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Department of California

Department of California

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The Department of California was one of two Army Departments created September 13, 1858, replacing the original Department of the Pacific
Department of the Pacific
The Department of the Pacific was a major command of the United States Army during the 19th century.-Formation:The Department of the Pacific was first organized on October 31, 1853, at San Francisco, California, taking over from the previous Pacific Division. The department reported directly to...

 and was composed of the territory of the United States lying west of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
The Rocky Mountains are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States...

 and south of Oregon
Oregon Territory
The Territory of Oregon was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from August 14, 1848, until February 14, 1859, when the southwestern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Oregon. Originally claimed by several countries , the region was...

 and Washington
Washington Territory
The Territory of Washington was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from February 8, 1853, until November 11, 1889, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Washington....

 territories, except the Rogue River
Rogue River (Oregon)
The Rogue River in southwestern Oregon in the United States flows about in a generally westward direction from the Cascade Range to the Pacific Ocean. Known for its salmon runs, whitewater rafting, and rugged scenery, it was one of the original eight rivers named in the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act...

 and Umpqua
Umpqua River
The Umpqua River on the Pacific coast of Oregon in the United States is approximately long. One of the principal rivers of the Oregon Coast and known for bass and shad, the river drains an expansive network of valleys in the mountains west of the Cascade Range and south of the Willamette Valley,...

 Districts of southwestern Oregon Territory, which were assigned to the Department of California and excluding the Utah Territory
Utah Territory
The Territory of Utah was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 4, 1896, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Utah....

 east of the 117th meridian west
117th meridian west
The meridian 117° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole....

 and New Mexico Territory
New Mexico Territory
thumb|right|240px|Proposed boundaries for State of New Mexico, 1850The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of...

 east of the 110th meridian west
110th meridian west
The meridian 110° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole....

. Its creation was authorized by General Orders, No. 10, of the War Department
United States Department of War
The United States Department of War, also called the War Department , was the United States Cabinet department originally responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army...

, Adjutant-General's Office, September 13, 1858. Headquarters as before remained at San Francisco
San Francisco, California
San Francisco , officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the financial, cultural, and transportation center of the San Francisco Bay Area, a region of 7.15 million people which includes San Jose and Oakland...

.

Commanders


The Department of California was commanded first by Brevet
Brevet (military)
In many of the world's military establishments, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank except when actually serving in that role. An officer so promoted may be referred to as being...

 Brigadier General
Brigadier General
Brigadier general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000...

 Newman S. Clarke
Newman S. Clarke
Newman S. Clarke was a career military officer in the United States army who served with distinction during the Mexican-American War.Clarke was born in Connecticut and served in the United States Army during the War of 1812. At the outbreak of the Mexican-American War in 1846, he was appointed...

, Colonel
Colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

 U.S. 6th Infantry Regiment
U.S. 6th Infantry Regiment
The 6th Infantry Regiment was formed in 1812. Its most famous commander was Zachary Taylor, later the twelfth President of the United States. The Motto, "Regulars, By God!" derives from the Battle of Chippawa, in which British general Riall noticed that the approaching regiment had on the uniforms...

, until his death on October 17, 1860. It was next commanded by Lt. Colonel Benjamin L. Beall, U.S. 1st Dragoon Regiment
U.S. 1st Cavalry Regiment
The 1st Cavalry Regiment is a unit in the United States Army which has its antecedents in the early 19th Century in the formation of the United States Regiment of Dragoons. To this day, the unit's Special Designation is "First Regiment of Dragoons".-Origins:The "United States Regiment of Dragoons"...

, who had assumed command, by seniority of rank, on the death of General Clarke, on October 17, 1860. It was merged into the restored Department of the Pacific
Department of the Pacific
The Department of the Pacific was a major command of the United States Army during the 19th century.-Formation:The Department of the Pacific was first organized on October 31, 1853, at San Francisco, California, taking over from the previous Pacific Division. The department reported directly to...

 on January 15, 1861, as the District of California
District of California
The District of California was a Union Army command department formed during the American Civil War. The district was part of the Department of the Pacific, the commander of the department also being District commander...

 administering the same territories, under Brevet Brigadier General Albert Sidney Johnston
Albert Sidney Johnston
Albert Sidney Johnston served as a general in three different armies: the Texas Army, the United States Army, and the Confederate States Army...

 from January 15, 1861.

Reduction to District status 1861-1865


When General Edwin Vose Sumner, relieved General Johnston in March 1861 he continued in command of the Department of California now renamed the District of California
District of California
The District of California was a Union Army command department formed during the American Civil War. The district was part of the Department of the Pacific, the commander of the department also being District commander...

. His successor in October 1861, Brigadier General George Wright
George Wright (general)
George Wright was an American soldier who served in the Mexican-American War and the American Civil War.-Early life and career:...

 continued in command of the District even after losing command of the Department of the Pacific, on July 1, 1864, to Gen. Irvin McDowell
Irvin McDowell
Irvin McDowell was a career American army officer. He is best known for his defeat in the First Battle of Bull Run, the first large-scale battle of the American Civil War.-Early life:...

.

Department Again 1865


In June 1865, Col. Edward McGarry
Edward McGarry
Edward McGarry , officer in the Mexican American War, California politician and officer of California Volunteers in American Civil War, leading cavalry at the Battle of Bear River, later Colonel, of the 2nd California Cavalry, and Commander of the District of California, and received a brevet...

 was ordered to succeed Brigadier General George Wright (who was moving to his new command of the Department of the Columbia
Department of the Columbia
The Department of the Columbia was a major command of the United States Army during the 19th century.-Formation:On July 27, 1865 the Military Division of the Pacific was created under Major General Henry W...

), in command of the District of California
District of California
The District of California was a Union Army command department formed during the American Civil War. The district was part of the Department of the Pacific, the commander of the department also being District commander...

 until General McDowell could take command of the District which was again raised to Department status once more under the Military Division of the Pacific
Military Division of the Pacific
The Military Division of the Pacific was a major command of the United States Army during the 19th century.-Formation:On July 27, 1865 the Military Division of the Pacific was created under Major General Henry W...

, now commanded by Major General Henry W. Halleck.. The territory encompassed by the new Department of California now consisted of the States of California and Nevada and the Territories of New Mexico and Arizona. Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell, U. S. Army, assigned to command the Department of California.

The Department of Arizona was established under the Division of the Pacific on April 15, 1870. It consisted of Arizona Territory and California south of a line from the northwest corner of Arizona to Point Conception so as to include most of Southern California.

From December 7, 1871, the one general officer at San Francisco commanded both the Division of the Pacific and the Department of California and the separate staffs were consolidated into one. On July 1, 1878, Division of the Pacific headquarters moved from San Francisco to the Presidio of San Francisco.

The Department of Arizona lost Southern California to the Department of California on February 14, 1883, but regained California south of the 35th parallel on December 15, 1886. The Department of California then consisted of California north of the 35th parallel and Nevada.

The Military Division of the Pacific was discontinued on July 3, 1891. Each of the three subordinate departments of Arizona, California, and the Columbia, then reported directly to the War Department. The Department of California, with its headquarters at San Francisco, consisted of California north of the 35th parallel and Nevada.

California

  • Benicia Arsenal
    Benicia Arsenal
    The Benicia Arsenal 1851-1964, and Benicia Barracks 1852-1866, was a large military reservation located next to Suisun Bay in Benicia, California. For over 100 years, the arsenal was the primary US Army Ordnance facility for the West Coast of the United States.In 1847 a parcel of land adjoining...

    , Benicia
    Benicia, California
    Benicia is a waterside city in Solano County, California, United States. It was the first city in California to be founded by Anglo-Americans, and served as the state capital for nearly thirteen months from 1853 to 1854. The population was 26,997 at the 2010 census. The city is located in the San...

    , 1851–1964
  • New San Diego Depot, San Diego, 1851-June, 1866.
  • Fort Yuma
    Fort Yuma
    Fort Yuma is a fort in California that is located in Imperial County, across the Colorado River from Yuma, Arizona. It was on the Butterfield Overland Mail route from 1858 until 1861 and was abandoned May 16, 1883, and transferred to the Department of the Interior. The Fort Yuma Indian School and a...

    , Fort Yuma Indian Reservation
    Fort Yuma Indian Reservation
    The Fort Yuma Indian Reservation is a part of the traditional lands of the Quechan people. Established in 1884, the reservation, at , has a land area of 178.197 km² in southeastern Imperial County, California, and western Yuma County, Arizona, near the city of Yuma, Arizona. Both the county...

    , 1851–1883
  • Benicia Barracks
    Benicia Arsenal
    The Benicia Arsenal 1851-1964, and Benicia Barracks 1852-1866, was a large military reservation located next to Suisun Bay in Benicia, California. For over 100 years, the arsenal was the primary US Army Ordnance facility for the West Coast of the United States.In 1847 a parcel of land adjoining...

    , Benicia, 1852–1866
  • Post of Alcatraz Island or Fort Alcatraz, 1853–1907
  • Roop's Fort, Fort Defiance, Susanville 1853-1863
  • Fort Humboldt, Eureka
    Eureka, California
    Eureka is the principal city and the county seat of Humboldt County, California, United States. Its population was 27,191 at the 2010 census, up from 26,128 at the 2000 census....

    , 1853–1867
  • Fort Point San José
    Fort Mason
    Fort Mason, once known as San Francisco Port of Embarkation, US Army, in San Francisco, California, is a former United States Army post located in the northern Marina District, alongside San Francisco Bay. Fort Mason served as an Army post for more than 100 years, initially as a coastal defense...

    , San Francisco
    San Francisco, California
    San Francisco , officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the financial, cultural, and transportation center of the San Francisco Bay Area, a region of 7.15 million people which includes San Jose and Oakland...

    , 1853–1882
  • Fort Point, San Francisco, 1853–1886
  • Fort Tejon
    Fort Tejon
    Fort Tejon in California is a former United States Army outpost which was intermittently active from June 24, 1854, until September 11, 1864. It is located in the Grapevine Canyon area of Tejon Pass along Interstate 5, the main route through the mountains separating the Central Valley from Los...

    , near Lebec
    Lebec, California
    Lebec is an unincorporated area and census-designated place in Kern County, California. It is one of the Mountain Communities of the Tejon Pass, and the home of the Tejon Ranch Company. Lebec is south of Bakersfield. The population was 1,468 in the 2010 census, up from 1,224 in...

    , 1854-1861, 1863-1864.
  • Camp Burton, near San Diego, 1855
  • Fort Crook 1857-1869
  • Fort Bragg
    Fort Bragg, California
    Fort Bragg is a city located in coastal Mendocino County, California along State Route 1, the major north-south highway along the Pacific Coast. Fort Bragg is located west of Willits, at an elevation of 85 feet...

    , 1857-1864.
  • Fort Ter-Waw, 1857-1862
  • Fort Mojave
    Fort Mojave
    Fort Mohave was originally named Camp Colorado when it was established on April 19, 1859 by Lieutenant Colonel William Hoffman during the Mohave War...

     1858-1861, 1863–1890
  • Fort Beale 1859-1861
    • Fort Piute 1864-1868
  • Fort Gaston
    Fort Gaston
    Fort Gaston was founded on December 4, 1859, in the redwood forests of the Hoopa Valley, in Northern California, on the west bank of the Trinity River, 14 miles from where the Trinity flows into the Klamath River. It was located in what is now the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation...

    , 1859–1892
  • Fort Soda, Hancock's Redoubt 1860
    • Fort Soda Lake or Camp Soda Springs (present-day Zzyzx
      Zzyzx, California
      Zzyzx, California , formerly Camp Soda and Soda Springs, is a settlement in San Bernardino County, California. It is the former site of the Zzyzx Mineral Springs and Health Spa and now the site of the Desert Studies Center...

      ) 1863 - 1868
  • Camp Cady 1860-1871 20 miles east of Barstow
    Barstow, California
    Barstow is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States. The population was 22,639 at the 2010 census, up from 21,119 at the 2000 census. Barstow is located north of San Bernardino....

  • Camp Allen, Oakland
    Oakland, California
    Oakland is a major West Coast port city on San Francisco Bay in the U.S. state of California. It is the eighth-largest city in the state with a 2010 population of 390,724...

     1860-?
  • Camp Dragoon Bridge, 1860-1863