah, the younger sister of Muhammad Ali Jinnah...

    .
  • José de Anchieta
    José de Anchieta
    José de Anchieta was a Canarian Jesuit missionary to Brazil in the second half of the 16th century. A highly influential figure in Brazil's history in the 1st century after its discovery on April 22, 1500 by a Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral, Anchieta was one of the founders of...

    , Spanish Jesuit and writer
    Writer
    A writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....

    .
  • Pedro Nunes
    Pedro Nunes
    Pedro Nunes , was a Portuguese mathematician, cosmographer, and professor, from a New Christian family. Nunes, considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of his time , is best known for his contributions in the technical field of navigation, which was crucial to the Portuguese period of...

    , Famous mathematician
    Mathematician
    A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study is the field of mathematics. Mathematicians are concerned with quantity, structure, space, and change....

     in the 16th century.
  • Christopher Clavius
    Christopher Clavius
    Christopher Clavius was a German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who was the main architect of the modern Gregorian calendar...

    , German-born jesuit mathematician, one of the responsibles for the gregorian calendar
    Gregorian calendar
    The Gregorian calendar, also known as the Western calendar, or Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February 1582, a papal bull known by its opening words Inter...

    .
  • Carlos Seixas
    Carlos Seixas
    José António Carlos de Seixas, , was a Portuguese composer, the son of the cathedral organist, Francisco Vaz and Marcelina Nunes.Seixas was born in Coimbra...

    , prominent Portuguese composer of the 18th century.
  • Joaquim Machado de Castro
    Joaquim Machado de Castro
    Joaquim Machado de Castro was one of Portugal's foremost sculptors. He wrote extensively on his works and the theory behind them, including a full-length discussion of the statue of D...

    , Portuguese sculptor of the 18th century.
  • João Maria Correia Ayres de Campos, 1st Count of Ameal
    João Maria Correia Ayres de Campos, 1st Count of Ameal
    João Maria Correia Ayres de Campos, 1st Count of Ameal was a Portuguese politician, art collector, maecenas and humanist, renowned chiefly for having assembled one of Portugal's largest and most important private art collections, as well as what was at the time the largest private library in the...

    , Portuguese art collector.
  • Álvaro Cunhal
    Álvaro Cunhal
    Álvaro Barreirinhas Cunhal, who used the name Álvaro Cunhal , was a Portuguese politician. He was one of the major opponents of the dictatorial regime of Estado Novo. He served as secretary-general of the Portuguese Communist Party from 1961 to 1992...

    , Portuguese politician, noted communist leader. He was born in Coimbra.
  • Miguel Torga
    Miguel Torga
    Miguel Torga, pseudonym of Adolfo Correia da Rocha is considered one of the greatest Portuguese writers of the 20th century...

    , Portuguese writer of prose and poetry, pseudonym of Adolfo Correia Rocha who was a medical doctor.
  • Carlos Paredes
    Carlos Paredes
    Carlos Paredes, ComSE, was a virtuoso Portuguese guitar player, born in Coimbra, son of the equally famous Artur Paredes. He is credited with popularising the medium internationally during the 20th century, being frequently considered to be the most talented Portuguese musician in the 20th century...

    , Portuguese musician.
  • Zeca Afonso
    Zeca Afonso
    José Manuel Cerqueira Afonso dos Santos, known as Zeca Afonso or just Zeca , was born in Aveiro, Portugal, the son of José Nepomuceno Afonso, a judge, and Maria das Dores. Zeca is among the most influential folk and political musicians in Portuguese history...

    , Portuguese musician.
  • Carlos Mota Pinto
    Carlos Mota Pinto
    Carlos Alberto da Mota Pinto, GCC, GCIP, was a Portuguese professor and politician.-Career:He graduated as a Licentiate in Law and Doctorate in Judicial Sciences from the Faculty of Law of the University of Coimbra. He was also a Professor at the Portuguese Catholic University and several foreign...

    , Portuguese political figure, interim prime minister of Portugal between 1978 and 1979.
  • Mário Crespo
    Mário Crespo
    -Early life:He was born in Coimbra, his father was an employee of the Portuguese bank Banco Nacional Ultramarino , and his mother, a professor at the Commercial School. As civil servants of the Portuguese Empire, they moved to Portuguese Mozambique capital, Lourenço Marques, with their only baby son...

    , Portuguese journalist and reporter. He was born in Coimbra.
  • Zita Seabra
    Zita Seabra
    Zita Maria de Seabra Roseiro is a Portuguese politician.She joined the Portuguese Communist Party in 1966, before she was even eighteen years old and was controller of the UEC before and after the carnation revolution...

    , Portuguese politician, formerly a high profile member of the Portuguese Communist Party, who renounced and criticized communist ideology just before the fall of Berlin Wall.
  • Pedro Passos Coelho
    Pedro Passos Coelho
    Pedro Manuel Mamede Passos Coelho , is Prime Minister of Portugal. Passos Coelho started very early in politics, becoming the national leader of the youth branch of the Social Democratic Party...

    , Portuguese Prime Minister, politician. He was born in Coimbra.
  • Sérgio Conceição
    Sérgio Conceição
    Sérgio Paulo Marceneiro da Conceição is a retired Portuguese footballer who played mostly as a right winger.Known for his speed and strength, combined with his good dribbling and crossing skills, and fairly accurate shooting. During his extensive career, he played for ten different teams, in five...

    , Portuguese international footballer.
  • Zé Castro
    Zé Castro
    José Eduardo Rosa Vale e Castro , aka Zé Castro, is a Portuguese footballer who plays for Deportivo de La Coruña in Spain, as a central defender.-Club career:...

    , Portuguese international footballer.
  • Nuno Piloto
    Nuno Piloto
    Nuno Miguel Torres Piloto de Albuquerque , known as Piloto, is a Portuguese footballer who plays for S.C. Olhanense as a central midfielder.-Club career:...

    , Portuguese footballer, captain of the Academica Coimbra OAF football team.
  • Luis de Matos
    Luis de Matos
    Luis de Matos is a Portuguese magician and was voted magician of the decade 2000-2009.-Biography:Luis de Matos was born in Portuguese Mozambique in 1970, a Portuguese overseas province until 1975. At the age of five he moved with his parents to Portugal where the family settled near the city of...

    , Portuguese magician.
  • Paulo Furtado, the leading vocalist of the band Wraygunn
    Wraygunn
    Wraygunn are a Portuguese band formed in Coimbra, in early 1999. Their music is a mix of rock, soul, gospel and blues. Paulo Furtado says their sound is something like Elvis singing in a space shuttle...

    .
  • JP Simões
    JP Simões
    JP Simões is a Portuguese singer and musician. He was born in Coimbra, Portugal, in 1970. Due to the Carnation Revolution of 1974 and subsequent turmoil, at age five he emigrated to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where he stayed about a year...

    , singer and musician.
  • André Sardet
    André Sardet
    André Sardet is a Portuguese singer and musician, born in the city of Coimbra in 8 January 1976. "Acústico" , his most successful work to date, sold over 120,000 copies, and was recorded live at AAC's Teatro Académico de Gil Vicente, in Coimbra. "Feitiço" is among his best known hits.-Personal...

    , Portuguese singer and musician.
  • Filipe Albuquerque
    Filipe Albuquerque
    Filipe Miguel Delgadinho Albuquerque is a Portuguese race car driver, currently driving in the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters.- Career :...

    , Portuguese race car driver.
  • João Neto
    João Neto
    João André Pinto Neto is a Portuguese judoka. He was born in Coimbra.He is the European Champion 2008.-Achievements:-References:* on JudoInside.com...

    , Portuguese judo champion.
  • Miguel Veloso
    Miguel Veloso
    Miguel Luís Pinto Veloso is a Portuguese footballer who plays for Genoa C.F.C. and the Portuguese national team.Mainly a defensive midfielder, he can also operate as an offensive left back.-Sporting:...

    , Portuguese international footballer

See also


  • University of Coimbra
  • Associação Académica de Coimbra
    Associação Académica de Coimbra
    The Coimbra Academic Association is the students' union of the University of Coimbra . Founded in Coimbra on November 3, 1887, it is the oldest students' union in Portugal...

  • Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra
    Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra
    The Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra , in Coimbra, Portugal is a university hospital belonging to the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Coimbra...

  • Queima das Fitas
    Queima das Fitas
    The Queima das Fitas is a traditional festivity of the students of some Portuguese universities, organized originally by the students of the University of Coimbra.- History :...

  • Fado de Coimbra
  • Joanina Library
  • Associação Académica de Coimbra - O.A.F.
  • Coimbra Group
    Coimbra Group
    The Coimbra Group is a network of 40 European universities, some among the oldest and most prestigious in Europe. It was founded in 1985 and formally constituted by charter in 1987....

     of universities
  • Centro, Portugal

External links


Official websites

Other websites