Car battery

Car battery

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An automotive battery is a type of rechargeable battery
Rechargeable battery
A rechargeable battery or storage battery is a group of one or more electrochemical cells. They are known as secondary cells because their electrochemical reactions are electrically reversible. Rechargeable batteries come in many different shapes and sizes, ranging anything from a button cell to...

 that supplies electric energy to an automobile
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

. Usually this refers to an SLI battery (starting, lighting, ignition) to power the starter motor, the lights, and the ignition system
Ignition system
An ignition system is a system for igniting a fuel-air mixture. Ignition systems are well known in the field of internal combustion engines such as those used in petrol engines used to power the majority of motor vehicles, but they are also used in many other applications such as in oil-fired and...

 of a vehicle’s engine
Internal combustion engine
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high -pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine...

. An automotive battery may also be a traction battery used for the main power source of an electric vehicle
Electric vehicle
An electric vehicle , also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion...

.

Automotive SLI batteries are usually lead-acid
Lead-acid battery
Lead–acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, their ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells maintain a relatively large...

 type, and are made of six galvanic cell
Galvanic cell
A Galvanic cell, or Voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reaction taking place within the cell...

s in series to provide a 12 volt
Volt
The volt is the SI derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, and electromotive force. The volt is named in honor of the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta , who invented the voltaic pile, possibly the first chemical battery.- Definition :A single volt is defined as the...

 system. Each cell provides 2.1 volts for a total of 12.6 volt at full charge. Heavy vehicles such as highway trucks or tractors, often equipped with Diesel engine
Diesel engine
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

s, may have two batteries in series for a 24 volt system, or may have parallel strings of batteries.

Lead-acid batteries are made up of plates of lead
Lead
Lead is a main-group element in the carbon group with the symbol Pb and atomic number 82. Lead is a soft, malleable poor metal. It is also counted as one of the heavy metals. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed...

 and separate plates of lead dioxide, which are submerged into an electrolyte
Electrolyte
In chemistry, an electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that make the substance electrically conductive. The most typical electrolyte is an ionic solution, but molten electrolytes and solid electrolytes are also possible....

 solution of about 35% sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid is a strong mineral acid with the molecular formula . Its historical name is oil of vitriol. Pure sulfuric acid is a highly corrosive, colorless, viscous liquid. The salts of sulfuric acid are called sulfates...

 and 65% water
Water
Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state . Water also exists in a...

. This causes a chemical reaction
Chemical reaction
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Chemical reactions can be either spontaneous, requiring no input of energy, or non-spontaneous, typically following the input of some type of energy, such as heat, light or electricity...

 that releases electrons, allowing them to flow through conductor
Electrical conductor
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is a material which contains movable electric charges. In metallic conductors such as copper or aluminum, the movable charged particles are electrons...

s to produce electricity
Electricity
Electricity is a general term encompassing a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include many easily recognizable phenomena, such as lightning, static electricity, and the flow of electrical current in an electrical wire...

. As the battery discharges, the acid of the electrolyte reacts with the materials of the plates, changing their surface to lead sulfate
Lead(II) sulfate
Lead sulfate is a white crystal or powder. It is also known as fast white, milk white, sulfuric acid lead salt or anglesite....

. When the battery is recharged, the chemical reaction is reversed: the lead sulfate reforms into lead oxide and lead. With the plates restored to their original condition, the process may now be repeated.

Battery recycling
Battery recycling
Battery recycling is a recycling activity that aims to reduce the number of batteries being disposed as municipal solid waste. Batteries contain a number of heavy metals and toxic chemicals, their dumping has raised concern over risks of soil contamination and water pollution.-Battery recycling by...

 of automotive batteries reduces resources required for manufacture of new batteries and diverts toxic lead from landfills or improper disposal.

Types


Lead-acid batteries for automotive use are made with slightly different construction techniques, depending on the application of the battery. The "flooded cell" type, indicating liquid electrolyte, is typically inexpensive and long-lasting, but requires more maintenance and can spill or leak. Flooded batteries are distinguished by the removable caps that allow for the electrolyte to be tested and maintained.

More costly alternatives to flooded batteries are "Sealed" or "Valve regulated
VRLA battery
A VRLA battery is a type of low-maintenance lead–acid rechargeable battery. Because of their construction, VRLA batteries do not require regular addition of water to the cells....

" battery of the absorbed glass mat (AGM) type which uses a glass mat separator, and a "gel cell" uses fine powder to absorb and immobilize the sulfuric acid electrolyte. These batteries are not serviceable (typically termed "maintenance-free") and do not require replenishment of electrolyte under normal use. Both types of sealed batteries may be used in vehicular applications where leakage is a concern. However, this article deals with the classic, flooded-type of car battery.

The starting (cranking) or shallow cycle
Charge cycle
A charge cycle is the process of charging a rechargeable battery and discharging it as required into a load. The term is typically used to specify a battery's expected life, as the number of charge cycles affects life more than the mere passage of time...

type is designed to deliver large bursts of power for a short time, as is needed to start an engine. Once the engine is started, the battery is recharged by the engine-driven charging system. Starting batteries are intended to have a low depth of discharge on each use. They are constructed of many thin plates with thin separators between the plates, and may have a higher specific gravity electrolyte to reduce internal resistance.

The deep cycle (or motive) type is designed to continuously provide power for long periods of time (for example in a trolling motor for a small boat, auxiliary power for a recreational vehicle
Recreational vehicle
Recreational vehicle or RV is, in North America, the usual term for a Motor vehicle or trailer equipped with living space and amenities found in a home.-Features:...

, or traction power for a golf cart or other battery electric vehicle
Battery electric vehicle
A battery electric vehicle, or BEV, is a type of electric vehicle that uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs. BEVs use electric motors and motor controllers instead of, or in addition to, internal combustion engines for propulsion.A battery-only electric vehicle or...

). They can also be used to store energy from a photovoltaic
Solar cell
A solar cell is a solid state electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect....

 array or a small wind turbine
Wind turbine
A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical energy. If the mechanical energy is used to produce electricity, the device may be called a wind generator or wind charger. If the mechanical energy is used to drive machinery, such as for grinding grain or...

. Deep-cycle batteries have fewer, thicker plates and are intended to have a greater depth of discharge on each cycle, but will not provide as high a current on heavy loads. The thicker plates survive a higher number of charge/discharge cycles. The specific energy
Specific energy
Specific energy is defined as the energy per unit mass. Common metric units are J/kg. It is an intensive property. Contrast this with energy, which is an extensive property. There are two main types of specific energy: potential energy and specific kinetic energy. Others are the gray and sievert,...

 is in the range of 30-40 watt-hour
Watt-hour
The kilowatt hour, or kilowatt-hour, is a unit of energy equal to 1000 watt hours or 3.6 megajoules.For constant power, energy in watt hours is the product of power in watts and time in hours...

s per kilogram. Some battery manufacturers claim their batteries are dual purpose (for both starting and deep cycling). This may include "marine" type batteries that may be labeled "deep discharge", which is slightly different than "deep cycle".

Some cars use more exotic starter batteries–the 2010 Porsche 911 GT3 RS offers a lithium-ion battery as an option to save weight over a conventional lead-acid battery.

Fluid level



Car batteries using lead-antimony plates would require regular watering to replace water lost due to electrolysis
Electrolysis
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of using a direct electric current to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction...

 on each charging cycle. By changing the alloying element to calcium, more recent designs have lower water loss, unless overcharged. Modern car batteries have reduced maintenance requirements, and may not provide caps for addition of water to the cells. Such batteries include extra electrolyte above the plates to allow for losses during the battery life. If the battery has easily detachable caps then a top-up with distilled water
Distilled water
Distilled water is water that has many of its impurities removed through distillation. Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the steam into a clean container.-History:...

 may be required from time to time. Prolonged overcharging or charging at excessively high voltage causes some of the water in the electrolyte to be broken up into hydrogen and oxygen gases, which escape from the cells. If the electrolyte liquid level drops too low, the plates are exposed to air, lose capacity, and are damaged. The sulfuric acid in the battery normally does not require replacement since it is not consumed even on overcharging. Impurities or additives in the water will reduce the life and performance of the battery. Manufacturers usually recommend use of demineralized or distilled water, since even potable tap water can contain high levels of minerals.

Charge and discharge


In normal automotive service the vehicle's charging system powers the vehicle's electrical systems and restores charge used from the battery during engine cranking. When installing a new battery or recharging a battery that has been accidentally discharged completely, one of several different methods can be used to charge it. The most gentle of these is called trickle charging
Trickle charging
Trickle charging, or float charging, means charging a battery at a similar rate as its self-discharging rate, thus maintaining a full capacity battery. Most rechargeable batteries, particularly nickel-cadmium batteries or nickel metal hydride batteries, have a moderate rate of self-discharge,...

. Other methods include slow-charging and quick-charging, the latter being the harshest.

The voltage regulator of the charge system does not measure the relative currents charging the battery and for powering the car's loads. The charge system essentially provides a fixed voltage of typically 13.8 to 14.4 V (Volt), adjusted to ambient temperature, unless the alternator is at its current limit. A discharged battery draws a high charge current of typically 20 to 40 A (Ampere). As the battery gets charged the charge current typically decreases to 2—5 A. A high load results when multiple high-power systems such as ignition, radiator fan, heater blowers, lights and entertainment system are running. In this case, the battery voltage will begin to decrease unless the engine is running at a higher rpm and the alternator/generator is delivering at least enough current to power the load.

Some manufacturers include a built-in hydrometer
Hydrometer
A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific gravity of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water....

 to show the state of charge of the battery, a transparent tube with a float immersed in the electrolyte visible through a window. When the battery is charged, the specific gravity of the electrolyte increases (since all the sulfate ions are in the electrolyte, not combined with the plates), and the colored top of the float is visible in the window. When the battery is discharged, or the electrolyte level is too low, the float sinks and the window appears yellow (or black). The built-in hydrometer only checks the state of charge of one cell and will not show faults in the other cells. In a non-sealed battery each of the cells can be checked with a portable or hand-held hydrometer.

In emergencies a vehicle can be jump started
Jump start (vehicle)
A jump start, also called a boost, is a method of starting an automobile or other vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine when the vehicle's battery has been discharged. A second battery is temporarily connected to provide starting power to the disabled vehicle...

 by the battery of another vehicle or by a portable battery booster.

Whenever the car's charge system is inadequate to fully charge the battery, a battery charger can be used. Simple chargers do not regulate the charge current, and the user needs to stop the process or lower the charge current to prevent excessive gassing of the battery. More elaborate chargers, in particular those implementing the 3-step charge profile, also referred to as IUoU
IUoU
IUoU is an DIN-designation and acronym for an automated, three phase procedure to charge a lead-acid battery by means of a battery charger. The three phases are: I-phase, constant electric current; Uo-phase, constant over-voltage;...

, charge the battery fully and safely in a short time without requiring user intervention. Desulfating chargers are also commercially available for charging all types of lead-acid batteries.

Storage


Batteries last longer when stored in a charged state. Leaving an automotive battery discharged will shorten its life, or make it unusable if left for a long time (usually several years); sulfation eventually becomes irreversible by normal charging. Batteries in storage may be monitored and periodically charged, or attached to a "float" charger to retain their capacity. Batteries are prepared for storage by charging and cleaning deposits from the posts. Batteries are stored in a cool, dry environment for best results since high temperatures increase the self discharge rate and plate corrosion.

Changing a battery


When changing a battery, battery manufacturers recommend disconnecting the ground connection first to prevent accidental short-circuits between the battery terminal and the vehicle frame. A study by the National Highway Traffic Safety Association estimated that in 1994 more than 2000 people were injured in the United States while working with automobile batteries.

The majority of automotive lead-acid batteries are filled with the appropriate electrolyte solution at the manufacturing plant, and shipped to the retailers ready to sell. Decades ago, this was not the case. The retailer filled the battery, usually at the time of purchase, and charged the battery. This was a time-consuming and potentially dangerous process. Care had to be taken when filling the battery with acid
Acid
An acid is a substance which reacts with a base. Commonly, acids can be identified as tasting sour, reacting with metals such as calcium, and bases like sodium carbonate. Aqueous acids have a pH of less than 7, where an acid of lower pH is typically stronger, and turn blue litmus paper red...

, as acids are highly corrosive and can damage eyes, skin
Skin
-Dermis:The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis by a basement membrane. It also harbors many Mechanoreceptors that provide the sense of touch and heat...

 and mucous membranes. Fortunately, this is less of a problem these days, and the need to fill a battery with acid usually only arises when purchasing a motorcycle or ATV battery.

Freshness


Because of "sulfation", lead-acid batteries stored with electrolyte slowly deteriorate. Car batteries are date coded to ensure installation within one year of manufacture. In the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, the manufacturing date is printed on a sticker. The date can be written in plain text or using an alphanumerical code. The first character is a letter that specifies the month (A for January, B for February and so on). The letter "I" is skipped due to its potential to be mistaken for the number 1. The second character is a single digit that indicates the year of manufacturing (for example, 6 for 2006). When first installing a newly purchased battery a "top up" charge
Desulfation
Desulfation is the process of reversing the process of sulfation that occurs to a lead-acid battery over time. Desulfation restores, at least partially, the ability of the battery to hold a charge over the life of the battery originally caused by sulfation). Sulfation is the formation of large...

 at a low rate with an external battery charger (available at auto parts stores) may maximize battery life and minimize the load on the vehicle charging system.

Failure


Common battery faults include:
  • Shorted cell due to failure of the separator between the positive and negative plates
  • Shorted cell or cells due to build up of shed plate material below the plates of the cell
  • Broken internal connections due to corrosion
  • Broken plates due to vibration and corrosion
  • Low electrolyte level
  • Cracked or broken case
  • Broken terminals
  • Sulfation after prolonged disuse in a low or zero charged state


Corrosion at the battery terminals
Battery terminals
Battery terminals are the electrical contacts used to connect a load and/or charger to a single cell or multiple-cell battery. These terminals have a wide variety of designs, sizes, and features that are often not well documented....

 can prevent a car from starting due to electrical resistance
Electrical resistance
The electrical resistance of an electrical element is the opposition to the passage of an electric current through that element; the inverse quantity is electrical conductance, the ease at which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the mechanical...

. The white powder sometimes found around the battery terminals is usually lead sulfate which is toxic by inhalation, ingestion and skin contact. The corrosion is caused by an imperfect seal between the plastic battery case and lead battery post allowing sulfuric acid to react with the lead battery posts. The corrosion process is also expedited by over charging. Corrosion can also be caused by factors such as salt water, dirt, heat, humidity, cracks in the battery casing or loose battery terminals. Inspection, cleaning and protection with a light coating of dielectric grease are measures used to prevent corrosion of battery terminals.

Sulfation
Sulfation
Sulfation in biochemistry is the enzyme-catalyzed addition of sulfate to another molecule. It often refers to a phase II enzyme reaction. This biotransformation process uses its cosubstrate 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate to transfer sulfate to a xenobiotic...

 occurs when a battery is not fully charged. The longer it remains in a discharged state the harder it is to overcome sulfation. This may be overcome with slow, low-current (trickle) charging. Sulfation is the formation of large, non-conductive lead sulfate crystals on the plates; lead sulfate formation is part of each cycle, but in the discharged condition the crystals become large and block passage of current through the electrolyte.

The primary wear-out mechanism is the shedding of active material from the battery plates, which accumulates at the bottom of the cells and which may eventually short-circuit the plates.

Early automotive batteries could sometimes be repaired by dismantling and replacing damaged separators, plates, intercell connectors and other repairs. Modern battery cases do not facilitate such repairs; an internal fault generally requires replacement of the entire unit.

Exploding batteries



Any lead-acid battery system when overcharged will produce hydrogen gas (gassing) by electrolysis of water. If the rate of overcharge is small, the vents of each cell allow the dissipation of the gas. However, on severe overcharge or if ventilation is inadequate, or the battery is faulty, a flammable concentration of hydrogen may remain in the cell or in the battery enclosure. An internal spark can cause a hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen is the chemical element with atomic number 1. It is represented by the symbol H. With an average atomic weight of , hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant chemical element, constituting roughly 75% of the Universe's chemical elemental mass. Stars in the main sequence are mainly...

 and oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς and -γενής , because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition...

 explosion
Explosion
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases. An explosion creates a shock wave. If the shock wave is a supersonic detonation, then the source of the blast is called a "high explosive"...

, which will damage the battery and its surroundings and which will disperse acid into the surroundings. Anyone close to the battery may be injured.

Sometimes the ends of a battery will be severely swollen, and when accompanied by the case being too hot to touch, this usually indicates a malfunction in the charging system of the car. Reversing the positive and negative leads will damage the battery. When severely overcharged, a lead-acid battery produces high levels of hydrogen and the venting system built into the battery cannot handle the high level of gas, so the pressure builds inside the battery, resulting in the swollen ends. An unregulated alternator can quickly ruin a battery by excessive voltage. A swollen, hot battery is dangerous.

Persons handling car batteries should wear protective equipment
Personal protective equipment
Personal protective equipment refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garment or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury by blunt impacts, electrical hazards, heat, chemicals, and infection, for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, and in...

  (goggles, overalls, gloves) to avoid injury by acid spills. Any open flame or electric sparks in the area also present a danger of ignition of any hydrogen gas emanating from a battery.

Terms and ratings

  • Ampere-hour
    Ampere-hour
    An ampere-hour or amp-hour is a unit of electric charge, with sub-units milliampere-hour and milliampere second...

    s
    (A·h) is a measure of electrical charge that a battery can deliver. This quantity is one indicator of the total amount of charge that a battery is able to store and deliver at its rated voltage. Its value is the product of the discharge-current (in amperes), multiplied by the duration (in hours) for which this discharge-current can be sustained by the battery. Generally, this value (or rating) varies widely with the duration of the discharge period (see: Peukert's Law
    Peukert's law
    Peukert's law, presented by the German scientist W. Peukert in 1897, expresses the capacity of a lead–acid battery in terms of the rate at which it is discharged. As the rate increases, the battery's available capacity decreases....

    ), therefore the value is typically only meaningful when the duration is specified. This rating is rarely stated for automotive batteries, except in Europe where it is required by law.
  • Cranking amperes (CA), also sometimes referred to as marine cranking amperes (MCA), is the amount of current a battery can provide at 32 °F (0 °C). The rating is defined as the number of amperes a lead-acid battery at that temperature can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain at least 1.2 volts per cell (7.2 volts for a 12 volt battery).
  • Cold cranking amperes (CCA) is the amount of current a battery can provide at 0 °F (−18 °C). The rating is defined as the current a lead-acid battery at that temperature can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain at least 1.2 volts per cell (7.2 volts for a 12-volt battery). It is a more demanding test than those at higher temperatures.
  • Hot cranking amperes (HCA) is the amount of current a battery can provide at 80 °F (26.7 °C). The rating is defined as the current a lead-acid battery at that temperature can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain at least 1.2 volts per cell (7.2 volts for a 12-volt battery).
  • Reserve capacity minutes (RCM), also referred to as reserve capacity (RC), is a battery's ability to sustain a minimum stated electrical load; it is defined as the time (in minutes) that a lead-acid battery at 80 °F (27 °C) will continuously deliver 25 amperes before its voltage drops below 10.5 volts.
  • Battery Council International group size (BCI) specifies a battery's physical dimensions, such as length, width, and height. These groups are determined by the Battery Council International
    Battery Council International
    The Battery Council International ' is a trade association of manufacturers of original-equipment and after-market automobile batteries and other lead-acid batteries...

     organization.
  • Peukert's Law
    Peukert's law
    Peukert's law, presented by the German scientist W. Peukert in 1897, expresses the capacity of a lead–acid battery in terms of the rate at which it is discharged. As the rate increases, the battery's available capacity decreases....

      expresses the fact that the capacity available from a battery varies according to how rapidly it is discharged. A battery discharged at high rate will give fewer ampere hours than one discharged more slowly.
  • The hydrometer
    Hydrometer
    A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific gravity of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water....

     measures the density, and therefore indirectly the amount of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte. A low reading means that sulfate
    Sulfate
    In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate is a salt of sulfuric acid.-Chemical properties:...

     is bound to the battery plates and that the battery is discharged. Upon recharge of the battery, the sulfate returns to the electrolyte.

Terminal voltage


The open circuit voltage, is measured when the engine is off and no loads are connected. It can be approximately related to the charge of the battery by:
Open circuit voltage | Approximate
charge
| Relative
acid density
12 V 6 V
12.65 V 6.32 V 100% 1.265 g/cm3
12.45 V 6.22 V 75% 1.225 g/cm3
12.24 V 6.12 V 50% 1.190 g/cm3
12.06 V 6.03 V 25% 1.155 g/cm3
11.89 V 6.00 V 0% 1.120 g/cm3

Open circuit voltage is also affected by temperature, and the specific gravity
Specific gravity
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance. Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a volume of the substance to the weight of an equal volume of the reference substance. The reference substance is nearly always water for...

 of the electrolyte at full charge.

The following is common for a six-cell automotive lead-acid battery at room temperature:
  • Quiescent (open-circuit) voltage at full charge: 12.6 V
  • Fully discharged: 11.8 V
  • Charge with 13.2–14.4 V
  • Gassing voltage: 14.4 V
  • Continuous-preservation charge with max. 13.2 V
  • After full charge the terminal voltage will drop quickly to 13.2 V and then slowly to 12.6 V
  • Open circuit voltage is measured 12 hours after charging to allow surface charge
    Surface charge
    Surface charge is the electric charge present at an interface. There are many different processes which can lead to a surface being charged, including adsorption of ions, protonation/deprotonation, and the application of an external electric field...

     to dissipate and enable a more accurate reading.
  • All voltages are at 20 °C, and must be adjusted -0.022V/°C for temperature changes (negative temperature coefficient - lower voltage at higher temperature).

See also


  • AD-X2
    AD-X2
    AD-X2 was a battery additive purported to extend battery life, marketed by California bulldozer operator Jess M. Ritchie in the late 1940s and early 1950s...

    , the story of a battery additive and consumer fraud
  • Battery
    Battery (electricity)
    An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery in 1800 by Alessandro Volta and especially since the technically improved Daniell cell in 1836, batteries have become a common power...

  • Car adapter
  • 42-volt electrical system
    42-volt electrical system
    In automobiles, a 42-volt electrical system was a proposed electrical power standard in the late 1990s intended to allow more powerful electrically driven accessories, and lighter automobile wiring harnesses...


  • Lead-acid battery
    Lead-acid battery
    Lead–acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, their ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells maintain a relatively large...

  • Lead toxicity
  • Vehicle-to-grid
    Vehicle-to-grid
    Vehicle-to-grid describes a system in which plug-in electric vehicles, such as electric cars and plug-in hybrids , communicate with the power grid to sell demand response services by either delivering electricity into the grid or by throttling their charging rate.Vehicle-to-grid can be used with...



External links