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Colima, Colima

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Colima is capital of the state of the same name
Colima
Colima is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It shares its name with its capital and main city, Colima....

, a city and municipality
Municipalities of Mexico
Municipalities are the second-level administrative division in Mexico . There are 2,438 municipalities in Mexico, making the average municipality population 45,616...

 located in the center west of Mexico. It is located near the Colima Volcano
Colima (volcano)
The Colima Volcano is currently one of the most active volcanos in Mexico and in North America. It has erupted more than 40 times since 1576....

, which divides the small state from that of Jalisco
Jalisco
Jalisco officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and divided in 125 municipalities and its capital city is Guadalajara.It is one of the more important states...

. Despite being the capital, the city is not the state’s main tourist attraction, eclipsed by Manzanillo
Manzanillo, Colima
The name Manzanillo refers to the city as well as its surrounding municipality in the Mexican state of Colima. The city, located on the Pacific Ocean, contains Mexico's busiest port. Manzanillo was the third port created by the Spanish in the Pacific during the New Spain period...

 and Comala, as it lacks major cultural and historical sites. It is one of the state’s main commerce and distribution centers, with over two thirds of the population employed in commerce and services within the city proper. Outside in the small communities of the municipality, agriculture is still the most important economic activity. The city has been ranked as first as livable small city in Mexico and tenth in Latin America by FDI Intelligence.

The city


The city of Colima is the capital of the state of the same name. It is the second largest municipality after Manzanillo by population. FDI Intelligence, a subsidiary of the Financial Times
Financial Times
The Financial Times is an international business newspaper. It is a morning daily newspaper published in London and printed in 24 cities around the world. Its primary rival is the Wall Street Journal, published in New York City....

 of London, ranked Colima first in small cities and tenth in Latin America
Latin America
Latin America is a region of the Americas where Romance languages  – particularly Spanish and Portuguese, and variably French – are primarily spoken. Latin America has an area of approximately 21,069,500 km² , almost 3.9% of the Earth's surface or 14.1% of its land surface area...

 as a place to live. It was evaluated under six categories; economic potential, human resources, cost-benefit ratio, quality of life, infrastructure and favorable business environment.

The historic center of the city is a square called Jardín Libertad (Liberty Garden). It consists of a kiosk
Kiosk
Kiosk is a small, separated garden pavilion open on some or all sides. Kiosks were common in Persia, India, Pakistan, and in the Ottoman Empire from the 13th century onward...

 in the center, brought from Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 in 1891, surrounded by palms and leafy trees and bushes. It often hosts live music on weekends.

The best known hotel of the city is Hotel Cevallos, located just off the main square called Jardín Libertad behind a set of arches. The hotel was begun by the Cevallos family. Hotel Cevallos has a area under and in front of the arches for outdoor dining. Here and in other restaurants in the city, one can try popular dishes such as atole
Atole
Atole is a traditional masa-based Mexican and Central American hot drink. Chocolate atole is known as champurrado or atole...

 with milk, white pozole
Pozole
Pozole is a ritually significant, traditional pre-Columbian soup or stew from Mexico. Pozole was mentioned in Fray Bernardino de Sahagún's "General History of the Things of New Spain" circa 1500 CE. It is made from nixtamalized cacahuazintle corn, with meat, usually pork, chicken, turkey, pork...

, white menudo
Menudo
Menudo can refer to:* Menudo , boy band** Menudo , three of their albums went by this name** Menudo: La Reunion , a music project composed of former band members* Menudo , traditional Mexican soup...

, tatamado, pipián mole
Mole (sauce)
Mole is the generic name for a number of sauces used in Mexican cuisine, as well as for dishes based on these sauces...

, birria
Birria
Birria is a spicy Mexican meat stew usually made with pork, goat, lamb, or mutton, often served during festive periods, such as Christmas, New Year's Eve, Mother's Day, and weddings. Originally from Jalisco, it is a common dish in some Mexican food establishments...

 and sope
Sope
A sope is a traditional Mexican dish originating in the city of Culiacán. Originally called gordita or pelliscadas in Culiacán. It is an antojito which at first sight looks like an unusually thick tortilla with vegetables and meat toppings...

s. On the side of the Hotel, there is pedestrian street called Andador Constitución. It retains traditional businesses such as the Joven Don Manuelito ice cream shop, which has been there since 1944. On the street proper, one can see street musicians and artists offering to paint or draw landscapes and portraits. At the end of this street, there is a large handcrafts store funded by a government agency called DIF, which focuses on crafts from the state such as indigenous clothing, and ceramic figures, especially xoloizcuintle dogs.

The Colima cathedral is formally called the Basílica Menor Catedral de Colima. The current structure as built in 1894, but since then it has been renovated various times, often due to earthquake damage. The style is Neoclassical
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

 with two towers and it dome in the front. The interior is sparse. The former state government palace is next to the cathedral. It is a two story buildings in French Neoclassical design. It was finished in 1904 and designed by Lucio Urbe, who also did the cathedral. The façade contains a bell, which is a replica of the one Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rang in Dolores Hidalgo
Dolores Hidalgo
Dolores Hidalgo Dolores Hidalgo Dolores Hidalgo (in full, Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional is the name of a city and the surrounding municipality in the north-central part of the Mexican state of Guanajuato....

 and a clock brought over from Germany. The building surrounded an inner courtyard marked off by arches. The main stairwell contains mural work done in 1953 by Jorge Chávez Carrillo, a Colima artist. The park behind the cathedral is Jardin Gregorio Torres Quintero, which contains mango, tabachin (Caesalpinia mexicana
Caesalpinia mexicana
Caesalpinia mexicana is a species of flowering plant in the pea family, Fabaceae. Common names include Mexican Holdback, Mexican Caesalpinia, and Tabachín del Monte. It is native to the extreme lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in the United States and south to central Mexico...

) and palm trees along with stands selling handcrafts
Mexican handcrafts and folk art
Mexican handcrafts and folk art is a complex collection of items made with various materials and intended for utilitarian, decorative or other purposes. Some of the items produced by hand in this country include ceramics, wall hangings, vases, furniture, textiles and much more...

, novelties and food. Stands here and other places in the city sell a local drink called the “bate” which is thick and somewhat gray in color, made from a toasted seed called chan or chía along with honey or piloncillo. Another traditional drink sold on streets and parks is called “tuba.” It is made from the flower of a type of palm tree, with apple, cucumber and peanut bits added.

On one side of Jardín Libertad is the Museo Regional de Historia, or the regional museum for Colima. The building dates from 1848, when it was a private home. Later it became a hotel and in 1988, it opened as a museum. The ground floor has a number of archeological pieces along with a replica of a shaft tomb, which is characteristic of the region. It recreates the burial of several peoples along with their belongings and xoloizcuintle dogs, which were thought to be guides to the next world. The upper floor contains documents and other objects which narrates the history of the state from the Conquest to the Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising led by Francisco I. Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz. The Revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist, populist, and agrarianist movements. Over time the Revolution...

 .

A short distance from Jardín Libertad is Jardín Hidalgo, dedicated to Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. This square contains an equatorial sundial which is exact. It was designed by Julio Mendoza and contains explanations in several languages. On one side is located the Temple of San Felipe de Jesús. The main altar of this church contains six niches, with a crucifix at the top. The Del Carmen Chapel is next to it, which is a simple building that contains the image of Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Our Lady of Mount Carmel is the title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary in her role as patroness of the Carmelite Order. The first Carmelites were Christian hermits living on Mount Carmel in the Holy Land during the late 12th and early to mid 13th centuries...

 with the Infant Jesus in her arms. On another side is the Pinacoteca Universitaria Alfonso Michel, which is a museum dedicated to the history of arte in Colima. It is dedicated to Colima artist Alfonso Michel who is considered the best of the state from the 20th century, and who focused on cubist and impressionist painting. The building is traditional for the city with its corridors lined by arches. Along with its permanent collection, the museum hosts exhibitions by local artists.

The Piedra Lisa Park is named after a large smooth monolithic stone which was thrown here by the Colima Volcano thousands of years ago. According to local legend, visitors to the city who slide down the smooth face of the stone three times are destined to stay or return. This is further assured if the visitor slides down three times. This park is also home to an interactive science museum called Xoloescuintle.

The Conjunto de la Secretaría de Cultura (Secretary of Culture Complex) is a series of buildings around a central plaza that contains a Juan Soriano
Juan Soriano
Juan Soriano was a Mexican painter and sculptor.Soriano, son of Rafael Rodríguez Soriano and Amalia Montoya Navarro, was born in Guadalajara and displayed his first painting at age 14...

 sculpture by the nameof “El Toro.” The three main buildings are the Edificio de Talleres which is for workshops on various artistic disciplines, the Casa de la Cultura Alfonso Michel or Edificio Central, which hosts various exhibitions along with a permanent collection of works by Alfonso Michel and Museo de las Culturas de Occidente María Ahumada de Gómez (María Ahumada de Gómez Museum of Western Cultures.The Ahumada Museum has a large collection of archeological pieces from the region. It divides into two areas. The ground floor is dedicated to the history of the state divided into phases. The upper floor is dedicated to the various pre Hispanic culture of the area showing various aspects of their lives such as work, clothing, architecture, religion and art.

The Palacio Legislativa y de Justicia (Legistlative and Justice Palace) is the work of architects Xavier Yarto and Alberto Yarza. It is a modern design. Its interior contains a mural entitled “La Universialidad de la Justicia” by Gabriel Portillo del Toro.
The Museo Universitario de Artes Populares María Teresa Pomar
Museo Universitario de Artes Populares María Teresa Pomar
Museo Universitario de Artes Populares María Teresa Pomar is a museum dedicated to Mexico’s handcrafts and folk art tradition, called “artesanía.” It is part of the University of Colima in the city of Colima, founded by artesanía collector and promoter María Terea Pomar...

 is not only dedicated to the region’s handcrafts and folk art, it also has exhibitions related to the area’s popular festivals and traditions. The collection includes festival costumes, toys, masks, cooking utensils, metal miniatures, wood objects, pottery and fiber crafts.

The municipality



As municipal seat, the city of Colima is the local government for 145 communities, with the most important being Colima, Tepames, Piscila, El Chanal and Los Asmoles. The only urban community is Colima with a high population density with almost all involved in commerce, services and some industry. These communities cover a territory of 668.2km2 and are bordered by the municipalities of Cuauhtémoc
Cuauhtémoc, Colima
Cuauhtémoc is a municipality in the Mexican state of Colima. Its municipal seat is the city of Cuauhtémoc, Colima.The municipality of Cuauhtémoc covers a total surface area of 373.2 km². In the 2005 INEGI Census, it reported a total population of 25,576 ,of whom 7,513 lived in the municipal...

, Ixtlahuacán, Tecomán, Coquimatlán
Coquimatlán
Coquimatlán is a city and seat of the municipality of Coquimatlán, in the Mexican state of Colima. As of 2005, it had a population of 11,374....

 and Villa de Álvarez
Villa de Álvarez, Colima
Ciudad de Villa de Álvarez is a city in the Mexican state of Colima. It is the municipal seat of Villa de Álvarez municipality. The city is adjacent to the northwest side of the state capital city of Colima and the two can be considered as "twin cities", with Ciudad de Villa de Álvarez having a...

 with the state of Jalisco
Jalisco
Jalisco officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and divided in 125 municipalities and its capital city is Guadalajara.It is one of the more important states...

 to the east and the state of Michoacán
Michoacán
Michoacán officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Michoacán de Ocampo is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 113 municipalities and its capital city is Morelia...

 to the southeast. The municipal government consists of a municipal president, an officer called a síndico and eleven representatives called regidores.

The municipality contains about one quarter of the state’s total population. About 92% of the municipality’s population lives in the city proper. (123,543 in the city versus 8,730 in the rural areas as of 2005). As of 2005, only 574 people spoke an indigenous language, with 239 of them living in the city proper. Over 95% of the population is Catholicism, with about two percent following a Protestant or Evangelical form of Christianity.

The city has radio stations, two broadcast television stations (chanels 5 and 11), cable television services, and eight newspapers. The main highways that connect the municipality to the outside include Highway 4 to Manzanillo and Guadalajara and Highway 110 to Jiquilpan, Michoacán. Other modes of transportation include the Guadalajara-Colima-Manzanillo rail line, the Central Camionera and Central Suburbana de Autobuses bus stations and the Miguel de la Madrid Airport .

Environment



Most of the municipality is located in the Valley of Colima. About half of the municipality has rugged, mountainous terrain, most of which is on the south and southeastern sides but with an average altitude of only 550 masl. These areas are part of the areas belonging to the Colima Volcano and a set of mountains called the Cordillera Costera del Sur, which is part of the Sierra Madre del Sur
Sierra Madre del Sur
The Sierra Madre del Sur is a mountain range in southern Mexico, extending from southern Michoacán east through Guerrero, to the Istmo de Tehuantepec in eastern Oaxaca.-Geography:...

, especially that of the north and northwest to the Cerro de los Gallos mesa. These mountains separate the area from the ocean.

On the north and northwest, there is a mesa area called the Cerro de los Gallos. Local peaks include Los Mezcales, Los Gallos, El Alcomún, Rincón de Galindo, Pistola Grande, Piscila, El Agostadero, La Salvia, Cerro Pelón, Piedra Ancha, Higuera Panda, Amarradero, La Yerbabuena, Peña Blanca, La Cebadilla, Tinajas, El Salto, Los Volcancillos, La Palmera, El Camichín, El Achoque, La Siempreviva, El Borrego and Copala.

Colima is capital of the state of the same name
Colima
Colima is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It shares its name with its capital and main city, Colima....

, a city and municipality
Municipalities of Mexico
Municipalities are the second-level administrative division in Mexico . There are 2,438 municipalities in Mexico, making the average municipality population 45,616...

 located in the center west of Mexico. It is located near the Colima Volcano
Colima (volcano)
The Colima Volcano is currently one of the most active volcanos in Mexico and in North America. It has erupted more than 40 times since 1576....

, which divides the small state from that of Jalisco
Jalisco
Jalisco officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and divided in 125 municipalities and its capital city is Guadalajara.It is one of the more important states...

. Despite being the capital, the city is not the state’s main tourist attraction, eclipsed by Manzanillo
Manzanillo, Colima
The name Manzanillo refers to the city as well as its surrounding municipality in the Mexican state of Colima. The city, located on the Pacific Ocean, contains Mexico's busiest port. Manzanillo was the third port created by the Spanish in the Pacific during the New Spain period...

 and Comala, as it lacks major cultural and historical sites. It is one of the state’s main commerce and distribution centers, with over two thirds of the population employed in commerce and services within the city proper. Outside in the small communities of the municipality, agriculture is still the most important economic activity. The city has been ranked as first as livable small city in Mexico and tenth in Latin America by FDI Intelligence.

The city


The city of Colima is the capital of the state of the same name. It is the second largest municipality after Manzanillo by population. FDI Intelligence, a subsidiary of the Financial Times
Financial Times
The Financial Times is an international business newspaper. It is a morning daily newspaper published in London and printed in 24 cities around the world. Its primary rival is the Wall Street Journal, published in New York City....

 of London, ranked Colima first in small cities and tenth in Latin America
Latin America
Latin America is a region of the Americas where Romance languages  – particularly Spanish and Portuguese, and variably French – are primarily spoken. Latin America has an area of approximately 21,069,500 km² , almost 3.9% of the Earth's surface or 14.1% of its land surface area...

 as a place to live. It was evaluated under six categories; economic potential, human resources, cost-benefit ratio, quality of life, infrastructure and favorable business environment.

The historic center of the city is a square called Jardín Libertad (Liberty Garden). It consists of a kiosk
Kiosk
Kiosk is a small, separated garden pavilion open on some or all sides. Kiosks were common in Persia, India, Pakistan, and in the Ottoman Empire from the 13th century onward...

 in the center, brought from Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 in 1891, surrounded by palms and leafy trees and bushes. It often hosts live music on weekends.

The best known hotel of the city is Hotel Cevallos, located just off the main square called Jardín Libertad behind a set of arches. The hotel was begun by the Cevallos family. Hotel Cevallos has a area under and in front of the arches for outdoor dining. Here and in other restaurants in the city, one can try popular dishes such as atole
Atole
Atole is a traditional masa-based Mexican and Central American hot drink. Chocolate atole is known as champurrado or atole...

 with milk, white pozole
Pozole
Pozole is a ritually significant, traditional pre-Columbian soup or stew from Mexico. Pozole was mentioned in Fray Bernardino de Sahagún's "General History of the Things of New Spain" circa 1500 CE. It is made from nixtamalized cacahuazintle corn, with meat, usually pork, chicken, turkey, pork...

, white menudo
Menudo
Menudo can refer to:* Menudo , boy band** Menudo , three of their albums went by this name** Menudo: La Reunion , a music project composed of former band members* Menudo , traditional Mexican soup...

, tatamado, pipián mole
Mole (sauce)
Mole is the generic name for a number of sauces used in Mexican cuisine, as well as for dishes based on these sauces...

, birria
Birria
Birria is a spicy Mexican meat stew usually made with pork, goat, lamb, or mutton, often served during festive periods, such as Christmas, New Year's Eve, Mother's Day, and weddings. Originally from Jalisco, it is a common dish in some Mexican food establishments...

 and sope
Sope
A sope is a traditional Mexican dish originating in the city of Culiacán. Originally called gordita or pelliscadas in Culiacán. It is an antojito which at first sight looks like an unusually thick tortilla with vegetables and meat toppings...

s. On the side of the Hotel, there is pedestrian street called Andador Constitución. It retains traditional businesses such as the Joven Don Manuelito ice cream shop, which has been there since 1944. On the street proper, one can see street musicians and artists offering to paint or draw landscapes and portraits. At the end of this street, there is a large handcrafts store funded by a government agency called DIF, which focuses on crafts from the state such as indigenous clothing, and ceramic figures, especially xoloizcuintle dogs.

The Colima cathedral is formally called the Basílica Menor Catedral de Colima. The current structure as built in 1894, but since then it has been renovated various times, often due to earthquake damage. The style is Neoclassical
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

 with two towers and it dome in the front. The interior is sparse. The former state government palace is next to the cathedral. It is a two story buildings in French Neoclassical design. It was finished in 1904 and designed by Lucio Urbe, who also did the cathedral. The façade contains a bell, which is a replica of the one Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rang in Dolores Hidalgo
Dolores Hidalgo
Dolores Hidalgo Dolores Hidalgo Dolores Hidalgo (in full, Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional is the name of a city and the surrounding municipality in the north-central part of the Mexican state of Guanajuato....

 and a clock brought over from Germany. The building surrounded an inner courtyard marked off by arches. The main stairwell contains mural work done in 1953 by Jorge Chávez Carrillo, a Colima artist. The park behind the cathedral is Jardin Gregorio Torres Quintero, which contains mango, tabachin (Caesalpinia mexicana
Caesalpinia mexicana
Caesalpinia mexicana is a species of flowering plant in the pea family, Fabaceae. Common names include Mexican Holdback, Mexican Caesalpinia, and Tabachín del Monte. It is native to the extreme lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in the United States and south to central Mexico...

) and palm trees along with stands selling handcrafts
Mexican handcrafts and folk art
Mexican handcrafts and folk art is a complex collection of items made with various materials and intended for utilitarian, decorative or other purposes. Some of the items produced by hand in this country include ceramics, wall hangings, vases, furniture, textiles and much more...

, novelties and food. Stands here and other places in the city sell a local drink called the “bate” which is thick and somewhat gray in color, made from a toasted seed called chan or chía along with honey or piloncillo. Another traditional drink sold on streets and parks is called “tuba.” It is made from the flower of a type of palm tree, with apple, cucumber and peanut bits added.

On one side of Jardín Libertad is the Museo Regional de Historia, or the regional museum for Colima. The building dates from 1848, when it was a private home. Later it became a hotel and in 1988, it opened as a museum. The ground floor has a number of archeological pieces along with a replica of a shaft tomb, which is characteristic of the region. It recreates the burial of several peoples along with their belongings and xoloizcuintle dogs, which were thought to be guides to the next world. The upper floor contains documents and other objects which narrates the history of the state from the Conquest to the Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising led by Francisco I. Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz. The Revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist, populist, and agrarianist movements. Over time the Revolution...

 .

A short distance from Jardín Libertad is Jardín Hidalgo, dedicated to Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. This square contains an equatorial sundial which is exact. It was designed by Julio Mendoza and contains explanations in several languages. On one side is located the Temple of San Felipe de Jesús. The main altar of this church contains six niches, with a crucifix at the top. The Del Carmen Chapel is next to it, which is a simple building that contains the image of Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Our Lady of Mount Carmel is the title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary in her role as patroness of the Carmelite Order. The first Carmelites were Christian hermits living on Mount Carmel in the Holy Land during the late 12th and early to mid 13th centuries...

 with the Infant Jesus in her arms. On another side is the Pinacoteca Universitaria Alfonso Michel, which is a museum dedicated to the history of arte in Colima. It is dedicated to Colima artist Alfonso Michel who is considered the best of the state from the 20th century, and who focused on cubist and impressionist painting. The building is traditional for the city with its corridors lined by arches. Along with its permanent collection, the museum hosts exhibitions by local artists.

The Piedra Lisa Park is named after a large smooth monolithic stone which was thrown here by the Colima Volcano thousands of years ago. According to local legend, visitors to the city who slide down the smooth face of the stone three times are destined to stay or return. This is further assured if the visitor slides down three times. This park is also home to an interactive science museum called Xoloescuintle.

The Conjunto de la Secretaría de Cultura (Secretary of Culture Complex) is a series of buildings around a central plaza that contains a Juan Soriano
Juan Soriano
Juan Soriano was a Mexican painter and sculptor.Soriano, son of Rafael Rodríguez Soriano and Amalia Montoya Navarro, was born in Guadalajara and displayed his first painting at age 14...

 sculpture by the nameof “El Toro.” The three main buildings are the Edificio de Talleres which is for workshops on various artistic disciplines, the Casa de la Cultura Alfonso Michel or Edificio Central, which hosts various exhibitions along with a permanent collection of works by Alfonso Michel and Museo de las Culturas de Occidente María Ahumada de Gómez (María Ahumada de Gómez Museum of Western Cultures.The Ahumada Museum has a large collection of archeological pieces from the region. It divides into two areas. The ground floor is dedicated to the history of the state divided into phases. The upper floor is dedicated to the various pre Hispanic culture of the area showing various aspects of their lives such as work, clothing, architecture, religion and art.

The Palacio Legislativa y de Justicia (Legistlative and Justice Palace) is the work of architects Xavier Yarto and Alberto Yarza. It is a modern design. Its interior contains a mural entitled “La Universialidad de la Justicia” by Gabriel Portillo del Toro.
The Museo Universitario de Artes Populares María Teresa Pomar
Museo Universitario de Artes Populares María Teresa Pomar
Museo Universitario de Artes Populares María Teresa Pomar is a museum dedicated to Mexico’s handcrafts and folk art tradition, called “artesanía.” It is part of the University of Colima in the city of Colima, founded by artesanía collector and promoter María Terea Pomar...

 is not only dedicated to the region’s handcrafts and folk art, it also has exhibitions related to the area’s popular festivals and traditions. The collection includes festival costumes, toys, masks, cooking utensils, metal miniatures, wood objects, pottery and fiber crafts.

The municipality



As municipal seat, the city of Colima is the local government for 145 communities, with the most important being Colima, Tepames, Piscila, El Chanal and Los Asmoles. The only urban community is Colima with a high population density with almost all involved in commerce, services and some industry. These communities cover a territory of 668.2km2 and are bordered by the municipalities of Cuauhtémoc
Cuauhtémoc, Colima
Cuauhtémoc is a municipality in the Mexican state of Colima. Its municipal seat is the city of Cuauhtémoc, Colima.The municipality of Cuauhtémoc covers a total surface area of 373.2 km². In the 2005 INEGI Census, it reported a total population of 25,576 ,of whom 7,513 lived in the municipal...

, Ixtlahuacán, Tecomán, Coquimatlán
Coquimatlán
Coquimatlán is a city and seat of the municipality of Coquimatlán, in the Mexican state of Colima. As of 2005, it had a population of 11,374....

 and Villa de Álvarez
Villa de Álvarez, Colima
Ciudad de Villa de Álvarez is a city in the Mexican state of Colima. It is the municipal seat of Villa de Álvarez municipality. The city is adjacent to the northwest side of the state capital city of Colima and the two can be considered as "twin cities", with Ciudad de Villa de Álvarez having a...

 with the state of Jalisco
Jalisco
Jalisco officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and divided in 125 municipalities and its capital city is Guadalajara.It is one of the more important states...

 to the east and the state of Michoacán
Michoacán
Michoacán officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Michoacán de Ocampo is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 113 municipalities and its capital city is Morelia...

 to the southeast. The municipal government consists of a municipal president, an officer called a síndico and eleven representatives called regidores.

The municipality contains about one quarter of the state’s total population. About 92% of the municipality’s population lives in the city proper. (123,543 in the city versus 8,730 in the rural areas as of 2005). As of 2005, only 574 people spoke an indigenous language, with 239 of them living in the city proper. Over 95% of the population is Catholicism, with about two percent following a Protestant or Evangelical form of Christianity.

The city has radio stations, two broadcast television stations (chanels 5 and 11), cable television services, and eight newspapers. The main highways that connect the municipality to the outside include Highway 4 to Manzanillo and Guadalajara and Highway 110 to Jiquilpan, Michoacán. Other modes of transportation include the Guadalajara-Colima-Manzanillo rail line, the Central Camionera and Central Suburbana de Autobuses bus stations and the Miguel de la Madrid Airport .

Environment



Most of the municipality is located in the Valley of Colima. About half of the municipality has rugged, mountainous terrain, most of which is on the south and southeastern sides but with an average altitude of only 550 masl. These areas are part of the areas belonging to the Colima Volcano and a set of mountains called the Cordillera Costera del Sur, which is part of the Sierra Madre del Sur
Sierra Madre del Sur
The Sierra Madre del Sur is a mountain range in southern Mexico, extending from southern Michoacán east through Guerrero, to the Istmo de Tehuantepec in eastern Oaxaca.-Geography:...

, especially that of the north and northwest to the Cerro de los Gallos mesa. These mountains separate the area from the ocean.

On the north and northwest, there is a mesa area called the Cerro de los Gallos. Local peaks include Los Mezcales, Los Gallos, El Alcomún, Rincón de Galindo, Pistola Grande, Piscila, El Agostadero, La Salvia, Cerro Pelón, Piedra Ancha, Higuera Panda, Amarradero, La Yerbabuena, Peña Blanca, La Cebadilla, Tinajas, El Salto, Los Volcancillos, La Palmera, El Camichín, El Achoque, La Siempreviva, El Borrego and Copala.

Colima is capital of the state of the same name
Colima
Colima is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It shares its name with its capital and main city, Colima....

, a city and municipality
Municipalities of Mexico
Municipalities are the second-level administrative division in Mexico . There are 2,438 municipalities in Mexico, making the average municipality population 45,616...

 located in the center west of Mexico. It is located near the Colima Volcano
Colima (volcano)
The Colima Volcano is currently one of the most active volcanos in Mexico and in North America. It has erupted more than 40 times since 1576....

, which divides the small state from that of Jalisco
Jalisco
Jalisco officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and divided in 125 municipalities and its capital city is Guadalajara.It is one of the more important states...

. Despite being the capital, the city is not the state’s main tourist attraction, eclipsed by Manzanillo
Manzanillo, Colima
The name Manzanillo refers to the city as well as its surrounding municipality in the Mexican state of Colima. The city, located on the Pacific Ocean, contains Mexico's busiest port. Manzanillo was the third port created by the Spanish in the Pacific during the New Spain period...

 and Comala, as it lacks major cultural and historical sites. It is one of the state’s main commerce and distribution centers, with over two thirds of the population employed in commerce and services within the city proper. Outside in the small communities of the municipality, agriculture is still the most important economic activity. The city has been ranked as first as livable small city in Mexico and tenth in Latin America by FDI Intelligence.

The city


The city of Colima is the capital of the state of the same name. It is the second largest municipality after Manzanillo by population. FDI Intelligence, a subsidiary of the Financial Times
Financial Times
The Financial Times is an international business newspaper. It is a morning daily newspaper published in London and printed in 24 cities around the world. Its primary rival is the Wall Street Journal, published in New York City....

 of London, ranked Colima first in small cities and tenth in Latin America
Latin America
Latin America is a region of the Americas where Romance languages  – particularly Spanish and Portuguese, and variably French – are primarily spoken. Latin America has an area of approximately 21,069,500 km² , almost 3.9% of the Earth's surface or 14.1% of its land surface area...

 as a place to live. It was evaluated under six categories; economic potential, human resources, cost-benefit ratio, quality of life, infrastructure and favorable business environment.

The historic center of the city is a square called Jardín Libertad (Liberty Garden). It consists of a kiosk
Kiosk
Kiosk is a small, separated garden pavilion open on some or all sides. Kiosks were common in Persia, India, Pakistan, and in the Ottoman Empire from the 13th century onward...

 in the center, brought from Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 in 1891, surrounded by palms and leafy trees and bushes. It often hosts live music on weekends.

The best known hotel of the city is Hotel Cevallos, located just off the main square called Jardín Libertad behind a set of arches. The hotel was begun by the Cevallos family. Hotel Cevallos has a area under and in front of the arches for outdoor dining. Here and in other restaurants in the city, one can try popular dishes such as atole
Atole
Atole is a traditional masa-based Mexican and Central American hot drink. Chocolate atole is known as champurrado or atole...

 with milk, white pozole
Pozole
Pozole is a ritually significant, traditional pre-Columbian soup or stew from Mexico. Pozole was mentioned in Fray Bernardino de Sahagún's "General History of the Things of New Spain" circa 1500 CE. It is made from nixtamalized cacahuazintle corn, with meat, usually pork, chicken, turkey, pork...

, white menudo
Menudo
Menudo can refer to:* Menudo , boy band** Menudo , three of their albums went by this name** Menudo: La Reunion , a music project composed of former band members* Menudo , traditional Mexican soup...

, tatamado, pipián mole
Mole (sauce)
Mole is the generic name for a number of sauces used in Mexican cuisine, as well as for dishes based on these sauces...

, birria
Birria
Birria is a spicy Mexican meat stew usually made with pork, goat, lamb, or mutton, often served during festive periods, such as Christmas, New Year's Eve, Mother's Day, and weddings. Originally from Jalisco, it is a common dish in some Mexican food establishments...

 and sope
Sope
A sope is a traditional Mexican dish originating in the city of Culiacán. Originally called gordita or pelliscadas in Culiacán. It is an antojito which at first sight looks like an unusually thick tortilla with vegetables and meat toppings...

s. On the side of the Hotel, there is pedestrian street called Andador Constitución. It retains traditional businesses such as the Joven Don Manuelito ice cream shop, which has been there since 1944. On the street proper, one can see street musicians and artists offering to paint or draw landscapes and portraits. At the end of this street, there is a large handcrafts store funded by a government agency called DIF, which focuses on crafts from the state such as indigenous clothing, and ceramic figures, especially xoloizcuintle dogs.

The Colima cathedral is formally called the Basílica Menor Catedral de Colima. The current structure as built in 1894, but since then it has been renovated various times, often due to earthquake damage. The style is Neoclassical
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

 with two towers and it dome in the front. The interior is sparse. The former state government palace is next to the cathedral. It is a two story buildings in French Neoclassical design. It was finished in 1904 and designed by Lucio Urbe, who also did the cathedral. The façade contains a bell, which is a replica of the one Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rang in Dolores Hidalgo
Dolores Hidalgo
Dolores Hidalgo Dolores Hidalgo Dolores Hidalgo (in full, Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional is the name of a city and the surrounding municipality in the north-central part of the Mexican state of Guanajuato....

 and a clock brought over from Germany. The building surrounded an inner courtyard marked off by arches. The main stairwell contains mural work done in 1953 by Jorge Chávez Carrillo, a Colima artist. The park behind the cathedral is Jardin Gregorio Torres Quintero, which contains mango, tabachin (Caesalpinia mexicana
Caesalpinia mexicana
Caesalpinia mexicana is a species of flowering plant in the pea family, Fabaceae. Common names include Mexican Holdback, Mexican Caesalpinia, and Tabachín del Monte. It is native to the extreme lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in the United States and south to central Mexico...

) and palm trees along with stands selling handcrafts
Mexican handcrafts and folk art
Mexican handcrafts and folk art is a complex collection of items made with various materials and intended for utilitarian, decorative or other purposes. Some of the items produced by hand in this country include ceramics, wall hangings, vases, furniture, textiles and much more...

, novelties and food. Stands here and other places in the city sell a local drink called the “bate” which is thick and somewhat gray in color, made from a toasted seed called chan or chía along with honey or piloncillo. Another traditional drink sold on streets and parks is called “tuba.” It is made from the flower of a type of palm tree, with apple, cucumber and peanut bits added.

On one side of Jardín Libertad is the Museo Regional de Historia, or the regional museum for Colima. The building dates from 1848, when it was a private home. Later it became a hotel and in 1988, it opened as a museum. The ground floor has a number of archeological pieces along with a replica of a shaft tomb, which is characteristic of the region. It recreates the burial of several peoples along with their belongings and xoloizcuintle dogs, which were thought to be guides to the next world. The upper floor contains documents and other objects which narrates the history of the state from the Conquest to the Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising led by Francisco I. Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz. The Revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist, populist, and agrarianist movements. Over time the Revolution...

 .

A short distance from Jardín Libertad is Jardín Hidalgo, dedicated to Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. This square contains an equatorial sundial which is exact. It was designed by Julio Mendoza and contains explanations in several languages. On one side is located the Temple of San Felipe de Jesús. The main altar of this church contains six niches, with a crucifix at the top. The Del Carmen Chapel is next to it, which is a simple building that contains the image of Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Our Lady of Mount Carmel is the title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary in her role as patroness of the Carmelite Order. The first Carmelites were Christian hermits living on Mount Carmel in the Holy Land during the late 12th and early to mid 13th centuries...

 with the Infant Jesus in her arms. On another side is the Pinacoteca Universitaria Alfonso Michel, which is a museum dedicated to the history of arte in Colima. It is dedicated to Colima artist Alfonso Michel who is considered the best of the state from the 20th century, and who focused on cubist and impressionist painting. The building is traditional for the city with its corridors lined by arches. Along with its permanent collection, the museum hosts exhibitions by local artists.

The Piedra Lisa Park is named after a large smooth monolithic stone which was thrown here by the Colima Volcano thousands of years ago. According to local legend, visitors to the city who slide down the smooth face of the stone three times are destined to stay or return. This is further assured if the visitor slides down three times. This park is also home to an interactive science museum called Xoloescuintle.

The Conjunto de la Secretaría de Cultura (Secretary of Culture Complex) is a series of buildings around a central plaza that contains a Juan Soriano
Juan Soriano
Juan Soriano was a Mexican painter and sculptor.Soriano, son of Rafael Rodríguez Soriano and Amalia Montoya Navarro, was born in Guadalajara and displayed his first painting at age 14...

 sculpture by the nameof “El Toro.” The three main buildings are the Edificio de Talleres which is for workshops on various artistic disciplines, the Casa de la Cultura Alfonso Michel or Edificio Central, which hosts various exhibitions along with a permanent collection of works by Alfonso Michel and Museo de las Culturas de Occidente María Ahumada de Gómez (María Ahumada de Gómez Museum of Western Cultures.The Ahumada Museum has a large collection of archeological pieces from the region. It divides into two areas. The ground floor is dedicated to the history of the state divided into phases. The upper floor is dedicated to the various pre Hispanic culture of the area showing various aspects of their lives such as work, clothing, architecture, religion and art.

The Palacio Legislativa y de Justicia (Legistlative and Justice Palace) is the work of architects Xavier Yarto and Alberto Yarza. It is a modern design. Its interior contains a mural entitled “La Universialidad de la Justicia” by Gabriel Portillo del Toro.
The Museo Universitario de Artes Populares María Teresa Pomar
Museo Universitario de Artes Populares María Teresa Pomar
Museo Universitario de Artes Populares María Teresa Pomar is a museum dedicated to Mexico’s handcrafts and folk art tradition, called “artesanía.” It is part of the University of Colima in the city of Colima, founded by artesanía collector and promoter María Terea Pomar...

 is not only dedicated to the region’s handcrafts and folk art, it also has exhibitions related to the area’s popular festivals and traditions. The collection includes festival costumes, toys, masks, cooking utensils, metal miniatures, wood objects, pottery and fiber crafts.

The municipality



As municipal seat, the city of Colima is the local government for 145 communities, with the most important being Colima, Tepames, Piscila, El Chanal and Los Asmoles. The only urban community is Colima with a high population density with almost all involved in commerce, services and some industry. These communities cover a territory of 668.2km2 and are bordered by the municipalities of Cuauhtémoc
Cuauhtémoc, Colima
Cuauhtémoc is a municipality in the Mexican state of Colima. Its municipal seat is the city of Cuauhtémoc, Colima.The municipality of Cuauhtémoc covers a total surface area of 373.2 km². In the 2005 INEGI Census, it reported a total population of 25,576 ,of whom 7,513 lived in the municipal...

, Ixtlahuacán, Tecomán, Coquimatlán
Coquimatlán
Coquimatlán is a city and seat of the municipality of Coquimatlán, in the Mexican state of Colima. As of 2005, it had a population of 11,374....

 and Villa de Álvarez
Villa de Álvarez, Colima
Ciudad de Villa de Álvarez is a city in the Mexican state of Colima. It is the municipal seat of Villa de Álvarez municipality. The city is adjacent to the northwest side of the state capital city of Colima and the two can be considered as "twin cities", with Ciudad de Villa de Álvarez having a...

 with the state of Jalisco
Jalisco
Jalisco officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and divided in 125 municipalities and its capital city is Guadalajara.It is one of the more important states...

 to the east and the state of Michoacán
Michoacán
Michoacán officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Michoacán de Ocampo is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 113 municipalities and its capital city is Morelia...

 to the southeast. The municipal government consists of a municipal president, an officer called a síndico and eleven representatives called regidores.

The municipality contains about one quarter of the state’s total population. About 92% of the municipality’s population lives in the city proper. (123,543 in the city versus 8,730 in the rural areas as of 2005). As of 2005, only 574 people spoke an indigenous language, with 239 of them living in the city proper. Over 95% of the population is Catholicism, with about two percent following a Protestant or Evangelical form of Christianity.

The city has radio stations, two broadcast television stations (chanels 5 and 11), cable television services, and eight newspapers. The main highways that connect the municipality to the outside include Highway 4 to Manzanillo and Guadalajara and Highway 110 to Jiquilpan, Michoacán. Other modes of transportation include the Guadalajara-Colima-Manzanillo rail line, the Central Camionera and Central Suburbana de Autobuses bus stations and the Miguel de la Madrid Airport .

Environment



Most of the municipality is located in the Valley of Colima. About half of the municipality has rugged, mountainous terrain, most of which is on the south and southeastern sides but with an average altitude of only 550 masl. These areas are part of the areas belonging to the Colima Volcano and a set of mountains called the Cordillera Costera del Sur, which is part of the Sierra Madre del Sur
Sierra Madre del Sur
The Sierra Madre del Sur is a mountain range in southern Mexico, extending from southern Michoacán east through Guerrero, to the Istmo de Tehuantepec in eastern Oaxaca.-Geography:...

, especially that of the north and northwest to the Cerro de los Gallos mesa. These mountains separate the area from the ocean.

On the north and northwest, there is a mesa area called the Cerro de los Gallos. Local peaks include Los Mezcales, Los Gallos, El Alcomún, Rincón de Galindo, Pistola Grande, Piscila, El Agostadero, La Salvia, Cerro Pelón, Piedra Ancha, Higuera Panda, Amarradero, La Yerbabuena, Peña Blanca, La Cebadilla, Tinajas, El Salto, Los Volcancillos, La Palmera, El Camichín, El Achoque, La Siempreviva, El Borrego and Copala.

Important rivers in the municipality include El Colima, Salado and the Naranjo or Coahuayana. Feeding into these rivers are streams such as El Zarco, El Astillero Salitrillos, Cardona, Colomitos and El Chico. During the rainy season, the following flow: El Manrique, La Estancia, La Cañada, Tepames, Tinajas and La Palmera.

The climate is semi humid with rains in the summer, with an annual average temperature of between 24 and 26C. One exception to this is a section near the Cuauhtémoc
Cuauhtémoc, Colima
Cuauhtémoc is a municipality in the Mexican state of Colima. Its municipal seat is the city of Cuauhtémoc, Colima.The municipality of Cuauhtémoc covers a total surface area of 373.2 km². In the 2005 INEGI Census, it reported a total population of 25,576 ,of whom 7,513 lived in the municipal...

 border where the temperature is between 22 and 24C and annual rainfall is between 1000 and 1300mm as opposed to the 800-1000mm average for the rest of the municipality. Another exception are the communities of Estampilla and Las Tunas, where the climate is drier and hotter, with an average temperature of 26-28C and an annual precipitation of between 600 and 700mm.

In the center, west and southeast, the dominant type of natural vegetation is low growth rainforest
Rainforest
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with definitions based on a minimum normal annual rainfall of 1750-2000 mm...

. About seventy five percent of these trees shed their leaves during the dry season. The southeast also contains areas with medium-growth rainforest, which also is deciduous. Most of this forest is near the Ixtlahuacán border. In the highest elevations, south and southeast of the Tepames community, there are some localized forests of holm oak
Holm Oak
Quercus ilex, the Holm Oak or Holly Oak is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region. It takes its name from holm, an ancient name for holly...

 .

The growth of the city in recent decades has put severe stress on the local environment, with subdivisions clearing areas of tropical vegetation, and large quantities of garbage and wastewater improperly disposed. The Manrique River is considered the dirtiest in the state, with an estimated eight to nine tons of garbage within it. However, there have been well run reforestation programs in the municipality.

Economy


The city of Colima is the economic center of the state. It is one of seventy one urban areas and 308 municipalities that contribute over eighty percent of Mexico’s GDP
Economy of Mexico
The economy of Mexico is the 13th largest in the world in nominal terms and the 11th by purchasing power parity, according to the World Bank.Since the 1994 crisis, administrations have improved the country's macroeconomic fundamentals...

. It is ranked twelfth in competitiveness. Its main competitive advantage is reliable and objective local laws with its weakness being sustainable use of the local environment. The working population of the municipality is 51,509, with 3,145 working in agriculture, 10,820 in industry, mining and construction and 35,809 in commerce and services as of 2009. A study by the University of Colima concluded that the municipality is the most competitive in the state and one of the most competitive in the center west of Mexico. Two economic advantages the municipality has are its well development commerce and services sector and its low rate of unemployment. One main disadvantage is its lack of developed technology sector, with most businesses dedicated to basic commodities. Others include high bureaucratic costs, crime rate, over exploitation of aquifers and problems with waste management, especially hazardous materials.
Agriculture is exclusively practiced outside of the city proper, by the small rural communities which still depend on it economically, along with some mining and fishing. The municipality has a total of 70,000 hectares dedicated to agricultural production, with is over ten percent of the total. Most soils in the municipality are fertile. Most irrigated agriculture occurs in the west of the municipality on the Los Asmoles, Las Golondrinas and Los Ortinces mesa
Mesa
A mesa or table mountain is an elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs. It takes its name from its characteristic table-top shape....

s. Main crops include corn, rice, melons, animal feed, sugar cane and limes. Other important crops include sorghum
Sorghum
Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, one of which is raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. The plants are cultivated in warmer climates worldwide. Species are native to tropical and subtropical regions of all continents...

, tomatoes, tomatillo
Tomatillo
The tomatillo is a plant of the nightshade family, related to the cape gooseberry, bearing small, spherical and green or green-purple fruit of the same name. Tomatillos are a staple in Mexican cuisine. Tomatillos are grown as annuals throughout the Western Hemisphere...

s, beans, peanuts, mango
Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to India from where it spread all over the world. It is also the most cultivated fruit of the tropical world. While...

s, tamarind
Tamarind
Tamarind is a tree in the family Fabaceae. The genus Tamarindus is monotypic .-Origin:...

, coconut, papaya
Papaya
The papaya , papaw, or pawpaw is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae...

, agave
Agave
Agave is a genus of monocots. The plants are perennial, but each rosette flowers once and then dies ; they are commonly known as the century plant....

 and bananas. Livestock mostly consists of domestic fowl followed by cattle, horses, sheep, goats and pigs. Agriculture employs just over nine percent of the population.

Except for some limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

 at the Cerro de Galindo, there are no exploitable minerals in the municipality. Industry is limited to food processing and packaging, especially of rice. There is also some production of oils, soaps and sweets. This sector of the economy employs just over twenty percent of the population.

About sixty eight percent of the population is employed in commerce and services. Colima is one of the state’s main commercial centers and is the major distribution center for goods destined for local consumption. The municipality has five traditional fixed markets, eight department stores, ten tianguis markets, one flea market and a very large number of small, independent retail stores. The main economic activities in the city are commerce and services, including tourism. However, the city lacks major cultural and heritage sites, with makes it lag behind Manzanillo and the small town of Comala as a tourist attraction.

Name


The name comes from the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
Nahuatl is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl , Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua...

 “Coliman” which refers to the pre Hispanic dominion of the area. It divides into syllables referring to the Colima Volcano, also called “grandfather” and the work for hand or dominion. This has been interpreted to mean “place conquered by our grandfathers” or “dominion of the old god or god of fire,” referring to the volcano.

The seal for the city was chosen in 1986 from a number submitted as part of a competition. The chosen seal contains fields of red to symbolize the hot climates and local flora such as bougainvillea
Bougainvillea
Bougainvillea is a genus of flowering plants native to South America from Brazil west to Peru and south to southern Argentina . Different authors accept between four and 18 species in the genus...

s, pitaya
Pitaya
A pitaya or pitahaya is the fruit of several cactus species, most importantly of the genus Hylocereus . These fruits are commonly known as dragon fruit – cf...

s, and palm trees. Blue appear to represent water on which appears an image of King Collimán. Other images include an open book (education), the two volcanoes of the state, foliage called lambrequins and xoloitzcuintle dogs.

The city’s nickname is “Ciudad de las Palmeras” or City of the Palms.

Colonial era


The settlement of Colima was founded originally on 15 July 1523 at a location now known as Caxitlán, near Tecomán. This settlement was founded by Gonzalo de Sandoval
Gonzalo de Sandoval
Gonzalo de Sandoval was a Spanish conquistador in New Spain and briefly co-governor of the colony while Hernan Cortés was away from the capital .-Arrival in New Spain:Sandoval was the youngest of the lieutenants of Cortés. They arrived together in New Spain in 1519...

 under orders from Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, 1st Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century...

 in order to control the newly conquered region. Due to disease, the settlement was moved on 20 January 1527 to the current location with the name of Villa de San Sebastián Colima. It was the eighth settlement founded by the Spanish in New Spain
New Spain
New Spain, formally called the Viceroyalty of New Spain , was a viceroyalty of the Spanish colonial empire, comprising primarily territories in what was known then as 'América Septentrional' or North America. Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire...

. Hernán Cortés visited the settlement in 1535.

19th century


Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was in charge of the parish of Colima in 1792. This would lead to a friendship with Father José Antonio Díaz, who would be an insurgent leader in the area during the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought...

. The Battle of el Llano de Santa Juana took place on 12 July 1811, with the city taken by the insurgents under Ignacio Sandoval and El Lego Gallaga. Insurgents under José Antonio Torres and Rafael Arteaga arrived to the city, bringing twenty Spanish hostages from Guadalajara. Eleven would be killed but nine were saved by Francisco Ramírez de Oliva. When royalist troops retook the city in March 1811, about three hundred insurgents and sympathizers were executed.

The city under Anastacio Brizuela swore allegiance to the Plan of Iguala
Plan of Iguala
Plan of Iguala, also known as Plan of the Three Guarantees , was a peace treaty proclaimed on February 24, 1821, in the final stage of Mexican War of Independence from Spain. The plan attempted to establish a constitutional foundation upon which an independent Mexican Empire would be based...

 in June of 1821. When Independence was achieved in 1821, what is now the state of Colima still belonged to the province of Guadalajara. In September of 1821, the municipalities of Colima and Zapotlán
Zapotlán el Grande
Zapotlán el Grande is a municipality in the Mexican state of Jalisco. There are several meaninings given to the root name of the "Zapotlán el Grande" "TzapoTl is the name given to all the round fruits from the general region...

 were ordered to negotiate their borders by the department of Guadalajara. During these negotiations, Zapotlán ceded Tonila to Colima, and Colima ceded Tecaltlán and Xilotlán to Zapotlán.

Colima and the territory it controlled were loyal to Iturbide. However, since it was then part of the territory of Guadalajara, it was forced to support the republic when it was proclaimed in 1823. The city and territory was made part of the state of Jalisco when it was established, with the city remaining the capital of the Colima province. The city tried to gain independence from Jalisco as a new state, but was denied. Anastacio Brizuela continued to work from 1823 to 1824 to separate the city and its province to make it a separate state. This occurred on 4 October 1824, separating from the state of Jalisco. However, this independence was not stable with the area passing back and forth between independent state and province of Jalisco. However, whether state or province, the city remained the seat of government for the area.

In 1824, the town of Colima was recognized as a city. The annual city fair was authorized in 1825 to occur for fifteen days in March.

When part of Jalisco, the city had problems because its political orientation was different from that of Guadalajara. It was also far from where political decisions were made, impeding economic development. This lack of support from Guadalajara kept ambitions for a distinct state alive, with city first petitioning for more support from Guadalajara, but not receiving it. The state and capital were formally recognized in the 1857 Constitution with Manuel Alvarez as the first constitutional governor.
The city hosted the government of Benito Juárez
Benito Juárez
Benito Juárez born Benito Pablo Juárez García, was a Mexican lawyer and politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca who served five terms as president of Mexico: 1858–1861 as interim, 1861–1865, 1865–1867, 1867–1871 and 1871–1872...

 from March to April of 1858.

During the French Intervention in Mexico
French intervention in Mexico
The French intervention in Mexico , also known as The Maximilian Affair, War of the French Intervention, and The Franco-Mexican War, was an invasion of Mexico by an expeditionary force sent by the Second French Empire, supported in the beginning by the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Spain...

, the state was taken over by those loyal to Maximilian I
Maximilian I of Mexico
Maximilian I was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.After a distinguished career in the Austrian Navy, he was proclaimed Emperor of Mexico on April 10, 1864, with the backing of Napoleon III of France and a group of Mexican monarchists who sought to revive the Mexican monarchy...

, reducing the state to an administrative department. Insurgent General Ramón Corona took the city on 31 January 1867 as part of efforts to restore the Mexican Republic.

The Manzanillo-Colima railroad was inaugurated in 1889.

Mexican Revolution to the present


Francisco I. Madero
Francisco I. Madero
Francisco Ignacio Madero González was a politician, writer and revolutionary who served as President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913. As a respectable upper-class politician, he supplied a center around which opposition to the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz could coalesce...

 arrived to the city to campaign in 1909. After civil war broke out, forces loyal to this leader entered the city on 18 May 1911 under Eugenio Aviña. Insurgents under Juan José Ríos took control of the city between 1914 and 1916, beginning a series of social and economic reforms. Venustiano Carranza
Venustiano Carranza
Venustiano Carranza de la Garza, was one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. He ultimately became President of Mexico following the overthrow of the dictatorial Huerta regime in the summer of 1914 and during his administration the current constitution of Mexico was drafted...

 was in the city in 1916. While there, he was invited by Juan José Ríos to open the public library and formalize the state’s Red Battalion.

Since then, most of the city’s history has revolved around its growth. The population is expected to grow by 38,000 during the 2010s, with job growth of 14,000 and 44,000 more cars on the road. Problems that the city faces now include transit problems, unregulated growth, deteriorating road conditions and street lighting, the lack of public transportation, lack of public security and insufficient water treatment. The city generates eighty seven tons of garbage every day. The municipal landfill receives about 175 tons of garbage each day. As of 2010, for every 1000 residents, there are 400 vehicles, ranking Colima third in the ratio of cars to people, down from first only a year earlier.

Unchecked urban sprawl
Urban sprawl
Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density and auto-dependent development on rural land, high segregation of uses Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a...

, especially in the north and south of the city is a major environmental problem. Much of the building in the north is subdivisions which are only partially occupied. The Centro Universario de Gestión Ambiental at the University of Colima claims that there is apathy to environmental issues on the part of various levels of government.

Archeology


There are two main archeological zones in the municipality called La Campana
La Campana (archaeological site)
La Campana is an archaeological site included in the Mexican archaeological heritage list since 1917. Located in the vicinity of the city of Colima. This site was the largest prehispanic population center in western Mexico...

 and El Chanal
El Chanal
El Chanal is an archaeological site located at El Chanal town, 4 kilometers north of the City of Colima, in the state of Colima, according to information available, its maximum splendor was achieved between 1100 and 1400 CE...

. La Campana is about fifteen minutes outside of the city and is distinguished by a mound in the shape of a bell, which gives it the name. The site covers an area of about fifty hectares with only one percent explored. The site is also known for a construction style which uses rounded river stones and numerous burials.

El Chanal reached its height between 1000 and 1400 over an area of 120 hectares. The site has evidence of the extensive use of obsidian and metals such as copper and gold. Constructions at the site include a Mesoamerican ballcourt, the Plaza of the Altars, the Plaza of Day and Night and the Plaza of Time. Stairwells on pyramid bases often have glyphs similar to those found in central Mexico which may have a calendar function.

Education


The average number of years of schooling is 9.49 years, above the state average of 8.6, with men having only a slight advantage over women. (.3 years) However, there is a large gap between those in the city, with an average of 9.7 years versus those in the rural areas with an average of 5.9. The municipality has public and private schools that offer education from preschool to postgraduate. The municipality has 77 preschools, 104 primary schools, 34 secondary schools, 14 high schools and three technical schools.

University level education is available from the University of Colima, ITESM-Colima
Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Colima
The Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Colima Campus commonly shortened as Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Colima or ITESM Campus Colima, is a campus of the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education private university system in Colima, Colima,...

and UAP. There is also vocational training available through CONALEP and CEDART.

3.5% of the population is in the city is illiterate vs. 11.6% in the rural areas, for an average of about five percent.

External links