Emperor Duanzong of Song

Emperor Duanzong of Song

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Emperor Duānzōng (1268 – May 8, 1278) was the eighth and penultimate emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty of China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 who reigned from 1276 to 1278 and died at the early age of ten. He was also known as the "Nation Establishing Duke " (建國公).

Born Zhào Shì (趙昰), his father was sixth Southern Song Emperor Duzong
Emperor Duzong of Song China
Emperor Duzong 宋度宗 was the 15th emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the sixth emperor of the Southern Song. His personal name was Zhao Mengqi . He was the nephew of Emperor Lizong and reigned from 1264 to 1274....

. He became King Ji (吉王) in 1274 and King Yi (益王) in 1276. Enthroned as emperor at Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Fuzhou is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area....

 on June 14, 1276, his only era took the name of Jǐngyán (景炎 literally: bright flame). Duanzong's temple name
Temple name
Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean , and Vietnamese royalty. They should not be confused with era names. Compared to posthumous names, the use of temple names is more exclusive...

 means "Final Ancestor".

Duanzong's younger brother Emperor Gong of Song
Emperor Gong of Song
Emperor Gong of Song Emperor Gong of Song Emperor Gong of Song (1271- unknown (possibly 1323), born Zhào Xiǎn (趙顯), was the 7th Emperor of the Chinese Southern Song Dynasty. He reigned from 1274 until his abdication in 1276 CE when he was succeeded by his elder brother, Emperor Duanzong of Song....

 had been captured after the Mongol
Mongol Empire
The Mongol Empire , initially named as Greater Mongol State was a great empire during the 13th and 14th centuries...

 invasion of Lin'an
Lin'an
Lin'an may refer to:*Hangzhou, formerly named Lin'an in Song Dynasty, city in Zhejiang, China*Lin'an City, county-level city in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China...

 (present day Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

) in 1276. Duanzong, along with one of his younger brothers Zhào Bǐng (赵昺/趙昺, escaped to Fujian
Fujian
' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

 and established the seat of the government in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Fuzhou is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area....

. In 1278, the Mongol forces were about to breakthrough Song's last line of defense forcing Duanzong to flee. Accompanied by ministers such as Lu Xiufu
Lu Xiufu
Lù Xiùfū , courtesy title Junshi , was a statesman and military commander during the final years of the Chinese Song Dynasty...

, Duanzong boarded a ship and fled to the province of Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

. Thereafter he stayed temporarily in Hong Kong where the Sung Wong Toi
Sung Wong Toi
Sung Wong Toi is an important historic relic in Kowloon, Hong Kong. While its remaining portion is currently located in the Sung Wong Toi Garden in Ma Tau Wai, it was originally a 45 m tall boulder standing on the top of Sacred Hill in Ma Tau Chung above Kowloon Bay.-Literally Meaning:The name...

 (literally: Terrace of the Sung kings) in Kowloon City commemorates this event.

In March 1278, whilst fleeing from the Mongols, Duanzong fell from a boat and almost drowned. After his rescue, he became ill and died a few months later in Gangzhou (碙州) (modern day Lantau Island
Lantau Island
Lantau Island , based on the old local name of Lantau Peak , is the largest island in Hong Kong, located at the mouth of the Pearl River. Administratively, most of Lantau Island is part of the Islands District of Hong Kong...

, Hong Kong).

He was succeeded by his younger brother, Emperor Huaizong of Song.

See also

  • List of Song Emperors
  • Architecture of the Song Dynasty
    Architecture of the Song Dynasty
    The architecture of the Song Dynasty was noted for its towering Buddhist pagodas, enormous stone and wooden bridges, lavish tombs, and palaces. Although literary works on architecture existed beforehand, architectural writing blossomed during the Song Dynasty, maturing into a more professional...

  • Culture of the Song Dynasty
    Culture of the Song Dynasty
    The Song Dynasty was a culturally rich and sophisticated age for China. There was blossoming of and advancements in the visual arts, music, literature, and philosophy...

  • Economy of the Song Dynasty
    Economy of the Song Dynasty
    The economy of China under the Song Dynasty of China was marked by commercial expansion, financial prosperity, increased international trade-contacts, and a revolution in agricultural productivity. Private finance grew, stimulating the development of a country-wide market network which linked the...

  • History of the Song Dynasty
    History of the Song Dynasty
    The Song Dynasty of China was a ruling dynasty that controlled China proper and southern China from the middle of the 10th century into the last quarter of the 13th century...

  • Society of the Song Dynasty
    Society of the Song Dynasty
    Chinese society during the Song Dynasty was marked by political and legal reforms, a philosophical revival of Confucianism, and the development of cities beyond administrative purposes into centers of trade, industry, and maritime commerce...

  • Technology of the Song Dynasty
    Technology of the Song Dynasty
    The Song Dynasty provided some of the most significant technological advances in Chinese history, many of which came from talented statesmen drafted by the government through imperial examinations....