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Cognitive architecture

Cognitive architecture

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A cognitive architecture is a blueprint for intelligent agent
Intelligent agent
In artificial intelligence, an intelligent agent is an autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators and directs its activity towards achieving goals . Intelligent agents may also learn or use knowledge to achieve their goals...

s. It proposes (artificial) computation
Computation
Computation is defined as any type of calculation. Also defined as use of computer technology in Information processing.Computation is a process following a well-defined model understood and expressed in an algorithm, protocol, network topology, etc...

al processes that act like certain cognitive systems, most often, like a person, or acts intelligent under some definition. Cognitive architectures form a subset of general agent architecture
Agent architecture
Agent architecture in computer science is a blueprint for software agents and intelligent control systems, depicting the arrangement of components...

s. The term 'architecture' implies an approach that attempts to model not only behavior, but also structural properties of the modelled system. These need not be physical properties: they can be properties of virtual machine
Virtual machine
A virtual machine is a "completely isolated guest operating system installation within a normal host operating system". Modern virtual machines are implemented with either software emulation or hardware virtualization or both together.-VM Definitions:A virtual machine is a software...

s implemented in physical machines (e.g. brains or computers).

Characterization


Common among researchers on cognitive architectures is the belief that understanding (human, animal or machine) cognitive processes means being able to implement them in a working system, though opinions differ as to what form such a system can have: some researchers assume that it will necessarily be a symbolic computational
Computational
Computational may refer to:* Computer* Computational algebra* Computational Aeroacoustics* Computational and Information Systems Laboratory* Computational and Systems Neuroscience* Computational archaeology* Computational auditory scene analysis...

 system whereas others argue for alternative models such as connectionist systems or dynamical system
Dynamical system
A dynamical system is a concept in mathematics where a fixed rule describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space. Examples include the mathematical models that describe the swinging of a clock pendulum, the flow of water in a pipe, and the number of fish each springtime in a...

s. Cognitive architectures can be characterized by certain properties or goals, as follows, though there is not general agreement on all aspects:
  1. Implementation of not just various different aspects of cognitive behavior but of cognition as a whole (Holism
    Holism
    Holism is the idea that all the properties of a given system cannot be determined or explained by its component parts alone...

    , e.g. Unified theory of cognition
    Unified theory of cognition
    Unified Theories of Cognition is a 1990 book by Allen Newell. Newell argues for the need of a set of general assumptions for cognitive models that account for all of cognition: a unified theory of cognition ....

    ). This is in contrast to cognitive model
    Cognitive model
    A cognitive model is an approximation to animal cognitive processes for the purposes of comprehension and prediction. Cognitive models can be developed within or without a cognitive architecture, though the two are not always easily distinguishable.In contrast to cognitive architectures, cognitive...

    s, which focus on a particular competence, such as a kind of problem solving
    Problem solving
    Problem solving is a mental process and is part of the larger problem process that includes problem finding and problem shaping. Consideredthe most complex of all intellectual functions, problem solving has been defined as higher-order cognitive process that requires the modulation and control of...

     or a kind of learning
    Learning
    Learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning curves.Human learning...

    .
  2. The architecture often tries to reproduce the behavior of the modelled system (human), in a way that timely behavior
    Behaviorism
    Behaviorism , also called the learning perspective , is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things that organisms do—including acting, thinking, and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors, and that psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior...

     (reaction times) of the architecture and modelled cognitive systems can be compared in detail. Other cognitive limitations are often modeled as well, e.g. limited working memory, attention or issues due to cognitive load.
  3. Robust behavior
    Robust decision
    Robust decision is a term dating back to the late 1990s. It is used to identify decisions made with a process that includes formal consideration of uncertainty...

     in the face of error, the unexpected, and the unknown. (see Graceful degradation).
  4. Learning
    Learning
    Learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning curves.Human learning...

     (not for all cognitive architectures)
  5. Parameter
    Parameter
    Parameter from Ancient Greek παρά also “para” meaning “beside, subsidiary” and μέτρον also “metron” meaning “measure”, can be interpreted in mathematics, logic, linguistics, environmental science and other disciplines....

    -free: The system does not depend on parameter tuning (in contrast to Artificial neural networks) (not for all cognitive architectures)
  6. Some early theories such as SOAR
    Soar (cognitive architecture)
    Soar is a symbolic cognitive architecture, created by John Laird, Allen Newell, and Paul Rosenbloom at Carnegie Mellon University, now maintained by John Laird's research group at the University of Michigan. It is both a view of what cognition is and an implementation of that view through a...

     and ACT-R
    ACT-R
    ACT-R is a cognitive architecture mainly developed by John Robert Anderson at Carnegie Mellon University. Like any cognitive architecture, ACT-R aims to define the basic and irreducible cognitive and perceptual operations that enable the human mind....

     originally focused only on the 'internal' information processing of an intelligent agent, including tasks like reasoning, planning, solving problems, learning concepts. More recently many architectures (including SOAR, ACT-R, PreAct
    PreAct
    PreAct is a cognitive engine technology that is driven both by changes in the state of the world and the intent of the system’s users called associate systems. Associate systems are a knowledge-based system that are designed to work in conjunction with a human operator...

    , ICARUS, CLARION
    CLARION (cognitive architecture)
    Connectionist Learning with Adaptive Rule Induction ON-line is a cognitive architecture that incorporates the distinction between implicit and explicit processes and focuses on capturing the interaction between these two types of processes. By focusing on this distinction, CLARION has been used to...

    ), FORR have expanded to include perception
    Perception
    Perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of the environment by organizing and interpreting sensory information. All perception involves signals in the nervous system, which in turn result from physical stimulation of the sense organs...

    , action and also affective states and processes including motivation
    Motivation
    Motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. The term is generally used for humans but it can also be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. This article refers to human motivation...

    , attitudes
    Attitude (psychology)
    An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's degree of like or dislike for something. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event— this is often referred to as the attitude object...

    , and emotions.
  7. On some theories the architecture may be composed of different kinds of sub-architectures (often described as 'layers' or 'levels') where the layers may be distinguished by types of function, types of mechanism and representation used, types of information manipulated, or possibly evolutionary origin. These are hybrid architectures (e.g., CLARION
    CLARION (cognitive architecture)
    Connectionist Learning with Adaptive Rule Induction ON-line is a cognitive architecture that incorporates the distinction between implicit and explicit processes and focuses on capturing the interaction between these two types of processes. By focusing on this distinction, CLARION has been used to...

    ).
  8. Some theories allow different architectural components to be active concurrently, whereas others assume a switching mechanism that selects one component or module at a time, depending on the current task. Concurrency is normally required for an architecture for an animal or robot
    Robot
    A robot is a mechanical or virtual intelligent agent that can perform tasks automatically or with guidance, typically by remote control. In practice a robot is usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by computer and electronic programming. Robots can be autonomous, semi-autonomous or...

     that has multiple sensors and effectors in a complex and dynamic environment, but not in all robotic paradigms
    Robotic paradigms
    A robotic paradigm can be described by the relationship between the three primitives of robotics: Sense, Plan, and Act. It can also be described by how sensory data is processed and distributed through the system, and where decisions are made....

    .
  9. Most theories assume that an architecture is fixed and only the information stored in various subsystems can change over time (e.g. Langley et al., below), whereas others allow architectures to grow, e.g. by acquiring new subsystems or new links between subsystems (e.g. Minsky and Sloman, below).


It is important to note that cognitive architectures don't have to follow a top-down approach to cognition (cf. Top-down and bottom-up design
Top-down and bottom-up design
Top–down and bottom–up are strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, mostly involving software, but also other humanistic and scientific theories . In practice, they can be seen as a style of thinking and teaching...

).

Distinctions


Cognitive architectures can be symbol
Symbol
A symbol is something which represents an idea, a physical entity or a process but is distinct from it. The purpose of a symbol is to communicate meaning. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a picture of a tent might represent a campsite. Numerals are symbols for...

ic, connectionist
Connectionism
Connectionism is a set of approaches in the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience and philosophy of mind, that models mental or behavioral phenomena as the emergent processes of interconnected networks of simple units...

, or hybrid
Hybrid intelligent system
Hybrid intelligent system denotes a software system which employs, in parallel, a combination of methods and techniques from artificial intelligence subfields as:* Neuro-fuzzy systems* hybrid connectionist-symbolic models* Fuzzy expert systems...

. Some cognitive architectures or models are based on a set of generic rules
Cognitivism (psychology)
In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind that came into usage in the 1950s. The movement was a response to behaviorism, which cognitivists said neglected to explain cognition...

, as, e.g., the Information Processing Language
Information Processing Language
Information Processing Language is a programming language developed by Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, and Herbert Simon at RAND Corporation and the Carnegie Institute of Technology from about 1956...

 (e.g., Soar
Soar (cognitive architecture)
Soar is a symbolic cognitive architecture, created by John Laird, Allen Newell, and Paul Rosenbloom at Carnegie Mellon University, now maintained by John Laird's research group at the University of Michigan. It is both a view of what cognition is and an implementation of that view through a...

 based on the unified theory of cognition
Unified theory of cognition
Unified Theories of Cognition is a 1990 book by Allen Newell. Newell argues for the need of a set of general assumptions for cognitive models that account for all of cognition: a unified theory of cognition ....

, or similarly ACT). Many of these architectures are based on the-mind-is-like-a-computer analogy. In contrast subsymbolic processing specifies no such rules a priori and relies on emergent properties of processing units (e.g. nodes). Hybrid architectures combine both types of processing (such as CLARION
CLARION (cognitive architecture)
Connectionist Learning with Adaptive Rule Induction ON-line is a cognitive architecture that incorporates the distinction between implicit and explicit processes and focuses on capturing the interaction between these two types of processes. By focusing on this distinction, CLARION has been used to...

). A further distinction is whether the architecture is centralized with a neural correlate of a processor at its core, or decentralized (distributed). The decentralized flavor, has become popular under the name of parallel distributed processing in mid-1980s and connectionism
Connectionism
Connectionism is a set of approaches in the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience and philosophy of mind, that models mental or behavioral phenomena as the emergent processes of interconnected networks of simple units...

, a prime example being neural network
Neural network
The term neural network was traditionally used to refer to a network or circuit of biological neurons. The modern usage of the term often refers to artificial neural networks, which are composed of artificial neurons or nodes...

s. A further design issue is additionally a decision between holistic
Holism
Holism is the idea that all the properties of a given system cannot be determined or explained by its component parts alone...

 and atomistic
Atomism
Atomism is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions. The atomists theorized that the natural world consists of two fundamental parts: indivisible atoms and empty void.According to Aristotle, atoms are indestructible and immutable and there are an infinite variety of shapes...

, or (more concrete) modular
Modularity (programming)
Modular programming is a software design technique that increases the extent to which software is composed of separate, interchangeable components called modules by breaking down program functions into modules, each of which accomplishes one function and contains everything necessary to accomplish...

 structure. By analogy, this extends to issues of knowledge representation
Knowledge representation
Knowledge representation is an area of artificial intelligence research aimed at representing knowledge in symbols to facilitate inferencing from those knowledge elements, creating new elements of knowledge...

.

In traditional AI
Artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its...

, intelligence is often programmed from above: the programmer is the creator, and makes something and imbues it with its intelligence, though many traditional AI systems were also designed to learn (e.g. improving their game-playing or problem-solving competence). Biologically inspired computing, on the other hand, takes sometimes a more bottom-up
Top-down and bottom-up design
Top–down and bottom–up are strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, mostly involving software, but also other humanistic and scientific theories . In practice, they can be seen as a style of thinking and teaching...

, decentralised
Décentralisation
Décentralisation is a french word for both a policy concept in French politics from 1968-1990, and a term employed to describe the results of observations of the evolution of spatial economic and institutional organization of France....

 approach; bio-inspired techniques often involve the method of specifying a set of simple generic rules or a set of simple nodes, from the interaction of which emerges
Emergence
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence is the way complex systems and patterns arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions. Emergence is central to the theories of integrative levels and of complex systems....

 the overall behavior. It is hoped to build up complexity
Complexity
In general usage, complexity tends to be used to characterize something with many parts in intricate arrangement. The study of these complex linkages is the main goal of complex systems theory. In science there are at this time a number of approaches to characterizing complexity, many of which are...

 until the end result is something markedly complex (see complex system
Complex system
A complex system is a system composed of interconnected parts that as a whole exhibit one or more properties not obvious from the properties of the individual parts....

s). However, it is also arguable that systems designed top-down
Top-down and bottom-up design
Top–down and bottom–up are strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, mostly involving software, but also other humanistic and scientific theories . In practice, they can be seen as a style of thinking and teaching...

 on the basis of observations of what humans and other animals can do rather than on observations of brain mechanisms, are also biologically inspired, though in a different way.

Some well-known cognitive architectures

  • 4CAPS
    4CAPS
    4CAPS is a cognitive architecture developed by Marcel A. Just and Sashank Varma at Carnegie Mellon University . It is the successor of the CAPS and 3CAPS cognitive architectures....

    , developed at Carnegie Mellon University
    Carnegie Mellon University
    Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States....

     under Marcel A. Just
    Marcel Just
    Marcel Just is D. O. Hebb Professor of Psychology at Carnegie Mellon University. His research uses brain imaging in high-level cognitive tasks to study the neuroarchitecture of cognition. Just's areas of expertise include psycholinguistics, object recognition, and autism, with particular...

  • ACT-R
    ACT-R
    ACT-R is a cognitive architecture mainly developed by John Robert Anderson at Carnegie Mellon University. Like any cognitive architecture, ACT-R aims to define the basic and irreducible cognitive and perceptual operations that enable the human mind....

    , developed at Carnegie Mellon University
    Carnegie Mellon University
    Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States....

     under John R. Anderson.
  • PreAct
    PreAct
    PreAct is a cognitive engine technology that is driven both by changes in the state of the world and the intent of the system’s users called associate systems. Associate systems are a knowledge-based system that are designed to work in conjunction with a human operator...

    , developed under Dr. Norm Geddes at ASI.
  • Apex developed under Michael Freed at NASA Ames Research Center
    NASA Ames Research Center
    The Ames Research Center , is one of the United States of America's National Aeronautics and Space Administration 10 major field centers.The centre is located in Moffett Field in California's Silicon Valley, near the high-tech companies, entrepreneurial ventures, universities, and other...

    .
  • CHREST, developed under Fernand Gobet
    Fernand Gobet
    Fernand Gobet is a cognitive scientist and a cognitive psychologist, currently Professor of Cognitive Psychology at Brunel University. His research interests focus on the study of cognition, especially in the areas of cognitive architectures, perception, intuition, problem solving, learning and...

     at Brunel University
    Brunel University
    Brunel University is a public research university located in Uxbridge, London, United Kingdom. The university is named after the Victorian engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel....

     and Peter C. Lane at the University of Hertfordshire
    University of Hertfordshire
    The University of Hertfordshire is a new university based largely in Hatfield, in the county of Hertfordshire, England, from which the university takes its name. It has more than 27,500 students, over 2500 staff, with a turnover of over £181m...

    .
  • CLARION
    CLARION (cognitive architecture)
    Connectionist Learning with Adaptive Rule Induction ON-line is a cognitive architecture that incorporates the distinction between implicit and explicit processes and focuses on capturing the interaction between these two types of processes. By focusing on this distinction, CLARION has been used to...

     the cognitive architecture, developed under Ron Sun
    Ron Sun
    Ron Sun is a cognitive scientist and currently Professor of Cognitive Science at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and formerly the James C. Dowell Professor of Engineering and Professor of Computer Science at University of Missouri...

     at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
    Stephen Van Rensselaer established the Rensselaer School on November 5, 1824 with a letter to the Rev. Dr. Samuel Blatchford, in which van Rensselaer asked Blatchford to serve as the first president. Within the letter he set down several orders of business. He appointed Amos Eaton as the school's...

     and University of Missouri.
  • CoJACK
    JACK Intelligent Agents
    JACK Intelligent Agents or JACK is a framework in Java for multi-agent system development. JACK Intelligent Agents was built by Agent Oriented Software Pty. Ltd. and is a third generation agent platform building on the experiences of the Procedural Reasoning System and Distributed Multi-Agent...

     An ACT-R
    ACT-R
    ACT-R is a cognitive architecture mainly developed by John Robert Anderson at Carnegie Mellon University. Like any cognitive architecture, ACT-R aims to define the basic and irreducible cognitive and perceptual operations that enable the human mind....

     inspired extension to the JACK
    JACK Intelligent Agents
    JACK Intelligent Agents or JACK is a framework in Java for multi-agent system development. JACK Intelligent Agents was built by Agent Oriented Software Pty. Ltd. and is a third generation agent platform building on the experiences of the Procedural Reasoning System and Distributed Multi-Agent...

     multi-agent system that adds a cognitive architecture to the agents for eliciting more realistic (human-like) behaviors in virtual environments.
  • Copycat
    Copycat (software)
    Copycat is a model of analogy making and human cognition based on the concept of the parallel terraced scan, developed in 1988 by Douglas Hofstadter, Melanie Mitchell, and others at the at , Indiana University Bloomington...

    , by Douglas Hofstadter
    Douglas Hofstadter
    Douglas Richard Hofstadter is an American academic whose research focuses on consciousness, analogy-making, artistic creation, literary translation, and discovery in mathematics and physics...

     and Melanie Mitchell
    Melanie Mitchell
    Melanie Mitchell is a professor of computer science at Portland State University. She has worked at the Santa Fe Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory...

     at the Indiana University.
  • DUAL, developed at the New Bulgarian University
    New Bulgarian University
    New Bulgarian University is a private university based in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. NBU is the first private university in Bulgaria, and among the top rated by Bulgarian businesses universities in the country...

     under Boicho Kokinov
    Boicho Kokinov
    Boicho Kokinov received his PhD at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia. He is currently an Associate Professor in Cognitive Science and Computer Science at the New Bulgarian University and the Director of the Central and East European Center for Cognitive Science.He has been the main organizer...

    .
  • EPIC
    EPIC (cognitive architecture)
    EPIC is a cognitive architecture developed by Professors David E. Kieras and David E. Meyer at the University of Michigan ....

    , developed under David E. Kieras and David E. Meyer at the University of Michigan
    University of Michigan
    The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan in the United States. It is the state's oldest university and the flagship campus of the University of Michigan...

    .
  • The H-Cogaff architecture, which is a special case of the CogAff schema. (See Taylor & Sayda, and Sloman refs below).
  • FORR
    FORR
    FORR is a cognitive architecture for learning and problem solving inspired by Herbert Simon's ideas of bounded rationality and satisficing. It was first developed in the early 1990s at the City University of New York...

     developed by Susan L. Epstein at The City University of New York.
  • IDA and LIDA
    LIDA (cognitive architecture)
    The LIDA cognitive architecture is an integrated artificial cognitive system that attempts to model a broad spectrum of cognition in biological systems, from low-level perception/action to high-level reasoning. Developed primarily by Stan Franklin and colleagues at the University of Memphis, the...

    , implementing Global Workspace Theory
    Global Workspace Theory
    Global Workspace Theory is a simple Cognitive architecture that has been developed to account qualitatively for a large set of matched pairs of conscious and unconscious processes. It was proposed by Bernard Baars...

    , developed under Stan Franklin
    Stan Franklin
    Stan Franklin is an American scientist and W. Harry Feinstone Interdisciplinary Research Professor at the and co-director of the Institute of Intelligent Systems. He is the author of Artificial Minds and mental father of IDA and its successor LIDA, both computational implementations of...

     at the University of Memphis
    University of Memphis
    The University of Memphis is an American public research university located in the Normal Station neighborhood of Memphis, Tennessee and is the flagship public research university of the Tennessee Board of Regents system....

    .
  • PRODIGY
    Prodigy
    Prodigy may refer to:* Child prodigy, an individual who is a master of one or more skills or arts at an early age.In music:* Moog Prodigy, synthesiser* The Prodigy, a British electronic music group named after the Moog Prodigy synthesizer...

    , by Veloso et al.
  • PRS
    Procedural Reasoning System
    In Artificial Intelligence, the Procedural Reasoning System is a framework for constructing real-time reasoning systems that can perform complex tasks in dynamic environments...

     'Procedural Reasoning System', developed by Michael Georgeff
    Michael Georgeff
    Michael Peter Georgeff is a computer scientist and entrepreneur who has made contributions in the areas of Intelligent Software Agents and eHealth.- Overview :...

     and Amy Lansky
    Amy L. Lansky
    Amy L. Lansky , is an American author, computer scientist, and homeopath, noted for having written Impossible Cure: the Promise of Homeopathy.-Life:...

     at SRI International
    SRI International
    SRI International , founded as Stanford Research Institute, is one of the world's largest contract research institutes. Based in Menlo Park, California, the trustees of Stanford University established it in 1946 as a center of innovation to support economic development in the region. It was later...

    .
  • Psi-Theory
    Psi-Theory
    Psi-Theory, developed by Dietrich Dörner, is about human action regulation, intention and behaviour. The theory describes a comprehensive model of the human brain, its cognitive processes, emotion and motivation. It is about the informational structure of an intelligent, motivated, emotional agent ...

     developed under Dietrich Dörner
    Dietrich Dörner
    Prof. Dr. Dietrich Dörner is emeritus professor for General and Theoretical Psychology at the at the Otto-Friedrich University in Bamberg, Germany....

     at the Otto-Friedrich University
    Otto-Friedrich University
    The University of Bamberg in Bamberg, Germany, is simultaneously one of the oldest and one of the newest universities in Bavaria. It specializes in the Humanities, Cultural Studies, Social Sciences, Economics and Applied Computer Science.- History :...

     in Bamberg
    Bamberg
    Bamberg is a city in Bavaria, Germany. It is located in Upper Franconia on the river Regnitz, close to its confluence with the river Main. Bamberg is one of the few cities in Germany that was not destroyed by World War II bombings because of a nearby Artillery Factory that prevented planes from...

    , Germany
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

    .
  • R-CAST
    R-CAST
    R-CAST is a group decision support system based on research on naturalistic decision making. Its architecture, based on multiple software agents, supports decision-making teams by anticipating information relevant to their decisions based on a shared mental model about the context of decision...

    , developed at the Pennsylvania State University
    Pennsylvania State University
    The Pennsylvania State University, commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU, is a public research university with campuses and facilities throughout the state of Pennsylvania, United States. Founded in 1855, the university has a threefold mission of teaching, research, and public service...

    .
  • Soar
    Soar (cognitive architecture)
    Soar is a symbolic cognitive architecture, created by John Laird, Allen Newell, and Paul Rosenbloom at Carnegie Mellon University, now maintained by John Laird's research group at the University of Michigan. It is both a view of what cognition is and an implementation of that view through a...

    , developed under Allen Newell
    Allen Newell
    Allen Newell was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND corporation and at Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science, Tepper School of Business, and Department of Psychology...

     and John Laird
    John E. Laird
    John E. Laird is a computer scientist who, with Paul Rosenbloom and Allen Newell, created the Soar cognitive architecture at Carnegie Mellon University. Laird is a Professor of the Computer Science and Engineering Division of the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department of the...

     at Carnegie Mellon University
    Carnegie Mellon University
    Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States....

     and the University of Michigan
    University of Michigan
    The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan in the United States. It is the state's oldest university and the flagship campus of the University of Michigan...

    .
  • Society of mind
    Society of Mind
    The Society of Mind is both the title of a book and the name of a theory of natural intelligence as written and developed by Marvin Minsky.-Minsky's model:...

     and its successor the Emotion machine proposed by Marvin Minsky
    Marvin Minsky
    Marvin Lee Minsky is an American cognitive scientist in the field of artificial intelligence , co-founder of Massachusetts Institute of Technology's AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy.-Biography:...

    .
  • Subsumption architecture
    Subsumption architecture
    Subsumption architecture is a reactive robot architecture heavily associated with behavior-based robotics. The term was introduced by Rodney Brooks and colleagues in 1986...

    s, developed e.g. by Rodney Brooks
    Rodney Brooks
    Rodney Allen Brooks is the former Panasonic professor of robotics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Since 1986 he has authored a series of highly influential papers which have inaugurated a fundamental shift in artificial intelligence research...

     (though it could be argued whether they are cognitive).

See also

  • Artificial consciousness
    Artificial consciousness
    Artificial consciousness , also known as machine consciousness or synthetic consciousness, is a field related to artificial intelligence and cognitive robotics whose aim is to define that which would have to be synthesized were consciousness to be found in an engineered artifact .Neuroscience...

  • Autonomous agent
    Autonomous agent
    An autonomous agent is an intelligent agent operating on an owner's behalf but without any interference of that ownership entity. An intelligent agent, however appears according to a multiply cited statement in a no longer accessible IBM white paper as follows:Intelligent agents are software...

  • Cognitive science
    Cognitive science
    Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on how information is processed , represented, and transformed in behaviour, nervous system or machine...

  • Intelligent system
    Intelligent system
    Intelligent system may refer to:* Intelligent Systems, a game developer* a system with artificial intelligence...

  • Memristor
    Memristor
    Memristor is a passive two-terminal electrical component envisioned by Leon Chua as a fundamental non-linear circuit element relating charge and magnetic flux linkage...

  • production system
    Production system
    A production system is a computer program typically used to provide some form of artificial intelligence, which consists primarily of a set of rules about behavior. These rules, termed productions, are a basic representation found useful in automated planning, expert systems and action selection...

  • Simulated reality
    Simulated reality
    Simulated reality is the proposition that reality could be simulated—perhaps by computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality. It could contain conscious minds which may or may not be fully aware that they are living inside a simulation....

  • Social simulation
    Social simulation
    Social simulation is a research field that applies computational methods to study issues in the social sciences. The issues explored include problems in sociology, political science, economics, anthropology, geography, archaeology and linguistics ....

  • Strong AI
    Strong AI
    Strong AI is artificial intelligence that matches or exceeds human intelligence — the intelligence of a machine that can successfully perform any intellectual task that a human being can. It is a primary goal of artificial intelligence research and an important topic for science fiction writers and...

  • unified theory of cognition
    Unified theory of cognition
    Unified Theories of Cognition is a 1990 book by Allen Newell. Newell argues for the need of a set of general assumptions for cognitive models that account for all of cognition: a unified theory of cognition ....

  • Artificial brain
    Artificial brain
    Artificial brain is a term commonly used in the media to describe research that aims to develop software and hardware with cognitive abilities similar to the animal or human brain...

  • Cognitive architecture comparison
  • Biologically inspired cognitive architectures

External links