Eyalet

Eyalet

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Eyalets were a former primary administrative division
Administrative division
An administrative division, subnational entity, or country subdivision is a portion of a country or other political division, established for the purpose of government. Administrative divisions are each granted a certain degree of autonomy, and are required to manage themselves through their own...

 of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

. The term is sometimes translated province or government. Depending on the rank of their commander, they are also sometimes known as pashaliks, beylerbeylik
Beylerbeylik
Beylerbeylik was a type of country subdivision in the Ottoman Empire....

s
, and kapudanlik
Kapudanlik
Kapudanlik may refet to:*Kapudan Pasha*Eyalet of the Archipelago *Kapudanlik of Suez *Kapudanlik of Shatt al-Arab...

s
.

From 1453 to the beginning of the nineteenth century the Ottoman local government was loosely structured. The Empire was at first divided into provinces called Eyalets, presided over by a Pasha of three Tails. The Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier, in Turkish Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam , deriving from the Arabic word vizier , was the greatest minister of the Sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissable only by the Sultan himself...

 was responsible for nominating all the high officers of State, both in the capital and the provinces. Between 1861 and 1866, these Eyalets were abolished, and the territory was divided for administrative purposes into Vilayets.

The eyalets were subdivided into districts called liva
Liva
Liva is the first live album released by the Norwegian band Gåte, and was recorded on December 30, 2005 at Rockefeller Music Hall, Oslo, Norway.-Track listing:#"Knut Liten og Sylvelin"#"Kjærleik"#"Følgje"#"Venelite"#"Du som er ung"#"Stengd dør"...

s or sanjak
Sanjak
Sanjaks were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire. Sanjak, and the variant spellings sandjak, sanjaq, and sinjaq, are English transliterations of the Turkish word sancak, meaning district, banner, or flag...

s, each of which was under the charge of a Pasha of one tail, with the title of Mira-lira, or Sanjak-bey
Sanjak-bey
Sanjak-bey, Sanjaq-bey or -beg was the Turkish title of the Bey in military and administrative command of a sanjak , answerable to a Wāli or other provincial governor. In a few cases the Sanjak-Bey was himself a governor directly answering to Istanbul....

. These provinces were usually called pashalics by Europeans. The pasha was invested with powers of absolute government within his province, being the chief of both the military and financial departments, as well as police and criminal justice.

At official functions, the order of precedence was Egypt
Egypt Eyalet
Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War and the loss of Syria to the Ottomans in 1516. Egypt was administrated as an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire from 1517 until 1867, with an interruption during the French occupation of 1798 to 1801.Egypt was always a...

, Baghdad
Baghdad Eyalet
Baghdad Eyalet was an Iraqi eyalet of the Ottoman Empire centered around Baghdad. Its reported area in the 19th century was .-History:Ismail I took the Baghdad region from the Aq Qoyunlu in 1508. After the Safavid takeover, Sunni Muslims, Jews and Christians became targets of persecution, and were...

, Abyssinia, Buda, Anatolia, "Mera'ish", and the Capitan Pasha in Asia and Buda, Egypt, Abyssinia, Baghdad, and Rumelia
Rumelia Eyalet
The eyalet of Rumeli or eyalet of Rumelia , also known as Rumeli Beylerbeyliği was a eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. The capital was in Adrianople , Monastir and Sofia. Its reported area in the 19th century was .It was formed during the reign of Murad I as the first Beylerbeylik of the Ottoman Empire...

 in Europe, with the remainder arranged according to the chronological order of their conquest.

Map



List


From the mid-14th century until the late 16th century, only one new beylerbeylik (Karaman
Karaman Province, Ottoman Empire
Karaman Eyalet was one of the subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire. Its reported area in the 19th century was .-Government:Organisation of the eyalet in the 17th century, from the accounts of Evliya Çelebi: "This province has a Defterdar of the treasury, and of the feuds, an Emin of the Defter and of...

) was established.

Disappeared before 1609


The eyalets that existed before 1609 but disappeared and eyalets created after 1609.
Province Name Ottoman Turkish
Ottoman Turkish language
The Ottoman Turkish language or Ottoman language is the variety of the Turkish language that was used for administrative and literary purposes in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows extensively from Arabic and Persian, and was written in a variant of the Perso-Arabic script...

 Name and Transliteration (Modern Turkish
Turkish language
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

)
Existed for
Abkhazia  Abhaz ? years (1578–?) also called Sukhum [Sohumkale] or Georgia [Gürcistan] and included Mingrelia and Imeretia as well as modern Abkhazia – nominally annexed but never fully conquered
Akhaltsikhe  Ahıska ? years (1603–?) either split from or coextensive with Samtskhe
Dagestan  Dağıstan ? years (1578–?) also called Demirkapı – assigned a serdar
Serdar (Ottoman rank)
Serdar was a military rank in the Ottoman Empire and Montenegro. It means a head of place/land . Serdars especially served at the borders of Ottoman Empire. They were responsible for security of lands. For example, Yakup Ağa who was the father of Barbaros from Yenice.-Etymology:Serdar is a...

 [chief] rather than a beylerbeyi
Dmanisi  Tumanis ? years (1584–?)
Ganja  Gence years (1588–1604)
Gori  Gori ? years (1588–?) probably replaced Tiflis after 1586
Győr  Yanık 0 years (1594–1598)
Kakheti  Kaheti ? years (1578–?) Kakhetian king was appointed hereditary bey
Lazistan  ? years (1574–?)
Lorri  Lori ? years (1584–?)
Moldavia  Boğdan 01 year (1595 only) the rest of the time Moldavia was a separate autonomous province
Nakhichevan  Nahçivan 01 year (1603 only) possibly never separate from Yerevan
Poti  Faş ? years (1579–?) may have also been another name for Trabzon
Sanaa  San'a 0 years (1567–1569) temporary division of Yemen
Shemakha  Şamahı 01 year (1583 only) may have also been another name for Shervan
Szigetvár  Sigetvar 0 years (1596–1600) later transferred to Kanizsa
Shervan  Şirvan years (1578–1604) overseen by a serdar [chief] rather than a beylerbeyi
Tabriz  Tebriz years (1585–1603)
Tiflis  Tiflis 0 years (1578–1586) probably replaced by Gori after 1586
Wallachia  Eflak 01 year (1595 only) the rest of the time Wallachia was a separate autonomous province
Yerevan  Erivan years (1583–1604) sometimes also included Van
Zabid  Zebit 0 years (1567–1569) temporary division of Yemen

Eyalets in 1609


Conquests of Selim I
Selim I
Selim I, Yavuz Sultân Selim Khan, Hâdim-ül Haramain-ish Sharifain , nicknamed Yavuz "the Stern" or "the Steadfast", but often rendered in English as "the Grim" , was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to...

 and Suleyman I in the 16th century required an increase in administrative units. By the end of the latter half of the century there were as many as 42 eyalets, as the beylerbeyliks came to be known. The chart below shows the administrative situation as of 1609.
Province Name Ottoman Turkish
Ottoman Turkish language
The Ottoman Turkish language or Ottoman language is the variety of the Turkish language that was used for administrative and literary purposes in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows extensively from Arabic and Persian, and was written in a variant of the Perso-Arabic script...

 Name and Transliteration (Modern Turkish
Turkish language
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

)
Existed for
Abyssinia  Habeş years (1554–1867) Included areas on both sides of the Red Sea
Red Sea
The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. In the north, there is the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez...

. Also called "Mecca and Medina"
Adana Eyalet
Adana Eyalet
The Eyalet of Adana was an eyalets of the Ottoman Empire, established in 1608, when it was separated from the Eyalet of Aleppo. Its reported area in the 19th century was .-History:...

 
آضنه Ażana (Adana) years (1608–1865)
Archipelago  Cezayir-i Bahr-i Sefid years (1535–1864) Domain of the Kapudan Pasha (Lord Admiral); Also called Denizi or Denizli, later Vilayet of the Archipelago
Aleppo Eyalet
Aleppo Eyalet
Aleppo Eyalet was a eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. After the Ottoman conquest it was governed from Damascus, but by 1534 Aleppo was made the capital of a new eyalet. Its reported area in the 19th century was...

 
حلب Ḥaleb (Halep) years (1534–1864)
Algiers Eyalet  جزاير غرب Cezâyîr-i Ġarb (Cezayir Garp) years (1517–1830)
Anatolia Eyalet  Anadolu years (1393–1827)
Baghdad Eyalet
Baghdad Eyalet
Baghdad Eyalet was an Iraqi eyalet of the Ottoman Empire centered around Baghdad. Its reported area in the 19th century was .-History:Ismail I took the Baghdad region from the Aq Qoyunlu in 1508. After the Safavid takeover, Sunni Muslims, Jews and Christians became targets of persecution, and were...

 
بغداد Baġdâd (Bağdat) years (1535–1861)
Basra Eyalet
Basra Eyalet
Basra Eyalet was a eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. Its reported area in the 19th century was . It had a Defterdar and Kehiya of the Chavushes but neither Alai-beg nor Cheribashi because there were no ziamets or Timars, the lands being all rented by the governor....

 
بصره Baṣra (Basra) years (1538-1864)
Bosnia Eyalet
Bosnia Eyalet
The Eyalet of Bosnia or Bosnia Beylerbeylik was a eyalet and beylerbeylik of the Ottoman Empire, mostly based on the territory of the present-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as most of Slavonia, Lika, and Dalmatia in present-day Croatia...

 
Bosna years (1520–1864)
Buda  Budin years (1541–1686)
Cyprus  قبرص Ḳıbrıṣ (Kıbrıs) 0 years (1571-1660; 1745-1748)
Diyâr-ı Bekr Eyalet
Diyâr-ı Bekr Eyalet
The Eyalet of Diyarbekir was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. Its reported area in the 19th century was .-Government:Organisation of the eyalet in the 17th century, from the accounts of Evliya Çelebi: "In this province there are nineteen sanjaks and five hakumets [...] eight [sanjaks] were at the...

 
دياربكر Diyârbekir (Diyarbakır) years (1541–1686)
Eger Eyalet  اكر Egir (Eğri) 0 years (1596–1661)
Egypt Eyalet
Egypt Eyalet
Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War and the loss of Syria to the Ottomans in 1516. Egypt was administrated as an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire from 1517 until 1867, with an interruption during the French occupation of 1798 to 1801.Egypt was always a...

 
مصر Mıṣır (Mısır) years (1517–1867)
Erzurum Eyalet
Erzurum Eyalet
The Erzurum Eyalet was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. It was established in the 16th century, after the conquest of Western Armenia by the Ottoman Empire. Its reported area in the 19th century was .-History:...

 
Erzurum years (1514–1864)
Al-Hasa Eyalet  Lahsa years (1551–1663) Seldom directly ruled
Kefe (Theodosia) Kefe years (1568–1774)
Kanizsa Eyalet  Kanije 0 years (1600–1686)
Karaman Eyalet  Karaman years (1483–1864)
Kars Eyalet  Kars 0 years (1580–1604) Merged with Samtskhe
Samtskhe Province, Ottoman Empire
The Eyalet of Childir was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire in the Southwestern Caucasus. The area of the former Çıldır Eyalet is now divided between Samtskhe-Javakheti and the Autonomous Republic of Adjara in Georgia and provinces of Artvin, Ardahan and Erzurum in Turkey...

 in 1604. Finally bounded to *Erzurum Eyalet
Erzurum Eyalet
The Erzurum Eyalet was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. It was established in the 16th century, after the conquest of Western Armenia by the Ottoman Empire. Its reported area in the 19th century was .-History:...

 in 1845.
Maraş  Maraş, Dulkadır years (1521–1864)
Mosul Eyalet
Mosul Eyalet
Mosul Eyalet was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. Its reported area in the 19th century was . The eyalet was largely inhabited by Kurds.-History:...

 
Musul years (1517–1864)
Ar-Raqqah  Rakka years (1594–1864)
Rumelia  Rumeli years (1362–1826) With Anatolia, one of the original two eyalets
Samtskhe
Samtskhe Province, Ottoman Empire
The Eyalet of Childir was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire in the Southwestern Caucasus. The area of the former Çıldır Eyalet is now divided between Samtskhe-Javakheti and the Autonomous Republic of Adjara in Georgia and provinces of Artvin, Ardahan and Erzurum in Turkey...

 
Çıldır years (1578–1845) Also called Meskheti
Meskheti
Meskheti is in a mountainous area of Moschia and is a former province in southwestern Georgia. The ancient Georgian tribes of Meskhi and Mosiniks were the indigenous population of this region. A majority of the modern Georgian population of Meskheti are descendants of these ancient tribes...

, later possibly coextensive with Akhaltsikhe (Ahıska) Province. Most of eyalet passed to Russia in 1829. Remained parts of eyalet bounded to Erzurum in 1845.
Shehrizor  Şehrizor years (1541–1686) Also Shahrizor, Sheherizul, or Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Kirkuk is a city in Iraq and the capital of Kirkuk Governorate.It is located in the Iraqi governorate of Kirkuk, north of the capital, Baghdad...

. In 1830, this eyalet bounded to Mosul
Mosul
Mosul , is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate, some northwest of Baghdad. The original city stands on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank, but the metropolitan area has now grown to encompass substantial...

 province as Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Kirkuk is a city in Iraq and the capital of Kirkuk Governorate.It is located in the Iraqi governorate of Kirkuk, north of the capital, Baghdad...

 sanjak.
Silistria Eyalet  Silistre years (1541–1686) Later sometimes called Ochakiv
Ochakiv
Ochakiv is a city in the Mykolaiv Oblast of southern Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of the Ochakivsky Raion , the city itself is also designated as a separate raion within the oblast, and is located on a peninsula in the Black Sea, at the entrance to the Dnieper Rivers's estuary,...

 (Özi); First beylerbeyi was the Crimean khan
Khan (title)
Khan is an originally Altaic and subsequently Central Asian title for a sovereign or military ruler, widely used by medieval nomadic Turko-Mongol tribes living to the north of China. 'Khan' is also seen as a title in the Xianbei confederation for their chief between 283 and 289...

Eyalet of Sivas  Sivas years (1398–1864)
Syria
Damascus Eyalet
Damascus Eyalet was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. Its reported area in the 19th century was . It became an eyalet after the Ottomans conquered it from the Mamluks in 1516.-Governors:* Janbirdi al-Ghazali * Ahmad ibn Ridwan...

 
Şam years (1516–1864)
Temeşvar Eyalet  Tımışvar (Temeşvar) years (1552–1716)
Trebizond Eyalet
Trebizond Eyalet
Trebizond Eyalet was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire.Established in 1461, it remained a primarily Christian region into the 17th century, well after the rest of Anatolia had been converted to Islam. Its reported area in the 19th century was ....

, Lazistan
Lazistan
Lazistan was the Ottoman administrative name for the sanjak comprising the Laz or Lazuri-speaking population on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea. However, its boundaries did not coincide with the Laz-speaking area...

 
Trabzon years (1461–1864)
Tripoli Eyalet
Tripoli Eyalet
Tripoli Eyalet was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. The capital was in Tripoli. Its reported area in the 19th century was . Ottoman rule in the region began in 1516, but the eyalet wasn't established until 1579, when it was created from the north-western districts of the eyalets of Damascus and...

 (Tripoli-in-the-East)
Trablus-ı Şam (Trablusşam) years (1570–1864)
Tripolitania Eyalet (Tripoli-in-the-West) Trablus-ı Garb (Trablusgarp) years (1551-1864)
Tunis Eyalet  Tunus years (1524–1864)
Van Eyalet  Van years (1548–1864)
Yemen Eyalet
Yemen Eyalet
-History:In 1516, the Mamluks of Egypt annexed Yemen; but in the following year, the Mamluk governor surrendered to the Ottomans, and Turkish armies subsequently overran the country...

 
Yemen years (1517–1635; 1830–1864)


Sources:
  • Colin Imber. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The structure of Power. (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.)
  • Halil Inalcik. The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age 1300–1600. Trans. Norman Itzkowitz and Colin Imber. (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1973.)
  • Donald Edgar Pitcher. An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire (Leiden, Netherlands: E.J.Brill,1972.)

Established 1609–1683

Province Name Ottoman Turkish
Ottoman Turkish language
The Ottoman Turkish language or Ottoman language is the variety of the Turkish language that was used for administrative and literary purposes in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows extensively from Arabic and Persian, and was written in a variant of the Perso-Arabic script...

 Name and Transliteration (Modern Turkish
Turkish language
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

)
Existed for
Crete Eyalet  Girid years (1669–1867)
Morea  Mora years (1620–1687) and (1715–1829) originally part of Aegean Archipelago Province
Podolia  Podolya 0 years (1672–1699) overseen be several serdar
Serdar
Serdar is the Turkic spelling of the Persian name Sardar which means Field Marshal.-Given name:* Serdar Avcı, Turkish boxer* Serdar Aziz, Turkish footballer* Serdar Bayrak, Turkish footballer* Serdar Güneş, Turkish footballer...

s [chiefs] rather than a beylerbeyi
Sidon
Sidon Province, Ottoman Empire
The Eyalet of Sidon was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. In the 19th century, the eyalet extended from the border with Egypt to the Bay of Kesrouan, including the Plain of Falastin , the Jezreel Valley, and the hilly region of Galilee.Depending on the location of its capital, it was also known as...

 
Sayda years (1660–1841)
Uyvar Eyalet
Uyvar Eyalet
Uyvar Eyalet was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire.It was established during the reign of Mehmed IV. In 1663 the Ottoman expeditionary force led by Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed defeated the Austrian garrison of the city of Uyvar and conquered the region. The Peace of Vasvár recognised Ottoman control over...

 
Uyvar 0 years (1663–1685)
Varad Eyalet  Varad 0 years (1661–1692)

Established 1683–1864

Province Name Ottoman Turkish
Ottoman Turkish language
The Ottoman Turkish language or Ottoman language is the variety of the Turkish language that was used for administrative and literary purposes in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows extensively from Arabic and Persian, and was written in a variant of the Perso-Arabic script...

 Name and Transliteration (Modern Turkish
Turkish language
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

)
Existed for
Eyalet of Adrianople  Edirne years (1826–1864)
Monastir Eyalet
Monastir Eyalet
Monastir Eyalet was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. Confusingly, it was also sometimes referred to as "Rumelia Eyalet", which was also the name of a previously existing and much larger eyalet.-Administrative divisions:...

 
Monastir years (1826-1864)
Salonica Eyalet
Salonica Eyalet
-Administrative divisions:Sanjaks of the Eyalet in the mid-19th century:# Sanjak of Tirhala # Sanjak of Selanik # Sanjak of Siros # Sanjak of Drama...

 
Selanik years (1826-1864)
Eyalet of Aidin  Aydın years (1826-1864)
Ankara Eyalet
Ankara Eyalet
The Eyalet of Ankara or Angora, also known as the Eyalet of Bosok or Bozok was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire.-Administrative divisions:Sanjaks of the Eyalet in the mid-19th century:# Sanjak of Kaisarieh...

 
Ankara years (1827-1864)
Kastamonu Eyalet
Kastamonu Eyalet
-Administrative divisions:Sanjaks of the Eyalet in the mid-19th century:# Sanjak of Khodjaili # Sanjak of Bolu # Sanjak of Virantsheir # Sanjak of Sinope...

 
Kastamonu years (1827-1864)
Herzegovina Eyalet  Hersek years (1833–1851)
Hüdavendigâr Eyalet
Hüdavendigâr Eyalet
-Administrative divisions:The eyalet was subdivided into 8 sanjaks:# Sanjak of Hüdavendigâr # Sanjak of Karahisar-i Sahip# Sanjak of Kütahya# Sanjak of Bilecik# Sanjak of Biga# Sanjak of Karesi# Sanjak of Erdek# Sanjak of Ayvalık...

 
Hüdavendigâr years (1841-1867)
Karasi Eyalet
Karasi Eyalet
Eyalet of Saruhan was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire....

 
Karesi 0 years (1845-1847)
Niš Eyalet  Niş years (1846–1864)
Vidin Eyalet Vidin years (1846–1864)

Further reading

  • Colin Imber. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.)
  • Halil Inalcik. The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age 1300-1600. Trans. Norman Itzkowitz and Colin Imber. (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1973.)
  • Paul Robert Magocsi. Historical Atlas of Central Europe. (2nd ed.) Seattle, WA, USA: Univ. of Washington Press, 2002)
  • Nouveau Larousse illustré, undated (early 20th century), passim (in French)
  • Donald Edgar Pitcher. An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire. (Leiden, Netherlands: E.J.Brill,1972.) (Includes 36 color maps)
  • Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German) (includes maps)