Yanjing for administrative purposes was an ancient city and capital of the State of Yan
Yan (state)
Yān was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of Chinese history. Its capital was Ji...

 in northern China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

. It was located in modern Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...



Yanjing was founded by State of Yan, whose rulers made it their capital city. After the conquest of Yan by the State of Qin
Qin (state)
The State of Qin was a Chinese feudal state that existed during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of Chinese history...

, the city was made the capital of Guangyang commandery . During the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

 (206 BCE–220 BCE), the city was renamed Fanyang as the capital of Yuyang commandery (漁陽郡). It was the administrative center of Youzhou
Youzhou is a historical place name in northern China. From the reign of Emperor Wu of the Western Han Dynasty in 106 BC to the Five Dynasties period in the 10th century AD, Youzhou generally referred to the prefecture around modern-day Beijing and parts of Hebei Province...

 at the time of the Eastern Han (25–220 CE). Due to its proximity to the northern border of China, Yanjing was constantly involved in armed contests with various external powers. Further assaults on the city followed during the Yellow Turban Rebellion
Yellow Turban Rebellion
The Yellow Turban Rebellion, also translated as Yellow Scarves Rebellion, was a peasant revolt that broke out in 184 AD in China during the reign of Emperor Ling of the Han Dynasty...

, which began in 184 CE.

At the time of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
The Three Kingdoms period was a period in Chinese history, part of an era of disunity called the "Six Dynasties" following immediately the loss of de facto power of the Han Dynasty rulers. In a strict academic sense it refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 and the...

 Period (220–280 CE), the commander of Fanyang was Liu Yan
Liu Yan (Three Kingdoms)
Liu Yan was a warlord during the late Han Dynasty period of Chinese history. He was also a member of the extended family of the Han Dynasty emperors. For most of his career he served as Governor of Yi Province , which he developed into an independent power base...

, better known as the governor of Yizhou Province a few years later. After Liu Yan's reposting, Liu Yu
Liu Yu
Liu Yu was a warlord and politician during the late Han Dynasty period of Chinese history.During the campaign against Dong Zhuo, the Guandong coalition asked Liu Yu to declare himself emperor, since he was a member of the extended family of the Han Dynasty emperors, but Liu Yu refused...

 became the commander of Yizhou. His subordinate, Gongsun Zan
Gongsun Zan
Gongsun Zan , style name Bogui , a native of Liaoxi , was a warlord during the late Han Dynasty era of Chinese history.-Biography:...

, eventually attacked Youzhou and killed Liu Yu, becoming the commander of Fanyang.

During the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 (618–907 CE) and Later Jin Dynasty
Later Jin Dynasty (Five Dynasties)
Note that there are four periods of Chinese history using the name "Jin" The Later Jìn was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. It was founded by Shi Jingtang, posthumously known as Gaozu of Later Jin...

 (936–947 CE), Fanyang was an important military garrison and a commercial hub. To the north of the city lay the military region of Yingzhou (营州) with Daizhou (代州) to the west. An Lushan
An Lushan
An Lushan was a general who rebelled against the Tang Dynasty in China.His name was also transcribed into Chinese as Āluòshān or Gáluòshān ,...

 began his revolt in Fanyang, and when he became the Emperor of the Greater Yan, Fanyang was designated its capital.

Under the Liao Dynasty
Liao Dynasty
The Liao Dynasty , also known as the Khitan Empire was an empire in East Asia that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper between 9071125...

 (907-1125), the city was renamed Nanjing (南京) and was the southern capital of Liao. It was also called Yanjing. In the following Jin Dynasty (1115–1234), the city was called Zhongdu (中都), the central capital of the Jin. After the Mongols
Mongol Empire
The Mongol Empire , initially named as Greater Mongol State was a great empire during the 13th and 14th centuries...

 took the city, it was renamed Yanjing. Afterwards a new city called Dadu
Khanbaliq or Dadu refers to a city which is now Beijing, the current capital of the People's Republic of China...

 was built adjacent to the former Jin capital which was the capital of the Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
The Yuan Dynasty , or Great Yuan Empire was a ruling dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Khan, who ruled most of present-day China, all of modern Mongolia and its surrounding areas, lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. It is considered both as a division of the Mongol Empire and as an...

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